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ENTERPRISE COMPUTING Two Marks Questions and Answers UNIT I ENTERPRISE FOUNDATIONS

1. List the primary components of an enterprise technology?


Enterprise User Interface, Enterprise data enabling, Distributed Enterprise communication enabling, Common services for Distributed Enterprise communication system ,Enterprise System Assurance, Enterprise web enabling and Enterprise application enabling.

2. Write down the features of object-oriented software?


Class Variable & Method Object State & behavior Visibility level Private, Public & Protected Package 3. How can you provide communication services for Distributed enterprise system?

Distributed enterprise system used COM, DCOM, CORBA & RMI for providing communication services.

4. What is COM? What is the use of COM?


The Component Object Model (COM) is a component software architecture that permits applications and systems to be built from components supplied by different software vendors. Create reusable software components Link components together to build application Take advantages of windows services

5. What is DCOM?
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Distributed COM (DCOM) is an extension of the Component Object Model (COM).It allows the client to create objects and use their methods on remote machines.

6. What is CORBA?
The Common Object Reuest Broker Architecture is a standard defined by the Object Management Group (OMG) that enables software components written in multiple computer languages and running on multiple computer to work together .

7. What is RMI?

Java supports sockets to facilitate flexible communication between the client and server applications. But it reuires application level protocol to encode and decode messages which are cumbersome and error prone. Hence RPC, which abstracts the communication interface to the level of procedural call, RPC is a communication interface between functions not objects.

8. Define Component.

A Component is a binary unit of independent production, acuisition and deployment that interact to form functional systems.

9. What is the need of software components?


Components are the way to go because all other engineering disciplines introduced components as they became mature & still use them.

10. What is middleware?

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The term middleware is used to describe a broad array of tools and data that help applications use networked resources and services. Some tools such as authentication and directories are in all categorizations.

11. List out the benefits of components architecture?


Interaction between components and their environment is regulated. The roles of components are defined. Tool interfaces are standardized UI interface aspects both for end users and for assemblers are regularized.

12. What are the primary components are presented in enterprise?


Physical resources and assets essential for its operation like computing euipment, manufacturing facilities, raw materials and accounts. Users like customers, employee, contractors and partners. Enterprise information and knowledge 13. What are the outcomes produced by the primary objective of an enterprise?

To scale, protect, sense changes and improve the efficiency of user DB. To scale, protect, sense changes and improve the efficiency of resources. scale, protect, sense changes and improve the efficiency of usage of information and knowledge.

To

14. Write down the J2EE features?


J2EE is a platform, the various documents and software libraries in J2EE are: Specification, Programming Model, Platform, Reference implementation and Compatibility test suite.

15. What is Container? What are the facilities offered by a container?

The container is the environment in which the component operates.It provides a common set of services to the component hosted in it.

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The facilities offered by a container are; J2SE platform, APIs, Java Enterprise implementations, Deployment services &Management services.

16. What is J2EE?


J2EE is a platform (Java2 Enterprise Edition), J2EE model along with Java enterprise technology facility in providing good user interface, database connectivity, enterprise communication and services with assurance and web/application connectivity of the enterprise.

17. Write down the classification of component based on a container?


EJB Application server ,WEB Application server, Applet client & Application client

18. What are the data used for build the enterprise applications?
Database Basics Relational Databases Object Databases RDBMSs Versus ODBMSs Relational/Object Translations CLIs Embedded SL ODBC JDBC

19. List the levels of data abstraction?


The lowest level of abstraction in terms of a physical data model used to represent storage of data on physical media, including how the data is structurally related.

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The higher level of abstraction describes a logical data model (aka a conceptual data model) wherein logical-data-model entities correspond to one or more underlying physical-datamodel entities and their relationships. The highest level of data abstraction is referred to as a view and corresponds to a specific customization of a logical data model for use by a particular enterprise user class. Data from the logical model is eliminated from the view level, and new information is derived from the logical level for the view level. Many different views can exist above the logical-data-model level.

20. What is ODBMS?

ODBMS architectures for Java typically include a tool to map Java class references to database calls. This mapping tool is usually either baked into a modified JVM or external to a JVM and used as a post-compiler. Object database management systems are DBMSs that allow one to directly store and retrieve objects to and from a database. An ODBMS stores class attributes and relations in such a way that database operations can be accomplished in a manner that is most natural to the object- oriented programmer. Thus, in the case of Java, Java objects can be saved to an ODBMS by one JVM and later retrieved by another JVM. 21.What is CLIs?

A Call Level Interface (CLI) represents a functional call API to a database. CLI calls can be made directly to an underlying database driver or can be remotely invoked over a network. 22.How do you define CLIs interface in X/Open SL?

The X/Open SL CLI interfaces define function calls at the level of allocating and deallocating system resources, controlling database connections, obtaining database status informa tion, executing dynamic SL statements, and controlling transactions. 23.What is interface? Interfaces are the means by which the components connect. Technically, an interface is a set of named operations that can be invoked by clients. An interface specifies the semantics of the operations. The specification serves for both client and provider. Know more @ www.vidyarthiplus.com Powered by WR1334

24. What is ODBC and JDBC?


ODBC applications depend only on the ODBC API and the SL standard. SL statements are submitted to ODBC API calls, and results are retrieved using standard ODBC API constructs. The ODBC API is defined in terms of the C programming language. The ODBC API communicates with an underlying ODBC driver manager that loads an appropriate ODBC driver as specified by the ODBC API client application. ODBC drivers are code libraries that adhere to a standard ODBC service-provider interface. The ODBC service provider interface is implemented by ODBC driver vendors to map standard ODBC calls to database-vendorspecific calls. ODBC drivers may call the database directly via a CLI or via some networking protocol. JDBC has a basic architecture philosophy similar to the ODBC architecture. That is, JDBC has a standard JDBC API which communicates with a JDBC driver manager that loads JDBC drivers. JDBC drivers implement a JDBC service-provider interface and map standard JDBC calls into database vendor specific calls.

25. What are types available in driver?


Two tier and Three tier.

UNIT II

DISTRIBUTED ENTERPRISE COMMUNICATIONS ENABLING Two Marks Questions And Answers

1. What is distributed system? A distributed system in the context of information technology is a system composed of many physically independent computing mechanisms. Know more @ www.vidyarthiplus.com Powered by WR1334

2.How can you design the distributed system? The design of distributed systems involves the following three architectural dimensions: Infrastructure service dependencies. This dimension emphasizes the role of system service components in supporting distributed solutions. Logical tiers. This dimension emphasizes the logical and physical independence of solution components for the purpose of deploying them across a network or Internet environment. uality of service. This dimension emphasizes how uality of service reuirements, such as availability, security, scalability, and serviceability, are achieved, including the role of service uality components . 3.What are the packages are available in CORBA application?

package org.omg.CORBA package org.omg.PortableServer package org.omg.CosNaming package javax.rmi.CORBA package javax.rmi (with link to class PortableRemoteObject

4. What is RMI-IIOP?
RMI-IIOP provides flexibility by allowing developers to pass any Java object between application components either by reference or by value.RMI-IIOP combines the best features of Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) with the best features of CORBA.

5. What is OMG?
The OMG is the official source of information for all CORBA and IIOP related information. The CORBA 2.3.1 Specification is available electronically from formal/9910-07. The URLs for the CORBA specifications may change. If this link is broken, link to http://www.omg.org and search the specifications.

6. What are JRMP and IIOP?

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You can choose to work completely within the Java programming language using the Java Remote Method Protocol (JRMP) as the transport, or work with other CORBAcompliant programming languages using the Internet InterORB Protocol (IIOP).

7. What is rmic?
rmic generates stubs, skeletons, ties for remote objects using either the JRMP or IIOP protocols. Also generates OMG IDL.he rmic compiler generates stub, and skeleton class files (JRMP protocol), and stub and tie class files (IIOP protocol) for remote objects. These classes files are generated from the compiled Java programming language classes that contain remote object implementations. A remote object is one that implements the interface java.rmi.Remote.

8. What is RMI?
Java Remote Method Invocation (Java RMI) enables the programmer to create distributed Java technology-based to Java technology-based applications, in which the methods of remote Java objects can be invoked from other Java virtual machines*, possibly on different hosts. RMI uses object serialization to marshal and unmarshal parameters and does not truncate types, supporting true objectoriented polymorphism.

9. What is JNDI? What is the use of J2EE Technology?


The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) is part of the Java platform, providing applications based on Java technology with a unified interface to multiple naming and directory services. You can build powerful and portable directory-enabled applications using this industry standard. Naming and directory services play a vital role in intranets and the Internet by providing networkwide sharing of a variety of information about users, machines, networks, services, and applications. JNDI and Java EE Technologies JNDI works in concert with other technologies in the Java Platform, Enterprise Edition (Java EE) to organize and locate components in a distributed computing environment.

10. What is RMI registry?

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An RMI registry and its services. This resource is used to register services with an RMI Registry. The Registry is either on localhost, in which case it is created in the local JVM unless it already exists, or the Registry is on a remote server, in which case it is assumed that the Registry has already been started.

11. What is the use of java.rmi.registry?


Provides a class and two interfaces for the RMI registry. A registry is a remote object that maps names to remote objects. A server registers its remote objects with the registry so that they can be looked up. When an object wants to invoke a method on a remote object, it must first lookup the remote object using its name. The registry returns to the calling object a reference to the remote object, using which a remote method can be invoked.

12. Write down the reason while remote computer initiate the error in Visual Studio using DCOM
communication? A DCOM error occurred when the remote machine tried to communicate with the local machine. The local machine is the machine that is running Visual Studio. This error can occur for several reasons:

The local machine has a firewall enabled.

Windows authentication from the remote machine to the local machine is not working. 13. How can you rectify the error while DCOM communication in Visual Studio?

To correct this error

1. If the local machine has Windows Firewall enabled, see How to: Set Up Remote Debugging for
instructions about how to configure the firewall for local debugging.

2. Test Windows authentication by trying to open a file share on the local machine from the remote
server.

3. To restore Windows authentication, try rebooting both machines. Examine event logs on local
and remote machines for Kerberos errors and contact domain administrators for known problems.

14. What is ORB?


Short for Object Reuest Broker, a component in the CORBA programming model that acts as the middleware between clients and servers. In the CORBA model, a client can reuest a service without Know more @ www.vidyarthiplus.com Powered by WR1334

knowing anything about what servers are attached to the network. The various ORBs receive the reuests, forward them to the appropriate servers, and then hand the results back to the client.

15. What is orb software?


Orb is freeware streaming software that enables users to remotely access all their personal digital media files including pictures, music, videos, webcams and television. It can be used from any Internetenabled device, including laptops, pocket PC,[2] smart phones, PS3[3], Xbox 360[4] and Wii[5] video game consoles. It is edited by Orb Networks of Emeryville, California.

16. What is the use of network client?


The network client is thus composed of the network-client application code and communications code as usual. However,we will also be examining architecture

types of network client: TCP/IP clients, HTTP clients, RMI clients, DCOM clients and CORBA clients

17. What is the use of network server?


The network server application code uses whichever communications code implements the particular communications protocol being used. Different implementations of the application/communications interface layer. types of network server: TCP/IP server, HTTP server, RMI server, DCOM server and CORBA server 18. List the solution for creating distributed applications programs by using Java? Java RMI Technology Java IDL Technology EJB Technology

19. What are the steps are involved in the creation of an RMI system?
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Create a Remote Interface Create a class that implements the remote interface Create a client that connects to the server object using Naming.Lookup() 20.What are the rules followed in the creation of the remote interface? The network interface must be declared public when the client is in a different package as the remote interface. The remote interface must extend the java.rmi. RemoteInterface Each method must declare java.rmi. RemoteException in its throws clause ,in addition to any application specific exception. The data type of any remote object that is passed as an argument or return value must be declared as the remote interface type and not as the implementation class.

21. What are the mechanisms provided by DCOM during the client specify the remote
server when object is created? Server name is specified using fixed configuration in the system registry or in the DCOM class store. Server name is passed as an explicit parameter to object creates functions in core library. Persistent naming using Monikers 22. List the advantages of cluster services in DCOM?

Improved Availability Increased scalability Improved manageability Improved performance Improved ratability Better price / performance ratio 23: List the three basic layer in DCOM and their functionalities? Top Layer Basic programming architecture, It describes the clients reuest and creation of object instances in the server transparent to the client. Middle Layer- Consists of the remoting architecture, It takes care of sending data across different address using process such as marshalling and un marshalling. Bottom Layer- Wire protocol architecture, which further extends the remoting architecture to work across different machines. Know more @ www.vidyarthiplus.com Powered by WR1334

24: What way a remote objects communicate in DCOM? DCOM also called as COM on the wire supports remoting objects by using Object Remote Procedural Call (ORPC) Protocol. 25: What types of security providers can DCOM Maintain? DCOM Maintains ACL for component that indicates which users or group of users have the right to access a component of a certain class. These lists can easily be configured using DCOM configuration tool (DCOMCNFG) or programmatically using the Windows NT registry security functions

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ENTERPRISE COMPUTING UNIT III SERVICES FOR DISTRIBUTED ENTERPRISE SYSTEMS Two Marks Questions and Answers 1. Who should use JNDI?

Any Java application that needs to access information about users, machines, networks, and services. User information includes security credentials, phone numbers, electronic and postal mail addresses, and application preferences. Machine information includes network addresses, machine configurations, etc. In addition, any Java application that needs to either export objects or access objects exported by other applications and services. Examples include printers, calendars, and networked file systems. 2.How does JNDI relate to LDAP? JNDI provides an excellent object-oriented abstraction of directory and naming. Developers using JNDI can produce ueries that use LDAP or other access protocols to retrieve results; however, they are not limited to LDAP nor do they have to develop their applications wired to LDAP. JNDI supports the key capabilities in LDAP v3. 3. How does JNDI relate to Netscape's Java LDAP API? Netscape's API is LDAP-specific. It is used for low-level access to LDAP directories. It exposes details about the protocol that applications typically do not need to know. JNDI is a generic directory API for Java programs. It is analogous to the java.io.File class for accessing files. There might be some administrative programs that need to manipulate a file at the protocol level (such as NFS), but typically all Java applications use the File class to access to file system. Similarly, most Java programs should use JNDI to access directories. Applications that need to manipulate directory content at the protocol level may choose to use Netscape's API. 4.How does JNDI relate to OMG's CORBA standards for naming?

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A Java CORBA application can use JNDI to access to the CORBA (COS) name service, as well as other naming and directory services. It offers the application one interface for accessing all these naming and directory services. Using JNDI also paves the way for Java CORBA applications to use a distributed enterprise-level service like LDAP to store object references. 5.How does JNDI relate to Microsoft's ADSI? The Java ADSI package allows Java programs to access Active Directory based on the COM model. Although it can be used to access other directories, it is a Windowscentric solution. JNDI offers Java applications, regardless of whether they're running on Windows or accessing Active Directory, to access directories using the Java object model. For example, you can manipulate objects such as AWT and JavaBeans components, bind them into the directory, and look them back up without having to do any translation or deal with data representation issues. 6.What is the Java Message Service? The Java Message Service (JMS) API is an API for accessing enterprise messaging systems. It is part of the Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition (J2EE). The Java Message Service makes it easy to write business applications that asynchronously send and receive critical business data and events. The Java Message Service defines a common enterprise messaging API that is designed to be easily and efficiently supported by a wide range of enterprise messaging products. The Java Message Service supports both message ueueing and publish-subscribe styles of messaging. 7. Is the Java Message Service a product? No, the Java Message Service is the specification of a common API for enterprise messaging. A JMS provider supplied by an enterprise messaging vendor is reuired to use it. 8.What is compelling about the Java Message Service? The Java Message Service is compelling for these reasons:

It is the first enterprise messaging API that has achieved wide industry support. It simplifies the development of enterprise applications by providing standard messaging concepts and conventions that apply across a wide range of enterprise messaging systems. 14

It leverages existing, enterprise-proven messaging systems.

9.What is the relationship between the Java Message Service and the Java Naming and DirectoryInterface(JNDI)API? The JMS API, like the other Java Enterprise APIs, uses the JNDI API for administration. The JMS API defines ConnectionFactories and Destinations as administered objects that are configured and placed in a JNDI naming context. JMS clients then look up and use these preconfigured objects. This insures that JMS applications are easy to deploy and administer.

10. What is the relationship between the Java Message Service and the Java DataBase
Connectivity (JDBC) API?

JMS clients may also use the JDBC API. They may use both the JMS API and the JDBC API in the same transaction. In most cases, they will achieve this automatically by implementing these clients as enterprise beans. They may also use the Java Transaction API.

11. What is the relationship between the Java Message Service, the Java Transaction
API, and the Java Transaction Service?

The Java Transaction API (JTA) provides a client API for delimiting distributed transactions and an API for accessing a resource's ability to participate in a distributed transaction. A JMS client may use JTA to delimit distributed transactions. A JMS provider can optionally support distributed transactions via JTA. 1. 12.How can youspecify a different ORB? To use an ORB other than the Java CORBA ORB in your application, you can set the org.omg.CORBA.ORBClass property to the ORB of your choice. For example, use code as shown in the example to explicitly set the ORB to the ORB-implementation you would prefer to use: public class MyApp { public static void main( String args[] ) { Properties properties = System.getProperties(); 15

properties.put( "org.omg.CORBA.ORBClass", "" ); try { ORB orb = ORB.init( args, properties); ... Check the vendor's documentation for information on setting properties specific to their ORB implementation. 13.Does Java IDL contain notification/event services? an Interface Repository?

No, it does not. If you need one of these services, you can implement one, you can purchase one off the shelf, or you can search for one freely available to start things off with. You can plug-in 3rd party services such as these to the J2SE v.1.4.2 ORB using INS technology.

2.

14.What is the difference between Java IDL and Java RMI-IIOP?

This is a fundamental uestion and it's important to understand the distinction between these two ways of integrating the Java programming language with CORBA. Java IDL is for CORBA programmers who want to program in the Java programming language based on interfaces defined in CORBA Interface Definition Language (IDL). This is "business as usual" CORBA programming, supporting the Java language in exactly the same way as other languages like C++ or COBOL. Java RMI-IIOP (Remote Method Invocation over Internet Inter-ORB Protocol) is for developers who want to use the Java programming language to program to the Java RMI interfaces, but use IIOP as the underlying transport. Java RMI-IIOP provides interoperability with other CORBA objects implemented in various languages - but only if all the remote interfaces are originally defined as Java RMI interfaces. It is of particular interest to programmers using Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB), since the remote object model for EJB's is RMI-based. 16

There are several scenarios that will define how you will want to create distributed CORBA applications. Here are some of them:

Java IDL - If you have been developing CORBA applications using IDL for some time, you will probably want to stay in this environment. Create the interfaces using IDL, and define the client and server applications using the Java programming language to take advantage of its "Write Once, Run Anywhere portability, its highly productive implementation environment, and its very robust platform. RMI-JRMP - If all of your applications are written in the Java programming language, you will probably want to use Java RMI technology to enable communication between Java objects on different virtual machines and different physical machines. Using Java RMI without its IIOP option leverages its strengths of code portability, security, and garbage collection. Java RMI-IIOP - If you are writing most of your new applications using the Java programming language, but need to maintain legacy applications written in other programming languages as well, you will probably want to use Java RMI with its IIOP compiler option.

15. Differentiate POA and BOA?

In BOA generation 1. Due to the tight coupling between the servant and the object,the creation of the servant results in object activation. Hence to return on OR(object reuest) to the client ,the servant is created and maintained. 2. BOA specification does not support late binding. 3. Only one servant is activated for every every CORB A object in BOA generation of OA. In POA generation, 1. The creation of the servant and return OR are decoupled. Servant retention policy with explicit activation is used in POA for early binding. 2. POA specification support late binding through servant managers. 3. Stateless servant can be implemented by POA using a default servant to process all reuests or by using a servant locator. 16.What is IDL?

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An interface description language (or alternately, interface definition language), or IDL for short, is a specification language used to describe a software component's interface. IDLs describe an interface in a language-neutral way, enabling communication between software components that do not share a language for example, between components written in C++ and components written in Java. IDLs are commonly used in remote procedure call software. In these cases the machines at either end of the "link" may be using different operating systems and computer languages. IDLs offer a bridge between the two different systems. Software systems based on IDLs include Sun's ONC RPC, The Open Group's Distributed Computing Environment, IBM's System Object Model, the Object Management Group's CORBA (which implements OMG IDL, an IDL based on DCE/RPC), Facebook's Thrift and WSDL for Web services 17.What is rmid?

The rmid tool starts the activation system daemon. The activation system daemon must be started before activatable objects can be either registered with the activation system or activated in a JVM. The daemon can be started by executing the rmid command, and specifying a security policy file, as follows: rmid -J-Djava.security.policy=rmid.policy 18.What is IMoniker?

The com.ms.com.IMoniker interface can help you interact with DCOM objects such that they will persist their state over a series of calls. Monikers in DCOM can thus be used to obtain a handle to an object previously instantiated. If a client has a handle to an IMoniker interface, the client can refer to an existing server. An object that has a pointer to the moniker object's IMoniker interface can locate, activate, and get access to the identified object without having any other specific information on where the object is actually located in a distributed system. 19.What is Unknown?

In programming, the IUnknown interface is the fundamental interface in the Component Object Model (COM). The published COM specification mandates that 18

COM objects must minimally implement this interface. Furthermore, every other COM interface must be derived from Iunknown.It mainly control life time of the methods. The IUnknown interface exposes three methods (sometimes called functions): ueryInterface, AddRef, and Release.

ueryInterface is used to obtain a pointer to another interface, given a GUID that uniuely identifies that interface (commonly known as an interface ID, or IID). If the COM object does not implement that interface, an E_NOINTERFACE error is returned instead. AddRef is used by clients to indicate that a COM object is being referenced. This is necessary to ensure that a COM object is not disposed prematurely. Release is used by clients to indicate that they have finished using the COM object. An unreferenced COM object may be safely disposed.

20. What is a type library in DCOM?

A type library (.tlb) is a binary file that stores information about a COM or DCOM object's properties and methods in a form that is accessible to other applications at runtime. Using a type library, an application or browser can determine which interfaces an object supports, and invoke an object's interface methods. This can occur even if the object and client applications were written in different programming languages. The COM/DCOM run-time environment can also use a type library to provide automatic cross-apartment, cross-process, and cross-machine marshaling for interfaces described in type libraries.

21. What is server locality in DCOM?


Three types of COM servers can be created based on where they sit relative to the COM clients. These server locality types are referred to as in-process, local, or remote. Depending on the type of server locality desired, you will register the server differently with the Windows Registry. In-process servers run inside of the same process as the COM client. Local servers run in different processes from the client but on the same machine. Remote servers are of the most interest to us here because they represent the distributed communications paradigm embodied by DCOM. Remote servers run on different machines across a network.

22. Define Messaging service?

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A messaging service is software that provides support for passing messages between distributed applications in a reliable, asynchronous, loosely coupled, languageindependent, platformindependent, and often configurable fashion.

23. What Is Assurance?

Assurance is literally an integral part of the architecture and development of an enterprise solution. Practically speaking, it is difficult to effectively separate the provision of assurance from the development of your enterprise systems. A very practical and comprehensive knowledge of how to build an enterprise system is needed to provide practical assurance solutions. 24.How can you Provide high Assurance in enterprise?

Provide the assurance for your enterprise solutions means providing a secure, reliable, available, maintainable, and perhaps safe solution. 25.Which techniues can be used for identifying assurance issues?

Following are assurance problems needing identification by the technical staff: Security Problems: Security holes, weaknesses, and potential threats Reliability Problems: Potential failure modes, potential bottlenecks, and code-usage assumptions Availability Problems: Potential single points of failure, denial of service possibilities, scalability concerns, and codeusage assumptions Maintainability Problems: Difficult-to-maintain designs, code dependencies, code modules lacking encapsulation, software configuration, processing distribution, and extensibility to future demands Safety Problems: Hazardous scenarios, safety-critical code modules, and fail-safe components

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ENTERPRISE COMPUTING UNIT IV ENTERPRISE WEB ENABLING Two Marks Questions and Answers

1. List out the primary role of web browser?

A Web browser is an application whose primary role is to transform GUI reuests into HTTP reuests and to transform HTTP responses into GUI display content. HTTP reuests are, of course, sent to Web servers, and HTTP responses are received from Web servers.

2. List out the primary role of web server?

A Web server is a server-side application whose primary role is to handle or delegate HTTP reuests and to generate or route HTTP responses. Web servers come in various flavors and can support various needs. The most simplistic form of Web server may simply receive GET or POST reuests, read a local file based on a reuested URL, and stream the file data back to the Web client.

3. Give some example of web server?

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Netscape FastTrack Server, Netscape Enterprise Server(NES), The Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS), The Java Web Server (also called Jeeves), The BEA WebLogic Server and The Apache Web Server.

4. Give some example of web browser?

Netscape Navigator, Microsoft Internet Explorer and Hot Java browser.

5. What is Java Plug-in?


The Java Plug-in defines an approach for enabling the use of an alternative Java runtime environment inside of a Web browser instead of using the browser's builtin JRE. This is particularly useful for enabling your Web browsers used throughout an enterprise to take advantage of the latest JRE platform, APIs, and enhancements.

6.What is the form of reuest?

Reuests for Web content are cast in the form of URLs that identify remote resource media accessible via the Internet. Web responses are often in the form of Web page documents with multimedia and HTML-based presentation content such as text, static and animated images, hyperlinks, GUI components, audio clips, and video clips. Additionally, referenced documents of various types managed by external handlers, Java applets, and executable browser script language commands (for example, JavaScript) can also be returned in an HTTP Web response.

7.What is the use while using web browser and web server in an enterprise?

Web browsers and Web servers are the platforms used to Web enable an enterprise. Enterprise users utilize GUI-based Web browsers to submit Web reuests from Web servers and receive Web document responses that are to be displayed within the client side Web browser environment. Issues of 22

security and the means by which Java applets can operate inside of a Web browser are key concerns that can be addressed by the enterprise systems architect via various techniues 8.What is CGI?

The Common Gateway Interface (CGI) defines a standard interface contract between a Web server and a Web-enabled application. This interface allows Web servers to delegate the responsibility for generating HTTP responses to independent CGI-capable applications. Such applications can thus be used to dynamically generate HTTP responses. This may be contrasted with a Web server's typical support for reading statically defined HTML 9.What is the use of Scripting Languages?

Scripting languages provide another popular solution for programming both client-side and server-side Web behavior. Scripting language Web solutions on the client side are good for performing data and input validation and for displaying basic messages. On the server side, however, pure scripting solutions to Web enabling have scalability, maintainability, and performance problems when used for anything besides dynamic Web presentation logic. 10.What is JavaScript?

JavaScript is a scripting language that can be run on both the client and the server side. JavaScript was created by Netscape with client side JavaScript executed in its Netscape Navigator Web browser and server-side JavaScript executed in its Netscape Enterprise Server Web server. Microsoft's Internet Explorer Web browser and Internet Information Server Web server also process JavaScript but refer to it as JScript. JavaScript is now standardized by the European Community Manufacturers Association (ECMA). Despite standardization, there are still some differences between Netscape's JavaScript and Microsoft's JScript implementations. 11.What is the difference between Java & JavaScript?

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Despite the name and some syntactic similarities, JavaScript and Java are distinctly different languages. JavaScript does, however, have some object-based support. Although support for inheritance and encapsulation is nonexistent in JavaScript, manipulating information as objects and programmatic association of data and functions to objects are possible. 12. What is VBScript?

A subset of the Visual Basic programming language can also be used as a scripting language via VBScript in both the client and the server side. VBScript is Microsoft's preferred scripting approach for Web enabling on the client and server side. VBScript can be interpreted by the Microsoft Internet Explorer for client-side Web browser processing and using the Microsoft Internet Information Server for server-side Web server processing. Serverside VBScript is primarily used by the Microsoft Active Server Pages technology On the client side, embedded VBScript is identified between SCRIPT tags as shown here: <SCRIPT language="VBScript"> sub UseVBScript_DoClick MsgBox "DoClick from VBScript" end sub </SCRIPT> Because VBScript leverages much of the existing developer knowledge of Visual Basic and Basic, it has significant developer support. The simplicity of VBScript has also enabled it to become a popular Webenabling solution.

13. What is PERL?

The Perl language has also been used for Web enabling on the server side. Because Perl is considered to be a simple language to understand and has syntax familiar to many UNIX scripting gurus, it is often used for uick Web-enabling solutions. Although some support exists for calling Perl scripts directly from within a Web server's process space (for example, the Apache Web server) as well as from within an HTML document, many Web servers use Perl scripts within a CGI application.

14. What is ASP?

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Active Server Pages (ASP) is Microsoft's answer to Web-enabling applications using a serverside scripting language techniue. ASP reuires use of Microsoft's Internet Information Server (IIS) Web server to process server-side ASP files upon a Web reuest and to dynamically generate Web response content. IIS uses a special Windows platformspecific dynamic link library (ASP.DLL) to process ASP files. ASP files having the .asp extension contain special ASP commands that are processed by the IIS Web server to generate dynamic content. ASPs can be created using server-side scripting languages such as VBScript and JScript, although VBScript is by far the most popular language used in ASP implementations.

15. What is XML?

XML is a markup language used to describe how data should be represented in an I/O stream. An XML document is a block of data structured according to the rules of XML syntax. The eXtensible Markup Language (XML) has uickly caught on in industry as the most widely adopted standard for describing and exchanging data in a platform-, language-, and protocol independent fashion.

16. How can you create a XML document?

Processing instruction, Contents, Elements, Entity, Attributes and Commands these are some standards used to create a well defined XML document.

17. What is SAX?

The Simple API for XML (SAX) is used for parsing XML documents via a programmatic interface implemented using a standard set of parse event listeners. SAX is an API standard that was developed by a community of individuals participating in a XML-DEV mailing list group. The standard interfaces to SAX are defined in an org.xml.sax Java package.

18. What is DOM?

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The Document Object Model (DOM) was developed by the W3C to provide a standard set of language-independent interfaces to manipulate XML and HTML documents. The standard Java-binding interfaces to DOM map to an org.w3c.dom Java package. Additionally, JAXP also defines a few nonDOM-standard abstractions in a javax.xml.parsers package used as a DOM parser instance factory and DOM parser class.

19. What is DTD?


A Document Type Definition (DTD) is a structured collection of ASCII-based declarations which define the semantic constraints that apply to a particular type of XML document. A DTD is essentially a set of meta-information that defines the reuired structure and characteristics of an XML document for the document to be considered a valid type of particular XML document. The tags reuired, relationships among tags, valid attribute values, and named entities are all defined within a DTD.

20. What is Java Servlet?

Java Servlets provide one of the core means for Web-enabling enterprises using Java technology. Java Servlets are Java components that are created by developers to handle reuests and generate responses and that adhere to a component interface standard. Although Java Servlets define a generic reuest and response framework paradigm, a specific extension of the framework is provided for handling HTTP reuests and generating HTTP responses via the Web. (The purpose of a servlet is to create a Web page in response to a client reuest).

21. What is JSP?

JavaServer Page technology provides a means for specifying special scripting language commands inside of a text-based document that are used on the server side to process reuests from a client and to generate responses for the client. As is the case with Java Servlets, JSPs use HTTP as the default reuest/response communications paradigm and thus make JSPs ideal as a Web-enabling 26

technology. HTML, XML, and other template data can be defined in a JSP and are sent directly to a Web client without any additional processing on the server side. However, JSP scripting language commands inserted into the same page are processed on the server side before a reuested page is delivered back to a Web client.

22. What is XML Style Sheets?

The eXtensible Stylesheet Language (XSL) is used to describe how particular XML documents can be transformed into other XML documents, as well as to describe how XML documents should be formatted. XSL is managed by a separate working group within the W3C. The XSL Transformations (XSLT) portion of the XSL specification defines how XML documents can be mapped into other XML documents and other document formats (for example, HTML, PDF, and text). The XSL formatting portion of the XSL specification defines how XML documents can be formatted and laid out within an XML document presentation interface.

23. What is ISAPI & NSAPI?

ISAPI: The Internet Server Application Program Interface (ISAPI) defines an interface for calling Microsoft platform DLLs to handle HTTP reuests and generate HTTP responses. NSAPI: The Netscape Server Application Programming Interface (NSAPI) defines an interface for calling binary libraries to handle HTTP reuests and generate HTTP responses.

24. What is HTML?

The Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is a way to describe how information and certain user-interface controls are to be displayed and handled within a Web browser.

25. What is the use of thread pooling in web server?

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Thread pooling is one common techniue for achieving availability and is provided by most enterprise-class Web server environments. Pools of handler threads inside Web servers and document serving engines are created and left in a hot state ready to handle a reuest at any moment. A management facility receives a client reuest and hands it off to a separate thread to manage the reuest. Thread pools offer an efficient means for handling reuests within a single process.

ENTERPRISE COMPUTING UNIT V INTEROPERABILITYAND MULTITIER ENTERPRISE COMPUTING Two Marks uestions and Answers

1. Define Java Bean.


Java Bean is a software component that has been designed to be reusable in a variety of different environment.

2. What are the aspects of the bean model? Events Properties Introspection
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Customization Persistence 3. Give any 4 advantages of java bean? o A bean contain all the benefits of java Write once,Run anywhere
paradigm

o The configuration settings of a bean can be saved in persistence storage and


restored at later time.

o A bean may register to receive events from other objects. o Auxillary software provided to help a person configure a bean. 4. What is the use of application builder tool?
When working with java beans, most developers use an application builder tool, a utility that enables you to configure a ser of beans , connect them together and produce a working application.

5. What are the major capabilities of application builder tool? A pallete is provided that lists all of the beans, as additional beans are
developed or purchased , they can be added to the palette.

A worksheet is displayed that allows the designer to layout beans in a


graphical user interface. A designer may drag and drop a bean from the

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palette to this worksheet.

6. What are Events?


Bean instances are potential sources or listener of specific types of events. An assembly tool can then connect listeners to sources.

7. What is multicast and unicast semantics?


Unicast semantics At a time, one listener is active. Multicast semantics - All listeners are active at anytime.

8. Define property?
Property is a discrete named attribute of a bean that can affect its appearance or behaviour. 9.What are the different properties that a bean can define?

Simple Indexed Bound Constrained 10. Differentiate between simple and indexed properties.

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11. Differentiate between bound and constrained properties.

12. What is introspection and reflection?


Introspection is used to find out events methods, properties, standard interface and classes. Reflection is a type of event listener. It is used to analyze software components or software.

13. Write syntax to create jar and manifest file.


For jar file: Jar cf XYZ.jar *. class *.gif For manifest file: Jar cfm XYZ.jar YXZ.mf *.class *.gif.

14. Write the syntax for following? i)


Tabulating a contents of jar file.

Jar tf XYZ.jar

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ii) Extracting the contents from jar file


Jar xf XYZ.jar

15. What is the use of manifest file?


Developers much provide a manifest file to indicate which of the components in a JAR file are java beans.

16. Advantageof reflection. It allows a package (java.lang.reflect) store in class. It is used to get information at runtime. 17. Which method is used for serializes and deserializes an object.
The method Externalizable is used for serializes and deserializes an object.

18. Specify the methods that are used in Externalizable interface.


Void read External (object input I stream) Throws IOException, classNotFoundException. Void write external(object output out stream)throws to Exception.

19. What is EJB?


EJB is a comprehensive technology that provides the infrastructure for building enterprise level server side distributed java components.

20. Differentiate between java bean and EJB.


Java bean approach to composition is connection-oriented programming where as EJB to composition is conventional model of object oriented composition. 32

21. Specify the varieties of bean. o Session


teful Sta

o Entity

Sta teless

o Message driven 22. What are the steps to create a simple bean? o Create subdirectory o Compile the source code o Create the manifest file. o Create jar file o Run 23. Define Enterprise Application Integration.
Enterprise Application Integration is the process of fitting hardware, software, and business processes together so that the interfaces between components become seamless, information can be easily shared, and systems working together can achieve synergies. Business systems are living systems, naturally integrated in the manner of social organizations. Complex and multi-textured, they are reflected in the computer systems that evolve to automate the business process.

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