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A PROJECT REPORT ON

ANALYSIS OF PRESSURE PLATES OF AUTOMOBILE CLUTCH


During Vocational Training From

VANSH FORD RAIPUR

SESSION-2013 SUBMITTED BY

SAHIL KUMAR

&

JAYCHAND SRIWAS

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING SHRI SHANKRACHARYA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY AFFILIATED TO:- CHHATTISGARH SWAMI VIVEKANAND TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY) GUIDED BY:MISS MADHVI (H.R. MANAGER) MR. DEEPAK (FLOOR INCHARGE)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Accomplishing this project has been a source of great practical experience & personal pride for us & we take this opportunity to thank all those who have helped us in our endeavor.

We extend our thanks to Miss Madhvi (H.R. Manager) for her support, encouragement & facilitation. We wish to acknowledge our profound sense of gratitude to Mr. Deepak (Floor Incharge) for always providing us the much needed through his vast array of knowledge. We gave the heart soul thanks to our project guide for always being there for us, wherever we needed him.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
S.NO. I TITLE INTRODUCTION
About ford Awards & Achievement Archive Mission Ford product

II

CLUTCH
Clutch Introduction Friction Clutches Types of Friction Clutches Clutch construction Clutch components

III

PROBLEM FORMULATION AND SOLUTION METHODOLOGY


2.1 Uniform pressure & wear 2.2 Elementary analysis 2.3 Uniform wear condition

IV V

FIGURES AND DIAGRAMS REFERENCE

INTRODUCTION
About Ford

Established in 1995, Ford India is a wholly owned subsidiary of Ford Motor Company, a global automotive industry leader. Ford India manufactures and distributes automobiles and engines made at its modern integrated manufacturing facilities at Maraimalai Nagar, near Chennai. The company's models include the Endeavour, Fiesta and the Figo. Ford's operations in the country also include Global Business Services providing business services in the areas of IT, accounting and finance, financial services and automotive operations support, global analytics and engineering services. These operations serve Ford's business units and skill teams globally out of centres in Chennai and Coimbatore. Fords businesses in India boast a 10,000-strong workforce.

Ford Motor Company Ford Motor Company, American automotive corporation founded in 1903 by Henry Ford and 11 associate investors. In 1919 the company was reincorporated, with Ford, his wife, Clara, and his son, Edsel, acquiring full ownership; they, their heirs, and the Ford Foundation (formed 1936) were sole stockholders until January 1956, when public sale of the common stock was first offered. The company manufactures passenger cars, trucks, and tractors as well as automotive parts and accessories. Headquarters are in Dearborn, Michigan.

Henry Ford built his first experimental car in a workshop behind his home in Detroit in 1896. After formation of the Ford Motor Company, the first Ford car was assembled at the Mack Avenue plant in July 1903. Five years later, in 1908, the highly successful Model T was introduced. Demand for this car was so great that Ford developed new mass-production methods in order to manufacture it in sufficient quantities; in 1911 he established the industrys first U.S. branch assembly plant (in Kansas City, Missouri) and opened the companys first overseas production plant in Manchester, England; in 1913 he introduced the worlds first moving assembly line for cars; and in 1914, to further improve labour productivity, he introduced the $5 daily wage for an eight-hour day (replacing $2.34 for a nine-hour day). The companys first international sales branch opened in Paris in 1908. By mid -1914 there were more than 500,000 Model Ts on the roads of the world; by 1923 the company was producing more than half of Americas automobiles; and, by the end of the 1920s, Ford had more than 20 overseas assembly plants in Europe, Latin America, Canada, Asia, South Africa, and Australia. The Ford had become the worlds most familiar make of car. In 1927 the last Model T and the first new Model A were produced, followed in 1932 by the first Ford V-8. In 1922 Ford had acquired the Lincoln Motor Company (founded 1917), which would produce Fords luxury Lincolns and Continentals. In 1938 Ford introduced the first Mercury, a car in the medium-priced range. As early as 1906 Henry Ford had acquired 58.5 percent of the companys stock; and, when the other stockholders balked at the idea of building the giant (and expensive) River Rouge plant in Dearborn, he bought them out; Edsel Ford (1893 1943) became president (1919). On Edsels death in 1943, Henry Ford returned to the presidency, but in 1945 he turned it over to his grandson, Henry Ford II who reorganized the companys tangled system of financial management and reinvigorated its corporate culture by hiring talented younger managers. The failed introduction of the Edsel (model years 195860) occurred amid these successes. Henry Ford II continued to guide the company as chief executive officer (194570) and chairman of the board (196080). In the 1950s and 60s the Ford Motor Company began limited diversification, but by the 1990s it had refocused attention on its automotive concerns and financial services. In 198990 Ford acquired Jaguar, a British manufacturer of luxury cars. Aston Martin became a wholly owned subsidiary in 1993. Later acquisitions included the rental car company Hertz Corporation in 1994, the automobile division of Volvo in 1999, and the Land Rover brand of sport utility vehicles in 2000. Ford also purchased a significant share of the Mazda Motor Corporation. However, as Ford struggled in the early 21st century, it began selling a number of its brands. In 2007 the company sold Aston Martin, and the following year it sold Jaguar and Land Rover to Tata Motors Ltd. of India.

AKS
AUTOMOBILE

Aditya Wheels (India) Pvt Ltd

Aditya Wheels India Private Limited has more than 6 years experience in the field of providing quality service to the customer. Ford appointed them the first new generation dealer for the Chhattisgarh State & Region in. They are also the approved Nissan India dealer for their Passenger Cars. A new state of the art showroom and workshop space has been built for Nissan operations and is regarded as Central India's best with operations started in April 2011.

AKS NISSAN

VANSH FORD

Aditya Wheels (India) Pvt Ltd (Vansh Ford) are the authorized dealers for Ford Motor Company for the region of Raipur, Chattisgarh State, INDIA. The Sales Team is made up of dedicated showroom and field executives who are professionally trained by Ford India Pvt Limited. They are adept at guiding the customer through the entire sales process right from assisting in the choice of model, colour and features to lending a helping hand in providing attractive buyback options.

The Service Centre is armed with the state-of-the art equipment and is in-line with Ford's exacting Global standards. The service team is technically qualified and trained to analyze and provide solutions in order to satisfy even the most demanding customer

Varun Honda has more than 10 years experience in the field of providing quality service to the over 23000 customers. Honda Motorcycle & Scooter India (HMSI) Pvt Ltd. appointed AKS the first dealer in the Central India region. They have 3 workshops & one of the best service networks in Raipur District.

HISTORY OF FORD LOGO


Most people know that Ford was founded by (who else?) Henry Ford. What most people didnt know was that this was his third automobile company. Ford experimented with cars while working for Thomas Edison, and left to found his first auto company, The Detroit Automobile Company, which went bankrupt in just 2 years. He then built a race car and founded Henry Ford Company. Ford left that one after just one year (the company later became Cadillac see above). In 1902, Ford went on to create his third automobile company, the Ford & Malcomson, Ltd., and almost lost that one when sales were slow. He was unable to pay his bills to John and Horace Dodge, who supplied parts. Fords partner brought in a group of investors and even convinced the Dodge Brothers to accept shares in the company, which was renamed Ford Motor Company. Later, the Dodge Brothers went on to form their own car company (can you guess what?) In 1909, Childe Harold Wills, Fords first chief engineer and designer (who also help to design the Model T), lend a script font that he created to make his own business card, to create the Ford logo. The famous blue oval was added later for the 1927 Model A it remained in use until today.

AWARDS AND ACHIEVEMENTS ARCHIVE

Ford Gold World Excellence Award

- Silver 2003 - Gold 2002 -131 - 1998 1993 Company: Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI Company Description : Ford Motor began a manufacturing revolution with mass production assembly lines in the early 20th century, but today, it is one of the world's largest automakers. Ford manufactures or distributes automobiles across six continents. With about 166,000 employees and about 70 plants worldwide, the companys automotive brands include Ford and Lincoln. FORD MOTOR COMPANY MISSION STATEMENT - One Mission, One Team, One Plan, One Goal ONE FORD MISSION: ONE TEAM People working together as a lean, global enterprise for automotive leadership, as measured by:

F-Series

- 2000 Truck Significant

Achievement

Award

Customer, Employee, Dealer, Investor, Supplier, Union/Council, and Community Satisfaction

ONE PLAN

Aggressively restructure to operate profitably at the current demand and changing model mix Accelerate development of new products our customers want and value Finance our plan and improve our balance sheet Work together effectively as one team

ONE GOAL An exciting viable Ford delivering profitable growth for all.

FORD PRODUCTS
CARS Fiesta Figo Focus C-max Taurus Fusion CROSSOVERS & SUVs Escape Edge Explorer Flex Expedition TRUCKS Transit Connect F-150 Superduty

PRINCIPLE OF 3S (Sales, Service & Spare)


As FORD 3S (Sales, Service & Spare parts) centre in USA, quality servicing and repair of pumping equipments are offered by competent engineers and trained technicians. FORD provides value for every purchase. Their effective after-sales services provided are aiming at satisfying all customers. FORD believes in providing clients with only the best service, always.

CLUTCH
Clutch Introduction
A clutch is a machine member used to connect the driving shaft to a driven shaft, so that the driven shaft may be started or stopped at will, without stopping the driving shaft. A clutch thus provides an interruptible connection between two rotating shafts.Clutches allow a high inertia load to be started with a small power. A popularly known application of clutch is in automotive vehicles where it is used to connect the engine and the gear box. Here the clutch enables to crank and start the engine disengaging the transmission. Disengage the transmission and change the gear to alter the torque on the wheels. Clutches are also used extensively in production machinery of all types.

Friction Clutches

As in brakes a wide range of clutches are in use wherein they vary in their use their working principle as well the method of actuation and application of normal forces. The discussion here will be limited to mechanical type friction clutches or more specifically to the plate or disc clutches also known as axial clutches.

Friction Contact Axial or Disc clutches


An axial clutch is one in which the mating frictional members are moved in a direction parallel to the shaft. A typical clutch is illustrated in the figure below. It consists of a driving disc connected to the drive shaft and a driven disc connected to the driven shaft. A friction plate is attached to one of the members. Actuating spring keeps both the member in contact and power/motion is transmitted from one member to the other. When the power of motion is to be interrupted the driven disc is moved axially creating a gap between the member.

Single plate dry Clutch- Automotive Application


The clutch used in automotive applications is generally a single plate dry clutch. In this type the clutch plate is interposed between the flywheel surface of the engine and pressure plate.

Single Clutch and Multiple Disc Clutch


Basically, The clutch needs three parts. These are the engine flywheel, a friction disc called the clutch plate and a pressure plate. When the engine is running and the flywheel is rotating, the pressure also rotates as the pressure plate is attached to the fly wheel. The friction disc is located between the two plates. The action forces the friction plate to move away from the friction disc. There are now air gaps between the flywheel and the friction disc. No power can be transmitted through the clutch.

Clutch Construction
Two basic type of clutch are coil-spring clutch and diaphragm spring clutch. The difference between them is the type of spring used. The coil-spring clutch has a series of coil spring set in circle. At high rotation speed, problem can arise with multi coil spring clutches swing to the effect of centrifugal forces both on the spring themselves and the lever of release mechanism. These problems are obviated when diaphragm type of springs are used.

Clutch or Driven Plates


More complex arrangements are used on the driven or clutch plate to facilitate smooth function of the clutch. The friction disc, more generally known as the clutch plate is partly cut away. It consists of a hub and a plate, with facing attached to the plate. Frist to ensure that the drive is taken up progressively, the center plate, on which the friction facing is mounted, consists of a series of cushion spring which is crimped radially so that as the clamping force is applied to the facing, the lining is progressively squeezed flat, enabling gradual transfer of force. On the release of the clamping force, the plate spring back to its original position crimped state.

The plate is also slotted so that the heat generated does not cause distortion that would be liable to occur if it were a plain plate. This plate is of course thin to keep rotational inertia to minimum.
4

Friction Facing or Pads


It is the friction pads or facing which actually transmit the power from flywheel to hub in the clutch plate and there to the output shaft. There are grooves on both sides of the friction disc facing. These grooves prevent the facing from sticking to the flywheel face and pressure plate when the clutch is disengaged. The grooves break any vacuum that are form and cause the facing to stick to flywheel or pressure plate. The facings on many friction discs are made of cotton and asbestos fibers woven or molded together and impregnated with resins or other binding agents. In many friction discs, copper wires are woven or pressed into the facings to give them added strength. However, asbestos is being replaced with other materials in many clutches. Some friction discs have ceramic-metallic facings. To minimize the wear problems, all the plates will be enclosed in a covered chamber and immersed in an oil medium. Such clutches are called wet clutches.

Multiple Plate Clutches


The properties of the frictional lining are important factors in the design of clutches. The pressure plate is an integral factor in the function of an automobiles manual transmission. The pressure plate pushes the clutch disc, sometimes called the clutch plate, against the constantly spinning engine flywheel. The clutch disc, therefore, is either

stationary or rotating at the same speed as the flywheel. Friction material, similar to that found on brake pads and brake drums, causes the clutch
5

disc to spin at the same speed as the engine flywheel. It is this friction between clutch disc and flywheel that allows the engine torque to drive the wheels.

Pressure plates are round, metallic devices containing springs and fingers, or levers, and controlled by the release fork connected to the shifter. All of the clutch components are enclosed in the bell housing of the transmission, between the rear of the engine and the front of the gearbox. Structured with clutch plate, springs, covers and release fingers, the clutch pressure plate is bolted into the flywheel with the clutch disc in between them. It is classified into two types which are the diaphragm type and the spring type, the most common pressure plate being used by most of the vehicle owners now a days is the diaphragm type.

Common materials used in pressure plates


Gray cast iron Lamellar pearlitic gray iron T-1 Steel or A514 Heavy-duty service require high carbon and high

hardness to minimize heat checking and provide higher strength.


6

PROBLEM FORMULATION AND SOLUTION METHODOLOGY

Common Problems In Pressure Plate Clutch chatter

Oil leakage from the engine onto the clutch assembly Damaged pressure plate release levers A sprung clutch disc hub and improper alignment between the engine and transmission

Clutch slippage Dragging clutch

METHOD OF ANALYSIS
The torque that can be transmitted by a clutch is a function of its geometry and the magnitude of the actuating force applied as well as the condition of contact prevailing between the members. The applied force can keep the members together with a uniform pressure all over its contact area and the consequent analysis is based on uniform pressure condition.
7

Uniform Pressure and Wear

However as the time progress some wear takes place between the contacting members and this may alter or vary the contact pressure appropriately and uniform pressure condition may no longer prevail. Hence the analysis here is based on uniform wear condition.

ElementaryAnalysis
Assuming uniform pressure and considering an elemental area dA dA=2 .r.dr The normal force on this elemental are is dN=2..r.dr.p The frictional force dF on this area is therefore dF=f.2.r.dr.p Now the torque that can be transmitted by this elemental area is equal to the frictional force times the moment arm about the axis is the radius r i.e T=dF.r= f.dN.r = f.p.A.r =f.p.2 .r.dr.r

The total torque that could be transmitted is obtained by integrating this equation between the limits of inner radius ri to the outer radius ro

ro T = 2pfr2dr= (2/3)pf(ro3-ri3) ri

Integrating the normal force between the same limits we get the actuating force that need to be applied to transmit this torque. Fa=(r 2 r 2).p Together the above equations can be written as T=fF(2/3).(ro3-ri3)/(ro2-ri2)

Uniform Wear Condition


According to some established theories the wear in a mechanical system is proportional to the PV factor where P refers to the contact pressure and V the sliding velocity. Based on this for the case of a plate clutch we can stateThe constant-wear rateRw is assumed to be proportional to the product of pressure P and velocity V
9

Rw= pV= constant And the velocity at any point on the face of the clutch is V=r.

Combining the equations assuming a constant angular velocity p.r=constant= K The largest pressure p max must then occur at the smallest radius r K=p r max i i

Hence pressure at any point in the contact region P=p r.r max i

In the previous equations substituting this value for the pressure term p and integrating between the limits as done earlier we get the equation for the torque transmitted and the actuating force to be applied. i.e. The axial force is found by substituting P=p For p.* And integrating equation dN=2prd F=2prdr= 2(pmax ri/r)rdr =2pmaxri(ro-ri) Similarly the torque max r.r i

10

ro T= f2pmaxri.rdr=fpmaxri(ro2-ri2) ri

Substituting the values of actuating force Fa The equation can be given as T=fFa.(ro-ri)/2

REFERENCES

MACHINE DESIGN BY :- V BHANDARI

WEBSITES
1. vanshford.com 2. aksgroupindia.com

3. fordindia.com 4. sae.org.in