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# X

Y
A B
C D
X
Y
B
D
u rd ds =
ds AB = '
A
B
C D
r d
ds
ds
BD AC ~
CD AB~
Basics of Beam Deflection Theory
B
D
B
D
y
-dx
d
ds
d
r
u
=
1
(1)
u yd dx = (2)
since ds is the original length,
ds
dx
strain

= c ,
(3)
substitute equations (1), (2) and (3)
y dx y
dx
ds y
dx
r
c c
=
|
.
|

\
|

= =
) (
1
r
y
= c
Thus, (4)
M M
r
y
= c
(4)
Compression
Tension
Neutral Axis
c
o
= =
strain
stress
E then
The force acting on a differential area dA is dA
y
r
E
= o (5)
from equation (5) ydA
r
E
dA

= o
0 =

=
} }
ydA
r
E
dA o
The internal bending moment must be
equal to the external bending moment, M.
} }

= = dA y
r
E
dA y M
2
o
}
= dA y I
2
However,
Neglecting (-)
r
EI
M = (6) or
EI
M
r
=
1
}
= dA o
}
= dA o The sum () of horizontal
forces is zero.
F
F y
EI
M
dx
dy
dx
y d
r
=
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
+
=
2
3
2
2
2
1
1
Beam Deflection Equation:
1 1
2
3
2
~
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
+
dx
dy
since is small,
|
.
|

\
|
dx
dy
EI
M
dx
y d
=
2
2
(7)
1
c Mdx
dx
dy
EI + = = =
}
u
(8)
2 1
c x c Mdx EIy + + =
} }
(9)
General Slope Equation
General Curve Equation
y
F
L
Solving Moment, M at any x location:
Moment Diagram
-FL
0
-FL
0
L
x
M
using
EI
M
dx
y d
=
2
2
(7)
x L
M
L
FL

) ( x L F M =
or
) (
2
2
x L F M
dx
y d
EI = = (10)
1
2
2
C
x
F FLx
dx
dy
EI + + = (11)
2 1
3 2
6 2
C x C
x
F
x
FL EIy + + + = (12)
y
F
L
(0,0)
2
2
x
F FLx EI
dx
dy
EI + = = u
General Slope Equation
Also, when x=0, y=0.
6 2
3 2
x
F
x
FL EIy + =
Elastic Curve Equation
It can be seen that when x=0, dy/dx==0.

x
1
2
2
C
x
F FLx
dx
dy
EI + + = (11)
Thus, C
1
=0.
2 1
3 2
6 2
C x C
x
F
x
FL EIy + + + = (12) Thus, C
2
=0.
) 3 (
6 6 2
2 3 2
x L
Fx x
F
x
FL EIy = + =
100mm
F
700mm
Case 1
100mm
F
700mm
or
; L x = when

( )( )( )
( )
3
4 10 9
700 . 0
1 . 0 10 909 . 4 10 105 3
m
m m x Pa x
F

=
Material:
Diameter = 10mm; Length = 700mm y=100mm
Modulus of Elasticity,E = 105GPa
Moment of Inertia, I
4 10
4 4
10 909 . 4
64
) 01 . 0 (
64
m x
m D
I

= = =
t t
3
3
FL
EIy =
kgf N F 60 . 4 08 . 45 = =
x
x
100mm
45.08N
700mm
x
y
) 3 (
6
2
x L
Fx
EIy =
-120
-100
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
x- Location of F
n
(mm)
y
-
d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n

(
m
m
)
y
F
L
a
Case 2
C
y
F
L
(0,0)
x
2
2
x
F FLx EI
dx
dy
EI + = = u
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
2
x
Lx F EIu
6 2
3 2
x
F
x
FL EIy + =
( ) x L
Fx
EIy = 3
6
2
A
B
Case 1
x
( ) x L
Fx
EIy
B A
=

3
6
2
a L =
( ) x a
Fx
EIy
B A
=

3
6
2
when
? =
C B
EIy
since B-C is still a straight line
B BC
u u =
2
2
Fa
EI
B
= u
a L x
C B
=

) (
2 3
2 3
a L
Fa Fa
x y EIy
C B B B C B
= + =

u
) 3 (
6
2
a L
Fa
EIy
C B
=

a x s s 0
L x or L a s s
a L x = =
when
a x =
3
3
Fa
EIy
B
=
=
+
Method of Superposition
Deflection or Slope
(A)
F
1
F
2
L
a
(A)
F
2
a
(B)
F
1
L
(C)
Deflection or Slope
(B)
Deflection or Slope
(C)
=
+
0
5
10
15
20
25
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
x- Location of F
n
(mm)
y
-
d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n

(
m
m
)
+F1
L
x
n
+F2 +F3 +F4 +F5 +F6 +F7
-F1 -F2 -F3 -F4 -F5 -F6 -F7
Case 3
Force,N -100 -100 50 -300 10 -6 120
-0.14
-0.12
-0.1
-0.08
-0.06
-0.04
-0.02
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800
x- Location of F
n
(mm)
y
-
d
e
f
l
e
c
t
i
o
n

(
m
m
)
+F1
L
x
n
+F2 +F3 +F4 +F5 +F6 +F7
-F1 -F2 -F3 -F4 -F5 -F6 -F7
Force,N 100 -50 10 0 0.02 0 0.258
Case 4
+F1
L
x
n
+F2 +F3 +F4 +F5 +F6 +F7
-F1 -F2 -F3 -F4 -F5 -F6 -F7
Force F1=? F2=? F3=? F4=? F5=? F6=? F7=?
y
n
mm
1
mm
2
mm
3
mm
4
mm
5
mm
5
mm
6
Numerical Method for Solving F
n
(x
n
, y
n
)
x
n
mm
1
mm
2
mm
3
mm
4
mm
5
mm
5
mm
6
Solve