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PREFACE

This workbook is for the purpose of testing the user's knowledge of geometric dimensioning
and tolerancing as part of an educational or training progrrm. The workbook may also be used as an independent reference, thus providing a learning mechanism for review of the

subject matter o to extend existing knowledge.

The author ssumes the user has some familiarity with basic engineering drawing practices.
This workbook builds upon such knowledge and extends the learning experience into detailed study of geometric dimensioning and tolerancing as based upon the national standard A{SI/ASME Y14.5M-1994. This workbook, and its associated answebook, are designed as companion materials for the author's full text'Geo-Metrics

III."

The workbook contains avariety of materialwhich can be used in a number of ways

appropriate to both the academic classroom and the in-industry training progam. Contained

within the workbook is a series of questions and exercises, and some problem examples. The
problern example pages are found at the rear of the workbook as indicated in the appropriate questions as the user proceeds. The answer to the questions and problems are contained in a separate answer bookwhich
may be distibuted to the at his discretion.

particant alongwith this workbook or retained by the instructor

Fundamentals.................
FortR, Orientation,

.......................

Runout

Tolerances

hofile, and
.,......... 10

Location

Tolerances.

....,...25

Figures

..........65

QTIESTIONS

FOR NOTES OR CALCULATIONS

Furdcnrentqls
GENERAI AI'FSTTOI{S
provides numerous advantages' List foru of them' 1. Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (1) (2) (3) (4)

2,
3

requirements and applicatioq^,:ryo In dermining geometric dimensioning and tolerancing and ll c4'.r ce^/s ,? F key words toemUerfor guiOance

le

r.rvrgJ

'

lerances. Where The fist magninrde of conuol on any pan is its of fea'tres, to control part configuration or specific relationships ulle,r.L'wDvr-------5-r,or_rtolerancgsargused

;;;,;;;'*niJq**

4.

method ttal provides best uniformiry For delineating tlrese requirements on a drawing, the National Standard AI'{SI Y14'5' is: and efciency - is ecmmended by the (Check one.)

symbolicallY by no

GEOIYEIRIC CHARCIERXSflC SYI{BOIS

5.

Place the correct symbol desigoion Here are ttre fonren variedes of geometric chaacistics. beside each one-

Cicularrunout
Total rutout ProfiIe of a srrface Profrle of a line Position ConcentricitY Symmetry

COIDITIONS
6.

MODIFIERS

In using certain geomeuic rclerance characristics, as applied to size featues, the "marerial condition" under which the tolerance applies must be considered. The thee "marerial conditions" h^(also loown as modifiers where applicable) are , r\C-. L .ad

R.rs

7.

The symbols rsed to indicate two of these marial conditions or modiftes are:

is impted by Rule lt2 on all size feues The third material condition, where the other marial condition (modifien) symbols re not specified-

IYKIMITM I\TAIERIAI COI{DITION

8. 9.

In the case of a hole, the MA)ilMUM IvIAIERIAL CONDHON MMC) is its (which: size? In the case of a pin, ttre MMC size is its minimum or maximum) 'w c^,r -r u,n u^ (minimum or maximum) r-' + --= ,-n ' sizg?
The MMC size of the pins below is

, Ld o

.zoo 1:838

size of the pins above is two opposi points of .198 size be The MMC size of the holes below The

IfC

o.lq) . What would a distance measured between calle! *c 14L ( oc ' 5.7 tE ts 0 . zo 5
2x .2o5 ::333

The LMC size of the holes above is IVhat would a disunce meued between two opposite poina of .206 size be callet +<:Tt/K\ Loc-L lr?t. What would a maximum cylinder of .207 size be gt Vr-'c cP C ' r q'r YV called? Sct- u

o.zoE

rrr

tr

10.
11.

When MMC is used as a design basis for functional inrrelationship of featrues of size of inrchangeability, the form, orientadon or position tolerance (increes/decreases) with the feaure acftal mating size deparnue from MMC' Where the MMC condition is not desirable to the design requirement and size of the conposition cemed features is to remain independent of any affect on the form, orientation or aPPliedtolerance, the condition

BASIC OR EKACT DIMEI{SION


12.

A basic (or exact) dimension specied on adrawing

value used to describe the exact size, shape, or location of a feature. 13.

T Ll t:kLT

-is r<-ru?- +<-T'

A basic or exact dimension (e.g. .750) is shown symbolicalty. Show the .750 basic dimension
below.

14. Where numefous basic or exact dimensions are required' a general on the drawing maY be used-

il e-lc-

15. 16.

associed with the Use of a bic or exact dimension requires also a or feaues involved stating the permissible variion from the basic or exact orientation,lnofile position dimensions.

or Circte the associad tolerances which provide ttre permissible variation from the basic exact orientation or position dimensions.

.25O t.005

+l.019

qrl,rE, r1,?r,. tsl, 7,1L


t7. A datum is a theoretically exact P,t' ..derived from the tne geometric counpart of a specrfi
datum fearue.

18.

Dums on parrs are idendfied by letn of the alphabet (do not use I, 0, or Q) and placed in a squarc frame wittrg leade and triangle direcd to the feanre. This is known as a symbot. 1p->,,,<- $

t*--+

19.

*A ";identify ttre hole as dum "D." (IJse datum Identify the lower single edge as datum feanre synbols here and in questions 20 nd2L.)

20. Identify ttre outside {dth featue as datum "A."

2l.Identify the small diamer

as datum

"A."

22. Adanrm

is an acnal fere of a part which is used to establish a daurm-

FENfl RE CONTROT FRtYfE

23.

List the fou elements of geometric control ttrat may be used in making up a comple
Featrre Control Frame.

(1) (2) (3) (4)

24.

at feanue conuol frame which indicas 'rpendicularity" of a hole wittn .005' ximum material condition, relative to daum plne "B.''

Draw

CoMBINED TEATTTRE CONIROT TRAME I.TD Dfl'M TEIII'RE STMBOT


25.
a danm Duplica the feature control frame drwn for the preceding question and add fearue symbol ("C") to make a combined symbol'

26.

Which of ttrese nrmbered smen is correct? In the combined symbol shown in answer to question 25:

l.

Danrm

*C. is a part of the datum reference fo

the perpendicularity requiremenr

2. Danrm..C- is complely
identifies the featrre for

separate from the perpendicutarity requirement and only othe relationships.

Dn'MREFERENCEFRAME.oRDERoFPRECEDENCE
27. established In these feature control frames thee datum references are used- According to nles, which ae the primary, secondary, afid tertiary datusts?

a)

.oto 6D

A B G

b)

.oro

D F

DIM

28.

l\l 0 In the preceding symbols is the atphabetic order signicant? leuen reading Danm order otcedence is established by placing the danrm reference (1T G inttrefeatruecontrolframe' LE

tq

Illustra how datum idenrification letters are shown in the feanre control frame when no danm (Use the runout characteristic (or equal danrm) precedence is desiredsymUf, datum r.i.r.n . lerers A and B, .002 tolerance, and place them in a feaure conuol frame below.)

FORM, ORIENTArION, PROFII.E, RI'NOUT AI{D IOCAION TOI.ERANCE

30.
3L. 32.
33. 34.

Form tolerances relae to the following characristics; (Show their symbols below.)

Orienation tolerances relas to the following characristics: (Show their symbols below.)

pole tolerances rela to the following characristics: (Show their symbols below-)

Runout tolerances rela to the foltowing chaacristics: (Show their symbols below-)

Locarion tolerances relare to the following characrisircs: (Show their symbols below.)

ST.IDARD RII.ES {D PRINCIPLES

35.

(form) For this illustration, which statement below most correctly describes the geometic conuoi on the part?

----.0O2

(l)
36.

The toleranced dimensions for the size of a featrue conuols the form as well as size. No element of rhe acgal featue shall exnd beyond the specified higb or low limis of size or the boundary of perfect form at MMC.
Fearre sizes shall not exceed

500 diamer and 1.510 lengt-

What is the basis for the corect answer in question 35?

Lf^^f5

F s?8,

geometry, 3?. Where size control gives inadequa control of part tolerances are sPecified-

3g.

Refeaing to the illustrion in question 35, draw a representation of the "boundary of perfectform MMC" of the Parr

o' Soo

l+--- \ 5l !i
39.
The inrpretation prescribiirg a boundary of perfect forrr at MMC applies only tl LL\- !i''''"-'"J'', .'-tt Lf1..i ,,.'/t,.fganrgsandnot9g r^ w+

offeanues.

^'-;L, ( ['

("''

:14'r(' 'r i!'

40.

Wh common qpe of geomeric relionship of feanues not controlled by ttre condidons of Rule 1?

4I.
42.

Does the interpnetation of Rule

I apply to commercial

stock, such as bars, sheets, and

nrbing?

Rule 1 may be removed from the application by ano such as placed on the drawing.

Rule#

to feares of 44. Rule 2 applies in conjunction with the fearue control fame and can be applied only

45. Which of these would be a feanue of

"size'?'

(1) A hole
(2) A flat srrface

46.

dum reference The Pirch Diameter Rute: Each tolerance of orientation or position ad qpecified for a screw thead applies to the

47.

geometric tolerance and On the symbols shown below, add ttre notadon o indica that re dailm feure basis is an exception to the Sew Thead Rule and applies at the major dianer.

0l.oos@lB

trJ

48.

pirch diameter would be Show on these symbols how a gear or spline geomeric relionship to ttre specified-

.ooz

@lc

49.

a A virnal condition exists where a featue, or a datum feature, of size is controlled by is ttre collecve effect of the staed separae olerance of form, orientation, or location tolerance. It Of the feanue COnand the wq'U ot- lryc' tT{6o wt', K c TL(,&fr;^ <-feures ad in ttre clearance or worst case condition between mating part

sidered in dermining establishing gage feanue sizes-

50.

Wh is the virnal condition of the shaft and hole below? Sh,aft

o ,S LS

,hoie

0, Lqo

51.

Place a check mark beside the most significant reasons for stating the marial conditions (modien) under Rule 2.

(1) It is required-

(2)

Stas the condition under which the design requirement applies.

(3) Is universally

understood through ISO inmational standards and practices.

52.

Wh is the resultant condition of ttre .3001:38nof" under question 50 if the hole is produced to the acnal mating envelope size of .302? TOIER,,,AI{CE ZONE SHAPE

53.

a-) Whee the feane ds is to be controlled and the desired tolerance zone shape is

cylin-

drical, the

sYmbol

is sPecified'

b.) True or False? Where rhe feanre is non+ylindrical and its center plane or axis is to be controlled within a total wide tolerance zone, no shape of olerance zone is designad ,

FORM, ORIENTATION, PROFII AI{D RI'NOITT TOLERI{CING


You have now progressed ttrough the steps necessary to learn the fundamenmls, rules, ad nomenclane of geometric dimensioning and tolerancing. It is time to test your ability to apply these principles in actual application.
The nex series of questions and examples e designed to exercise yor:r knowledge of proper FORM, ORIENTAIION, PROFILE AND RUNOIJT TOLERANCE contols, nomenclanre, and

inrpretation.

54.

Geometric tolerances should be specified for all feanues criticat to function and interchangeability and whee:

(1)
(2)

Established

practices cnnot be relied upon to provide the

required accurrcy. Documents establishing suitable


are either not specified or are

(3) (4)

do not provide the necessary control.


are not to be depended upon.

55.

Referring to Figrue 1 (found at rear of book), speafy the accuracy of the lower surface (lower extremity of 1.610 dimension) to allow a total (ma,rimum) tolerance for bow and other surface inaccuracies of .002.

Suppo the lower part surface of Figure 1 was produced as shown here. Using the form tolerance control selecd in question 55, srch in the tolerance zone applicable.

57. The upper surface (upper exuemiry of the 1.610 dimension) is required in the pan functiot"
o
be in a parallel orientation of .002 total (maximum) tolerance to the lower surface.

Add

this requirement to Figure 1. Use letter

"A" for

the datum.

l0

5g.

on the produced Show below (srch) how the tolerance zone and rhe danm are established as part (Figrue l) for ttre requiremenr of question 57. Assume ttre produced Pan surfaces irregutu, as in question 56.

Sg.

1-6101'005 Assuming rhe .002 flamess lerance, ttre .002 parallelism tolerance, and the Rule 1)? (remember size rcleance, what is the boundary of perfect form at MMC size

60.

in a squarc In Figrue 1 (lower figrue), suppose the vertical 1.610 surface is required to be 1. Figue oriention ro ttre lower surfac wfthin .003. Add this requirement to
requirement of quesdon Show below (skerc how rhe tolerance zone is established for the 60.

61.

lt

62.
63.

Suppose that in Figure 1 (upper view), the vertical 1.500 srrface is required to be in a squarc

oriention to the lowe surface (of the 1.500 dimension) within.003. Add this requirement to Figrue 1. Use letter "B" for the datum.

In questions 60 and 62the 1.610 by 1.500 end face surface was conEolled in its perpetOcutarity (squareness) in vo directions from separa dums. Why are two sePara qpecifications required? (Choose most significantteasons from below statements.)

(1) Perpendiculariry of a srrface should be specified in the view reladonship with iu specific datum. (2) Perpendicularity controls form
as

most ctearly showing

is

well

a-s

oriention.

64.

Assume thar in Figure the.376 hole has been located witt position dimensions and tolerance (do nor yer concern yoruself wittr ttre method), but the orientation of the .376hole musr be maintained to a finer degree than the position tolerance. Specify on Figrre 1 that *4" is .003 total' RFS. this orientation control with reqpect to datum

t2

65.

Show below (skerch) how the tolerance zone is established for ttre requirement of quemion

&.

66. 67.

Referring to tbe perpendiculariry tolerance used in question 65 on Figrne 1, what is the total At-3782 tolerance permissible wittr hole size produced

at3767

The answers to question 66 ae deived because: (Selea the mo conect answer.)

(1)

68.

The tolerance is implied or stad as RFS rnder Rule 2AIl tolerarces smred ae totals.

of Figure I (referSuppose the perpendiculariry tolerance of .003 on the ence also question 64) was required by the pan rnction to be on an MMC basis. How would the feare control frase be shown?

376!'ffilot.

If

the hole is produced ar.376 (MMC), what is the marimum permissible perpendiculariry tolerance?

If

the hole is produced

at.378, wh is the maximum perpendicularity

olerance?

t3

69.

From questions 64 tbrough 68 we see th whenever a fearue of size such as a hole is involved, \ile mrst consider whether the or . are desired as a designrequirement

conditions

70.
From the response to question 68, we see that use of the MMC principle, when appropriare to the desig requirement, (gains/loses) production tolerance yet assurs finction and inrchangeabitity.

71.

1, the surface identified as datum'B" (in quesion 62) is to be square in orientation within .002 to danm "4," ttle base srrface. In the lower space on the Figrue sheeL skerch an end view and ssw this requiremenr

In Figure

72.

In Figure 1, tbe 25" and 30o angles e critical o e extent of a.010 maximrm olerance as they rela to tbeirrespective danms'4" and'8." Show these requiremens on Figrre 1.

t4

73.

acal Pa comef Referring to the 30" angle requirement of Figrue 1 (see question 12)'the and tolerance. dimension at the veflex end must within the

74.

requirement of question Show below (skeh) how the tolerance zone is established for the 72 onthe 30o angle. Also, show how the anguiar tolerance zone relias to the '500 '005

dimension.

75.

forr types of Reviewing the Figure 1 questions and applications, it can be nod that of the geometric form and orientation characristics used' thee
require a datum reference.

and

76.

Dusr references ae used wherever a specific I applicaof one fearrre to another is required- Flutn ss, for exarnple as seen in the Figure is essensurface tion, does not re4vre a datum because the 'telationship" of the specified tially to a perfect counterPart of itself,

t-"

l5

77. ^/V ( 1 78.


79.

:r0 *\t) U ^

Referring to Figure 2a(atb longinrdinal elements of the and the "boundary of perfectform at which will represent a critical size control for bearing mounting of the

t.ffi
pa
at each end-

Specified as shown in Figrue 2a, sraightness of the pan is conrolled tq maximum. What is the bis for this answer?
Assume on Figrue 2b ttr ttre pan is to mount into bearings, and also that the straighmess of the longinrdinal elements of the cylindrical surface is critical to the design requirements and musr wirhin .0003 total as a refinement of ttre size control (see questions 77 and 78). Specfy this requirement on Figure 2b).

80. 81.

Wh is the ma,rimum permissible snaighmess tolerance of Figue 2b?


Assume on Figure 2c ha the part is to mount into bearings on the ends but staightness of tlre longitudinal axis of the cylindrical surface is less critical, to a maximum of .0L5 rclaL RFS, and that the "boundary of perfect form MMC" (Rule 1) does rct apply. Spectfy this requirement on Figure 2c.

82.

The collective effect ofthe size and form error on Figure 2c (question 81) results in a size of

possible
Il

83.

Since the .0L5 straightness olerance of question 81 was specied on an RFS basis, what is .6t0? ttre suaightness tolerance permissibte if the pan size is

at

at599?

84.

Assume the pin shown in Figure 2d is to semble with the hole shown in Figure 2e. Where interchangeabity of parts of this tpe is required, the condition often desirable. With less critical assembly as the criterion, we will assume P{t2d can be perrrined a straighmess tolerance of .0L5 MMC exceeding the boundary of perfect form MMC. Show this requirement on Figue 2d.

85.

rwh is the virrual condition of part 2dandthus the minimum (also perrrissible boundary of cleaance of the hole of part 2e?

virual condition)

What is the straightness tolerance permissible with ttre pin (pan 2d) size

.6A0?

11.597?-

t7

86.

In Figrge ?, andthe responses to quesons 84 and 85, it is seen that the deviation from tolerance equal to the deparure MMC size resulted in from MMC.

(added/less)

8i.
88. 89.

Sraighmess tolerance is applicable only to cylindrical parts.

Tnre

False

A straighmess rolerance is normally specified in the drawing view in which the tolerance
applies.

True-

False

Name one rype of surface, other than cylindrical, upon which a straightness of surface . elemens could be

applied

90.

Suppose the circular cross sections of a cylindrical part (Figrue 3a, rear of book) are critical to a finer degree ttran the size tolerance would control. Wht type of form control Show the proper symbolic conuol on Figure 3 a using would be

used?

total olerance of .002.

gL.

Show below (sketch) how a tolerance zone would appea if the maximum dianer at at ctoss-section was .502.

l8

92.

which circularity olerancing can be qpecified on any part configruation (other than cylindricar) upon which circuin cross section. T\oofoical part conngruations lariry tolerurce may be specified are of circularity

is

93. Refening to Figures 3b and 3c, add to the parr illustrations the requirement
wfthin.001 totat.

94.

on the Figrue 3b and 3c parts' Show below (sketches) how the tolerance zones would appe

95.

Is adarum reference used with circularity olerarrcing? rerson fs this Erplain


Your

l9

96.

Assume rtrat composi surface control of the entire cylindrical surface of the part shown in Figure 3d is required- Add to Figure 3d ttre proper specicion to control the cylindrical surface within .001 total.

9'1.

Show below (srch) how the tolerance zone is developed- (Assume the ma:rimum produced size is-502 )

98. Is a daum eference required with cylin&icity tolerancing?


\ilhich
thee form tolerurce controls are included in composi in

cylindricity olerancing?

99.

Vee block analysis of critical circularity or cylindricity requirements must be wary of the and vee block angle effect of

pafi

100. More

rccrua analysis methods for decting circularity or cylindriciry requirements utilize techniqu which simule pan ris criteria; such as

methods.

101.

Parts which distort due to their weight or

flexibility or due to intemal stesses released in


parts and are subject

fabricion are known as

Where contol of this kind is necessary, any daturr and the features in control may require specifiorthe naximum cation of their allowable to drawing Olerance. of ttrem each force necessary

to

20

t02.

tolerancing is an effective method of controlling an irregular curve' is desied" profrle of a 1c, or other unusual pan surface contour Where total surface control conuol is used. where line element conuol is desired, profile of a control is used.

103. A profile toleiance is shown in the


profile appears.

of ttre drawing in which the desired

104.

The desired profile is dimensioned by

dimensions.
attd

105. Profrle of a surface conuol is normally a combination


control.

106. Profile of a line control

is normally used as a refinement of other controls.

of

LO7. The surface profile on Figure 4 (at rear of book) is to be connolled to a total of .010 A, B, and equalty dosed about the basic profile berween X and Y and relative datums C. Show this on the drawing.

2L

108.

Show by hand skerch below how the tolerance zone is dermined in the preceding example.

109.

Can aprofile of surface tolerance be modified to MMC?

Which of these statements suPPorts your answer?


(1) As the pan size varies,

ia form variation is affecd-

(2) Accuracy of the surface profile and its desied shape is normally not affected by Pan size vaiation.

110. Add to Figure 4 rht the profile line elements

shown in the plan (left) view ae to be maintained m a fine tolerance (of .003) than the total surface profile.

111.

The profile of any line toleran zone must be contained within the profite of any surface

control shown in Figure 4.

Tne

False

22

tLz.

part diamers o1:a9h end are to Referring to Figrue 5 ( rear of book), assume ttrat the within .002 total (FM) relive to mounr into bealngs and the other diamerers arc to be the part axis of rotationregardless of feanne size' tolerancingshouldbeused.ShowtherequirementsonFigure5. tolerance relas srrfaces surfaces may be or (perpendicular/tadiat)

113. A nrnout

of (cenraVcoaxial)

The condition (RFS/vf C)

These to a th the datum datum the to is always used in runout tolerancing'

lL4. A nnout tolerance establishes

ef sstrslling the funcdonal relationship of two r ryPe urd may be applied (complex/composite) is a tolerance of type This part more feares of a one of vo different t1ryes of nrnoul These two tyPes nrnouL nnout, and
a means

or

a-)

Total runout includes such form errors

Also,

when applied to surfaces constncted at right

ngles (or other) rc a danrm aris.

b.)

Circula nrnout includes such form errors at of the srrface when applied to surfaces consmcd and

as '

circular

right angles to a daom ris.

-'

l 15.

and Runout tolerance is considered as a unique category of geometrical dimensioning md tolerance but is u.tuJrv -tnui*tion tolerance controls.

- ,

116.

A darum

a,xis

for

siderable lengfh,

(cylinder) a nrnout tolerance may be established by a diamer wo diameters having a,xial separion' or a diameter and a which is at

of con-

angle to

it

23

L77. Referring

assume ttrat the left face of rhe part (left end of .700 dim) is to be the primary datum and the .4995 rlimg is to be the secondary datum and provide the a,ris of rotation. The pan mounts into a bearing. Specfy the datums with properprecedenceandthe .890 and1.030diamerswirhintotalrunoutof .001 with rcspect to the darum axis.

to

Figue 6 (at rear of book),

118.

Assume ttr ttre circular elements of the 45o angular surface of Figure 6 are required to be contolled in rotation within .0005 total. Add ttris requirement to Figure 6.

119.

If it

was desired that the.001 total runout on the .890 diamer w required only .150 from the right face of the 1.0300 diamer, how would this be indicad by

for

symbology? Add to figure 6.

L20. Referring to ttre .376 hole of Figure t held in perpendiculariry of .003 to danrm A

(see

question 65), whatis the virrual condition of the hole? The virnal condition of a feane is the size of the boundary that must be considered in dermining clearance between ming par or features.
Size + form, orientation or location error =

(shafrThole) (shaffiole)

vimral condition virrual condition

size

form, orientation or locaon error =

24

IOCANON TOI.ERNCING
Form' you have now successfully progressed ttEough the series of questions -9.-:**ples of time to ..sr your ability in using these orientation, profiIe and Rrurout torerance controls. Ir is now bic fundamentals as exnded to Location tolerance'
ise yoru knowtedge in selection

of

In addition, an emPhasis

lzl. Tolerances of locion involve the use of geometric characristics


and and 122. Locadon tolerances involve feanues a be must between two or more features. At least one of the featues feature.

of

L23. I-ocation
featues.

tolerances rela to

of

25

L24. Where function


The
tages.

,,and

or inrchangeability of ming part features is involve4 the principles of tolerancing may be ued. principle ensures interchangeabiJity and provides gea,test tolerance advan-

L25. Position olerancing is a method used to sPecify L26. A position tolerurce is the

the location of an of a featue in relationship to a danm reference or other feature.

perrrissible variation in the locion of a

feature about its desired or exrct (tue) posion.

Ln.

For cylindrical feanres (e.g. holes and bosses), the position tolerance is the of the feanue must lie. The of the tolerance zone within which the shape of the tolerance zone is specified wittl the symbol
(e.g. sloa and tabs) the position tolerance is the of the tolerance zone within which the center plane of the feature must lie. The shape of the tolerance zone is implied as lotal wide in the absence of the symbot and by the placement of the dimension line and

128. For noncylindrical features

in the desired direction.

129. Position

tolerance is a cumulive/non-cumulive (which?) of control in which each feanne reles to its own desired exrict (me) position

method

130. A position tolerance is based on the


as

it relas to the

size of the concerned feaure part feature. size of the mating

26

131. When position tolerance

on an MMC basis is applied to a feue, the tolerance on the as the acftal actually produced fearure (increases/deeases) ing size depans from MMC size. (at MMC) is ideally suid to multiple muing pan cylindrical fearues False
mosr support the answer to question 132.

mat-

L32. Posirion rolerance


apanern. True

in

133. Which rwo of the thee staments below

(1) (2) (3)

Position tolerancing recognizes the permissible vaiion of a cylindrical feane locion in 360o of movemenl Position tolerurcing is a more convenient way rela mating feanres than plus and minus coordina tolerancing. The position tolerance is developed directly from the relationship of the mating feanue

MMC

sizes.

134. In this drawing, what is the MMC

Specify on size of tl.250 holes? the drawing that ttre four .250 holes are to be loced within a positional tolerance of .010 diameter at MMC.

2t

135. On the figrre shown under


produced at.247?

question 134, what is the position tolerurce of the hole

if it is

at.253?
tolerance zones at

L36. On this layout of the part under question 134, skerch in the position
MMC
size of the hole and at

I{C size of the hole.

137. Dum

fearures or surfaces the basis for position relationships should

be-

on the drawing.

138.

On the below part, suppose that the upper surface on the front view is the mounting surface and the other two surfaces are important to ttre hole patrn positional tolerance, add three datums with precedence indicated.

.tso 1.005

.oto @

28

139.

preceding question as Make a skerch below showing the inrpretation of the paft under the bed uPon Your answer.

140. Now ren'n

hole to show to Figure 1 and revise ttre specifications on the .376

it located at

(venicl) and -940 (horizontal) basic dimensions'

29

l4l.

Assume th these rwo parts are ming paru with the fou holes in each to coincide so that fou.138 screws (floing fasners) will assemble. Calcula the position olerances and comple the position dimensioning and tolerancing on the npo pars. Disregard hole Pauern locion with reqpect to ouaide surfaces for this example; this will be taken up in succeeding exanples. However, select appropria primay (orientation) datum ferues the Part's correqponding inrface srrfaces.

4X . t5 I 1.003

30

with vo '1 142. These two pafs are ming Pfts, to be assembled fastenef" two dowel bosses and mating holes. This is a "fxed positio ttre come fixed in their location sembly. Calcula
position dimensioning ad tolerancing, in
toCing establishing thee

n the be-

the

danrms'
---------)

I
I

' -6q
lltR,#!) ?'15

?5

rnlS

< J25

:.33?

--:;fi'

i''@l{E]
2X . 138

-32

UNC-28

r.250
.?J--'

--=Jt

___J -- -J

t.400

r.

t30

I
I

I I

.600
.3

00

2X .

r48:'3?

.3501 .003

.zg!'onon

,oo G)

,416 (3t

L43. Unless otherwise specifie{


of the feanre.

the position tolerance zone exnds to thq

I44.

In the exarrple shown unde question 142, could the distribution of the position tolerance To suppon your a$wer, which on each part have been different? of the below staments is most appropria?

a-) Position tolerance

is calculed on the basis of relationship of size of the corresponding mating paft featres.
The total position tolerance calculad may be distributed as desired beveen the corresponding ming part featues.

b.)

145. Referring

to the "answer" illustration of question L42,whis ttre position toleance of the .L25 boss if produced at actual mating size of .L235?

The . 148 hole if produced ar .L51?

Why is the position rolerance of the .138 thrcaded hole different in this regard? Select most
appropria answer:

a)
146. As

b.)

Tped holes usually have close size tolerances. Tbe cenring effect of the inserd screw may negarc added tolerance due to size deviation from MMC.

in position tolerance principles, make an analysis of the part shown on the given nextpage, the following measurements from the specified danm surfaces and the hole sizes. Make the necessary calculations and plot (use doa) the results on the graph using the zero (0) point as ttre rre (exact) posion and origin for the X and Y differentials. Imagine the concentric circles as a transparcnt overlay chart of the sane scale as the graph and as applied after plouing the hole centers or shown as concentic circles on the FaptL. The graph scale is I square = .001 inch. Number the holes #1 (upper lefr),fit2 (lower ft), #3 (upper right), and #4 Qower righ.
an exercise

Measurement X Direction

Hole #1 Hole #2 Hole #3 Hole #4

.749

.752

2.746 2.7454

32

ft

C-TU

!>-.u--re -- I iC ? S = \gOr/S T"L, 4x .300:333 Fas, t oC tQ4 M\-t L .6.soe


.014
.013

-z-' {ouL a - f,,STLS-rr^,rC sz?:- ',30?

coc <L- Se-c-

J,

''

, O 1D --:d0 s---

'aaLS

.OtZ r.011
.010

.o1o @ A B c

HOLE NO., ACTUAL LOC., SIZE, POS., TOL


E

X= o.7q

Y=

Z.ztzJ

roL- .le -O 1cco.,.t-.rsrzE-

t#.7

,so :f

@ \= . 7-12

@ *=

@l (x)

, oo ft

l:t{g --:t-)
so

stzE-

@ X = Z,7rs/ Y= ' 7fS Z

srzE-

I47.
148.

From the analvsis made on the part shown under question 146, has hole #1 met the requirements? Has hole #2? What consideration was given to some holes to make the determination of question 147? Which is the most appropriate answer?

(1) (2)
r49.

All

holes in the pattern may shift together within the position tolerance assigned.

Actual hole size deparnre from MMC adds position tolerance for that hole equal to the the departure.

Is tlre part analyzed under questions 146 and 147 acceptable?

(a)

Using your calculator*, confrm your aswer to question 146 mathematicatly. Fill in the derived diametical (cytindrical) values calculad for each hole (show at least to the fifth decimal place). xlf no calculator is available to you, Hole #1 Hole #2 do the best you can with the tables, graphs, and calculation methods shown Hole #3 Hole #4 in your reference materials.) Using-ody your calculator*, dermine from the inspection results of another part (produced to the same drawing as shown under question 146) if the part is
acceptable.

(b)

Measurement

Hole
Size

Hole Hole Hole Hole

#1

Y Direction 2.248

.302

#2 #3 #4

.752 .746

)\.

.30t
.303 .303

FI in the derived diametrical (cylindrical) values calculad for each hole (show at least to the fifth decimal place)- Indicate at right acceptnce or rejection of each hole. (yes or no) Hole #1 Hole #3 Hole Hole #4

#2-

(c)

Is the part acceptable?

150.

Under the function and advantages of position tolerancing, what further determinations could be made? (Write an answer.)

151.

Has the part now met the position requirements in terms of the design specifications? Has it met the production requiremens within tolerance? Are the quality control or inspection requirements clearly
stated?

2.

Refecing to this figure, note that a featrre of size (a hole) has been used as a datm. The daun hote has been locad by position tolerance with its orientaion, orlrrpendiculariry, refined to a sser tolerance.
a)

b) c) d)
e)

s) h)

Whu is the daun hole position tolerance MMC size? Whu is the datum hole position tolerance LMC stz? Wh is the daum hole perpendicularity tolerance at MMC size? What is the daum hole perpendicularity tolerace LMC size? Wh is the . 380 hole position tolerance at MMC size? Wha is e virnal condition of the ' ,380 holes? Wh is the virnal condition of the daum D hole? Wh is the resulant condition of the -380 hole if profuccd to acual
matine sze of .382?

4x .380:'m8

o
1.75+.01

.o1o @

D@ B

2.75 !.O1

:560 !.OO5

.5oo:.913

o I
153. In the prcceding figu, if

.014 @

A B A

.0 @
D

the daam D feane is produced at acnal mating slzn, of,502, what Is this a positional tolerance strift of the hole panem (as a unit) exiss?

hole-ho added orance?

I54.

In the preceding figure, which dailms does the datrm D hole toca from? Which dauns does the .380 holes loca ke oieutation (squareness) from? : take orienution from?

35

155.

gage were desired to evaluate the locion of the datum D hole of the figure shown under question 152 which danms would be picked up and in what precedence? Would MMC be applicable to the daums? In the functional gage, what would the size of the gage pin be? \ryha would the gage pin size be for the perpendiculariry requirement? can also be used to evaluue the position of the .380 hole patrn under question 152. Add the nominal gage pin sizes to this illustation of apin gage. Disregad consideation of gage tolerances and the relionship to darui B for purposes of ttris question. Erplain how you derived the gage pin sizes. Gage pin size for .380 holes

If a functional

156. Functional gFng

How derived?
Gage pin size

for .500

daum

*Do'hole

How derived?

157.

RfS basis? position toleranced paern of feares be relad to an RFS daarm?


Show the feare control frame stffing this requirement here: This is based upon which rule?

Can position tolerancing be applied on an

Can an

MMC

158. If a nctional

gage similar to tbat shown under question 156 were to be use( but where in conrol remain on an MMC basis, wh difference would exist generally in ttre gage desig, and frnction? (Descdbe in words or by
the daum is on an RFS basis and the feaues skerch below.)

159.

Can functional gaging of ttre variety rlisstssed in questions 156 both datum and featrues in control are on an RFS basis?

though l5g be used whee

160.

position olerancing may be used on functional or assemblabiliry requirements of noncylinical feues. On this prtt, rp.ofy th the .501 slot is to be locad al tne position (at MMC) wittr respect to the 1.L20 width (at MMC) within -005 wide tolerance'

1.120 1.003

161.

Skerch below the parr shown unde question 160 (above) and show the positional tolerance

me.

37

L62. Posirion tolerancing may be applied

to relate noncylindrical featues of mating pans. Esta lish position tolerances on the mating pans shown below. Also calculate the ma:cimum permissible production tolerance that could be permitd on each part if its feanre and datum actual mating envelope sizes were both to depan from MMC size to LMC size.

PART #1

PART

+2

.503

*.9?

Total oleance at LMC size of

flatanddarum

Total olerance a LMC size of slot and =

danm

MMC Size SIot(Part#2) = MMC Size Fl (Pan *t = 1- MMC Size Daom Slot @an#Z) = MMC Size Danm Flat (Part#1) = (-)

NOTE: For the pu4)oses of this example andfor simpliciry of principles, geometrical tolerance benveen the danms A and B on both parts has not been made a pan of the calculations. If you wish to
corsider ttris additionally an optional exercise, add here an explanation of the steps necessfy:

38

t63.

Posirion tolerancing may be used on mctional or assemblability requirements of coaxial features. On this parl specify that the .305 fearre is to be locad at tne position (at MMC) wittr respect to the .500 featrre (at MMC) within .003 tolerance zone.

.305 t.o01

1&. Sketch below the parrshown rnder quesion 163 and show the positional tolerance zone.

39

L65. Position olerancing may be applied to rela coa,xial

features of mating parrs. Establish

position tolerances on the rnating parts shown below. Also calculate the ftximum perrrissible production tolerance that could be permitd on each part if its feanlre and datum rctual mating envelope sizes were bottr to depart from MMC size to LMC size.

PART

PART

+2

.6r4:'333

1.300

t .oos

.75'l:33
.sto1.881

ln-.r'ul:BB

.7

4s::33

Total tolerance at LMC size of hole and =

datum

Total tolerance IfC size of

shaftanddanm

MMC Size Hole (Part*t = MMC Size Shaft (Paf2)

(-)

MMC Size Datum Hole @art #1) MMC Size Danm Shaft (Part f2)

= (-)

NOTE: For the purposes of this example and for simplicity of principleS, geometrical tolerance between the dums A and B on both parts has not been made a part of the calculations. If you wish to
consider this additionally as an optional exercise, add here an explanation of the steps necessrrry:

40

166. Where erors of form

and location are considered on the basis of displacement of axis of two Establish or more basically coaxial feaes, which control is used? that part Assume below. necessary danms and comple the featue control frame for the ttre nvo diamers (.605 and .500) are to establish ttre a:cis of rotation of ttre part with ttre 1.000 diamerrelative to that atds,

within .003 tolerance, RFS.

1.000 1.005

.605 t.OOl .soo


167. Using conventional FIM methods of evaluion, if

t.ool

the pan checked at .003 FIM, has it met the concentricity requirement? Which of the answers below is most logicat? (1) Yes, if the surface of rotation has been sufciently sampled for mcimum error. No, because the axis of the feature has not been dermined.

Q)

168. If ttre pan error

exceeds the stated tolerance when the FIM method is use{ does this mean ttre pan has not met the concentricity requirement? Which statement supports yolr nswer most approprialy?

(1)

'

Q)

The surface may be out-of-circularity, erc., which will influence the reading, but does not conclusively prove center (axis) dlacement or eror. Concentricity is a variety of locational tolerance control, and the resultant error detected must compared to the cylindrical tolerance zone.
should be con-

169. Before a concentricity olerance is specifred, which other chaacristics


sidered first

if possible?

Which statement suppsrts your answer most appropriately?

(1)

Concenricity requirements ate encountered less frequently.

Q) MMC methods or conventional surface criria controls are more readily producible
and economical.

4l

170.

Skeh below the part shown under question 166 and show the concentricity tolerance zone ard a representation as to how an acnrally produced dia. would be dermined if in compliance witt the requirement or DoL

l7l.

Specfy th ttre .501 widttr of ttris symmetrical part is to be locad using with reqpect to the 1.120 widttr wirhin .005 wide total tolerance, RFS.

a syrnmetry tolerance

1.120

.OO3

+.003

42

L72-

Skerch below ttre part shown under question 171, and show ttre symmetry tolerance zone and a representation as to how an actually produced slot would be dermined if in compliance with the requirement or not.

173. If this part had been indicad as a positional


ing be? Explain briefly.

tolerance, RFS, wh would the difference in mean

L74.

Dum targets have been panially shown on the part on ttre followingpage. Noting the feaore connol frames and their specified datums, select ttre tagets which appropriely oonstruct these designated datum planes. Then comple the danrm uget symbols and identify the targets according to your own selection.

7X.138

- 32 UNC -

28

174.

.020 is used for the relar.ionship of the patt.ern relative o the exErernity datum references, 9u!e! A,B,C. A refinement of .0I0 t.olerance in the pattern reLacive Eo datum D is used.

175. In the space below design or srch


tfgets.

your own pan using datum Egets. Use a part similar to one from your own experience or esablish an imaginary one. Establish the dum rgets' danm planes, and show some feanre relationships (e.g. hole pattern) with respect to the

176.

On the below part, add or modify with the necessary symbology to indicate that the tolerance zone is projected above the part for .310.

4X.190-32

45

I77.

On the following casting, establish ttre datum planes for the parallelism and positional control relationships by dahrms and datum targets from the part surfaces. Select your own target locations as seems appropriate. Add any necessary views to show your requirements. Show the target locations using proper methodology but disregard determining the values; or, if you wish, insert hypothetical values.

8X .164 - 32

46

17g.

pattems On the following part (shown twice) select the best methods to control the five hole possibiliof number (.430 ,o,d.z}iiroles) relarive to the danm feattues D and E. There are a frames to ties but make your choice by adding in the appropriate modifiers in the feature control best achieve the following:

(virnral Add material condition modifiers to relate to the danm features D and E on a functional condition) basis on the following figure.

l.oos ( lA lB lc

47

179.

lition indication to relate to the datum features . also ensure closer compatibility between
ethods.

2X .250+'0^0-?

.o+'90-!

4x .205+'991

48

lg0.

diameter at Indica on the below part that the 4 holes are located at tne position within .010 from LMC with respect to dnm A (the bottom face of the part). Disregard the pattern location the outside edges for purposes of this example'

4X .151 +.003

49

FOR NOTES OR CALCULATIONS

50

ure Proper inrface. Make the necessary determinacalculations and complete the drawings below'

6X.190 - 32 UNF - 28 .550 t.OtS

\f

6x .210:'.33;

fr,
.7gg 1.005

51

(NOTE: Question 182 is optional for those inrested in gagrng).

182.

Design (skeh) a functional gage for the small part (one with clearance holes), to verify the inthe-paern location controls only, as developed under question 181. You need only develop the nominal gage sizes, but show the gage constnction as based upon your answer to question 181.

52

183.

From the below drawing (similar to one under Questions 181, 182) and given information, determine whether a produced part with the following measured results is acceptable to the positional .010 at MMC requirement. Hole #1, the lower left hole, has been used as the origin of the X and Y meastuements; the pattem has been squared-up with hole #3. The remaining holes, 2,4,5 and 6 have been measured from holes I and 3. Use the graphic analysis aper gaging) method. Graph paper and tracing paper with overlay circles to the graPh Paper scale, are suppled. Use a scale of .001 equals 2 squares. (See pages 57 and 55).

squue-uP

origrn

Hole Hole 2 Hole 3


1

inX
0

inY
0

(- ) .004
0 1

Actual hole size T

!,1+925

/.2!z

HoIe 4 oJ.e ) HoIe 6

.003

L.0032 .995
e 2 2 e
e

2,996 ( - ). ooo5 1 .4898 2,9947


No

f .ztz5

l.zt3
l.zt35
Persrissible position tol on hole

/.ztz

fs hole #t Is hole #2

Yes

good good Tq hole #3 good Is hole #4 good. Is hole fr> good

Is hole

#6 good.

Is the part good ?

53

-FOR NOTES OR CALCULATIONS

54

55

FOR NOTES OR CALCULATTONS

56

REH0lfB

FR,@fl EOO'K

FOi

USE 0N QIJESTIONS

(For use on Questlons lg3 & lg6 )

o.35o.33 o.3 I
o.29
oi,27

o,25

0.32

o.30 o.2a o.26

0.0 5
(

Datun Bonus Tot

Questlon

186 )

5?

184. Veri$ yoru answer to question

183 mathematically

with a computer or Programmed calculator.

Determine the smallest circle (tolerance zone) which will encompass all the measured hole centers (axes) simultaneously. Disregard the hole sizes (assume them RFS) for the initial calculation but consider their sizes as necessary (i.e. departure from MMC as bonus tolerance) in your final derminations to verify the question 183 gaPhic analysisThe smallest circle (tolerance zone) sizn, is: position of all 6 holes (centroid) is in X:
'With (For information, optimum
and

inY:

reference to the above answer, write in your own words how you dermined the part acceptable (or not) from your calculated results.

185.

Verify your answer to question 183 mathematically with a computer or programmed calculator. Determine the smallest circle (tolerance zone) which will encompass all the measured hole centers (a,xes), including the holes size departure from MMC (bonus tolerance), in your calculations. The result of this calculation should give a diect answer as to the accePtance of all the holes or noL
The smallest circle (tolerance zone) size, compensating for the MMC deparflue @onus tolerance) . (For information, optimum position of all 6 holes on all individual holes, is: @ (cenroid) is in: and

X:

in

With reference to the above answer, wri in your own words how you dermined the part acceptable (or not) from yotu calculated results.

59

186.

From the below data given from an inspection process (i.e. coordinate measuring) on this part, determine if it has met the positional tolerance requirements on the .380 holes and the pattern relationship to the .5N dam hole. Use graphic (paper gagmg) methods. (Graph paper and overlay .010, etc. supplied). Use scale .001=2 squares. (Use page 57 overlay). +.003 4X .38O _.ooo

e .010 6i

A D \il) B

1.75

t.01

.560 +.005

2.75 t.O1

.500+'991

Hole

inX
.9948 .994
.9953

inY
.3715

I
2 J

Actual Hole size .382


.3825 .382s .383 .502

.377r
.3726 .376/. 0

Danrm

.9945 0

Has the part met the .380 hole to hole requirements relative to the tnre position of each hole? Has the .380 four-hole pattern met its requirement relative to the datum D .500 hole?

60

t9
i-'r- i--l -'i--i-;--l--l-

r-ri;;-i *i--, :-f-.:f-r


_-;_--r--_1--iF----t__-

+-++-+'-:-r-l ri I t I i'

1..' !...;-+-.---:.--i:-j-+-i -.:'-*i; -..:..:...i-...-:-;-i-r-: J-.: : : l-:+-i.i..,---:*--;---.--;.-:-.. :, ,t;::':::l;l:: I::: _:_.:_...,_-...,__'_ .......r_i_r:i__:_i -__;_ :- : _:_ ; ., . I _.1 -

j.-L;:-!:-..:l-.

., .

i---r;-----] -a-j-t--.-rr-t_l_i.ri;J+_.1_

-r-i ,--:-lLl ll_.i-l -r;:_l

- FOR NOTES

OR CALCTILATTONS

62

tg?.

From ttre data given under question 186, verify your answer to question 186 mathematically with a computer or programmed calculator.

63

- FOR NOTES

OR CALCULATIONS

64

FIGURES

Figures 1 through 6 may be removed for convenience in doing the workshop exercises.

65

66

FIGITRES
in doing work on the related Figrues 1 through 6 may be removed if desired for convenience quesdons.

.376

+.002

t'(L
h-4-t

/-

//-

+
\

1.500 +.005

tr@

t
B

tFt
1.610

^(r\-r E ,rr -i-o .bt ^

t.005

/ , oil 2 r- nt

W,*zW

.500

r.005

Fig.rre

67

68

.eoo_';;;

,goo3

/. org

.oool'!fo.

\
Figun 2

(VIRTUAL CONDITION)-)

69

'10

.500

t .005

.soo t.oo3
(dl
Figurc 3

7l

1a

1.0300

t .0005

.Asss

r
Flgure 6

73