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CHAPTER VII CONCLUSIONS


7.1 CONCLUSIONS OF PRESENT WORK Considering the need for alternate fuels, the experimental investigations are carried out in the present work in order to run the existing diesel engines with non-edible vegetable oils. For this purpose five different non-edible vegetable oils and their blends Viz; Linseed oil, Castor oil, Palm Stearin oil, Mahua oil and Neem oils are tried in a popular petter type, 4 stroke water cooled diesel engine. Physical and chemical properties of the above mentioned oils were determined. The performance and emission parameters of five chosen neat oils and their blends were evaluated. These results are compared to those of diesel. Thus their suitability as an alternative fuel is examined. These results are also compared to the other neat vegetable oils available in the literature for validation. All the oils are esterified i.e. converted into their respective methyl Esters (bio-diesel) using methanol, NaOH as catalyst. The important properties of five respective Methyl Esters oils are determined. The Performance and Emission parameters of Biodiesels are evaluated and compared to those of Diesel. Later these results of Bio-diesel are compared to those of Methyl Esters available in the literature for validation. Thus better performing Bio-diesel among them is selected. The detailed conclusions drawn from the present investigations are discussed in the corresponding chapters 5 & 6. Some of the important conclusions are as follows:

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Performance parameters of engine such as Brake thermal efficiency, Volumetric efficiency are decreased, Brake specific fuel consumption and Exhaust gas temperature are increased for all neat oils and their blends compared to those of diesel. This is because of high viscosity coupled with lower heating value of the fuels. Emission parameters of engine such as CO, CO2, UHC and Smoke are increased for all neat oils and their blends compared to Diesel. This is due to lower calorific value and high viscosity coupled with density of the fuels chosen. Brake Thermal Efficiency for MEMA, MECaO, MEPS, MENM and MELS oils is reduced by 24.73%, 20.10%, 26.65%, 20.07% and 31.31% respectively compared to diesel at the rated load. This is because of lower Calorific value and higher viscosity coupled with density of the fuel. Brake Specific Fuel Consumption for MEMA, MECaO, MEPS, MENM and MELS oils is increased by 19.06%, 35.71%, 40.47%, 33.33% and 45.23% respectively compared to diesel at rated load and is result of delay in ignition process.
At rated load, Exhaust gas Temperature for MEMA, MECaO, MEPS,

MENM and MELS oils is increased by 6.25%, 4.16%, 5.20%, 8.33% and 4.16% respectively compared to diesel.

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Volumetric Efficiency for MEMA, MECaO, MEPS, MENM and MELS oils is higher compared to diesel and neat oils. A lower exhaust temperature
leads to a higher volumetric efficiency. This is because, the temperature of

the retained exhaust gases will be higher when the exhaust gas temperature rises. A high-retained exhaust gas temperature will heat the incoming fresh air and lowers the Volumetric efficiency. CO Emission for MEMA, MECaO, MEPS, MENM and MELS oils is reduced by 48.71%, 80.60%, 78.78%, 59.09% and 80.20 respectively compared to diesel at the rated load. This is due to complete combustion of the fuel. Un-burnt hydrocarbons for MEMA, MECaO, MEPS, MENM and MELS oils are reduced by 35.13%, 66.21%, 32.43%, 39.18% and 35.13% compared to diesel at the rated load. This is because of the excess oxygen present in the bio-diesel. NOx Emission for MEMA, MECaO, MEPS, MENM and MELS oils is increased by 28.39%, 29.31%, 80%, 64%, and 56% respectively compared to diesel at the rated load. The reason for this trend is the availability combustion. Smoke Emission for MEMA, MECaO, MEPS, MENM and MELS oils is reduced by 51.80%, 39.75%, 24%, 3.61% and 36.14% respectively compared to diesel at the rated load. This is the result of complete of excess oxygen in bio-diesel, resulting complete

combustion of fuel and low aromatics in the biodiesel mixture.

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Brake thermal efficiency of the engine is slightly decreased for Methyl Esters of oils compared to diesel and slightly improved compared to Neat vegetable oils used at all loads . Emission parameters of engine such as CO,CO2,UHC and smoke for Methyl Esters of all respective oils are decreased compared to diesel, but NOx is increased at all loads. This is the result of complete combustion of the fuel. Neat oils of Mahua, Castor, Palm Stearin, Linseed and Neem oils are substituted as alternative to diesel with pre heating before entering into combustion chamber except for 25% blend of all respective oils. Methyl Esters produced from Mahua, Castor, Palm Stearin, Linseed and Neem oils are proved technically feasible and used as alternative to diesel. Methyl Esters of Mahua, Castor, Palm Stearin, Linseed oils are cheaper. But Methyl Ester of Neem oil is costlier compared to diesel at present.

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7.2.

SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK

Investigations are to be carried out on different blends of esters with diesel to determine better performing blends. Investigations have to be carried out on combustion characteristics. Investigations are to be carried out on emission characteristics. These investigations have to be carried out in high speed automobile multi cylinder engines.

Endurance tests like 500 hours or more running are to be carried out.

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Fuel, Volume 87, Issues 15-16, November (2008), PP: 3161-3169.

[91] Ali Keskin, Metin Gr, and Duran Altparmak,

Influence of tall oil

biodiesel with Mg and Mo based fuel additives on diesel engine performance and emission,

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Bioresource Technology ,Volume 99, Issue 14, September 2008, PP: 6434643.

[92] Ming Zheng, Mwila C. Mulenga, Graham T. Reader, Meiping Wang, David S-K. Ting and Jimi Tjong, Biodiesel engine performance and

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[93] Magn Lapuerta , Jos Rodrguez-Fernndez and John R. Agudelo,Diesel particulate emissions from used cooking oil biodiesel,

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Bioresource Technology, Volume 99, Issue 4, March (2008), PP: 731-740.

[94]

Zafer Utlu

and Mevlt Sreyya Koak, The effect of biodiesel fuel

obtained from waste frying oil on direct injection diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions,

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Renewable Energy , Volume 33, Issue 8, August (2008), PP: 1936-1941.

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[95] H. Raheman, biodiesel at

S.V. Ghadge, Performance varying compression ratio

of diesel engine with and ignition timing,

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[96] Can Haimolu, Murat Ciniviz , brahim zsert , Yakup ingr, Adnan Parlakand M. Sahir Salman ,Performance characteristics of a low heat rejection diesel engine operating with biodiesel,

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[97] Ali Keskin, Metin Gr, Duran Altiparmak and Kadir Aydin,Using of cotton oil soapstock biodieseldiesel fuel blends as an alternative diesel fuel,

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[98] K. Sureshkumar, R. Velraj and R. Ganesan ,Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of a CI engine fueled with Pongamia pinnata methyl ester (PPME) and its blends with diesel,

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[99] N.R. Banapurmath , P.G. Tewari and R.S. Hosmath ,Performance and emission characteristics of a DI compression ignition engine operated on Honge, Jatropha and sesame oil methyl esters,

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Deepak Agarwal, Lokesh Kumar, Avinash Kumar Agarwal, "Performance Evaluation of a Vegetable Oil Fuelled Compression Ignition Engine', Renewable Energy, Vol. 33, No. 6, June (2008), PP: 1147-1156.

[101]Makame Mbarawa, Performance, emission and economic assessment of clove stem oildiesel blended fuels as alternative fuels for diesel engines,

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[102] C.D. Rakopoulos, D.C. Rakopoulos, D.T. Hountalas, E.G. Giakoumis and E.C. Andritsakis , Performance and emissions of bus engine using blends of diesel fuel with bio-diesel of sunflower or cottonseed oils derived from Greek feedstock,

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[103] S. Murugan, , M.C. Ramaswamy and G. Nagarajan , Performance, emission and combustion studies of a DI diesel engine using Distilled Tyre pyrolysis oil-diesel blends,

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Appendix-I
Engine Specifications: Product: Engine test setup 1 cylinder, 4 stroke, Diesel (Computerized) Product code: 224 Engine: Make Kirloskar, Model TV1, Type 1 cylinder, 4 stroke Diesel, water cooled, power 5.2 kW at 1500 rpm, stroke 110 mm, bore 87.5 mm. 661 cc, CR 17.5 Dynamometer: Type eddy current, water cooled, with loading unit

242

Propeller shaft With universal joints Air box: M S fabricated with orifice meter and manometer Fuel tank: Capacity 15 lit with glass fuel metering column Calorimeter: Type Pipe in pipe Piezo sensor: Range 5000 PSI, with low noise cable Crank angle sensor: Resolution 1 Deg, Speed 5500 RPM with TDC pulse. Engine indicator: Input Piezo sensor, crank angle sensor, No of channels 2, Communication RS232. Engine interface: Input RTDs, Thermocouples, Air flow, Fuel flow, Load cell, Output 0-5V, No of channels 8. Temperature sensor: Type RTD, PT100 and Thermocouple, Type K Load sensor: Load cell, type strain gauge, range 0-50 Kg Fuel flow transmitter: DP transmitter, Range 0-500 mm WC Rota meter: Engine cooling 40-400 LPH; Calorimeter 10-100 LPH Pump: Type Monoblock Add on card: Resolution12 bit, 8/16 input, Mounting PCI slot Software: Engine soft Engine performance analysis software Overall dimensions: W 2000 x D 2500 x H 1500 mm Optional: Computerized Diesel injection pressure measurement

243

APPENDIX- II

Uncertainty analysis for 5 gas analyzer:

Emission Displayed Data parameter CO CO2 UHC NOx Smoke 0-15% 0-20% 0- 30,000 ppm 0-5000 ppm 0- 9.99 BSU

Measurement of resolution

0.11% 0.01% 1 ppm 1 ppm 0.1 BSU

244

Emission Measurement Accuracy parameter CO 0.00 to 10.00% 10.01 to 15.00% CO2 0.00 to 16.00% 16.01 to 20.00% UHC 0 to 2000 ppm 2001 to 15.000 15001 to 30,000 NOx 0 to 4000 ppm- (+/_ 0.02 abs / +/_ 3% rel) ( +/_ 0.3 abs / +/_ 3 % rel) - (+/_ 0.3 abs / +/_ 3% rel) ( +/_ 5% abs rel) - (+/_ 4 ppm / +/_ 3% rel) ( +/_ 5% rel) ( +/_ 8% rel) (+/_ 25 ppm abs / +/_ 3% rel)

4000 to 5000 ppm ( +/_ 5 % rel) Smoke 0- 9.99 (+/_ 0.25% rel)