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Introduction to Antennas

In the 1890s, there were only a few antennas in the world. These rudimentary devices were primarly a part of experiments that demonstrated the transmission of electromagnetic waves. By World War II, antennas had become so ubiquitous that their use had transformed the lives of the average person via radio and television reception. The number of antennas in the United States was on the order of one per household, representing growth rivaling the auto industry during the same period. By the early 21st century, thanks in large part to mobile phones, the average person now carries one or more antennas on them wherever they go (cell phones can have multiple antennas, if GPS is used, for instance). This significant rate of growth is not likely to slow, as wireless communication systems become a larger part of everyday life. In addition, the strong growth in RFID devices suggests that the number of antennas in use may increase to one antenna per object in the world (product, container, pet, banana, toy, cd, etc.). This number would dwarf the number of antennas in use today. Hence, learning a little (or a large amount) about of antennas couldn't hurt, and will contribute to one's overall understanding of the modern world.

Antenna Fundamentals
Let's get right down to the study of antennas and Antenna Basics. Suppose one day you're walking down the street and a kind but impatient person runs up and asks you to design an antenna for them. "Sure", you quickly reply, adding "what is the desired frequency, gain, bandwidth, impedance, and polarization?" Or perhaps you have never heard of (or are a little rusty) on the above parameters. Well then, you've come to the right place. Before we can design an antenna or discuss antenna types, we must understand the basics of antennas, which are the fundamental parameters that characterize an antenna. So let us learn something. We'll start with frequency and step through radiation patterns, directivity and gain, and ultimately close with an explanation on why antennas radiate. Jump ahead if this is already familiar to you.

Frequency is one of the most important concepts in the universe and to antenna theory, which we will see. But fortunately, it isn't too complicated.

Beginner Level (or preliminaries):

Antennas function by transmitting or receiving electromagnetic (EM) waves. Examples of these electromagnetic waves include the light from the sun and the waves received by your cell phone or radio. Your eyes are basically "receiving antennas" that pick up electromagnetic waves that are of a particular frequency.

The colors that you see (red, green, blue) are each waves of different frequencies that your eyes can detect.

All electromagnetic waves propagate at the same speed in air or in space. This speed (the speed of light) is roughly 671 million miles per hour (1 billion kilometers per hour). This is roughly a million times faster than the speed of sound (which is about 761 miles per hour at sea level). The speed of light will be denoted as c in the equations that follow. We like to use "SI" units in science (length measured in meters,time in seconds,mass in kilograms), so we will forever remember that:

Before defining frequency, we must define what a "electromagnetic wave" is. This is an electric field that travels away from some source (an antenna, the sun, a radio tower, whatever). A traveling electric field has an associated magnetic field with it, and the two make up an electromagnetic wave. The universe allows these waves to take any shape. The most important shape though is the sinusoidal wave, which is plotted in Figure 1. EM waves vary with space (position) and time. The spatial variation is given in Figure 1, and the the temporal (time) variation is given in Figure 2.

Figure 1. A Sinusoidal Wave plotted as a function of position.

Figure 2. A Sinusoidal Wave plotted as a function of time.

The wave is periodic, it repeats itself every T seconds. Plotted as a function in space, it repeats itself every meters, which we will call the wavelength. The frequency (written f ) is simply the number of complete cycles the wave completes (viewed as a function of time) in one second (two hundred cycles per second is written 200 Hz, or 200 "Hertz"). Mathematically this is written as:

How fast someone walks depends on the size of the steps they take (the wavelength) multipled by the rate at which they take steps (the frequency). The speed that the waves travel is how fast the waves are oscillating in time (f ) multiplied by the size of the step the waves are taken per period (

). The equation that relates frequency, wavelength and the speed of light can be tattooed on your forehead:

Basically, the frequency is just a measure of how fast the wave is oscillating. And since all EM waves travel at the same speed, the faster it oscillates the shorter the wavelength. And a longer wavelength implies a slower frequency. This may sound stupid, and actually it probably should. When I was young I remember scientists discussing frequency and I could never see why it mattered. But it is of fundamental importance, as will be explained in the "more advanced" section on frequency.

The Dipole Antenna

In this section, the dipole antenna with a very thin radius is considered. The dipole antenna is similar to the short dipole except it is not required to be small compared to the wavelength (at the frequency the antenna is operating at). For a dipole antenna of length L oriented along the z-axis and centered at z=0, the current flows in the z-direction with amplitude which closely follows the following function:

Note that this current is also oscillating in time sinusoidally at frequency f. The current distributions for the quarter-wavelength (left) and full-wavelength (right) dipole antennas are given in Figure 1. Note that the peak value of the current is not reached along the dipole unless the length is greater than half a wavelength.

Figure 1. Current distributions on finite-length dipole antennas. Before examining the fields radiated by a dipole antenna, consider the input impedance of a dipole as a function of its length, plotted in Figure 2 below. Note that the input impedance is specified as Z=R + jX, where R is the resistance and X is the reactance.

Figure 2. Input impedance as a function of the length (L) of a dipole antenna. Note that for very small dipole antennas, the input impedance is capacitive, which means the impedance is dominated by a negative reactance value (and a relatively small real impedance or resistance). As the dipole gets larger, the input resistance increases, along with the reactance. At slightly less than 0.5 the antenna has zero imaginary component to the impedance (reactance X=0), and the antenna is said to be resonant. If the dipole antenna's length becomes close to one wavelength, the input impedance becomes infinite. This wild change in input impedance can be understood by studying high frequency transmission line theory. As a simpler explanation, consider the one wavelength dipole shown in Figure 1. If a voltage is applied to the terminals on the right antenna in Figure 1, the current distribution will be as shown. Since the current at the terminals is zero, the input impedance

(given by Z=V/I) will necessarily be infinite. Consequently, infinite impedance occurs whenever the dipole antenna is an integer multiple of a wavelength. In the next section, we'll consider the radiation pattern of dipole antennas.
Radiation Patterns for Dipole Antennas

The far-fields from a dipole antenna of length L are given by:

The normalized radiation patterns for dipole antennas of various lengths are shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3. Normalized radiation patterns for dipole antennas of specified length.

The full-wavelength dipole antenna is more directional than the shorter quarterwavelength dipole antenna. This is a typical result in antenna theory: it takes a larger antenna in general to increase directivity. However, the results are not always obvious. The 1.5-wavelength dipole pattern is also plotted in Figure 3. Note that this pattern is maximum at approximately +45 and -45 degrees. The dipole antenna is symmetric when viewed azimuthally; as a result the radiation pattern is not a function of the azimuthal angle . Hence, the dipole antenna is an example of an omnidirectional antenna. Further, the E-field only has one vector component and consequently the fields are linearly polarized. When viewed in the x-y plane (for a dipole oriented along the z-axis), the E-field is in the -y direction, and consequently the dipole antenna is vertically polarized. The 3D pattern for the 1-wavelength dipole antenna is shown in Figure 4. This pattern is similar to the pattern for the quarter- and half-wave dipole antenna.

Figure 4. Normalized 3d radiation pattern for the 1-wavelength dipole antenna. The 3D radiation pattern for the 1.5-wavelength dipole antenna is significantly different, and is shown in Figure 5.

Figure 5. Normalized 3d radiation pattern for the 1.5-wavelength dipole antenna. The (peak) directivity of the dipole antenna varies as shown in Figure 6.

Figure 6. Dipole Antenna directivity as a function of dipole length. Figure 6 indicates that up until approximately L=1.25 the directivity increases with length. However, for longer lengths the directivity has an upward trend but is no longer monotonic. In the next section, we'll look at the most common dipole antenna, the half-wave dipole antenna.

Bentuk dan Jenis Antena. Alat yang digunakan untuk menambahkan daya pancar dari sinyal analog.Dan akan menyebarkan daya pancar melalui suatu medium udara. Antenamengkonversi gelombang elektrik menjadi gelombang elektromagnetik.Kekuatan antena untuk menerima atau mengirim sinyal dikenal sebagaigain/penguatan antena.Sedangkan satuan untuk mengukur penguatanantena adalah dBi. Macam- Macam Antena Terbagi Menjadi 2 Bagian Yaitu: -Antena Directional (Antena Pengarah) Jenis antena ini digunakan pada sisi client dan mempunyai gain yangsangat tinggi yang diarahkan ke Access Point. Atau istilah yang kitaketahui jenis antena ini disebut antena narrow bandwidth, yaitu punyasudut pemancaran yang kecil dengan daya lebih terarah, jaraknya jauhdan tidak bisa menjangkau area yang luas, antena directional mengirimdan menerima sinyal radio hanya pada satu

arah, umumnya pada fokusyang sangat sempit, dan biasanya digunakan untuk koneksi point topoint, atau multiple point, macam antena direktional seperti antena grid, dish parabolic, yagi, dan antena sectoral. Contoh yang biasa digunakan dari jenis antena ini yaitu :