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Sultan Qaboos University

College of Education
ILT Department

Comparative and non-Comparative


Done by:
Khadeeja Al-Shidhani 61344
Amal Al-Balushi 66755
Comparative Analysis of Learner Satisfaction and Learning Outcomes in Online
and Face-to-Face Learning Environments

Scottd. Johnson, Steven R. Aragon, Najmuddin Shaik, & Nilda Palma-Rivas

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Research Type:
Perception and performance study.

Research Purpose:
The purpose of this study was to compare an online course with an equivalent
course taught in a traditional face-to-face format. Comparisons included student ratings
of instructor and course quality; assessment of course interaction, structure, and support;
and learning outcomes such as course projects, grades, and student self-assessment of
their ability to perform various ISD tasks.

Research Questions:
1. What differences exist in satisfaction with the learning experience of
students enrolled in online versus face-to-face learning environments?
2. What differences exist in student perceptions of student/instructor
interaction, course structure, and course support between students enrolled
in online versus face-to-face learning environments?
3. What differences exist in the learning outcomes (i.e., perceived content
knowledge, quality of course projects, and final course grades) of students
enrolled in online versus face-to-face learning environments?

The subject of this study includes 38 students enrolled in an instructional design
course. 19 students were taught face-to-face while the other 19 students were taught

• The university’s Instructor and Course Evaluation System (ICES) was
used to obtain general student perceptions of the quality of their learning
• The Course Interaction, Structure, and Support (CISS) instrument which
is a hybrid instrument from:
o The Distance and Open Learning Scale (DOLES) instrument
which used to assess student perceptions of their learning
o The Dimensions of Distance Education (DDE) instrument which
provides a further assessment of the learning environment.

• More than one instrument was used to collect data.

• Only tools for quantitative analysis were used without using of any type of
qualitative analysis tools.

1. Student Satisfaction: On the student satisfaction indicators, instructor
quality and course quality, both groups provided positive ratings, although
the face-to-face group displayed more positive views than the online
2. Perceptions of course interaction, structure and support: Overall, both
groups of students had positive perceptions, with the face-to-face students
having significantly more positive views for interaction and support.
3. Learning Outcomes (Course grades):
Course Course Grade
Format A % B % C % I %
Face-to-Face 19 13 68% 2 11% 2 11% 2 11%
Online 19 13 68% 1 6% 2 11% 3 16%
Total 38 26 68% 3 8% 4 11% 5 13%
• http://www.editlib.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=Reader.ViewFullText&paper
Evaluation of the development of metacognitive knowledge supported by the
knowcat system

Manoli Pifarre´ . Ruth Cobos

Association for Educational Communications and Technology 2009

Research type:
The aim of this Research:
was to examine the development of the metacognitive knowledge of a group of higher
education students who participated actively in an experiment based on a Computer
Supported Collaborative Learning environment called KnowCat.

Research methodology

Eighteen university students participated in the research.
The interviewer asked students to describe their learning processes
and contextual interpretations of their interactions to the content of
the two main KnowCat knowledge elements: interactions with the
documents (access to others’ documents and document versions) and
interactions with the notes (sent and received notes).

The researchers have used interviews as the only tool for qualitative
evaluation, without any quantitative evaluation tool.
Research results:

The interview data show that interactions of students with their

classmates’ documents encourage them to compare their own
cognitive strategies to solve the task with the others’.
Results also show that students are aware of how the characteristics of
the KnowCat educational process had a strong incidence in their
cognition-metacognitive knowledge of task and context category.
Results revealed a high level of awareness that students received
through note contribution as it proved to be a unique opportunity to
monitor and regulate their cognitive strategies to solve the task.
These results show evidence that the KnowCat note knowledge
element was helpful in assisting students develop constituent
components of metacognition i.e., planning, monitoring, evaluating
and revising their learning activities to solve the tasks efficiently.

Reference: http://www.springerlink.com/content/87v06t9523380k72/