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Difference between Indefinite and Definite Articles Indefinite or Definite Articles The indefinite article a or an is used when we are

not referring to a specific noun. The definite article the is used when we are referring to a particular or specific noun. Example The maid is ironing a dress. Explanation The listener or reader does not know which dress the maid is ironing. It is not any special or specific dress. The reference to the dress is more specific. The listener or the reader knows exactly which dress the maid is ironing. It is the dress that was bought yesterday.

The maid is ironing the dress I bought yesterday.

Fill in the blanks with a, an or the. 1. The young couple has been looking for _____________ house to rent. _____________ house must have at least three bedrooms. 2. ___________ public toilets at this hillside resort are in deplorable condition. None of ___________ toilets are in working order. _____________ authorities should do something about them. 3. ___________ famous Hollywood celebrity is coming to Kuala Lumpur soon. It is rumoured that ___________ celebrity might be Denzel Washington. 4. It is not easy to find ___________ job these days. You should be thankful for ____________ one that you have.

5. The manager is shocked that one of his staff could have made such ___________ enormous mistake. ____________ mistake caused the company to suffer a loss of ten thousand ringgit. 6. I do not have ___________ plastic bag to put these wet clothes in. Can you let me have __________ one that you are holding in your hand? 7. Isabelle has been invited to ____________ wedding dinner. ___________ dinner is going to be held in the Grand Ballroom of the Renaissance Hotel. 8. ___________ fire damaged ___________ newly renovated shop along Jalan Sultan Ismail last night. ___________ investigation is being carried out to determine the cause of __________ fire. ___________ shopkeeper suspects arson and believes that ___________ shop was deliberately set on fire by his business rivals. 9. Do you know that it is _________ male seahorse and not ___________ female seahorse that takes care of its newborn? In fact, it is ___________ male seahorse that becomes pregnant.

10. Jack is planning to buy _________ ring for his girlfriend. He wants to give her ___________ ring when he proposes to her. He also plans to buy ___________ bouquet of roses. __________ roses must be red as he has read that red roses symbolise love. Affirmative Form of Present Perfect Tense The affirmative form of the present perfect tense is written in the following manner. have/has + past paritciple

Examples: Present Perfect Base Form clean Tense has + cleaned have + cleaned Examples Nurul has cleaned her room. Nurul and her sisters have cleaned their rooms. be has + been have + been I have mailed the letter. Farisya has been to Hong Kong several times. They have been to Hong Kong several times. You have asked that question twice.

Give the past participle form of the verbs below. 1. answer - ______________________ 2. aggravate - ____________________ 3. blow - ________________________ 4. bring - ________________________ 5. choose - ______________________ 6. cut - _________________________ 7. drive - ________________________ 8. doze off - _____________________ 9. elect - ________________________ 10. establish - ____________________ 11. fly - _________________________ 12. furnish - ______________________ 13. garnish - ______________________ 14. gargle - _______________________ 15. hoist - ________________________ 16. ignore - _______________________ 17. irk - __________________________ 18. jerk - ________________________ 19. kick - ________________________ 20. knock - ______________________ 21. love - ________________________ 22. lie - __________________________ 23. proceed - _____________________ 24. overcome - ____________________ 25. pray - ________________________ 26. undergone - ___________________

27. wear - ________________________ 28. wring - _______________________ 29. yawn - _______________________ 30. win - _________________________

31. weave - _______________________ 32. sing - _________________________ 33. tear - _________________________ 34. rise - __________________________

Fill in the blanks with the present perfect tense form of the verbs in brackets. 1. The tenants of that house _________________ (pay) Indah Water Consortium for their services. 2. 3. He ____________________ (commit) a crime only once in his life but he has regretted it since. The Red Crescent Society _________________________ (aid) millions of people around the world since its formation.

4. The trader at the night market ______________________ (mark) up the prices of her goods twice. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. The police _____________________ (interrogate) many suspects but they still do not have a lead in the murder case. The General ______________________ (overlook) the fact that many of his men were injured in the battle. The students _____________________ (make) their lecturer very proud by winning the Young Scientist Award. According to scientists, the ozone layer ___________________ (deplete) greatly over the last ten years. Passengers ___________________ (disembark) from the ship at Port Klang.

10. Datuk Seri Dr. Mahathir Mohamad ___________________ (officially, open) the Kuala Lumpur City Air Terminal (KL CAT) and __________________ (launch) KLIA ekspres. 11. There __________________ (be) a number of robberies in my neighbourhood lately. Therefore, the residents have set up a neighbourhood watch. 12. Misya __________________ (withdraw) some money from the bank to pay her overdue rent. 13. The company ________________ (sell) twenty per cent of the shares to settle its debt. 14. Despite the time constraints, the staff of the Foreign Language Department __________________ (successfully, hold) a three-day international language conference.

15. In his hurry to leave the office, Muhammad ___________________ (forget) to switch off the air- conditioner.

Difference between Simple Past Tense and Present Perfect Tense Study the table below. Simple Past Tense She checked out of the hotel yesterday afternoon. They bought a lot of souvenirs when they were in Canada. A thief stole her purse last night. She had a medical checkup last week. Present Perfect Tense She has just checked out of the hotel. They have bought a lot of souvenirs. A thief has stolen her purse. She has already had a checkup. medical

Note: The simple past tense and the present perfect tense refer to actions that took place in the past. The differences are: We usually use the simple past tense with a specific time, and use the present perfect tense when a specific time is NOT mentioned.

Underline the correct form of the verbs in brackets. 1. Rahimah (was, has been) an aerobics instructress for five years, and she loves the job. 2. The Montessori Method of teaching young children was conceived by Dr. Maria Montessori, who (opened, has opened) her first school in 1907. 3. At the age of twenty, he (has gone, went) to New Zealand to study medicine but he ended up operating several roti canai outlets there. 4. The innovative student (designed, has designed) seven types of creative yet functional kitchenware. 5. Azman has extensive vocabulary but he (never heard, has never heard) the word oncologist before. 6. Paleontologists (discovered, have discovered) a new dinosaur fossil recently in North China.

7. Last year, flowers (have covered, covered) the grassy hills since there were adequate rainfall and sunshine. 8. They (ventured, have ventured) into a new business a month ago. They (did, have done) very well since the opening of their beauty salon.

Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verbs in brackets. I visited (visit) my mother yesterday. She has not been (not, be) well and has asked me to visit her again. 1. I _______________ already ______________ (see) how chocolate is made. I _____________ (visit) the Kudos chocolate factory with my classmates last week.

2. Jamilah, who is a medical student, _______________ (find) her stethoscope which she ______________ (misplace) yesterday. 3. 4. Ahmads grammar _________________ (improve) tremendously ________________ (start) the intensive course one month ago. since he

I _______________ already _______________ (wait) for two hours. Jack ________________ (say) that he would come. I will not wait any longer, said Suhaimi to his friend over the mobile phone. Malaysia _________________ (develop) very rapidly since the last time I ___________________ (visit) the country in 1980.

5.

6. We _________________ (be) friends for a long time. We ________________ (go) to the same school when we were children. 7. The local company __________________ (just, secure) six contracts in China. It __________________ (set) up a network of dealers there a month ago.

8. I am glad I _________________ (take) his advice three years ago not to give up my studies. I __________________ (just, graduate) with a degree in Law. 9. The Municipal Council ____________________ (already, lease) the car park complex to used car dealers. They ___________________ (start) their business last Saturday. 10. The National Science Centre ____________________ (launch) its new Aeronautical site last January. Many people __________________ (visit) the centre.