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BASIS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN

(EN1990:2002)

Design Working life

Design working life

(CYS NA EN1990,Table 2.1)

Design working life category

Indicative design working life (years)

Examples

1

10

Temporary structures (1)

2

  • 10 25

Replaceable structural parts, e.g. gantry girders, bearings

3

  • 15 30

Agricultural and similar structures

4

50

Building structures and other common structures

5

100

Monumental building structures, bridges, and other civil engineering structures

(1) Structures or parts of structures that can be dismantled with a view to being re-used should not be considered as temporary. In the case of replaceable structural parts the design life for the structural determination of loads should be the design life of the structure.

Ultimate Limit State (ULS)

Ultimate Limit State Concern

(EN1990,cl.3.3(1)P)

Safety of people,

Safety of the structure

Design situations

(EN1990,cl.3.2(2)P)

Persistent design situation: Normal use condition

Transient design situation: Temporary condition, e.g. during execution or repair

Accidental design situation: Exceptional condition, e.g. fire, explosion, impact.

Seismic design situation: Structure subject to seismic events.

Ultimate limit state verification

(EN1990,cl.6.4.1(1)P)

The following ultimate limit states shall be verified as relevant:

EQU: Loss of equilibrium of the structure, (considering for sliding, overturning or uplift)

STR: Internal failure or excessive deformation of the structure of structural member (Design of structural for strength of members and frames),

GEO: Failure due to excessive deformation of the ground (Design of structural members such as footing, piles, basement walls, etc.),

FAT: Fatigue failure of the structure or structural member.

Ultimate Limit State (ULS)

Important notes

(EN1990,cl.3.2(2)P)

Approach 2 (CYS NA EN1990,Table.A1.2(B)) should be used for the

design of the structural members of substructure (i.e. footings, piles, basement walls, etc.) (CYS NA EN1990,cl. 2.2.3.4). Actions that cannot exist simultaneously due to physical of functional

reasons should not be considered together in combination. The use of expression 6.10a and 6.10b lead to a more economic design in most circumstances.

COMBINATION OF ACTIONS FOR PERSISTENT/TRANSIENT DESIGN SITUATION

(EN1990,cl.6.4.3.2)

 

Persistent and transient design situation EQU Equation 6.10 (Set A)

 
   

Action

Favourable

Unfavourable

γ

γ

6.10

E d =Σγ G G k +γ Q Q k1 + γ Q ψ 0,2 Q k2

Permanent (dead, earth), γ G

0.9

1.1

Variable (imposed,

0

1.5

wind), γ Q Note: Single source is not applicable for EQU design situation. Different γ factors can be used in favourable and unfavourable areas.

 

Persistent and transient design situation STR/GEO Equation 6.10, 6.10a & 6.10b (Set B)

 

6.10

E d =Σγ G G k +γ Q Q k1 + γ Q ψ 0,2 Q k2

Action

Favourable

Unfavourable

γ

γ

6.10a

E d =Σξγ G G k +γ Q ψ 0,1 Q k1 + γ Q ψ 0,2 Q k2

Permanent (dead, earth), γ G

1.0

1.35

6.10b

E d =Σγ G G k +γ Q Q k1 + γ Q ψ 0,2 Q k2

Variable (imposed, wind), γ Q

0

1.5

Note: Single source is applicable for STR/GEO design situation.

 
 
 

Persistent and transient design situation GEO Equation 6.10 (Set C)

 
   

Action

Favourable

Unfavourable

γ

γ

6.10

E d =Σγ G G k +γ Q Q k1 + γ Q ψ 0,2 Q k2

Permanent (dead, earth), γ G

1.0

1.0

Variable (imposed, wind), γ Q

0

1.3

Note: Single source is applicable for STR/GEO design situation.

 

Combination (sensitivity) factor, ψ (CYS NA EN1990:2002, Table A1.1)

Category

Specific Use

ψ ο

ψ 1

ψ 2

A

Domestic and residential

0.7

  • 0.5 0.3

 

B

Office

0.7

  • 0.5 0.3

 

C

Areas for Congregation

0.7

  • 0.7 0.6

 

D

Shopping

0.7

  • 0.7 0.6

 

E

Storage

1.0

  • 0.9 0.8

 

F

Traffic < 30 kN vehicle

0.7

  • 0.7 0.6

 

G

Traffic < 160 kN vehicle

0.7

  • 0.5 0.3

 

H

Roofs

0.7

0

0

 

Snow, altitude < 1000 m

0.5

0.2

0

 

Wind

0.5

0.2

0

Summary table of partial, combination and reduction factors for the STR and GEO ultimate limit states for buildings

Expression

Unfavourable Permanent action

 

Unfavourable Variable actions

Self-weight

Imposed floor loads

Wind loads

Snow loads

 

γ G =1.35

γ Q,1 =1.5

γ Q,i ψ 0,i =1.5x05=0.75

γ Q,i ψ 0,i =1.5x05=0.75

6.10

γ G =1.35

γ Q,i ψ 0,i =1.5x07=1.05

γ Q,1 =1.5

γ Q,i ψ 0,i =1.5x05=0.75

γ G =1.35

γ Q,i ψ 0,i =1.5x07=1.05

γ Q,i ψ 0,i =1.5x05=0.75

γ Q,i =1.5

 

Less favourable equations 6.10a & 6.10b

 
 

γ G =1.35

γ Q,i ψ 0,i =1.5x07=1.05

γ Q,i ψ 0,i =1.5x05=0.75

γ Q,i ψ 0,i =1.5x05=0.75

6.10a

γ G =1.35

γ Q,i ψ 0,i =1.5x07=1.05

γ Q,i ψ 0,i =1.5x05=0.75

γ Q,i ψ 0,i =1.5x05=0.75

γ G =1.35

γ Q,i ψ 0,i =1.5x07=1.05

γ Q,i ψ 0,i =1.5x05=0.75

γ Q,i ψ 0,i =1.5x05=0.75

 

ξγ G =0.85*1.35

γ Q,1 =1.5

γ Q,i ψ 0,i =1.5x05=0.75

γ Q,i ψ 0,i =1.5x05=0.75

6.10b

ξγ G =0.85*1.35

γ Q,i ψ 0,i =1.5x07=1.05

γ Q,1 =1.5

γ Q,i ψ 0,i =1.5x05=0.75

ξγ G =0.85*1.35

γ Q,i ψ 0,i =1.5x07=1.05

γ Q,i ψ 0,i =1.5x05=0.75

γ Q,i =1.5

Note: Shaded boxes indicate the ‘leading variable action’,

 

Serviceability Limit State (SLS)

Characteristic value of variable actions

For each variable action there are four representative values:

1.The characteristic value Q k (determine by insufficient data).

2.The combination value ψ 0 Q k (of an action is intended to take account of the reduced probability of the simultaneous of two or more variable actions).

  • 3. Frequent value ψ 1 Q k (exceeded only for a short period of time and is used

primary for the SLS and also the accidental ULS).

  • 4. Quasi-permanent value ψ 2 Q k (exceeded for a considerable period of time or

considered as an average loading over time and used for the long-term affects at the SLS and also accidental and seismic ULS).

COMBINATION OF ACTIONS FOR SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE

(EN1990,cl.6.5.3)

 

Characteristic combination

Equation 6.14b

E d =G k +Q k,1 +

ψ 0 Q k,2

 

Frequent combination

Equation 6.15b

E d =G k + ψ 1 Q k,1 +

ψ 2 Q k,2

 

Quasi-permanent combination

Equation 6.16b

E d =G k + ψ 2 Q k,1

Serviceability Limit State (SLS) Vertical and Horizontal deformations

INDICATIVE LIMITING VALUES FOR VERTICAL DEFLECTIONS

(Manual of EC0 &EC1, Table D.1)

 

Serviceability Limit States Vertical deflections

Serviceability Requirement

Characteristic Combination (Expression 6.14b in EC0) w max

 

Function and damage to non- structural elements (e.g. partition walls claddings etc) Brittle

L/500 to L/360 ≤L/300 to L/200

 

-Non-brittle Function and damage to

≤L/300 to L/200

structural elements

 

INDICATIVE LIMITING VALUES FOR HORIZONTAL DEFLECTIONS

(Manual of EC0 &EC1, Table D.2)

 

Serviceability Limit States Vertical deflections

Serviceability Requirement

Characteristic Combination (Expression 6.14b in EC0) w max

 

Function and damage to non- structural elements Single storey buildings top

u≤H/300

 

of column -Each storey in a multi-storey

u≤H/500 to H/300

building -The structure as a whole for

u≤H/500

a multi-storey building

 

STRUCTURAL LOADS

(EN1991:2002)

Imposed Loads
Imposed Loads
STRUCTURAL LOADS (EN1991:2002) Imposed Loads Category of use (EN1991-1-1:2002,Table 6.1) Category Specific Use Example A Area

Category of use

(EN1991-1-1:2002,Table 6.1)

Category

Specific Use

Example

A

Area for domestic and

Rooms in residential buildings and houses bedrooms and wards in

residential activities

hospitals, bedrooms in hotels and hostels kitchens and toilets

B

Office areas

 

C

Areas where people may

C1: Areas with tables, etc. e.g. areas in schools, cafés, restaurants,

congregate (with the

dining

exception of areas

halls, reading rooms, receptions.

defined under category

C2: Areas with fixed seats, e.g. areas in churches, theatres or

A, B, and D1))

cinemas, conference rooms, lecture halls, assembly halls, waiting

rooms, railway waiting rooms.

C3: Areas without obstacles for moving

people, e.g. areas in museums, exhibition rooms, etc. and access

areas in public and administration buildings, hotels, hospitals,

railway station forecourts.

C4: Areas with possible physical activities, e.g. dance halls,

gymnastic rooms, stages.

C5: Areas susceptible to large crowds, e.g. in buildings for public

events like concert halls, sports halls including stands, terraces and

access areas and railway platforms.

D

Shopping areas

D1: Areas in general retail shops

D2:Areas in departments stores

STRUCTURAL LOADS (EN1991:2002) Imposed Loads Category of use (EN1991-1-1:2002,Table 6.1) Category Specific Use Example A Area
 

Imposed loads

 

(EN 1991-1-1:2002, Table 6.2)

 

Category Of loaded areas

q k

 

Q k

 

(kN/m 2 )

(kN)

Category A

     
 

-Floors

1.5-2.0

 

2.0-3.0

-Stairs

2.0-4.0

2.0-4.0

-Balconies

2.5-4.0

2.0-3.0

Category B

 

2.0-3.0

1.5-4.5

Category C

 
 

-C1

2.0-3.0

 

3.0-4.0

-C2

3.0-4.0

2.5-7.0

-C3

3.0-5.0

4.0-7.0

-C4

4.5-5.0

3.5-7.0

-C5

5.0-7.5

3.5-4.5

Category D

   
 

-D1

4.0-5.0

 

3.5-7.0

   

-D2

4.0-5.0

Imposed load on Roof

 

3.5-7.0

 
 

(CYS NA EN1991-1-1, Table 6.10)

 
       

Imposed load,

 

Sub-category

 

Actions

 

q k

Q (kN)

 

(kN/m 2 )

 

H

Roof (inaccessible except for

 

0.4

 

1.0

normal maintenance and repair)

 
 

Permanent Loads

 
Permanent Loads Permanent load (EN 1991-1-1:2002, Table A.1-A.12) Materials Density, γ Modulus of (kN/m ) Elasticity,
   

Permanent load

 
 

(EN 1991-1-1:2002, Table A.1-A.12)

 

Materials

Density, γ

Modulus of

(kN/m 3 )

Elasticity, E

kN/mm 2

Reinforced Concrete

25

17-31

Steel

78

210

Glass

25

74

Water

10

-

Plastic PTFE

21-22

0.3-0.6

Softwood timber

5

10

Hardwood timber

7

12

Concrete blockwork

18

-

Asphalt

22

-

Roof tiles

20

5-30

Soil (Sand)

16-18

-

Soil (Clay)

20-22

-

Insulation board

3

-

Aluminium

27

69

Copper

87-89

96

Cement mortar

19-23

20-31

Νylon

11.5

2-3.5

Epoxy resin

16-20

20

Polystyrene

10-13

3-3.3

Carbon fibre

20

415

Fibre glass

15

10

Granite

26

40-70

 
Typical unit floor Typical loadings Typical unit floor Typical loadings Steel floor kN/m 2 Internal ConcreteFloor
Typical unit floor
Typical loadings
Typical unit floor
Typical loadings
Steel floor
kN/m 2
Internal ConcreteFloor
kN/m 2
Self weight of beam
0.25
Partition (minimum)
1.00
Self weight of decking
0.10
Screed (5-70cm)
1.20-1.80
Self weight of meshing
0.05
Raised floor
0.40
Ceiling and services
0.15
Concrete floor (15cm)
3.75
Total
0.55
Celling and services
0.15
Total
6.50-7.10
External Concrete Floor kN/m 2
Metal deck roofing
kN/m 2
Slabs / paving
0.95
Live loading: snow/
Screed (50cm)
1.20
wind uplift
0.6-1.0
Asphalt waterproofing
0.45
Outer covering, insulation and
Concrete floor (15cm)
3.75
metal deck liner
0.30
Celling and services
0.15
Purlins-150 deep at 1.5m c/c 0.10
Total
6.50
Services
0.10
Total
1.1-1.5
Timber Floor
kN/m 2
Timber Flat Roof
kN/m 2
Partition
1.00
Asphalt waterproofing
0.45
Timber boards/plywood
0.15
Timber joist and insulation
0.20
Timber joist
0.20
Celling and services
0.15
Celling and services
0.15
Total
0.80
Total
1.50
SNOW LOAD (EN1991-1-3)
SNOW LOAD
(EN1991-1-3)
SNOW LOAD (EN1991-1-3) Pitch roof Monopitch roof Cylinder roof Snow load shape coefficients for cylinder roofs,
Pitch roof Monopitch roof Cylinder roof
Pitch roof Monopitch roof Cylinder roof
Pitch roof Monopitch roof
Pitch roof Monopitch roof
Pitch roof
Pitch roof
Monopitch roof
Monopitch roof
Pitch roof Monopitch roof
Pitch roof Monopitch roof
Pitch roof Monopitch roof Cylinder roof
Pitch roof Monopitch roof Cylinder roof
Cylinder roof

Cylinder roof

Cylinder roof
SNOW LOAD (EN1991-1-3) Pitch roof Monopitch roof Cylinder roof Snow load shape coefficients for cylinder roofs,
SNOW LOAD (EN1991-1-3) Pitch roof Monopitch roof Cylinder roof Snow load shape coefficients for cylinder roofs,
Snow load shape coefficients for cylinder roofs, μ Snow load shape coefficients, μ (EN1991-1-3, Eq. 5.4-5.5)
Snow load shape coefficients for cylinder roofs, μ
Snow load shape coefficients, μ
(EN1991-1-3, Eq. 5.4-5.5)
(EN1991-1-3, Table 5.2)
o
μ
0.8 μ
s =0
a≤15
1
Angle of pitch of
0 ο ≤α≤30 ο
30 ο ≤α≤60 ο
α≥60 ο
μ
μ s +μ w
2
roof, a
μ w =(b 1 +b 2 )/2h ≤ γh/s k
Range must:0.8≤μ w ≤4
μ
0.8 0.8(60-α)/30
0
γ:is the weight density of snow may taken as 2kN/m 3
1
μ
0.8+0.8 α/30
1.6
-
2
For monopitch roof use only μ 1
Angle of pitch of roof, a
β>60 ο
β≤60
For pitched roof use μ 1 andμ 2
μ 3 should be less than μ 3 ≤2
0 0.2+10 h/b
CHARACTERISTIC SNOW LOAD
Exposure coefficient(ΕΝ1991-1-3, Table 5.1)
ON GROUND,s k
(kN/m 2 )
THERMAL COEFFICIENTS C
(CYS NA ΕΝ1991-1-3, cl. NA 2.7)
(ΕΝ1991-1-3¨2003, cl. 5.2(8))
Topography
C e
C
t =1.0
Windswept
0.8
s k = 0.289*(1+(A/452) 2 )
Thermal transmission on the roof
Normal
1.0
<1W/m 2 K
A:is the attitude above sea level (m)
Sheltered
1.2
SNOW LOAD (EN1991-1-3) Pitch roof Monopitch roof Cylinder roof Snow load shape coefficients for cylinder roofs,

Snow load on roof for transient design situations

s=μ i C e C t s k

(EN 1991-1-3Equ.5.1)

WIND LOAD (EN1991-1-4)
WIND LOAD
(EN1991-1-4)

BASIC WIND VELOCITY

Fundamental Basic wind velocity, v b,0

(CYS NA EN1991-1-4,Fig.1)

Fundamental Basic wind velocity, v (CYS NA EN1991-1-4,Fig.1)
 
   

Season factor

 

(CYS EN1991-1-4,NA 2.4)

c

season =1.0

 
 

Directional factor

 

(CYSEN1991-1-4,NA 2.4)

 

c

dir =1.0

 

(Conservative value for all direction)

 
   
Season factor (CYS EN1991-1-4,NA 2.4) c season =1.0 Directional factor (CYSEN1991-1-4,NA 2.4) c =1.0 (Conservative value
 

Basic wind velocity

(EN1991-1-4, Eq. 4.1)

v b =c dir .c season v b,0

STRUCTURAL FACTOR

(EN1991-1-4, cl.6.0)

Determination of c s c d Builiding with less than Natural frequency Walls≤100m high Chimney with
Determination of c s c d
Builiding with less than
Natural frequency
Walls≤100m high
Chimney with circular
h≤15m
f≤5Hz
cross-sectional area and,
h≤60m
h≤6.5·diameter
c s c d =1.0
STRUCTURAL FACTOR (EN1991-1-4, cl.6.0 ) Determination of c s c d Builiding with less than Natural

Determine of structural factor c s c d

   
STRUCTURAL FACTOR (EN1991-1-4, cl.6.0 ) Determination of c s c d Builiding with less than Natural

Size factor

(EN1991-1-4,Eq.6.2)

It is on the safe side to use

B 2 =1

k p =3

Calculation of R 2 can be found in Annex B of

EN1991-1-4:2005

Dynamic factor

(EN1991-1-4,Eq.6.3)

It is on the safe side to use

B 2 =1

k p =3

Calculation of R 2 can be found in Annex B of

EN1991-1-4:2005

TERRAIN OROGRAPHY,

(EN1991-1-4, cl.4.3.3)

YES Consider
YES
Consider
Upwind Slope≤3 o
Upwind Slope≤3 o
NO Ignore
NO
Ignore
STRUCTURAL FACTOR (EN1991-1-4, cl.6.0 ) Determination of c s c d Builiding with less than Natural

Detail calculation of terrain orography

factor can be found in Annex A of

EN1991-1-4:2005

PEAK VELOCITY PRESSURE

their average height exceeds 15m. II buildings) with separations of at least 0 Sea, costal area
their average height exceeds 15m.
II buildings) with separations of at least
0 Sea, costal area exposed to the open
I Lakes or area with negligible
III with seperations of maximum 20
Area with regular cover of vegetation
or buildings or woth isolatd obstacles
surface is covered with building and
suburban terrain, permanent forest).
category
grass and isolated obstacles trees,
obstacle height (such as villages,
vegetation and without obstacles.
Area with low vegetation such as
Area in which at least 15% of the
20 obstacle height.
IV *
sea.
0.3
SEA
0.003
1
0.01
1
COUNTRY
0.05
2
Terrain category and terrain parameters (EN1991-1-4, Tab.:4.1)
5
TOWN
1.0
10
Terrain
Description
z 0 (m)
z min (m)

* For buildings in terrain category IV, displacement height h dis should be consider and information can be found in Aneex A.5 of EN1991-1-4:2005

PEAK VELOCITY PRESSURE their average height exceeds 15m. II buildings) with separations of at least 0
PEAK VELOCITY PRESSURE their average height exceeds 15m. II buildings) with separations of at least 0
PEAK VELOCITY PRESSURE their average height exceeds 15m. II buildings) with separations of at least 0
Wind turbulence, I v (z) Roughness factor, c r (z) Terrain factor, (EN1991-1-4,Eq.4.7) (EN1991-1-4,Eq.4.3-4.5) (EN1991-1-4,cl.4.4) I
Wind turbulence, I v (z)
Roughness factor, c r (z)
Terrain factor,
(EN1991-1-4,Eq.4.7)
(EN1991-1-4,Eq.4.3-4.5)
(EN1991-1-4,cl.4.4)
I v (z)=σ v /v m (z)=k l /c o (z)ln(z/z 0 ) for
c r (z)=k r . ln(z/z 0 ) for z min ≤z≤z max
k r =0.19(z 0 /z 0,II ) 0.07
c r (z)=c r . (z min ) for z≤z min
z min ≤z≤z max
I v (z)=I v (z min )
for
z 0 : is the roughness length
z≤z min
Turbulence factor: k l =1.0
Maximum height, z max
(NA CYS EN1991-1-4, cl. NA 2.10)
(EN1991-1-4, cl. 4.3.2)
z max =200m
Note: for c o (z)=1
I v (z) is not important
Orography factor c o (z)
c
o (z)=1

Mean wind velocity, v m (z)

(EN1991-1-4 cl.4.3.1 )

  • v m (z)=c r (z).c o (z).v b

PEAK VELOCITY PRESSURE their average height exceeds 15m. II buildings) with separations of at least 0

Peak velocity pressure, q peak (z)

(EN1991-1-4 Eq.4.8 )

2

q peak (z)=[1+7 I v (z)]0.5ρ v m

EXTERNAL WIND PRESSURE/FORCE ON WALLS

Reference height z e , depending on h and b, and corresponding velocity pressure profile

(EN1991-1-4, Fig. 7.4)

Reference height z , depending on h and b , and corresponding velocity pressure profile (EN1991-1-4,
ZONE ≤0.25 h/d A 5 c 1
ZONE
≤0.25
h/d
A
5
c
1
ZONE ≤0.25 h/d A 5 c 1
pe,10 -0.5 +0.8 +1.0 c pe,1 c pe,10 c pe,1 c c +1.0 +0.7 -0.5 +1.0
pe,10
-0.5
+0.8
+1.0
c
pe,1
c
pe,10
c
pe,1
c
c
+1.0
+0.7
-0.5
+1.0
+0.8
-0.5
E
D
Values of external pressure coefficient for vertical walls of rectangular plan buildings
(EN1991-1-4, Tab.:4.1)
pe,10
-1.2
-1.4
-0.8
-1.1
-1.2
-1.4
-1.1
c
pe,1
c
-0.8
pe,1
-1.1
-0.8
-1.4
-1.2
c
pe,10
C
B
pe,10 -0.5 +0.8 +1.0 c pe,1 c pe,10 c pe,1 c c +1.0 +0.7 -0.5 +1.0
pe,10 -0.5 +0.8 +1.0 c pe,1 c pe,10 c pe,1 c c +1.0 +0.7 -0.5 +1.0
-0.7 -0.5 -0.3 c pe,1 pe,10
-0.7
-0.5
-0.3
c pe,1
pe,10
-0.7 -0.5 -0.3 c pe,1 pe,10

Note: Values for c pe,1 are intended for the design of small elements and fixings with an element of 1m 2 or

less such as cladding elements and roofing elements. Values for c pe,10 may be used for the design of the

overall load bearing structure of buildings. The external pressure coeffiecient c pe,1 and c pe,10 is using for

loadaded area of 1m 2 and 10m 2 respectively.

EXTERNAL WIND PRESSURE/FORCE ON WALLS Reference height z , depending on h and b , and
EXTERNAL WIND PRESSURE/FORCE ON WALLS Reference height z , depending on h and b , and

Key for vertical walls Flat Roof

(EN1991-1-4, Fig.7.5)

Key for vertical walls – Flat Roof (EN1991-1-4, Fig.7.5)
Key for vertical walls – Flat Roof (EN1991-1-4, Fig.7.5)

Key for vertical walls Mono&dual pitch

Roof

(EN1991-1-4, Fig.7.5)

Key for vertical walls – Mono&dual pitch Roof (EN1991-1-4, Fig.7.5)
Key for vertical walls – Mono&dual pitch Roof (EN1991-1-4, Fig.7.5)
Key for vertical walls – Mono&dual pitch Roof (EN1991-1-4, Fig.7.5)
Key for vertical walls – Mono&dual pitch Roof (EN1991-1-4, Fig.7.5)
EXTERNAL WIND PRESSURE/FORCE ON WALLS Reference height z , depending on h and b , and
Pressure on surface &Wind force (EN1991-1-4, Eq. 5.1&5.5) w e =q p (z e ).(c pe
Pressure on surface &Wind force (EN1991-1-4, Eq. 5.1&5.5)
w e =q p (z e ).(c pe + c pi )
&
F w =c s c d ·Σw e ·A ref

EXTERNAL WIND PRESSURE/FORCE ON FLAT ROOF

EXTERNAL WIND PRESSURE/FORCE ON FLAT ROOF Recommended values of external pressure coefficients for flat roofs (EN1991-1-4,Tab.

Recommended values of external pressure coefficients for flat roofs

(EN1991-1-4,Tab. 7.2)

   

Zone

 

Roof type

F

G

H

I

c

pe,10

c

pe,1

c

pe,10

c

pe,1

c

pe,10

c

pe,1

c

pe,10

c

pe,1

Sharp eaves

 

-1.8

 

-2.5

-1.2

-2.0

-.07

-1.2

 

+0.2

 

With

h p /h=0.025

 

-1.6

 

-2.2

-1.1

-1.8

-0.7

-1.2

 

-0.2

 

h p /h=0.05

 

-1.4

 

-2.0

         

Parapets

-0.9

-1.6

-0.7

-1.2

 

+0.2

 

h p /h=0.10

 

-1.2

 

-1.8

-0.8

-1.4

-0.7

-1.2

 

-0.2

 

Curved

r/h=0.05

 

-1.0

 

-1.5

-1.2

-1.8

 

-0.4

   

+0.2

 

r/h=0.10

 

-0.7

 

-1.2

       

Eaves

-0.8

-1.4

 

-0.3

   

-0.2

 

r/h=0.20

 

-0.5

 

-0.8

-0.5

-0.8

 

-0.3

   

+0.2

 

Mansard

a=30 o

 

-1.0

 

-1.5

-1.0

-1.5

 

-0.3

   

-0.2

 

a=45 o

 

-1.2

 

-1.8

       

Eaves

-1.3

-1.9

 

-0.4

   

+0.2

 

a=60 o

 

-1.3

 

-1.9

-1.3

-1.9

 

-0.5

   

-0.2

 

Note: Values for c pe,1 are intended for the design of small elements and fixings with an element of 1m 2 or

less such as cladding elements and roofing elements. Values for c pe,10 may be used for the design of the

overall load bearing structure of buildings. The external pressure coeffiecient c pe,1 and c pe,10 is using for

loadaded area of 1m 2 and 10m 2 respectively.

Pressure on surface &Wind force (EN1991-1-4, Eq. 5.1&5.5) w e =q p (z e ).(c pe
Pressure on surface &Wind force (EN1991-1-4, Eq. 5.1&5.5)
w e =q p (z e ).(c pe + c pi )
&
F w =c s c d ·Σw e ·A ref

EXTERNAL WIND PRESSURE/FORCE ON MONOPITCH ROOF

EXTERNAL WIND PRESSURE/FORCE ON MONOPITCH ROOF Recommended values of external pressure coefficients for monopitch roofs (EN1991-1-4,Tab.

Recommended values of external pressure coefficients for monopitch roofs

(EN1991-1-4,Tab. 7.3a)

Pitch

 

Zone for wind direction θ=0 o

 

Zone for wind direction θ=180 o

 

Angle

F

G

 

H

F

G

H

a

c

pe,10

c

pe,1

 

pe,10

c

c

pe,10

c

pe,1

c

pe,10

c

pe,10

 

c

pe,1

c

pe,10

 

c

pe,1

c

pe,10

c

pe,1

5

o

 

-1.7

-2.5

 

-1.2

-2.0

-0.6

-1.2

 

-2.3

 

-2.5

-1.3

   

-2.0

 

-0.8

 

-1.2

+0.0

 

+0.0

 

+0.0

   

15

o

 

-0.9

-2.0

 

-0.8

-1.5

-0.3

   

-2.5

   

-2.8

-1.3

   

-2.0

 

-0/9

 

-1.2

 

+0.2

 

+0.2

 

+0.2

 

30

o

 

-0.5

-1.5

 

-0.5

-1.5

-0.2

   

-1.1

   

-2.3

-0.8

   

-1.5

 

-0.8

 
 

+0.7

 

+0.7

 

+0.4

 

45

o

-0.0

 

-0.0

 

-0.0

   

-0.6

   

-1.3

-0.5

 

-0.7

 
 

+0.7

 

+0.7

 

+0.6

 

60

o

+0.7

 

+0.7

 

+0.7

   

-0.5

 

-1.0

-0.5

 

-0.5

 

75

o

+0.8

 

+0.8

 

+0.8

   

-0.5

 

-1.0

-0.5

 

-0.5

 
 

Recommended values of external pressure coefficients for monopitch roofs

 
 

(EN1991-1-4,Tab. 7.3b)

 
   

Pitch

Zone for wind direction θ=90 o

   

Angle

F up

 

F low

 

G

 

H

 

I

 

a

 

c

pe,10

 

c

pe,1

c

pe,10

c

pe,10

c

pe,1

pe,10

c

 

c

pe,10

c

pe,1

 

c

pe,10

 

pe,1

c

 

5

o

-2.1

   

-2.6

-2.1

-2.4

-1.8

-2.0

 

-0.6

-1.2

 

-0.5

 
 

15

o

-2.4

   

-2.9

-1.6

-2.4

-1.9

-2.5

 

-0.8

-1.2

 

-0.7

 

-1.2

 

30

o

-2.1

   

-2.9

-1.3

-2.0

-1.5

-2.0

 

-1.0

-1.3

 

-0.8

 

-1.2

 

45

o

-1.5

   

-2.4

-1.3

-2.0

-1.4

-2.0

 

-1.0

-1.3

 

-0.9

 

-1.2

 

60

o

-1.2

   

-2.0

-1.2

-2.0

-1.2

-2.0

 

-1.0

-1.3

 

-0.7

 

-1.2

 

75

o

-1.2

   

-2.0

-1.2

-2.0

-1.2

-2.0

 

-1.0

-1.3

 

-0.5

 

Note: Values for c pe,1 are intended for the design of small elements and fixings with an element of 1m 2 or less such

as cladding elements and roofing elements. Values for c pe,10 may be used for the design of the overall load bearing

structure of buildings. The external pressure coeffiecient c pe,1 and c pe,10 is using for loadaded area of 1m 2 and 10m 2

respectively.

EXTERNAL WIND PRESSURE/FORCE ON MONOPITCH ROOF Recommended values of external pressure coefficients for monopitch roofs (EN1991-1-4,Tab.
Pressure on surface &Wind force (EN1991-1-4, Eq. 5.1&5.5) w e =q p (z e ).(c pe
Pressure on surface &Wind force (EN1991-1-4, Eq. 5.1&5.5)
w e =q p (z e ).(c pe + c pi )
&
F w =c s c d ·Σw e ·A ref

EXTERNAL WIND PRESSURE/FORCE ON DUOPITCH ROOF

EXTERNAL WIND PRESSURE/FORCE ON DUOPITCH ROOF Recommended values of external pressure coefficients for duopitch roofs (EN1991-1-4,Tab.

Recommended values of external pressure coefficients for duopitch roofs

(EN1991-1-4,Tab. 7.4a)

Pitch

Zone for wind direction θ=0 o

 

Angle

F

G

H

I

J

a

pe,10

c

 

c

pe,1

c

pe,10

c

pe,10

c

pe,1

c

pe,10

c

pe,10

c

pe,1

pe,10

c

c

pe,1

-45 o

-0.6

-0.6

 

-0.8

 

-0.7

 

-1.0

-1.5

-30 o

-1.1

 

-2.0

-0.8

 

-1.5

-0.8

 

-0.6

 

-0.8

 

-1.4

-15 o

-2.5

 

-2.8

-1.3

 

-2.0

-0.8

-1.2

-0.5

 

-0.7

-1.2

-5 o

-2.3

 

-2.5

-1.2

 

-2.0

-0.8

-1.2

+0.2

 

+0.2

 

-0.6

 

-0.6

 

5 o

-1.7

 

-2.5

-1.2

 

-2.0

-0.6

-1.2

-0.6

 

+0.2

 

+0.0

+0.0

 

+0.0

 

-0.6

 

o

-0.9

-2.0

-0.8

 

-1.5

-0.3

 

-0.4

 

-1.0

 

-1.5

  • 15 +0.2

+0.2

   

+0.2

 

+0.0

 

+0.0

 

+0.0

o

-0.5

-1.5

-0.5

 

-1.5

-0.2

 

-0.4

 

-0.5

  • 30 +0.7

+0.7

   

+0.4

 

+0.0

 

+0.0

 

o

-0.0

-0.0

 

-0.0

 

-0.2

 

-0.3

  • 45 +0.7

+0.7

   

+0.6

 

+0.0

 

+0.0

 

o

  • 60 +0.7

+0.7

   

+0.7

 

-0.2

 

-0.3

o

  • 75 +0.8

+0.8

   

+0.8

 

-0.2

 

-0.3

Recommended values of external pressure coefficients for duopitch roofs

 
 

(EN1991-1-4,Tab. 7.4b)

 
 

Zone for wind direction θ=90 o

 

Angle a

 

I

pe,10

c

c

pe,1

pe,10

c

c

pe,10

c

pe,1

c

pe,10

c

pe,10

c

pe,1

Pitch

 

F

G

H

 
               

-45 o

-1.4

-2.0

-1.2

-2.0

-1.0

-1.3

-0.9

-1.2

-30 o

-1.5

-2.1

-1.2

-2.0

-1.0

-1.3

-0.9

-1.2

-15 o

-1.9

-2.5

-1.2

-2.0

-0.8

-1.2

-0.8

-1.2

-5 o

-1.8

-2.5

-1.2

-2.0

-0.7

-1.2

-0.6

-1.2

5

o

-1.6

-2.2

-1.2

-2.0

-0.7

-1.2

-0.6

15

o

-1.3

-2.0

-1.2

-2.0

-0.6

-1.2

-0.5

30

o

-1.1

-1.5

-1.4

-2.0

-0.8

-1.2

-0.5

45

o

-1.1

-1.5

-1.4

-2.0

-0.9

-1.2

-0.5

60

o

-1.1

-1.5

-1.4

-2.0

-0.8

-1.2

-0.5

75

o

-1.1

-1.5

-1.4

-2.0

-0.8

-1.2

-0.5

EXTERNAL WIND PRESSURE/FORCE ON DUOPITCH ROOF Recommended values of external pressure coefficients for duopitch roofs (EN1991-1-4,Tab.
Pressure on surface &Wind force (EN1991-1-4, Eq. 5.1&5.5) w e =q p (z e ).(c pe
Pressure on surface &Wind force (EN1991-1-4, Eq. 5.1&5.5)
w e =q p (z e ).(c pe + c pi )
&
F w =c s c d ·Σw e ·A ref