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Print media Includes n/p, magazines, brochure and other printed surfaces.

aces. Eg, posters and outdoor boards Provide info, rich imagery, n longer message life than e broadcast media An info rich environment-used to generate cognitive responses Flexible than watching n listening Ability to engage more of the senses than other media coz it can be both tactile(diff types of paper and other surfaces) and aural(smell)

N/p basics To carry new, even commercial is commercial information(to be news too) Marketers trying to reach a local market us n/p coz most n/p are identify by e geography of city or region they serve Retailers like to place ads and press releases in daily n/p coz their lead time(e advance time needed to produce a publication) is short-just a few days-retailers arent paying to reach people who live outside their shopping area Offer market selectivity-allow them to target specific consumer group

N/p industry n/p readership declining for years other sources of revenue besides ads include reader subscription and single copy sales at newsstands. Circulation is e primary way n/ps reach is measured and compared with the reach other media

Newspaper ad sales n/p ads is sold based on the size of the ad space and e n/p circulation. E charges are published on a rate card rate card-a list of the costs for ads space and the discounts given to local ads who make volume buys most ads sales are handled locally by the sales staff of the n/p n/p rep sell space for many different n/p one order/one bill-this saves an advertiser or its agency from the need to make a multitude of buys to run a national or regional campaign n/p national advertisers shied away from using newspapers, not only coz of the buying prob but also coz each paper had its own peculiar size guideline for ads, making it difficult to prepare one ad that would fit every n/p standard ads unit(sau) to solve the prob n makes it possible for n/p to offer ads a great deal of choice within a standard format Co-op ads is an arrangement between e advertiser and e retailer whereby e retailer buys the ad n manufacturer pays half-or a portion depending on the amount of space e manufacturers brand occupies

Types of n/p ads Display-dominant form of n/p ads -can be any size and can be place in e newspaper except e editorial page

-can be found in the classified section. -Display ads is further divided into 2 subcategories: local(retail) n national(brand) -advertisers who dont care their display ads run in the newspaper pay the run of paper(rop) rate -if they want more choice over the placement, they can pay the preferred position rate which lets them select sections in which the ads will appear. Classified 2 types of ads include ads by idv to sell their personal goods and ads by local business -arranged according to their interest readers Supplement are magazine style publications inserted into a n/p -either syndicated locally or nationally Free standing insert (fsi) set of ads such as the grocery ads that are inserted into the newspaper -these preprinted ads range in size from a single page to more than 30 pages and may be black n white or full color -often printed elsewhere and then delivered to the newspaper -n/p charge the ads a fee for inserting a supplement -popular coz: 1. allows greater ctrl over e reproduction quality of the ads 2. its command more attention than just another ad in the n/p 3. advertisers can place fsis in certain n/p that are delivered to certain neighbourhoods or even certain people

N/p readership measurement Tends to be selective with a greater percentage reading specific sections rather than the whole paper Measure their audiences in two ways: circulation n readership Readership always a larger number than circulation coz when a paper is delivered to a home or office, it is often read by more than one person Auditing companies: 1. Audit bureau of circulation-indie auditing group that represent advertisers, agencies, and publishers. -verifies statement about n/p circulation and provide a detailed analysis of e newspaper by state, town, and country -members only include paid circulation n.p n magazines 2. simmons scraborough-provides a syndicated study that annually measure readership profiles in approximately 70 of the nations largest cities -study covers readership of a single issue and the estimated unduplicated readers for a series of issues.

Magazine basics most magazine aim at niche market with focus on particular topic readers spend more time reading a magazine than they do reading a newspaper, so there is a better opportunity to provide in depth info. Quality of reproduction is one of the biggest strength of magazines Allows the advertisers products and brand image o be presented in a format superior to the quality of newspaper

Health of the magazine industry Circulation from subscription was basically stable Emergence of the market segment eg computers, gadgets n economy

Types of mag 1. Consumer mag-directed at people who buy product for personal consumption eg. General interest publications -the largest growth area for consumer magazines is for special interest publications aimed at narrow or niche audiences 2. Business mag target business readers: include the following types of publication 1. Trade magazines-aimed at retailers, wholesalers and other distributiors 2. Industrial mag-aimed at manufacturers 3. Professional mag-aimed at physician, lawyers and other professional 4. Farm mag-aimed at those working in agriculture 5. Corporate publication-aimed at their customers and stakeholders 3. Business mag also classified as vertical / horizontal publication -Vertical publications presents stories and info about an entire industry -horizontal publication presents a business function that cut across industries Vehicle selection, factors that influence how media planners fit mag into their media mix 1. Geography-national audience but some cater to certain sections or region of the country or have regional editions. -helps encourage local retail support by listing the names of local distributors in the ads -some offer a zone edition that carries different ads and perhaps different stories, depending on the region of the country 2. Demographics-according to age, income, occupation and other classifications 3. Editorial content-certain mag has certain type of editorial content -most widely used categories are general editorial, womens, shelter, business and special interest 4. Physical characteristics-ads containing various elements of words and pictures require a different amount of space 5. Ownership-some owned by publishing companies, organizations, consumer companies(that sell ads and carry stories and ads for many of their own products) 6. Distribution and circulation-mag revenues come from ads, subscriptions n single copy sales Controlled vs unctrlled circulation Traditional delivery-ctrlld circulation is thru newsstand purchases or home delivey -these are measured media and their circulation or sales can be determined. Nontraditional delivery-uncontrolled circulation means that the mag is distributed free to specific audiences -have lower readership and lower costs -may be sponsored by a company n sent to key stakeholders as part of a corporate comm program -methods of delivery: 1. hanging bagged copies on doorknobs 2. inserting mag in n/p

3. delivering thru professional office 4. direct delivey 5. electronic delivery Mag ad sales Mag ads costs are based on the size of the ads and the circulation of the mag Largest unit of ad space that magazines sell is the double page spread in which two ad pages face each other Bleed- a page w/o outside margins, in which the ads ink extends to the very edge of the page Gatefold-2 connected pages that fold in themselves -the use of multiple pages that provide photo essays is an extension of the gatefold concept. Special ads page or section that looks like regular editorial pages but is identified by the word ads on the top -e content usually an article about a company, product, or brand that is written by e corporations publicity department Multiple page photo essay ads are more common in mag -these mag may present a special section for business in a foreign country A single page or double page can be broken into a variety of units called fractional page space

Technology Selective binding and ink jet imaging allow publishers to personalize issues for an idv subscribes Selective binding combines info on subscribers kept in a data base with a computer program to produce magazines that include special section for subscribers based on their demographic profiles Ink jet imaging personalize its renewal form so that each issue contains a renewal card already filled out with the subscribers profile With satellite transmission,it allow magazines to print regional editions with regional advertising It also can combine the info available from subscribers lists with other public and private lists to create complete consumer profiles for advertisers

Mag readership measurement Based on the guaranteed circulation that a publisher promises to provide Mag circulation is the number of copies of an issue sold not the readership of publication One mag might be read by others depending on its content Some companies attempt to verify the circulation of mag along with demographic and psychographic characteristics of specific readers A problem with these measurement services is the limited scope of their services

Directories Particularly effective at driving specific types of consumer responses Eg. Yellow pages that list the names of people or companies, their phone number and their address

Designed to get attention, communicate key info about the organization, reinforce the companys brand n image ad position and drive behavior the hardest of all facets of ads effects to achieve People have taken the initiative to look for a business or service, then the listing is reaching an audience already in the market for sth and ready to take action It tells people where to go to get the product or service they want Prob, advent of online directory information n decline in landline phones coz the growt of cell phones usage -expensive to print

Different between directory ads n brand image ads 1. Directory ads reaches prospects, people who already know they have a need for the product or service 2. Directory cover all types of professional area and interest group 3. Brand image ads seeks to create a need and attractive personality for a brand Out of home ads Includes everything from billboards to hot air balloons Means ads on public spaces including buses, posters on building wall, telephones and shopping kiosk, painted and wrapped cars and semi truck, taxi signs and mobile billborads, transit shelter and rail platforms, airport and bus terminal displays n etc Ranks second only to the internet as the fastest growing marketing communication industry It is situational-can reach target specific people with specific message at a time n place when they may be most interested Become more attractive due to mass media has decreased an impact

Out door ads Billboards along streets and highways n poster in other public location Reasons: 1. Provide reminders to the target audience 2. Act as primary medium when the board is in proximity to where a brand is available

Size and format 2 kind of traditional billboards 1. Printed poster panels 2. painted bulletins printed poster create by the advertiser or agency, printed and shipped to an outdoor advertising company -applied in sections to the poster panels face on location, much like applying wallpaper painted outdoor bulletin-created on site and vary in size or shape althought they have their on standard -can be painted on the sides of buildings on roofs, and even natural structures -designers can add extensions to painted billboards to expand the scale and breakaway from the limits of the long rectangle -these embellishments are sometimes called cutouts coz they present an irregular shape

outdoor led boards are brightly plastic signs with electronic messaging -come in a variety of sizes, colours and brightness. Digital display-use wireless technology which allows them to be quickly change to reflect an ads situation Outdoor boards use solar power/green marketing Message must be short and visual must be very getting attention

Outdoor ad sales Based on traffic counts-number if vehicles passing a particular location during a specified period of time called showing Usually rented for 30 days periods with longer periods possible. Pianted bulletins are brought on an idv basis, usually for one, two or three years

On premise signs Posters Used on kiosks, bulletin borads, the sides of buildings and even vehicles Special structures-kiosk are designed for public posting of notices and advertising posters Kiosk are typically located in places where people walk or where people wait. Found on small indie business Some on premise signs also act like billboards

Transit ads An urban ads form that places ads on vehicles such as buses and taxis that circulate thru e community as moving billboards Some use striking graphic Also includes posters seen in bus, train, airport Posters must be designed for quick impressions although people who are waiting on subway platforms or bus shelters often study these posters-can involve more complicated than billboard 2 types of transit ads: 1. Interior 2. Exterior Interior is seen by people riding inside buses, taxis, cars n etc Exterior mounted on the side, rear and top exteriors of these vehicles Transit ads is reminder ads-frequency medium that lets advertisers get their names in front of a local audience who drive a regular route at critical time Painted vehicle

Media effectively N/p good for targeting local markets Mag are great for targeting people with special interest Both have production values and are good for message that either focus on brand image or need space for a more complex explanation Outdoor ads target audiences on the move and provides directional info Outdoor good for brand reminder Directory ads catch people when they are shopping

Print out of home adv and limitations Medium n/p adv 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Good for news announcement Good market coverage Good for comparison shopping Positive consumer attitudes Good for reaching educated and affluent consumers Flexibility-geography n scheduling High production values Target consumers interests-specialized audeinces Receptive audience Long life span Format encourages creativity Good for brand messages Good for complex or in depth message Consumers go to directories for shopping information Trusted Inexpensive Good roi Flexible in size, colour and formats Long life Good situational medium Directional Brand reminder High impact-larger than life Least expensive Long life Limitations 1. Short life span 2. Clutter 3. Limited reach for certain group 4. Poor production values


1. Long lead timeslimited flexibility 2. Lack of immediacy 3. High cost 4. Sometimes limited distribution


Out of home

7. Lack of flexibility-can be a long time before a change can be made 8. Competitive clutter and look alike ads 9. Low production quality 1. Traffic moves quickly 2. Cant handle complex messages-designs must be simple 3. May be easy to miss 4. Some criticize outdoor ads as polluting e landscape 5. Transit lack the size adv of other outdoor media

Broadcast media Media forms that transmit sounds or images electronically Include radio, tv and other video forms n movie ads Dynamic and bought by amount of time and their audience size

Both radio n tv use music for emotional impact and intensify memory of the message thru the repetition of tunes and sounds

Radio Found Am/fm dial and serve most local market Other options for public radio, cable and satellite radio, low powered stations and web radio Radio network are group of affiliated stations -the network system produces programs and distributes them to their affiliates who contract with the system Local radio stations carry much of the same programming Public radio stations are considered noncommercial in that they rely on listener support for most of their funding Radio broadcast forms: 1. Cable radio uses cable television recievers to deliver static free music via wires plunged into cable subscribers stereos -cable tv needs new revenue and consumers are fed up with commercials on radio -e service typically is commercial free with a monthly subscription free 2. Satellite radio-can deliver your favorite radio stations regardless of where u are 3. LPFM(low power) non profit, non commercial stations serve as a small market with a reach 3 to five mile 4. Web radio-provides webcasting, audio streaming thru website Radio audience Tightly targeted based on special interest and musical taste Higly segmented ads medium

dayparts Radio audiences are grouped by the times of day when they are most likely to be listening and the assumption is that different group listen at different times of the day 5 segments: 1. Morning 6-10am 2. Midday 10am-3pm 3. Evening drive time 3-7pm 4. Evening 7-midnight 5. Late night midnight-6am

Morning drive time is the period when the most listeners are tuned in to radio

Measuring the radio audience Station coverage which similar to circulation The number of homes in a geographic area that can pick up the station clearly, whether those home actually tuned in or not Program rating-percent of homes actually tuned in to the particular station

Radio ads Jingles are commercials set to music, lend themselves to repetition Can engage the imagination more than other media coz it relies on the listeners mind to fill in the visual element Psa are spots created by agencies that donate their time and services on behalf of some good cause -run for free on radio n tv

Categories national radio buys 1. Network radio ads -Network ads can be brought from national networks that distirubte programming and ads to their affiliate -is a group of local affiliates connected to one or more national networks thru telephones wires and satellite 2. Spot radio ads -lets an advertisers place an ads with an idv station rather thatn thru network 3. Syndicated radio ads -original type of radio programming that play on a large number of affiliated stations -program syndication has benefited network radio because it offers advertisers a variety of high quality, specialized and usually original programs -advertisers values syndicated programming coz of the high level of loyalty of its audience Using radio effectively 1. Have excellent reminder and reinforcement capability and is great about building frequency thru repetition 2. Sparks the imagination coz of its ability to stimulate mental imagery thru the theatre of mind 3. Brings persuasive power and warmth human voice 4. Timing is critical to maximize the impact of a radio spot 5. Aperture means knowing when the target audience is most likely to be listening and responsive 6. Flexible and allows for easy change to schedules Disadvantage 1. It plays in the bg for many of our activities-not concentrate 2. Lack of visual Tv basics Primarily an ent medium Expanded to playing games n etc

Structure of tv industry Network tv-distribution sys tht provides tv content to its affiliated stations

-Network sells some commercial time to national advertisers and leave some open for the affiliates to fill with local advertising Subscription tv-people sign up for service and pay monthly fee Cable tv-a form of subscription tv -provide highly targeted special interest programming options -e impact of cable programing has been to fragment the audience and make it difficult to reach a large and mass audience -has become significant threat to the financial helath of the networkd -cable special interest programs to reach more tightly targeted audiences, can be even more efficient than mass broadcasting -cable programming comes from indie cable netwroks and indie super stations Satellite tv-direct broadcast tv services -useful for people who live in rural area without local or over the air service Pay programming and on demand prog-available to subscribers for an additional monthly fee Local tv-affiliated with a network and can carry both network programming and their own prog -indie stations are local stations not affiliated with ntworks. Public tv-commercial free -reaches affluent, well educated households Syndication-an important revenue stream for ntwork and cable channels

New technology HDTV-type of TV standard deliver movies quality, high res images Cable and DVRs- interactive tv Addressable tv-possible for idv homes to receive targeted and personalized ads 3d-uses special glasses DVR-record favorite tv show and watch them whenever they like -time shifting -threat to marketers coz it allows consumers to zip past commercial completely

Measuring the tv audience Exposure is equivalent to circulation Exposure households with sets tuned on, a population refered to as households using tv(hut) But hut figure doesnt tell u if anyone is watching the program Gross impression-add all of the impressions Impression-one persons opportunity to be exposed one time to an ad(the number of viewers exposed to a prog might be greater than e number of households reached since there may be more than one viewer watching n e commercial may be repeated several time in a prog or during a time period) Rating-percentage of exposure Easier measurement to work with coz they convert e raw figure to a percentage Share-a better estimate of impressions might be found in a programss chare of audience -percent of viewers based on the number of sets turned on during a specific period

-share figure is always larger than tis rating since the base is smaller People meters-record what tv shows are being watched, the number of households that are watching, and family members are viewing Uses viewer diaries mailed out during the sweeps period which are quarterly periods when more extensive audience data n demographics are gathered

TV ads Ads works like movies-Tell stories, engage e emotions, create fantasy and can have great visual impact Good for demonstrating how things work

Ad sales Sponsorship-the advertiser assumes the total financial responsibility for producing the program and providing the accompanying commercials -this plan is quite common with sporting events, where each sponsor receives 15 min segment Participations-advertisers pay for 10, 20, up to 60 sec of commercial time during one or more prog -most common one used in network ads today -provide a great deal more flexibility in market coverage, target audeinces, scheduling and budgeting Spot announcement-commercials that appear in the breaks between programs, which affiliates sell to advertisers who want to show their local ads -commercials are sold on a station by station basis to local, regional and national advertisers

Effectivesness of tv iNteraction of sound, sight, color, motion, n drama create a stronger emotional response good for delivering message that require action, movement and demonstration wasted reach-communication directed at an audience that may not fit the advertisers market cable tv, disinterest is another problem coz people are often inclined to zip or zap commercials if they dont have a DVR expensive relative to other media, both time and production costs problem, clutter and its stepchildren, intrusiveness and irritation

other vid formats cinema/movie theatre sell time at the beginning of their film showings for commercial called trailers but some are national commercials for brands, ads for local business, psa or other forms of sponsored prog one of the fastest growing coz of adv of tech dvd, bluray and other video distribution sys place ads bfore their movies and on the cases -targeting strategy called trailers

Promo vid

run sponsored prog n commercials such as the channels u seen in grocery strores, doctors offices and truck stops that distribute commercials by video or satellite Broadcast n video media adv n limitations Adv 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Limitations 1. listener inattentiveness-may just be on in the bg 2. lack of visual 3. clutter 4. may have buying difficulties for local buys 5. lack of ctrl-talk show content is unpredictable n may be critical 1. clutter-cable offers a large number of channels 2. high production costs 3. wasted reach 4. inflexibility-cant make last minute changes 5. intrusiveness-some audience resistance to ads leads to zipping and zapping 1. Audience resistance is high-hates being a captivate 2. Expensive-need high value production


pervasiveness-most every home and cars reaches specialized target audience reaches them at critical apertures offers high frequency, music(jingles) can be repeated more easily than others flexible and easy to change good for local tie ins and promos mental imagery can be highly engaging audience less likely to switch channel when ads come on


1. pervasiveness-mostin every home 2. high level of viewing 3. reaches a mass national audience although can be targeted by programs 4. high impact-audio,video n motion, music, color n drama 5. cost efficient


1. Captivate audience 2. No need for intrusiveness coz audience cant do multi tasking 3. High impact