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INTRODUCTION WHAT IS GOD? My essay is focus on the high god concept. First did we know what is God actually?

According to Keith Ward, God is not entirely clear what is means to believe in God.1 Some of philosophers said that God is a supreme human being , some those who conceive God as an impersonal absolute, some also believe that God as eternal and immutable, and those who conceive God as temporal and in constant change. Sometimes in some religions, God is not people but sometimes it related to spirit also in some culture they believe God is from the death spirit. Even though the German philosopher Nietzsche also proclaimed, God is dead. But a little bit different with animism that still believe by some culture especially those who live in undevelopment country like Africa. This is because African often use anthropomorphic images.2 In the other hand they also consider him to be a spiritual being. Actually in African there no images or physical representations of God by African. Somehow, in Islam God is a creator of the universe and people must believe only to him and worshiped him without doubt. They must believe to a single God because God created all of living things in this universe. Those who are believe in Islam, they are only believe that Prophet Muhammad is to be the last of a continuing chain of prophets who have come to restore the true religion. They regard to revealed to him, Islam, not as a new religion but as the original path of monotheism.3 In Islam also use a sacred texts or so-called Quran. The heart of Islam is not only the Prophet but the revelations he received. He received the revelations over a period of twenty-three- years and he was asking to reciting or reading the Quran.

1 2

Keith Ward, The Concept of God, St.Martin Press, 1974, pg. 3. John S.Mbiti, Concepts of God in Africa, Praeger Publishers, 1970, pg. 23. 3 Mary Pat Fisher, Livings Religions,( fifth edition), Prentice Hall, 2002, pg. 359. 1

But, even though there are people who believed in God but there also some people who didnt believe the existence of god until they denied and want to suppressed the religion. For example as we know Carl Marx ideology that a founder to communism ideology that totally didnt believe in god. Actually communism is only a political way of thinking and idea of how people working and also there is no social classes or states. The country that were influence by this ideology is China, Laos, Vietnam, Cuba, and also Northern Korea. Nowadays, even though there are many religion that we can take as the rules or foundation of life, but there are also got some people who are still believe in myth, supernatural, shamanism and also believe too many deity. Shamanism is a way of life that comes from Tungus and it come from Siberia language. In Shamanism, there is no technology to cure or healing people. It only use a spell or some magic to cure the people this because they believe that there are a spirit that will help the shaman cure the person who been possessed or having an illness that cant cure by medication. For information and understanding shamanism is not including as a religion because they dont believe the existence of god. Victor W. Tuner , said in many of them the impersonal transhuman (or mystical, or non-empirical, or supernatural) power is considered to be devolution of personal power, as in the case of the mystical efficacy of rites established in illo tempore by a deity or divinized ancestor.4 THE CONCEPT OF HIGH GOD The concept of the high god is similar to shamanism. This is because the believer to the high god concept believe that high god is a life power that dwells in the sky and the earth. Because they believe that god is always at the highest place in human being life so that they really believe and think that those god are in the sky and the god that stay in the sky is known as a male, and different impression for the god that dwells in the earth, those people believe

Arthur C.Lehmann, James E. Myers., Magic, Witchcraft, and Religion, 2001, pg. 89.

the god that stay in the earth is as a Great Mother that symbolizes as a maternal entity. This is maybe because everything in this world is begin from the earth especially the nature that giving human air to breathe and make human life comfortable. For example, Tribal peoples of Madhya Pradesh in the jungles of central India will avoid killing a snake, for they feel that its partner would later come after them to seek revenge.5 Same goes to indigenous earthwork in Ohio, they representing a snake and an egg, symbols of fertility and transformation. Actually, there are many stories of indigenous peoples relationships with non-human creatures. Certain trees tell the healing specialist which herbs to use in curing the people. Australian aboriginal women are adept at forming hunting partnership with dogs. They also believe that bird is to bring messages to the people from the spirit world. In New Mexico, a ring of stones protects the sacred area where sun bleached antlers and offerings have been placed around two stones naturally shaped like mountain lions. This maybe because according to believers they believe that they can recognize by the power that they can feel the spirit there. FEMININE OR GODDESS As we know the high god concept is about two different god that as we know the god that dwell in the sky and in the earth. The most popular god is god in the earth. This because according to some current though controversial theories, many myths in todays religions maybe related to the suppression of early female-oriented religions by later male-oriented religious systems. This for sure people on that period is may have seen the highest deities as a female. The special thing that we should know is the different between god and goddess. Great Goddess has many names according to different religions. Among her many identities, she was Danu or Diti in ancient India, the Great Mother Nu Kwa of China, the Egyptian cobras goddess Ua Zit, the Greek earth goddess Gaia, the Sun goddess Arinna of Turkey,

Mary Pat Fisher, Livings Religions,( fifth edition), Prentice Hall, 2002, pg. 57 3

Coatlique the Mother of Aztec deities, Queen Mother Freyja of the Scandinavians, Great Spider Woman of the Pueblo peoples of North America, and Mawu, Omnipotent creator of the Dahomey. 6 Beside thats there are many temples and images that build by the believers for thie worshipped ceremony. The temple is almost found in almost every Neolithic and early historic archeology site in Europe and west Asia. The goddess is often symbolically linked with water, serpents, birds, eggs, spirals, the moon, the womb, the vulva, magnetic currents of the earth, psychic powers, and the eternal creation and renewal of life. So, we can describe here that a few thousand years before, the female god or goddess are at the higher rank of anything. This is because people who live in that age appreciate women or female as the person who giving life to nature and from nature is a beginner to a new creature such as human being. This is very clear especially the symbols of the womb that considered as hollow organ of women where babies are conceived and develop. In the same times symbols of the vulva also a symbolic to a fertility because it is a womens external genitals. These symbols even though its seems like sex abuse to a women in this age but for the age before it means they are really appreciate the goddess as a gift. Greek is the most important era where we can see on that time so many goddess were believe live and taking care the Greek Citizen. On that era they believe this goddess were really exists and protect them from any disaster that occurred. The most popular deities on this era is Olympian deities, such as Aprodhite, Appolo, Ares, Poisedon, and of course Zeus that well known as the king of the gods, the ruler of Mount Olympus and also as the god of the sky and thunder. He is symbolizes as thunderbolt, eagle, bull, and oak. 7 The greek goddess also an important god on Greek era. For example, Goddess Demeter is symbolic to a fertility, agriculture, grain and harvest. Actually Demeter is a daughter of Cronus and Rhea

Mary Pat Fisher, Livings Religions,( fifth edition), Prentice Hall, 2002, pg. 38. S.Vernon McCasland., Religions of the World, Random House of New York, 1969, pg.76. 4

and a sister to Zeus. Her symbols are scepter, torch, and corn. So we can make our own point of view here that the different between god and goddess is only they have their own sex. As a goddess they are more to feminine lifestyle, such as giving birth, symbolizes to agriculture that must have a good fertility to grow crops. As a god they are look more masculine like Zeus that symbolizes as a thunder something that seems powerful and strength.

The unique things happen in Greek era is the era where we can recognize too many deities, but there also one ancient era that also well known with their goddess and god, the ancient era that I mean it is Egypt era. In Egypt, the most well know goddess is Isis. This is because she was the protective goddess. She used her spell to help people in need. She is the wife Osiris and beloved mother to Horus. Isis became the most important goddess since each pharaoh considered the living Horus on that age. Isis is often shown holding Horus on her lap. Isis is associated with thrones because her lap was the first 'throne' that Horus sat upon. There are also a symbol of protection called amulet is called Isis knot. The Egpytian also build a temple to honour Isis at Philae and it still standing until today. Her appreance is a woman with headdress in the shape of a throne an a pair of cow horns with a sun disk.

Egypt also got their own god. The well known god is husband to Isis so called Osiris. He is a dead god and known as the underworld ruler. Osiris was the brother or husband of Isis, and the brother of Nepthys and Seth. He was also the father of Horus. But the interesting facts is Osiris that we know as well as a dead god and underworld ruler, Osiris also was a god of resurrection and fertility. In fact, the ancient Egyptians believed that Osiris gave them the gift of barley, one of their most important crops. A large temple was built to honour Osiris at Abydos.

Next, Egypt also believe they also have their god from the sky. His name is Horus that means by the one from above. His appearance is a man with the head of the hawk. He

probably most well-known as the protector of the ruler of Egypt. The Egyptians believed that the pharaoh was the 'living Horus'. The ancient Egyptians had many different beliefs about the god Horus. One of the most common beliefs was that Horus was the son of Isis and Osiris. After Osiris was murdered by his brother Seth, Horus fought with Seth for the throne of Egypt. In this battle, Horus lost one of his eyes. The eye was restored to him and it became a symbol of protection for the ancient Egyptians. After this battle, Horus was chosen to be the ruler of the world of the living. The upper Egypt town was dedicated to Horus and it became one of the best preserved temples in Egypt today.


As we know, Islam is only believe in single god and this is a monotheism religion and totally different with the concept of the high god that believe there is two god that dwells in the sky and in the earth. Islam only believe in Allah and their Prophet Muhammad s.a.w. In the book entitled The People of the Book and the people of a Dubious book in Islamic Religious Tradition taken the phrase from the holy Quran: We believed in Allah and in that which has been bestowed upon Ibrahim and Ismail and Ishaq and Yaqub...we make no distinction between any of them and it is unto Him that we surrender ourselves8 From the phrase we know that Islam doesnt believe the existence of the other god. This because it a sins if the Muslim believe the other god. From the beginner, all Muslim must obey the rule in Islam such as didnt make any worshiped to others deities. Islam got it own Prophet that was a leader for all Ummah and all the Muslim must worshiped only to Prophet Muhammad and Allah.

Muhamad Azizan Sabjan., The People of the Book and the people of a Dubious book in Islamic Religious Tradition Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia, 2009. Pg. 39.

According to the book Al-Ghazali and His Theory of The Soul, The Comparative Study,say that anyone who worships God with real piety, constanly remembering God and renouncing wordly pleasure, may be honoured by the light of knowledge.9 So, what we can describe from this phrase is who is obey and doing the ritual that has been written and asked by Prophet like doing the Solat for five times in a daily life, avoid doing bad thing a do not asking from demons if need a help. Only people who believe that god will full fill their prayers will be award by a thousand of goodness and happiness after faces many obstacles. In addition, man is known has a dual nature. The dual nature I mean here is have body and soul. As a Mans it is a purpose to do ibadah to God according to Islam not worship others.


As Islam, Christian is a religion that also believe in a single God. They believe in Jesus as a messenger deliverer from the father so-called God. Jesus is admitted by all Christianity that he is son of the god that giving birth by Mary. Christianity is a faith based on the life, teachings, death, and resurrection of Jesus. So, Jesus was describe as a saviour to all Christian. In Christian also asking their believers to learn and do the right things in life. If we need some help or in a bad situation we cant asking it from others deities or demon same goes to Islam. Because it written in a bible that i taken from Mary Pat Fisher book, it say that god is a generous parent, those who love god and want to follow the path of righteousness should pray for help, in private. Ask it will given you, seek and you will find it, knock and it will be opened to you.10 The main point here is it similar to the Islamic teaching that always asking their believers to follow the right path. Asking a help only from god the only one. In Christian even they believe Mary, but Mary is not considered as a deity. She is only

Noor Shakirah Mat Akhir., Al-Ghazali and His Theory of The Soul, The Comparative Study,Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia, 2008, pg. 51. 10 Mary Pat Fisher, Livings Religions,( fifth edition), Prentice Hall, 2002, Pg. 29. 7

respectable just because she give birth Jesus. So if there are people considered Mary is deities and its totally wrong because Mary is came from a village and have through the long journey before give birth Jesus Christ.

HINDU VIEW Its different from Islam and Christian because in Hindu they got so many deities. Including male and female deities. Hindus believe that each of them have their own deities that will taking care them. Hinduism is actually an alternative label preferred today is Santana Dharma that regarding to eternal religion. Hinduism as we know the earliest religion that started at Indus Valley. Santana is mean by eternal or ageless and Dharma is always considered and translated as religion. According to the tradition there are actually 333 million deities in India. The feeling is that the divine has countless faces. They believes in Hindu tradition the great goddess Durga is understood as the active principle that can vanquish the demonic forces. She also carries symbols of the cosmic energies of other aspects of the divine. We could simplify here that Hindu also have many deities same goes to ancient Greek, there are so many similarity in their deities such in Hindu the great goddess also symbolizes as a fertility,same goes to ancient Greek.


In a nutshell, I can figure out the concept of the high god according to some of religion. What we can say is even though now is living in technology but then there still others people who believe in taboo things. Deities is only a taboo things for some culture. But for Hindu is not a culture but a religion that they worship everyday. Even there is so many differences between religion but its up to the believers to follow which is he or she think is the right path because God is one and only, God also invisible and unseen. Many arguments

which attempt to prove or disprove the existence of God have been proposed by philosophers, theologians, and other thinkers for many centuries. In philosophical terminology, such arguments concern schools of thought on the epistemology of the ontology of God.

There are many philosophical issues concerning the existence of God. Some definitions of God are sometimes nonspecific, while other definitions can be selfcontradictory. Arguments for the existence of God typically include metaphysical, empirical, inductive, and subjective types, while others revolve around holes in evolutionary theory and order and complexity in the world. Arguments against the existence of God typically include empirical, deductive, and inductive types. Conclusions reached include: "God does not exist" "God almost certainly does not exist no one knows whether God exists "God exists, but this cannot be proven or disproven" theism and "God exists and this can be proven" theism. There are numerous variations on these positions.


The Sky God of Horus




Arthur C.Lehmann, James E. Myers., Magic, Witchcraft, and Religion, 2001,Mayfield Publishing Company
John S.Mbiti, Concepts of God in Africa, Praeger Publishers, 1970, Keith Ward, The Concept of God, St.Martin Press, 1974, pg. 3. Mary Pat Fisher, Livings Religions,( fifth edition), Prentice Hall, 2002, Muhamad Azizan Sabjan., The People of the Book and the people of a Dubious book in Islamic Religious Tradition Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia, 2009. Noor Shakirah Mat Akhir., Al-Ghazali and His Theory of The Soul, The Comparative

Study,Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia, 2008, her, Livings Religions,( fifth edition), Prentice Hall, 2002, S.Vernon McCasland., Religions of the World, Random House of New York, 1969,


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