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Titre original : 106 Functional Equations Marathon

Transféré par Vuong King

106 Functional Equations Marathon

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Adib Hasan

PROBLEMS

1. Find all functions f : Q+ Q+ that satises the following two conditions for all x Q+: 1. f (x + 1) = f (x) + 1 2. f (x2) = f (x)2 2. Determine all functions f : R R such that: f (x3) f ( y 3) = (x2 + xy + y 2)( f (x) f ( y )) 3. Find all continuous functions f : R R such that: (1 + f (x) f ( y )) f (x + y ) = f (x) + f ( y ) 4. Determine all functions f : R R such that: f (x3 + y 3) = xf (x2) + yf ( y 2) 5. Find all functions f : R+ R satisfying f (x + y ) f ( y ) = 6.

x y (x + y )

7.

Find least possible value of f (1998) where f : N N satises the following equation: f (n2 f (m)) = mf (n)2

8.

9.

Let f : R R be a function such that: (i) f (x) + f ( y ) + 1 f (x + y ) f (x) + f ( y ) (ii)For all x [0, 1), f (0) f (x) (iii) f (1) = f (1) = 1. Find all such functions.

10. Determine all functions f : R R such that: f (xy + f (x)) = xf ( y ) + f (x) 11. Find all functions f : Q Q such that f (2x) = 2 f (x) and f (x) + f

1 x

= 1.

12. Determine all continuous functions f : R R such that: 1 f (xf ( y )) + f ( yf (x)) = f (2x) f (2 y ) 2

13. Find all functions f : R R such that: f (x5) f ( y 5) = ( f (x) f ( y ))(x4 + x3 y + x2 y 2 + xy 3 + y 4) 14. Determine all functions f : R R such that: f (xf (x) + f ( y )) = y + f (x)2 15. Determine all functions f : R R such that: f (x)2 + 2 yf (x) + f ( y ) = f ( y + f (x)) 16. Determine all polynomial functions f : R R, with integer coecients, which are bijective and satisfy the relation: f (x)2 = f (x2) 2 f (x) + a where a is a xed real. 17. Let k is a non-zero real constant.Find all functions f : R R satisfying f (xy ) = f (x) f ( y ) and f (x + k ) = f (x) + f (k ). 18. Find all continuous and strictly-decreasing functions f : R+ R+ that satises f (x + y ) + f ( f (x) + f ( y )) = f ( f (x + f ( y )) + f ( y + f (x))) 19. Find all functions f : N N N of two variables satisfying f (x, x) = x, f (x, y ) = f ( y, x), (x + y ) f (x, y ) = yf (x, x + y ) 20. Prove that for any function f : R R, f (x + y + xy ) = f (x) + f ( y ) + f (xy ) 21. Find all functions f : Z Z such that f (x)3 + f ( y )3 + f (z )3 = f (x3 + y 3 + z 3) 22. Determine all functions f : R R such that: f ( f (x) + y ) = 2x + f ( f ( y ) x) 23. Find all functions f : N N such that: f (x + y ) = f (x) + f ( y )

f ( f (n)) + f (n + 1) = n + 2

24. Find all functions f : R+ R+ such that: f (x) f ( yf (x)) = f (x + y ) 25. Find all functions f : R R which satisfy this equation: f (xf ( y ) + f (x)) = f ( yf (x)) + x 26. Find all functions f : R R satisfying f (x2 + f ( y )) = y + f (x)2 27. If any function f : R R satises f (x3 + y 3) = (x + y )( f (x)2 f (x) f ( y ) + f ( y )2) then prove that f (1996x) = 1996 f (x). 28. Find all surjective functions f : R R satisfying f ( f (x y )) = f (x) f ( y ) 29. Find all k R for which there exists a dierentiable function f : R R such that f (1) 1 and f (x)2 + f (x)2 = k . 30. Find all a R for which there exists a non-constant function f : (0, 1] R such that a + f (x + y xy ) + f (x) f ( y ) f (x) + f ( y ) 31. Find all functions f : N N such that 2n + 2009 f ( f (n)) + f (n) 2n + 2011 32. Find all functions f : R+ R satisfying f (a) = 1 and f (x ) f ( y ) + f a a f y x = 2 f (xy )

33. Determine all functions f : Q C such that (i) for any rational x1, x2, , x2010, f (x1 + x2 + + x2010) = f (x1) f (x2) f (x2010) (ii)for all x Q, f (2010) f (x) = f (2010) f (x). 34. Find all functions f : Q R satisfying f (x + y + z ) = f (x) + f ( y ) + f (z ) + 3 3 f (x + y ) f ( y + z ) f (z + x) x, y, z Q

35.

y R

36. 37. Find all functions f : R R satisfying f ( f (x) + y ) = f (x2 y ) + 4 f (x) y 38. Find all functions f : R+ R+ satisfying f (x)2 + 2 yf (x) + f ( y ) = f ( y + f (x)) 39. Let k 1 be a given integer.Find all functions f : R R such that f (xk + f ( y )) = y + f (x)k 40. Find all functions f : R R that satisfy f (xy ) + f (x y ) f (x + y ) 41. Find all functions f : Z Z that satisfy f (1) = f (1) and f (m) + f (n) = f (m + 2mn) + f (n 2mn) 42. Find all continuous functions f : R R satisfying f (x + f ( y + f (z ))) = f (x) + f ( f ( y )) + f ( f ( f (z ))) 43. Let f be a real function dened on the positive half-axis for which f (xy ) = xf ( y ) + yf (x) and f (x + 1) f (x) hold for every positive x. If 1 1 f 2 = 2 , show that f (x) + f (1 x) x log2x (1 x)log2(1 x) for every x (0, 1). 44. Let a be a real number and let f : R R be a function satisfying f (0) = 2 and f (x + y ) = f (x) f (a y ) + f ( y ) f (a x) .Prove that f is a constant function. 45. Find all continuous functions f : R R such that f (x )3 = 46. x 2 (x + 7xf (x) + 16 f (x)2) 12

1

47.

2xy x+ y

Show that f (x) < 0 for some value of x. 48. Find all continuous functions f : R R such that f (x + y ) + f (xy ) = f (x) + f ( y ) + f (xy + 1) 49.A Find all continuous functions f : R R such that f (x) + f ( y ) + f (z ) + f (x + y + z ) = f (x + y ) + f ( y + z ) + f (z + x) + f (0) 49.B Find all functions f : R R satisfying f (xf ( y ) + f (x)) = 2 f (x) + xy 50. A function f : R R satises the following conditions: (i) f (x) = f (x) (ii) f (x + 1) = f (x) + 1 f (x) 1 (iii) f x = x2 Prove that f (x) = x x R. Find all injective functions f : N N which satises f ( f (x)) 52. f (x) + x 2

f ( x) + f ( y ) 2

51.

53.

f (xn + f ( y )) = y + f (x)n

where n > 1 is a xed natural number. 54. Find all functions f : Z Z such that f (x y + f ( y )) = f (x) + f ( y ) 55. Find all functions f : R+ R+ which have the property f (x) f ( y ) = 2 f (x + yf (x)) 56. Find all functions f : Q+ Q+ with the property f (x) + f ( y ) + 2xyf (xy ) = f (xy ) f (x + y )

57.

58.

Determine all functions f : N0 {1, 2, (i)For 0 n 2000, f (n) = n (ii) f ( f (m) + f (n)) = f (m + n) Find all functions f : R R such that

59.

f (x + f ( y )) = y + f (x + 1)

60.

Let n > m > 1 be odd integers.Let f (x) = xm + xn + x + 1.Prove that f (x) is irreducible over Z. A function f : Z Z satises the following equation: f (m + n) + f (mn 1) = f (m) f (n) + 2 Find all such functions.

61.

62. Let f : R+ R+ be a function such that f ab = f (a) f (b) for all a, b R+ satisfying a2b > 2.Prove that the equation holds for all a, b R+ 63. Find all functions f : Z Z such that [ f (m) + f (n)] f (m n) = [ f (m) f (n)] f (m + n) 64. Find all polynomials which satisfy P (x + 1) = P (x) + 2x + 1 65. A rational function f (i.e. a function which is a quotient of two polynomials) 1 has the property that f (x) = f x .Prove that f is a function in the variable 1 x + x. Find all functions f : R R such that

66.

f (x y ) = f (x + y ) f ( y )

67.

68.

1 x+y

=f

1 x

+f

1 y

x + y R0, too. 69. Let f (n) be dened on the set of positive integers by the rules: f (1) = 2 and f (n + 1) = f (n)2 f (n) + 1 Prove that for all integers n > 1, we have 1 70. 1

n 1 22

<

1 1 + + f (1) f (2)

1 1 < 1 2n f (n) 2

Determine all functions f dened on the set of positive integers that have the property f (xf ( y ) + y ) = yf (x) + f ( y ) and f ( p) is a prime for any prime p.

71.

Determine all functions f : R {0, 1} R such that f (x) + f 1 2(1 2x) = 1x x(1 x)

72.

73.

74.

n2 + 2n + 1

. + + 3 n2 2n + 1 + f (999997) + f (999999). 3 n2 1

76.

77.

nd all functions f : R R such that xf (x) yf ( y ) = (x y ) f (x + y ) For each positive integer n let f (n) = 2 n n + 1 + n 1 .Determine all values of n for which f (n) = 1.

78.

79.

Let f : Q Q be an injective function and f (x) = xn 2x.If n 3, nd all natural odd values of n. Find all continuous, strictly increasing functions f : R R such that f (0) = 0, f (1) = 1 f (x + y ) = f (x) + f ( y ) for all x, y R such that x + y = x + y . Find all functions f : R R such that (x y ) f (x + y ) (x + y ) f (x y ) = 4 x y (x2 y 2)

80.

81.

82.

Find All Functions f : N N f (m + f (n)) = n + f (m + k ) where k is xed natural number. Let f be a function dened for all real numbers and taking real numbers as its values. Suppose that, for all real numbers x, y the function satises f (2 x) = f sin and x y + 2 2 + f sin x y 2 2

83.

f (x2 y 2) = (x + y ) f (x y ) + (x y ) f (x + y ). Show that these conditions uniquely determine f (1990 + 2 1990 + 3 1990 ) and give its value. 84. Find all polynomials P (x) Such that x P (x 1) = (x 15) P (x) 85. Find all functions f : R R such that f (x) f ( y f (x) 1) = x2 f ( y ) f (x) 86. 87. Prove that there is no function like f : R+ R such that : f (x + y ) > y ( f (x)2). Let f be a function dened for positive integers with positive integral values satisfying the conditions: (i) f (a b) = f (a) f (b), (ii) f (a) < f (b) if a < b, (iii) f (3) 7 Find the minimum value for f (3). A function f : N N satises (i) f (a b) = f (a) f (b) whenever the gcd of a and b is 1, (i i) f ( p + q ) = f ( p) + f ( q ) for all prime numbers p and q . Show that f (2) = 2, f (3) = 3 and f (1999) = 1999.

88.

89.

90.A Find all functions f : R R such that f (a3) + f (b3) + f (c3) = f (3 a b c) 90.B Find all functions f : R R such that f (a3) + f (b3) + f (c3) = a f (a2) + b f (b2) + c f (c2) 91. Let f be a bijection from N into itself. Prove that one can always nd three natural numbers a, b, c such that a < b < c and f (a) + f (c) = 2 f (b). Suppose two functions f (x) and g (x) are dened for all x such that 2 < x < 4 and satisfy 2 < f (x) < 4, 2 < g (x) < 4, f ( g (x)) = g ( f (x)) = x and f (x) g (x) = x2, for all such values of x.Prove that f (3) = g (3). Determine all monotone functions f : R Z such that f (x) = x, x Z and f (x + y ) f (x ) + f ( y ) Find all monotone functions f : R R such that f (4 x) f (3 x) = 2 x.

92.

93.

94.

95.A Does there exist a function f : R R satisfying f ( f (x)) = x2 2 95.B Do there exist the real coecients a, b, c such that the following functional equation f ( f (x)) = a x2 + b x + c has at least one root? 96. Let n N, such that n N and A = {a + b n |a, b N , a2 n b2 = 1}. Prove that the function f : A N, such that f (x) = [x] is injective but not surjective. Find all functions f : N N such that f ( f (m) + f (n)) = m + n. Find all functions f : R+ R+ such that f (x2 + y 2) = f (x y ) 99. Find all functions f : Z Z such that: (i) f (1) = f (1) ( i i ) f (x ) + f ( y ) = f ( x + 2 x y ) + f ( y 2 x y ).

97. 98.

101.

Let f : R R be a function such that f (x y ) + f (x y ) f (x + y ). Prove that f (x) 0. Find all continuous functions f : (0, +) (0, +), such that f (x) = f 2 x2 2 x + 1 , for each x > 0. Determine all functions f : N0 N0 such that f (a2 b2) = f 2(a) f 2(b), for all a, b N0, a b. Find all continues functions f : R R for each two real numbers x, y : f (x + y ) = f (x + f ( y )) Find all functions f : R R such that f ( f (x) y + x) = x f ( y ) + f (x) , for all real numbers x, y and the equation f (t) = t has exactly one root. Find all functions f : X R such that f (x + y ) + f (x y 1) = ( f (x) + 1) ( f ( y ) + 1) for all x, y X, if a) X = Z. b) X = Q.

106.

SOLUTIONS

1. Find all functions f : Q+ Q+ that satises the following two conditions for all x Q+: 1. f (x + 1) = f (x) + 1 2. f (x2) = f (x)2 Solution: From (1) we can easily nd by induction that for all n N, f (x + n) = f (x) + n Therefore by (2), we have f ((x + n)2) = f (x + n)2 f (x2 + 2nx + n2) = ( f (x) + n)2 f (x2 + 2nx) + n2 = f (x)2 + 2 f (x)n + n2 f (x2 + 2nx) = f (x)2 + 2nf (x) Now lets put x = q

p

p, q N0 and let n q . f p2 q2 + 2p = f p2 p + 2 qf 2 q q

So f

p q

2. Determine all functions f : R R such that: f (x3) f ( y 3) = (x2 + xy + y 2)( f (x) f ( y )) Solution: WLOG we may assume that f (0) = 0.(Otherwise let F (x) = f (x) f (0).Its easy to see F also follows the given equation.) Now putting y = 0 we get f (x3) = x2 f (x).Substituting in the main equation we get f (x) = xf (1).So all the functions are f (x) = ax +b where a, b R 3. Find all continuous functions f : R R such that: (1 + f (x) f ( y )) f (x + y ) = f (x) + f ( y ) Solution: If f (0) is not 0, then P (0, 0) gives 1 + f (0)2 = 2 f (0) = 1, 1. P (0, x) gives f (x) = 1 each time and so by continuity we get f (x) = 1 or f (x) = 1. If f (0) = 0 P (x, x) gives f (x) = f (x) if f (u) = 0 with u 0 then f (x + u) = f (x) u u u u f = f = f =0 f 2 2 2 2 we also have f (2 u) = 0 (and also f (n u) = 0 by induction) n so f ( k u) = 0 for every n, k N so f (x) = 0 for every x R. (Take limits and use 2 continuity) If f (u) = 0 only for u = 0

now suppose there exist an a: f (a) 1 so there is x0 for which we have f (x0) = 1 now let x = y = 0.5 x0 so f (x0/2) = 1 by [ f (0.5 x0) 1]2 = 0 and because of continuity f (0) = 1 or f (0) = 1 by the same argument. So | f (x)| < 1 for every x now let f (x) = tanh ( g (x)) (this may be done, by the domain of tanh) so g (x + y ) = g (x) + g ( y ) so g (x) = c x so f (x) = tanh (c x). 4. Determine all functions f : R R such that: f (x3 + y 3) = xf (x2) + yf ( y 2) Solution: Let P (x, y ) be the assertion.The following things can be proved easily: f (0) = 0; f (x3) = x f (x2); f (x + y ) = f (x) + f ( y )(x, y ) R2 f ((x + y )3) = (x + y ) f ((x + y )2) = (x + y ) ( f (x2) + 2 f (x y ) + f ( y 2)) f ((x + y )3) = f (x3) + f ( y 3) + 3 f (x y (x + y )) Comparing these two we nd that x f ( y ) + y f (x) + 2 (x + y ) f (x y ) = 3 f (x y (x + y )) f (x2) = So f (x6) = x f (1) + (2 x 1) f (x) 2

x3 f (1) + (2 x3 1) x f (x2) 2 x2 f (1) + (2 x2 1) f (x2) Also notice f (x6) = x2 f (x4) = x2 2 From these two, we get (x 1) f (x2) = (x 1) x2 f (1) Lets assume x 1.So f (x2) = x2 f (1).The last formula also works for x = 1.So f (x3) = x f (x2) = x3 f (1) x R. So the only function satisfying P (x, y ) is f (x) = c x x R where c is a xed real. 5. Find all functions f : R+ R satisfying f (x + y ) f ( y ) =

x y (x + y )

Solution: WLOG we may assume that f (1) = 1.(Otherwise let F (x) = f (x) f (1) 1.Its easy to see F (1) = 1 and F also follows the given equation.)Now let P (x, y )

1

f (x + y ) f ( y ) =

x y (x + y )

P (x, 1) gives f (x) = x .So all the functions are f (x) = x + c where c R.

6.

Solution: Let P (x, y ) f (x + yf (x)) + f (xf ( y ) y ) = f (x) f ( y ) + 2 xy . P (0, 0) f (0) = 0 f ( x ) = f (x ) P (0, x) Suppose f (a) = 0.Then P (a, a) 0 = 2a2 a = 0.So f (x) = 0 x = 0.Now let x 0. x+ y x+y +P , x f (2x + y ) = 2 f (x) + f ( y ) P x, f (x) f (x ) f (2x + y ) = It is obviously true for x = 0.Now make a new assertion Q(x, y ) 2 f (x ) + f ( y ) for all x, y R. Q(x, 0) f (2x) = 2 f (x) and so f (2x + y ) = f (2x) + f ( y ).Therefore f (x + y ) = f (x) + f ( y )x, y R and the function is aditive. P ( y, x) f ( y + xf ( y )) + f ( yf (x) x) = f ( y ) f (x) + 2 xy f ( y + x( f ( y )) f ( y ( f (x) ) + x) = f (x) ( f ( y )) + 2 xy So if f (x) is a solution then f (x) is also a solution.Hence wlog we may consider f (1) 0. Now using aditive property the original assertion becomes R(x, y ): f (xf ( y )) + f ( yf (x)) = 2xy f is surjective.So b such that f (b) = 1.Then R(a, a) a2 = 1 R x, 2 a = 1. (Remember that we assumed f (1) 0 i.e. f (1) 0) R(x, 1) f (x) + f ( f (x)) = 2x hence f is injective. R(x, x) f (xf (x)) = x2 and so f (x2) = f ( f (xf (x))).Now R(xf (x), 1) gives f (x2) + x2 = 2xf (x) So f ((x + y )2) + (x + y )2 = 2(x + y ) f (x + y ) f (xy ) + xy = xf ( y ) + yf (x).So we have the following properties: R(x, y ) f (xf ( y )) + f ( yf (x)) = 2xy f (xy ) = xf ( y ) + yf (x) xy A(x, y ) B (x ) f ( f (x)) = 2x f (x).So f (xf (x)) = x2 ... ... ... ... (1) R(x, x) 2 A(x, f (x)) f (xf (x)) = xf ( f (x)) + f (x) xf (x) ... ... (2) f ( f (x)) = 2x f (x) ... ... ... ... (3) B (x ) 2 2 2 So (1) + (2) + x(3) 0 = x + f (x) 2xf (x) ( f (x ) x ) = 0 f (x ) = x So all the functions are f (x) = xx R and f (x) = xx R. 7. Find least possible value of f (1998) where f : N N satises the following

1

equation: f (n2 f (m)) = mf (n)2 Solution: Denote f (1) = a, and put m = n = 1, therefore f ( f (k )) = a2 k and f (a k 2) = f 2(k ), k N Thus now, we have: f 2(x) f 2( y ) = f 2(x) f (a y 2) = f (x2 f ( f (a y 2))) = f (x2 a3 y 2) = f (a (a x y )2 ) = f 2 (a x y ) f (a x y ) = f (x ) f ( y ) f (a x ) = a f (x ) a f (x y ) = f (x) f ( y ), x, y N. Now we can easily prove that f (x) is divisible by a for each x, more likely we have that f k(x) = ak 1 f (xk) is divisible by ak 1. For proving the above asertion we consider p and p the exact powers of a prime p that tivide f (x) and a respectively, therefore k (k 1) , k N, therefore , so f (x) is divisible by a. f (x) Now we just consider the function g (x) = a . Thus: g (1) = 1, g (x y ) = g (x) g ( y ), g ( g (x)) = x. Since g (x) respects the initial condition of the problem and g (x) f (x), we claim that it is enough to nd the least value of g (1998). Since g (1998) = g (2 33 37) = g (2) g 3(3) g (37), and g (2), g (3), g (37) are disting prime numbers (the proof follows easily), we have that g (1998), is not smaller than 23 3 5 = 120. But g beeing a bijection, the value 120, is obtained for any g , so we have that g (2) = 3, g (3) = 2, g (5) = 37, g (37) = 5, therefore the answer is 120. 8. Find all functions f : R+ R+ satisfying: f (x + f ( y )) = f (x + y ) + f ( y ) Solution: Find all functions f : R+ R+ satisfying: f (x + f ( y )) = f (x + y ) + f ( y ) For any positive real numbers z , we have that f (x + f ( y )) +z = f (x + y ) + f ( y ) + z f ( f (x + f ( y )) + z ) = f ( f (x + y ) + f ( y ) + z ) f (x + f ( y ) + z ) + f (x + f ( y ) = f (x + y + f ( y ) + z ) + f (x + y ) f (x + y + z ) + f ( y ) + f ( x + y ) + f ( y ) = f (x + 2 y + z ) + f ( y ) + f (x + y ) f (x + y + z ) + f ( y ) = f (x + 2 y + z ) So f (a) + f (b) = f (a + b) and by Cauchy in positive reals, then f (x) = x for all x (0, ). Now its easy to see that = 2, then f (x) = 2xx R+. 9. Let f : R R be a function such that: (i) f (x) + f ( y ) + 1 f (x + y ) f (x) + f ( y ) (ii)For all x [0, 1), f (0) f (x) (iii) f (1) = f (1) = 1. Find all such functions.

Solution: No complete solution was found. 10. Determine all functions f : R R such that: f (xy + f (x)) = xf ( y ) + f (x) Solution: Let P (x, y ) be the assertion f (x y + f (x)) = x f ( y ) + f (x) f (x) = 0 x is a solution and well consider from now that a such that f (a) 0. Suppose f (0) 0. Then P (x, 0) f ( f (x)) = x f (0) + f (x) and so f (x1) = f (x2) x1 = x2 and f (x) is injective. Then P (0, 0) f ( f (0)) = f (0) and, since f (x) is injective, f (0) = 0, so contradiction. So f (0) = 0 and P (x, 0) f ( f (x)) = f (x) P ( f (a), 1) 0 = f (a)( f ( 1) + 1) and so f (1) = 1 Let g (x) = f (x) x Suppose now b such that f (b) b x x x x x = P ,b f b +f f (b ) + f f (b ) b f (b ) b f (b ) b f (b) b f (b ) b x x x x b =x and so f b +f +f f (b ) b f (b ) b f (b) b f (b) b x x and so g b = x and g (R) = R +f f (b) b f (b ) b but P (x, 1) f ( f (x) x) = f (x) x and so f (x) = x x g (R) And its immediate to see that this indeed is a solution. So we got two solutions : f (x ) = 0 x f (x ) = x x 11. Find all functions f : Q Q such that f (2x) = 2 f (x) and f (x) + f

1 x

= 1.

Solution: Inductively f (2nx) = 2nx from the rst equation for all integer n.Since 1 2 f (1) = 1 f (1) = 2 .We get f (2n) = 2n 1, hence f (2n) = 1 2n 1.But also f (2n) = 2n 1. Then 1 2n 1 = 2n 1, which is obviously not true for any positive integer n. Hence there is no such function. 12. Determine all continuous functions f : R R such that: 1 f (xf ( y )) + f ( yf (x)) = f (2x) f (2 y ) 2

Solution: In this proof, well show that when f is not constant, it is bijective on the separate domains (, 0] and [0, ), (not necessarily on R) and then nd all solutions on those domains. Then we get all functions f , by joining any two functions from the separate domains and checking they work. I mentioned some of the solutions in an earlier post. Assume f is not constant and let P (x, y ) f (x f ( y )) + f ( y f (x)) = 1 f (2 x) f (2 y ). 2 f (0) = 0 or 4 (1) P (0, 0): 4 f (0) = f (0)2

Injectivity As f (x) = |x | is a solution, we cannot prove that f is injective on R, instead we show it is injective on the domains (, 0] and [0, ). So suppose there were two reals a b such that f (a) = f (b), then we have 1 1 f (2 a)2 + f (2 b)2 = f (a f (a)) + f (b f (b)) = f (a f (b)) + f (b f (a)) = 4 4 1 f (2 a) f (2 b) 2 1 Which implies [ f (2 a) f (2 b)]2 = 0 f (2 a) = f (2 b) 4 Moreover, 1 f (a f (x)) + f (x f (a)) = f (2 a) f (2 x) 2 1 = f (2 b) f (2 x) = f (b f (x)) + f (x f (b)) 2 This then implies f (a f (x)) = f (b f (x)) for all x R ( ) . Case 1: f (0) = 0 First we will show that f is injective on [0, ). So for the sake of contradiction assume there existed a > b > 0 such that f (a) = f (b). Since f (x) is continuous and not constant when x > 0, there must be some interval [0, c1] or [c1, 0] such that f is surjective onto that interval. wlog that interval is [0, c1]. So, motivated by () we b dene a strictly decreasing sequence u0 [0, c1], un +1 = a un. We nd that un [0, c1] for all n and therefore f (a u0) = f (b u0) = f (a u1) = = f (a un). Now lim un 0, so by the continuity of f we have

n n

lim f (a un) = f

lim a un = f (0) = 0

. This implies that f (a u0) = 0 for all u0 [0, c1], and therefore f (x) = 0 when x [0, a c1]. 1 0 = f (x f (x)) = f (2 x)2, hence But then for any x [0, ac1] we have P (x, x) 4 f (2 x) = 0. Inductively we nd that f (x) = 0 for all x R+. Contradicting the assumption that f was not constant on that domain. Hence f is injective on the domain [0, ). As for the domain (, 0], simply alter the original assumption to a < b < 0 such that f (a) = f (b) and the same proof applies. Hence f is injective on (, 0] and [0, ) Case 2: f (0) = 4 Again we will consider the case x [0, ). Assume there exists a > b > 0 such that f (a ) = f (b ). P x ,0 2 f (2 x) + 4 = 2 f (x) f (2 x) 4 = 2 [ f (x) 4]

and inductively f (2n x) 4 = 2n [ f (x) 4]. So assuming there exists atleast one value such that f (x) 4 0, we will have f (2n) . And since f is continuous, f will also be surjective onto at least one of: [4, ) or (, 4]. wlog, we will assume it [4, )

Now for any y [4, ) there must exists a u0 [4, b 4], such that y = b un = b bn u0 for some n. Hence for any value, v in the range of f , there exists some value in x [4 b, 4 a] such that f (x) = v . But f is continuous on the domain [4 b, 4 a] therefore achieves a (nite) maximum. This contradicts the fact that f is surjective on [4, ), hence our assumption is false and f (x) is injective on the domain [0, ). We handle the negative domain (, 0] by changing the assumption to a < b < 0 and f (a) = f (b). Therefore f (x) is injective on both domains x (, 0] and [0, ). (in fact, it is bijective) Surjectivity We already know that f (x) is surjective on either (, 4] or [4, ) when f (0) = 4, so consider, f (0) = 0. We know that there exists some interval [c1, 0] or [0, c1] such that f is surjective onto that range and f is monotonic increasing/decreasing (following from f being injective and continuous), so we consider two cases. Case 1: f is surjective on [0,c1] Suppose f is bounded above, let limx f (x) L1. Then when f ( y ) > 00 we have L1 P (, y ): L1 + f (L1 y ) = f (2 y ). 2 un , and as we send n , by the continuity of f we So let y = u0 > 0, and un +1 = L L1 have: L1 + f (0) = f (0) L 1 = 0. 2 But this implies f is constant, and contradicts that f is surjective on [0, c1], hence f is not bounded above, and must be surjective onto [0, ). Case 2: f is surjective on [c1,0] Suppose f is bounded below, let lim f (x) L2, then when f ( y ) < 0 we have n L1 f (2 y ). By a similar argument to case 1, we nd L2 = 0, P (, y ): L2 + f (L1 y ) = 2 contradicting that f is not constant. Hence f (x) has no lower bound and must be surjective onto [0, ) Conclusion functions when f (0)=0 When f (0) = 0, we know that there exists 2 c R such that f (2 c) = 4, hence 1 f (c f (c)) = f (2 c)2 = 4 = f (2 c) So by the fact that f is injective c f (c) = 2 c 4 f (c) = 2 . 1 P (x, c): f (2 x) + f (c f (x)) = f (2 c) f (2 x) = 2 f (2 x), f (c f (x)) = f (2 x) 2 2 f (x) = x c 2 Since c can be any real value, let c = k we have f (x) = k x (). functions when f (0)=4 When f (0) = 4 the above doesnt work because c = 0. But we do know that f (2n x) = 4 + 2n [ f (x) 4]. So let f (x) = g (x) + 4 so that g (2n x) = 2n g (x) (2). 1 f (x f (x)) = f (2 x)2 = ( f (x) 2)2 g (x g (x) + 4 x) = Now P (x, x) 4 2 g (x) + 4 g (x). Applying (2) gives g (2n x g (x) + x) = 2n g (x)2 + g (x), which holds for all n Z , x R+

Similar to the previous case we dene the increasing sequence u0 [4, b 4] and un +1 = a u . Again un [4, ) and therefore f (b u0) = f (a u0) = f (b u1) = = f (b un). b n

a an

Now there must exist c R such that f (c) = 1, so, letting x = c gives: g (2n c + c) = 2n + 1 and applying (2) gives f (2n + m c + 2m) = 2n + m + 2m (3) which also holds for all n, m Z and x R. So now we will dene a sequence that has a limit at any positive real number we choose, let that limit be a R+, and show that g (a c) = a, it will follow that g (c x) = x for all x R+. So pick two integers k, Z such that 2k + 2 < a, and let u0 = 2k + 2. Now the next term in the sequence is dened by un +1 = 2kn +1 u2 n + un, where kn +1 is the largest possible integer such that un +1 < a. Then the limit of this sequence as n is a. But from (3) we have g (c un) = un for all n N, so by the continuity of g , This is true for all real a R+, so we have g (x) = 1 so let c = k and f (x) = k x + 4 () All the solutions of f f (x ) = k x kR f (x ) = k x + 4 kR And when when k1 0, k2 0, we also have f (x ) = f (x) =

n

lim g (c un) = g

lim c un = g (c a) = a.

x c

0.

k1 x x < 0 k2 x x 0 k1 x + 4 x < 0 k2 x + 4 x 0

13. Find all functions f : R R such that: f (x5) f ( y 5) = ( f (x) f ( y ))(x4 + x3 y + x2 y 2 + xy 3 + y 4) Solution: WLOG assume f (0) = 0. (Otherwise let F (x) = f (x) f (0). Then you can easily see F works in equation!). Dene P (x, y ) f (x5) f ( y 5) = ( f (x) f ( y ))(x4 + x3 y + x2 y 2 + xy 3 + y 4). f (x5) = x4 f (x). Now rewrite P (x, 1) to get P (x, 0) f (x)(x3 + x2 + x + 1) = (x3 + x2 + x + 1) f (1)x Now suppose x 1. Then f (x) = xf (1). Now use P (2, 1) to prove f (1) = f (1). So all the functions are f (x) = xf (1) + f (0). 14. Determine all functions f : R R such that: f (xf (x) + f ( y )) = y + f (x)2 f (xf (x) + f ( y )) = y + f (x)2 Solution: Let P (x, y ) 2 P (x, f (x) ) there exists an a such that f (a) = 0. P (a, x) f ( f (x)) = x.So the function is injective.Now comparing P (x, y ) and P ( f (x), y ) we nd f (x)2 = x2.So f (x) = x or x at each point.Then f (0) = 0.Suppose a, b such that

f (a) = a and f (b) = b and a, b 0.P (a, b) f (a2 b) = b + a2.We know that f (a2 b) = a2 b or b a2.But none of them is equal to b + a2 for non-zero a, b.Hence such a, b cant exist.So all the functions are f (x) = x x R and f (x) = x x R. 15. Determine all functions f : R R such that: f (x)2 + 2 yf (x) + f ( y ) = f ( y + f (x)) Solution: Let P (x, y ) be the assertion f (x)2 + 2 y f (x) + f ( y ) = f ( y + f (x)) f (x) = 0 x is a solution. So well look from now for non all-zero solutions. u f (a)2 Let f (a) 0 : P a, u = f (something) f (something else) and so 2 f (a ) any real may be written as a dierence f (v ) f (w ). f (w )2 + f ( f (w)) = f (0) P (w, f (w )) P (v, f (w )) f (v )2 2 f (v ) f (w ) + f ( f (w )) = f ( f (v ) f (w )) Subtracting the rst from the second implies f (v )2 2 f (v ) f (w ) + f (w )2 = f ( f (v ) f (w)) f (0) Therefore f ( f (v ) f (w )) = ( f (v ) f (w ))2 + f (0) And so f (x) = x2 + f (0) x R which indeed is a solution. Hence the two solutions : f (x) = 0 x f (x) = x2 + a x 16. Determine all polynomial functions f : R R, with integer coecients, which are bijective and satisfy the relation: f (x)2 = f (x2) 2 f (x) + a where a is a xed real. Solution:Let g (x) = f (x) + 1. The equation can be written as g (x)2 = g (x2) + a and so g (x2) = g (x)2 and there are two cases: g (x) is odd: So g (0) = 0 and so a = 0.Thus we get g (x)2 = g (x2).Its easy to see that if ei is a root of g (x), then so is ei .So only roots may be 0 and 1.Since 1 does not t, only odd polynomials matching g (x)2 = g (x2) are g (x) = 0 and g (x) = x2n +1. g (x) is even: Then, (i)Either g (x) = c Z such that c2 c = a. (i i)Or g (x) = h(x2) and the equation becomes h(x2)2 = h(x4) + a and so 2 h(x) = h(x2) + a (remember these are polynomials) By the same argument as before the conclution is the only solutions are g (x) = c and g (x) = x2n. So all the solutions for f (x) are: 1. If c Z such that c2 c = a, then no solution. 2. If c Z such that c2 c = a, then f (x) = c 1.

3. a = 0, then f (x) = xn 1. 17. Let k is a non-zero real constant.Find all functions f : R R satisfying f (xy ) = f (x) f ( y ) and f (x + k ) = f (x) + f (k ). Solution: f ( y ) f (x) + f ( y ) f (k ) = f ( y ) f (x + k ) f (x y ) + f (k y ) = f (x y + y k ) Now we are going to prove f (x + k y ) = f (x) + f (k y ). If y = 0, its easy since x f (0) = 0. If y 0, then we can put y in x of f (x y ) + f (k y ) = f (x y + y k ). y So f (x + k y ) = f (x) + f (k y ). Now, since k isnt 0, we can put k in y of f (x + k y ) = f (x) + f (k y ). So f (x + y ) = f (x) + f ( y ). Since is an Cauchy equation, we can know that for some constant c, that f ( q ) = c q when q is an rational number. But because of f (x y ) = f (x) f ( y ), c is 0 or 1. If c = 0, then we can easily know that f (x) = 0 for all real number x. If c = 1, then f ( q ) = q . Now lets prove f (x) = x. Since f (x y ) = f (x) f ( y ), f (x2) = ( f (x))2. So if x > 0, then f (x) > 0 since f (x) 0. But f (x) = f (x). So if x < 0, then f (x) < 0. Now let a a constant that satises f (a) > a. Then if we let f (a) = b, there is a rational number p that satises b > p > a. So, f ( p a) + f (a) = f ( p) = p. So, f ( p a) = p f (a) = p b < 0. But, p a > 0. So a contradiction! So we can know that f (x) x. With a similar way, we can know that f (x) x. So f (x) = x. We can conclude that possible functions are f (x) = 0 and f (x) = x. 18. Find all continuous and strictly-decreasing functions f : R+ R+ that satises f (x + y ) + f ( f (x) + f ( y )) = f ( f (x + f ( y )) + f ( y + f (x))) Solution: No complete solution was found. 19. Find all functions f : N N N of two variables satisfying f (x, x) = x, f (x, y ) = f ( y, x), (x + y ) f (x, y ) = yf (x, x + y ) Solution: Substituting f (x, y ) = xy we get g (x, x) = x, g (x, y ) = g ( y, x), g (x, g (x, y ) y ) = g (x, x + y ). Putting z x + y , the last condition becomes g (x, z ) = g (x, z x) for z > x. With g (x, x) = x and symmetry, it is now obvious, by Euclidean algorithm, that g (x, y ) = gcd (x, y ), therefore f (x, y ) = lcm(x, y ).

20. Prove that for any function f : R R, f (x + y + xy ) = f (x) + f ( y ) + f (xy ) f (x + y ) = f (x) + f ( y ) Solution: Let P (x, y ) be the assertion f (x + y + x y ) = f (x) + f ( y ) + f (x y ) 1) f (x + y ) = f (x) + f ( y ) P (x, y ) Trivial. 2) P (x, y ) f (x + y ) = f (x) + f ( y ) x, y P (x, 0) f (0) = 0 P (x, 1) f (x) = f (x) 2.1) new assertion R(x, y ) : f (x + y ) = f (x) + f ( y ) x, y : x + y 2

x+y

Adding these two lines gives new assertion Q(x, y ) : f (x) + f ( y ) = 2 f ( 2 ) x, y such that x + y 2 x+ y f (x + y ) = 2 f ( 2 ) and so f (x + y ) = f (x) + f ( y ) Q (x + y, 0) 2.2) f (x + y ) = f (x) + f ( y ) x, y such that x + y = 2 If x = 2, then y = 0 and f (x + y ) = f (x) + f ( y ) If x 2, then (x + 2) + (2) 2 and then R (x + 2, 2) f (x) = f (x + 2) + f (2) and so f (x) + f (2 x) = f (2) and so f (x) + f ( y ) = f (x + y ). 21. Find all functions f : Z Z such that f (x)3 + f ( y )3 + f (z )3 = f (x3 + y 3 + z 3) 22. Determine all functions f : R R such that: f ( f (x) + y ) = 2x + f ( f ( y ) x) 23. Find all functions f : N N such that: f ( f (n)) + f (n + 1) = n + 2 24. Find all functions f : R+ R+ such that: f (x) f ( yf (x)) = f (x + y ) 25. Find all functions f : R R which satisfy this equation: f (xf ( y ) + f (x)) = f ( yf (x)) + x 26. Find all functions f : R R satisfying f (x2 + f ( y )) = y + f (x)2 27. If any function f : R R satises f (x3 + y 3) = (x + y )( f (x)2 f (x) f ( y ) + f ( y )2) then prove that f (1996x) = 1996 f (x). 28. Find all surjective functions f : R R satisfying f ( f (x y )) = f (x) f ( y )

29. Find all k R for which there exists a dierentiable function f : R R such that f (1) 1 and f (x)2 + f (x)2 = k . 30. Find all a R for which there exists a non-constant function f : (0, 1] R such that a + f (x + y xy ) + f (x) f ( y ) f (x) + f ( y ). 31. Find all functions f : N N such that 2n + 2009 f ( f (n)) + f (n) 2n + 2011 32. Find all functions f : R+ R satisfying f (a) = 1 and f (x ) f ( y ) + f a a f y x = 2 f (xy )

33. Determine all functions f : Q C such that (i) for any rational x1, x2, , x2010, f (x1 + x2 + (ii)for all x Q, f (2010) f (x) = f (2010) f (x). 34. Find all functions f : Q R satisfying

f (x + y + z ) = f (x) + f ( y ) + f (z ) + 3 3 f (x + y ) f ( y + z ) f (z + x) x, y, z Q 35. Determine all functions f : R R such that f (x) = max (2xy f ( y ))

y R

36. 37. Find all functions f : R R satisfying f ( f (x) + y ) = f (x2 y ) + 4 f (x) y 38. Find all functions f : R+ R+ satisfying f (x)2 + 2 yf (x) + f ( y ) = f ( y + f (x)) 39. Let k 1 be a given integer.Find all functions f : R R such that f (xk + f ( y )) = y + f (x)k 40. Find all functions f : R R that satisfy f (xy ) + f (x y ) f (x + y ) 41. Find all functions f : Z Z that satisfy f (1) = f (1) and f (m) + f (n) = f (m + 2mn) + f (n 2mn)

42.

43. Let f be a real function dened on the positive half-axis for which f (xy ) = xf ( y ) + yf (x) and f (x + 1) f (x) hold for every positive x. If 1 1 f 2 = 2 , show that f (x) + f (1 x) x log2x (1 x)log2(1 x) for every x (0, 1). 44. Let a be a real number and let f : R R be a function satisfying f (0) = 2 and f (x + y ) = f (x) f (a y ) + f ( y ) f (a x) .Prove that f is a constant function. Solution: Let P (x, y ) be the assertion f (x + y ) = f (x) f (a y ) + f ( y ) f (a x). 1 f (a) = 2 P (0, 0) P (x, 0) f (x) = f (a x).So P (x, y ) can also be written as Q(x, y ) f ( x + y ) = 2 f (x ) f ( y ) Q(a, x) f (a x) = f (x).Hence f (x) = f (x).Then comparing Q(x, y ) and u+v uv Q(x, y ) gives f (x + y ) = f (x y ).Choose x = 2 and y = 2 .So f (u) = f (v ) and f is a constant function.

1

47.

Let f : R+ R be a function such that (i) If x < y then f (x) < f ( y ) (ii) f

2xy x+ y

Show that f (x) < 0 for some value of x. 48. Find all continuous functions f : R R such that f (x + y ) + f (xy ) = f (x) + f ( y ) + f (xy + 1) 49.A Find all continuous functions f : R R such that f (x) + f ( y ) + f (z ) + f (x + y + z ) = f (x + y ) + f ( y + z ) + f (z + x) + f (0)

f ( x) + f ( y ) 2

49.B Find all functions f : R R satisfying f (xf ( y ) + f (x)) = 2 f (x) + xy 50. A function f : R R satises the following conditions: (i) f (x) = f (x) (ii) f (x + 1) = f (x) + 1 1 f (x) (iii) f x = x2 Prove that f (x) = x x R. Find all injective functions f : N N which satises f ( f (x)) 52. f (x) + x 2

51.

53.

f (xn + f ( y )) = y + f (x)n

where n > 1 is a xed natural number. 54. Find all functions f : Z Z such that f (x y + f ( y )) = f (x) + f ( y ) 55. Find all functions f : R+ R+ which have the property f (x) f ( y ) = 2 f (x + yf (x)) 56. Find all functions f : Q+ Q+ with the property f (x) + f ( y ) + 2xyf (xy ) = 57. f (xy ) f (x + y )

58.

Determine all functions f : N0 {1, 2, (i)For 0 n 2000, f (n) = n (ii) f ( f (m) + f (n)) = f (m + n) Find all functions f : R R such that

59.

f (x + f ( y )) = y + f (x + 1)

60.

Let n > m > 1 be odd integers.Let f (x) = xm + xn + x + 1.Prove that f (x) is irreducible over Z. A function f : Z Z satises the following equation: f (m + n) + f (mn 1) = f (m) f (n) + 2 Find all such functions.

61.

62. Let f : R+ R+ be a function such that f ab = f (a) f (b) for all a, b R+ satisfying a2b > 2.Prove that the equation holds for all a, b R+ 63. Find all functions f : Z Z such that [ f (m) + f (n)] f (m n) = [ f (m) f (n)] f (m + n) 64. Find all polynomials which satisfy P (x + 1) = P (x) + 2x + 1 65. A rational function f (i.e. a function which is a quotient of two polynomials) 1 has the property that f (x) = f x .Prove that f is a function in the variable 1 x + x. Find all functions f : R R such that f (x y ) = f (x + y ) f ( y ) 67. Find all functions f : R R such that f (x) f ( y ) = f (x) + f ( y ) + f (xy ) 2 68. Find all functions f : R R0 such that (i) f (x) = f (x) (ii) f

1 x+y

66.

=f

1 x

+f

1 y

Let f (n) be dened on the set of positive integers by the rules: f (1) = 2 and f (n + 1) = f (n)2 f (n) + 1 Prove that for all integers n > 1, we have 1 1

n 1 22

<

1 1 + + f (1) f (2)

1 1 < 1 2n f (n) 2

70.

Determine all functions f dened on the set of positive integers that have the property f (xf ( y ) + y ) = yf (x) + f ( y ) and f ( p) is a prime for any prime p.

71.

Determine all functions f : R {0, 1} R such that f (x) + f 2(1 2x) 1 = x(1 x) 1x

72.

73.

Find all functions f : R R and g : R R such that f (x 3 + 2 y ) + f (x + y ) = g (x + 2 y ) 1 . n2 + 2n + 1 + n2 1 + 3 n2 2n + 1 Determine the largest value of f (1) + f (3) + + f (999997) + f (999999). 3 Find all strictly monotone functions f : R R satisfying f ( f (x) + y ) = f (x + y ) + f (0)

74.

75.

76.

77.

78. For each positive integer n let f (n) = 2 n n + 1 + n 1 . Determine all values of n for which f (n) = 1. 79. Let f : Q Q be an injective function and f (x) = xn 2x.If n 3, nd all natural odd values of n. Find all continuous, strictly increasing functions f : R R such that f (0) = 0, f (1) = 1 f (x + y ) = f (x) + f ( y ) for all x, y R such that x + y = x + y . Find all functions f : R R such that (x y ) f (x + y ) (x + y ) f (x y ) = 4 x y (x2 y 2) 82. Find All Functions f : N N f (m + f (n)) = n + f (m + k )

80.

81.

83.

where k is xed natural number. Let f be a function dened for all real numbers and taking real numbers as its values. Suppose that, for all real numbers x, y the function satises f (2 x) = f sin and x y + 2 2 + f sin x y 2 2

f (x2 y 2) = (x + y ) f (x y ) + (x y ) f (x + y ). Show that these conditions uniquely determine f (1990 + 2 1990 + 3 1990 ) and give its value. 84. Find all polynomials P (x) Such that x P (x 1) = (x 15) P (x) 85. Find all functions f : R R such that f (x) f ( y f (x) 1) = x2 f ( y ) f (x) 86. 87. Prove that there is no function like f : R+ R such that : f (x + y ) > y ( f (x)2). Let f be a function dened for positive integers with positive integral values satisfying the conditions: (i) f (a b) = f (a) f (b), (ii) f (a) < f (b) if a < b, (iii) f (3) 7 Find the minimum value for f (3). A function f : N N satises (i) f (a b) = f (a) f (b) whenever the gcd of a and b is 1, (i i) f ( p + q ) = f ( p) + f ( q ) for all prime numbers p and q . Show that f (2) = 2, f (3) = 3 and f (1999) = 1999. Find all functions f : R R such that: f (x + y ) = f (x) + f ( y ) + f (x y ) 90.A Find all functions f : R R such that f (a3) + f (b3) + f (c3) = f (3 a b c) 90.B Find all functions f : R R such that f (a3) + f (b3) + f (c3) = a f (a2) + b f (b2) + c f (c2) 91. Let f be a bijection from N into itself. Prove that one can always nd three natural numbers a, b, c such that a < b < c and f (a) + f (c) = 2 f (b).

88.

89.

92.

Suppose two functions f (x) and g (x) are dened for all x such that 2 < x < 4 and satisfy 2 < f (x) < 4, 2 < g (x) < 4, f ( g (x)) = g ( f (x)) = x and f (x) g (x) = x2, for all such values of x.Prove that f (3) = g (3). Determine all monotone functions f : R Z such that f (x) = x, x Z and f (x + y ) f (x ) + f ( y ) Find all monotone functions f : R R such that f (4 x) f (3 x) = 2 x. f ( f (x)) = x2 2

93.

94.

95.B Do there exist the real coecients a, b, c such that the following functional equation f ( f (x)) = a x2 + b x + c has at least one root? 96. Let n N, such that n N and A = {a + b n |a, b N , a2 n b2 = 1}. Prove that the function f : A N, such that f (x) = [x] is injective but not surjective. Find all functions f : N N such that f ( f (m) + f (n)) = m + n. Find all functions f : R+ R+ such that f (x2 + y 2) = f (x y )

97. 98.

99.

100. Determine all functions f : R R such that f (x + y ) f (x) + f ( y ) and f (x) ex 1. 101. Let f : R R be a function such that f (x y ) + f (x y ) f (x + y ). Prove that f (x) 0. Find all continuous functions f : (0, +) (0, +), such that 2 f (x) = f 2 x 2 x + 1 , for each x > 0. Determine all functions f : N0 N0 such that f (a2 b2) = f 2(a) f 2(b), for all a, b N0, a b. R for each two real numbers x, y : Find all continues functions f : R f (x + y ) = f (x + f ( y )) Find all functions f : R R such that f ( f (x) y + x) = x f ( y ) + f (x) , for all real numbers x, y and the equation f (t) = t has exactly one root. Find all functions f : X R such that f (x + y ) + f (x y 1) = ( f (x) + 1) ( f ( y ) + 1)

106.

for all x, y X, if a) X = Z. b) X = Q.

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