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It has been shown that galanin inhibited noradrenergic LC neurons,

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serotonergic midbrain raphe neurons


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and histaminergic TMN neurons. A required feature to ensure that both types are PSP neurons was to determine their respective neurochemical nature, by evaluating first the well-known cellular markers of neurons that are sleep-active, namely galanin and GABA 5-HT, released during waking in the VLPO, may participate concomitantly to seemingly opposite mechanisms, by strengthening arousal through the inhibition of Type-1 neurons and preparing sleep via the subthreshold excitation of Type-2 neurons.

5-HT, yang dirilis saat bangun tidur di VLPO, mungkin berpartisipasi bersamaan dengan mekanisme yang tampaknya berlawanan, dengan memperkuat gairah melalui penghambatan Tipe-1 neuron dan tidur mempersiapkan melalui subthreshold yang eksitasi tipe-2 neuron.

Neurologic pathways of sleep-wake system Identification of the neurologic pathways involved in the sleep-wake cycle has advanced in the last decade. At present, it is hypothesized that sleep involves the interactions of mutually inhibiting sleep and arousal centers in the brain.1-3 Wakefulness is promoted by an ascending arousal pathway that begins in the rostral pons and runs through the midbrain reticular formation.1 Brainstem and hypothalamic neurons that produce acetylcholine, norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, histamine, and orexin/hypocretin may be involved.3 Each of these arousal networks can increase wakefulness, but coordinated activity is required for complete alertness and cortical activation.2,3 A switch in the hypothalamus shuts off this arousal system during sleep.1 Many of the neurons that help produce sleep and shut off the arousal system are located within a small cluster known as the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO), but other sleep-active cells also reside within adjacent regions of

Neurologis jalur dari tidurbangun sistem Identifikasi jalur neurologis yang terlibat dalam tidur-bangun siklus telah maju dalam dekade terakhir. Saat ini, itu dihipotesiskan bahwa tidur melibatkan interaksi saling menghambat tidur dan pusat gairah di brain.1-3 Terjaga dipromosikan oleh jalur gairah menaik yang dimulai di pons rostral dan berjalan melalui otak tengah retikuler formation.1 batang otak dan neuron hipotalamus yang memproduksi asetilkolin, norepinefrin, dopamin, serotonin, histamin, dan orexin / hypocretin mungkin involved.3 Masing-masing jaringan dapat meningkatkan gairah terjaga, tetapi aktivitas yang terkoordinasi diperlukan untuk kewaspadaan lengkap dan activation.2 kortikal, 3 Sebuah

the preoptic area and the basal forebrain.1,3 Cell-specific lesions in this region reduced both NREM and REM sleep, causing insomnia.6,7

switch di hipotalamus menutup dari sistem ini gairah selama sleep.1 Banyak dari neuron yang membantu menghasilkan tidur dan mematikan sistem gairah terletak dalam sebuah cluster kecil yang dikenal sebagai daerah preoptik ventrolateral (VLPO), tetapi lainnya tidur-aktif sel juga berada dalam daerah yang berdekatan dari daerah preoptik dan forebrain.1 basal, 3 your spesifik lesi di daerah ini berkurang baik NREM dan tidur REM, menyebabkan insomnia