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International Journal of Management (IJM), OF ISSNMANAGEMENT 0976 6502(Print), ISSN (IJM) 0976 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue

e 3, May- June (2013)


ISSN 0976-6502 (Print) ISSN 0976-6510 (Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, (May - June 2013), pp. 82-95 IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijm.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 6.9071 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com

IJM
IAEME

CUSTOMER PERCEPTION OF HEALTH INSURANCE (HI) PRODUCTS: A STUDY IN IMPHAL CITY, MANIPUR (INDIA)
Rajesh Singh Kumabam*, Dr. Ch. Ibohal Meitei**, S. Sureshkumar Singh*** and K. Birjit Singh**** *Rajesh Singh Kumabam is a Research Scholar in Manipur Institute of Management Studies (MIMS), Manipur University (A Central University), Imphal 795003, India. **Dr. Ch. Ibohal Meitei is Professor in Manipur Institute of Management Studies (MIMS), Manipur University (A Central University), Imphal 795003, India. ***S. Sureshkumar Singh is a Research Scholar in Manipur Institute of Management Studies (MIMS), Manipur University (A Central University), Imphal 795003, India. ****K. Birjit Singh is a Research Scholar in Manipur Institute of Management Studies (MIMS), Manipur University (A Central University), Imphal 795003, India.

ABSTRACT Health is a major concern for each and every individual. However, there is less debate on Health Insurance (HI). This paper attempts to shed light on the existing business environment of Health Insurance (HI) in Manipur and study customer perception of Health Insurance (HI) in Awareness Level, Schemes, Claim Procedure, Premium and Exclusions of Diseases covered under Health Insurance Scheme etc. Further it tries to find out the factors that influence buying behavior while opting for a Health Insurance Product. This paper concludes with precise concluding remark on the role of all stakeholders including existing clients, raising the level of awareness of Health Insurance (HI) and making all understand the finer points about the features of it for drawing the full benefits of Health Insurance (HI). These findings may be of some use to Decision Makers of Health Insurance Service provider in Imphal City, Manipur (India). Keywords: Health Insurance, Awareness, Perception and Buying Behavior

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International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 3, May- June (2013) 1. INTRODUCTION Even in the healthiest of families, if one member has an accident (or falls sick) the resulting medical expenses can affect the financial and economic stability of the whole family. The impact depends, in part, on whether the injured person was insured, the size of the bills, and the familys income and other resources (Uninsurance, 2002). With Healthcare financing still a vex issue; the burden of health care spending is passed on to the individual concern. Financial constraint is a bottle neck for funding Universal Healthcare. Tax-payers money cant pay for healthcare as life expectancy is increasing (Shetty, 2012). Insufficient public health provision has compelled the population to turn to private health providers pushing out of pocket (OOP) spending higher. In India OOP spending is over four times higher than the public spending on health care (Choudhury, 2012). OOP spending by households occupies about 72% of the total health expenditure (WHR, 2006) and it pushes 2.2 percent of the population below the poverty line each year (Peters, A S, R S, G N V, L H, & A, 2002). OOP expenditures aggravate poverty for those living in both rural and urban, with more severity (though the impact is felt more) in rural areas (Garg & Karan, 2009). Alternate financing strategy through health insurance (HI) can be an effective option (Churchill, 2007). Health insurance coverage can give a cushion to impeding financial and economic burden of a family. WHO (World Health Organization) considers health insurance a promising means for achieving universal health-care coverage (WHO, 2010). In India, only 10 percent Indian has some form of health insurance, mostly inadequate. In terms of the market share, the size of the commercial insurance is barely 1% of the total health spending in the country. The Indian health insurance scenario is a mix of mandatory social health insurance (SHI), voluntary private health insurance and community-based health insurance (CBHI). Health insurance is thus really a minor player in the health ecosystem (Dhar, 2012). With the enactment of the Insurance Regulatory Development Authority of India (IRDA), the industry now has a regulatory framework to protect the interests of policy holders. Stricter regulatory framework is required as is evident in countries where Health Insurance (HI) plays a dominant role in financing of health expenditures (IRDA, 2003). New initiatives like Health Insurance (HI) portability can make it more users friendly. Further reforms like increasing the FDI cap to 49% and reducing capital requirement for health insurers from the present Rs. 100 to Rs. 50 crores may invite more players in Health Insurance (HI) and increase the level of Health Insurance (HI) penetration (TOI, 2012). 2. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Consumerism, Changes in the Demographic Profile of the consumers, Changes in Life Style etc, all these factors will have an impact on the overall demand for better health care services including Health Insurance (HI). The ultimate burden for these health care services will be passed on to the general public. If the general public is aware of Health Insurance (HI), it can play a bigger role in reducing this impeding burden of Health care expenses. In this perspective this paper Customer perception of Health Insurance (HI) Products: A study in Imphal City, Manipur (India) was carried out.

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International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 3, May- June (2013) 3. REVIEW OF LITERATURE Awareness and Perception: Many studies have been carried out to understand the awareness and perception of Health Insurance. For a consumer to be interested in an offering, the consumer must have awareness of the offering and find it acceptable, available at the right time and place, and affordable (J.N. Seth, R.S. Sisodia, 2008). A study conducted in Bahraich District, Uttar Pradesh has clearly highlighted that respondents perception towards insurance and savings and their understanding of the benefits are still nascent. Out of all types of insurance, awareness for Life insurance (38 percent) is by far, the highest followed by vehicle insurance (15%) and property insurance (10%) (Constella, 2008). It is estimated that only about 3% to 5% of Indians are covered under any form of health insurance (Rao, 2005). In their study found out that the need for education for rural and urban population was alike on the concept of health information which is a crucial aspect on extending awareness about health insurance on a large-scale (Gumber A, 2000). Bhatt, Professor, Finance and Accounting at IIM, Ahmadabad writes that the penetration of insurance critically depends on the availability of insurance products and services (Bhatt & Jain, 2006). Almost 79 per cent of health expenditure is borne by private bodies and the rest by the public. Authors argue that to stimulate private health insurance growth, the Indian government should recognize health insurance as a separate line of business and distinguish it from other non-life insurance (Gupta, 2007). If Parliament approves the recent increase in FDI cap of 49%, the change in law is expected to come as a huge boon for the health insurance business (TOI, 2012). With entry of Private players in Insurance Industry in India, aggressive promotion has resulted in growth of this sector. However, no one in the industry is taking responsibility to develop knowledge and awareness of health insurance among the public nor is specific expertise in health insurance being developed within the private sector, an expertise that is essential to dealing effectively with providers of health care services. Because of this absence of specific capacity, Indian companies writing health insurance seem to have focused on controlling claims payout by following strategies designed to minimize the insured persons ability to collect on claims. Because of these practices health insurance has become one of the largest litigation areas for insurers, exceeded only by motor third party cases (Mathur, Vol VIII No. 1 January - March 2011). Spread of awareness of all information for health policies and claim settlement procedure thereof must be ensured by service providers (USAID, 2008). Also more knowledge about health insurance will help them in making an informed choice about their purchase (Bhatt & Jain, 2006). Service Industry: Health Insurance is a service industry. A person taking up a policy is going to be a customer for 15/20 years, any good or bad experience echoes good and bad messages to other probable customers. For most first time buyers it is the brand of the company which acts a catalyst for buying any product/service. Blackshaw identifies six drivers to brand credibility as trust, authenticity, transparency, listening, responsiveness and affirmation (Blackshaw, 2008). Health Insurance (HI) falls under the ambit of Service Sector. A glimpse of 7Ps of marketing mix for service industry is represented in the Figure below.

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International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 3, May- June (2013) Figure 2 The Marketing Mix Product management, New product development, } Product Branding ,Packaging } Price Pricing ,Discount structures, Terms of business Advertising , Sales promotion, Public relations, } Promotion Personal selling , Merchandising Channel management, Customer service, } Place Physical distribution Employee selection, Employee training, } People Employee motivation Layout, Dcor, Ease of access, Forms of } Physical Evidence presentation How customers are handled and managed from the point of very first contact with the } Process Management organization through to the point of very last contact Source: Adapted from (Wilson & Gilligan, 2001) Agents: Private Health Insurance (HI) in India is based on the partner agent model and insurance agents are important stakeholder between the Insurer and the Clients. Insurance agents are the main source of information about HI schemes (Vellakkal, 2009). 4. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY The main objective of this study is to determine the customer perception of Health Insurance (HI) Products in Imphal City. In doing so, the article aims to study (i) The major source of money to finance the bill in case a family member falls ill. (ii). The choice of Company from which Health Insurance (HI) policies are bought. (iii). Whether agents are actively selling Health Insurance (HI) products. (iv). Major reasons why people who are aware of Health Insurance (HI) intends to stay away from buying a Health Insurance (HI) Product. Under these objectives following null hypotheses are framed. Null Hypotheses: (i). H01: There is no relationship between Occupation and Source of Money to finance the bill for treatment. (ii). H02: There is no difference in the awareness level of Health Insurance (HI) between males and females (Gender), Age, Education Qualification, Income and Occupation. (iii). H03: There is no difference in opinion among respondents with different Gender, Educational Qualification and Occupation that agents are actively selling Health Insurance (HI) products.

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International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 3, May- June (2013) 5. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 5.1 Methods of Data Collection, Sample Size and Statistical tools used Population could not be determined conclusively. Initially, random sampling sizes of 280 respondents are taken for this study. Out of these 16 samples are rejected. So, Random sampling size of 264 is taken for the final analysis. Information is collected by using questionnaire. 5.2 Schematic Representation of all steps of how the analysis has been done: Figure 1: Flow Chart showing the schematic stepwise analysis of the questionnaire

Source: Primary Data

5.3 Data Analysis Data collected through structured questionnaire were analyzed using SPSS. The statistical techniques namely descriptive statistics that is mean, standard deviation, percentage and Chi Square test are mainly used to test the hypotheses.

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International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 3, May- June (2013) 6. Data Analysis and Discussion 6.1 Demographic profile of the Sample Table 1 Profile of Sample Personal information Gender Female Male <20 Age 20-40 40-60 >60 Undergraduate Educational Qualification Graduate Post-graduate Professional degrees Below Rs. 15000 Monthly Income Rs. 15000 to 30000 30000 to 45000 45000 and above Private employee Occupation Govt. employee Own business Others No. of respondents 100 164 36 148 64 16 44 80 100 40 64 120 52 28 60 92 60 52 Percent 37.9 62.1 13.6 56.1 24.2 6.1 16.7 30.3 37.9 15.2 24.2 45.5 19.7 10.6 22.7 34.8 22.7 19.7 Source: Primary Data

The above Table No. 1 indicates the overall profile of the Sample. It consists of a Sample size consists of 37.9% Females and the remaining 62.1% Males. 56.1% of Respondents belong to the Age Group (20 40) years, where 24.2% belongs (40-60) years and 6.1% belongs to above 60 years of Age. In case of Educational Qualification 37.9% of the Sample were Post Graduate, 30.3% were Graduate and 15.2% were Professional Degree Holders. 45.5% of the Sample belongs to the Monthly Income Group of Rs. (15,000 30,000), 24.2% were below Rs. 15,000 and 10.6% were Rs. 45,000 and above. 34.8% of the Respondents were Government Employee and 22.7% were Private Employees & Own Business. The Remaining 19.7% of the Respondents belongs to Others Group.

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International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 3, May- June (2013) 6.2 Data Analysis on Family Member falling sick, Expense incurred in Treatment and Source of Money: Table 2 Percentage of Sickness, Expense incurred in Treatment and Source of Money Personal information No. of Percentage Family member (s) No 60 22.7 Yes 204 77.3 falling sick Below Rs. 5000 12 4.5 Rs.5000 to Rs. 10000 20 7.6 Expense incurred Rs.10000 to Rs. 15000 100 37.9 in treatment Above Rs.15000 72 27.3 Mean(SD) 10189(6590) Out of pocket 88 33.3 Reimbursement from 96 36.4 Source of money Insurance 16 6.1 Others 4 1.5 Source: Primary Data From the above Table 2, it is observed that 77.3 % of respondents agree with the statement that in the past one year a family member (within the family) had fallen sick. 37.9% of those who falls sick spend Rs. 10,000 to Rs. 15000 in a year for treatment. Every family spends on an average of Rs. 10189 for treatment with standard deviation Rs. 6590. Majority (36.4%) of the Respondents reimburse their expense for the treatment from service. 33.3% of the respondents met the expenses from their pocket (Out of Pocket) while a meager 6.l% and 1.5% through Insurance and Others respectively. 6.3 Data Analysis on Occupation and Source of Money to finance treatment Table 3 Occupation and Source of Money to finance treatment Source of money Reimburs. Insurance Total Other 0(0) 0(0) 0(0) 4(8.3) 4(1.7) 44(100) 72(100) 36.825 <0.001 52(100) 36(100) 204(100) Source: Primary Data Chi Square PValue

Out of Occcupation

Pvt. 16(28.6) 24(42.8) 4(7.2) Empl. Govt. 4(5.6) 68(94.4) 0(0) Empl. 44(78.6) 0(0) Own 8(14.3) Busi. Others 24(50) 4(8.3) 4(8.3) Total 88(37.9) 96(41.4) 16(6.9) N.B. Figures in brackets indicate percentage

In the Table above, majority of the respondents (94.4%) employed in Government and 42.8% in Private sectors reimbursed their expenses for treatment. While maximum (78.6%) of Business Owners and 50% Others financed though Out of Pocket (OOP) for treatment. It is statistically tested that the relation between Occupation and Source of Money for treatment is highly significant with p-value less than 0.001(i.e. <0.001). Null Hypothesis (H01) is rejected.
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International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 3, May- June (2013) 6.3 Awareness of Health Insurance (HI) Table 3 Awareness of Health Insurance (HI) Personal information Gender Female Male Total <20 20-40 40-60 >60 Total Undergraduate Graduate Post-graduate Professional degrees Total Below Rs. 15000 Rs.15000 to 30000 30000 to 45000 45000 and above Total Private employee Govt. employee Own business Others Awareness of HI No (%) Yes 76 (76.0) 24 (24.0) 76 (46.3) 88 (53.7) 152 112 (42.4) (57.6) 32 (88.9) 4 (11.1) 68 (45.9) 80 (54.1) 40 (62.5) 24 (37.5) 12 (75.0) 4 (25.0) 152 112 (42.4) (57.6) 40 (90.9) 4 (9.1) 56 (70.0) 24 (30.0) 56 (56.0) 44 (44.0) 0 (0.0) 40 (100.0) 112(42.4) 12 (18.8) 44 (36.7) 28 (53.8) 28 (100.0) 112(42.4) 40 (66.7) 44 (47.8) 16 (26.7) 12 (23.1) 112(42.4) Total 100 164 264 36 148 64 16 264 44 80 100 40 264 64 120 52 28 264 60 92 60 52 264 Source: Primary Data 19.865 <0.001 Chisquare 5.593 Pvalue 0.018

Age in Year

6.318

0.097

Educational Qualification

152 (57.6) 52 (81.3) 76 (63.3) Monthly 24 (46.2) Income 0 (0.0) 152(57.6) 20 (33.3) 48 (52.2) 44 (73.3) Occupation 40 (76.9) 152 Total (57.6) N.B. Figures in brackets indicate percentage

14.273

0.003

7.410

0.060

Table 3 above indicates that 57.6 % of the respondents are not aware of Health Insurance (HI). Higher percentages, i.e., 53.7% of the male respondents are aware of Heath Insurance (HI) in contrast to 24% for Females. And, it is statistically tested that there is a significant difference in the level of awareness of Health Insurance (HI) between male and female with p-value 0.018. It is observed that a significant percentage, 54.1% of the Respondents in the age group (20 40) years are aware about Health Insurance (HI). But it is statistically tested that there is no significant difference in the level of awareness of Health Insurance (HI) between different age groups with p-value 0.097. It is also observed that 100% of the Respondents with Professional Degrees are aware of Health Insurance (HI). It is statistically tested and observed that there exists a highly significant difference in the level of
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International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 3, May- June (2013) awareness of Health Insurance (HI) among individuals with different Education Qualification with p-value less than 0.001. 100 % of the Respondents with monthly income Rs. 45,000 and above are aware of Health Insurance (HI). And, it is statistically tested that there is significant difference in the level of awareness of Health Insurance (HI) among respondents belonging to different income groups (monthly income) with p-value 0.003. Higher percentage, 66.7% of the Respondents with Occupation in Private Sector are aware of Health Insurance (HI) as against other sectors. But it is statistically tested that there is no significant difference in the level of awareness of Health Insurance (HI) among respondents belonging to different occupation with p-value 0.060. 6.4 Data Analysis on Reason for not aware, Willingness to buy, Purchase Percentage and Source of Information about Health Insurance (HI) Table 4 Reason for not aware, Willingness to buy, Purchase of HI and Information Source for HI No. of respondent Percentage 132 86.8 12 7.9 4 2.6 4 2.6 152 100.0 4 2.6 148 97.4 152 100 60 53.6 52 46.4 112 100 44 84.6 4 7.7 4 7.7 52 100 Source: Primary Data

Never heard about it Not aware about the benefit Reason for Nobody approach not aware Others Total No Willingness to Yes buy Total No Yes Purchase HI Total Agent Information Friend about HI Others comes from Total

From the table above, it is observed that 86.8% of the Respondents cited Never heard about it as the reason for not aware of Health Insurance (HI). 97.4% of the Respondents say that they are willing to buy Health Insurance (HI). But only 46.4% of the Respondents have purchased a Health Insurance (HI) policy. Main (84.6%) source of Information about Health Insurance (HI) comes from Agents (Insurance Agents).

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International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 3, May- June (2013) 6.5 Data Analysis on Agents activity in Selling Health Insurance (HI) Table 5 Agents Actively Selling Health Insurance (HI) Actively selling ChiPsquare value Disagreed Neutral Agreed Female 4 16.7 16 66.7 4 16.7 Male 36 40.9 20 22.7 32 36.4 4.176 0.124 Total 40 35.8 36 32.1 36 32.1 Undergraduate 0 0.0 0 0.0 4 100.0 Graduate 8 33.3 4 16.7 12 50.0 Post-graduate 4 9.1 20 45.5 20 45.5 13.089 0.042 Professional 28 70.0 12 30.0 0 0.0 degrees Total 40 35.8 36 32.1 36 32.1 Private employee 20 50.0 4 10.0 16 40.0 Govt. employee 16 36.4 28 63.6 0 0.0 Own business 4 25.0 0 0.0 12 75.0 15.105 0.019 Others 0 0.0 4 33.3 8 66.7 Total 40 35.8 36 32.1 36 32.1 Source: Primary Data

Gender

Educational Qualification

Occupation

From the Table above it is statistically tested that there is no significant difference in opinion among respondents with different Gender (male and female) that agents are actively selling Health Insurance (HI) with p-value 0.124. Whereas statistically there is significant difference in the opinion among respondents with different Educational Qualification (pvalue at 0.042) and Occupation (p-value at 0.019) that agents are actively selling Health Insurance (HI). 6.6 Data Analysis on Reasons for not purchasing Health Insurance (HI) Table 6 Reason for not purchasing Health Insurance (HI) Percentage Reason for not purchase Frequency I do not need it 0 0.0 No return from investment 60 25.9 High premium charge 52 22.4 Poor service provider 56 24.1 Alternate sources to fund health related cost 8 3.4 No empanelled hospitals in Imphal 56 24.1 Others 0 0.0 Multiple response tabulated Source: Primary Data From the Table above, it is observed that No return from Investment, Poor Service Provider, and No empanelled Hospitals in Imphal as the reason for not purchasing Health Insurance (HI).

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International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 3, May- June (2013) 6.7 Choice of Company from which Health Insurance (HI) policies are bought Table 7 Company from which Health Insurance (HI) are bought
Parameter Analyzed Name of the Company ICICI Prudential NIC LICI Bajaj Allianz Amsure (Max Life) Birla Sunlife HDFC Life Metlife SBI Life TATA AIA Reliance IDBI Fortis ICICI Lombard Others Frequency 14 4 8 4 7 2 2 0 3 1 3 1 3 0 Percent 26.9 7.7 15.4 7.7 13.5 3.8 3.8 0.0 5.8 1.9 5.8 1.9 5.8 0

Company from which HI policies are bought

Source: Primary Data From the above Table, respondents say ICICI Prudential Life, LICI and Amsure (Max Life) are the top three companies; respondents bought Health Insurance (HI) policies from. 6.8 Analysis of awareness of Health Insurance (HI), Scheme, Diseases not covered, Premium and Claim Procedure Table 8 Awareness of Health Insurance (HI), Scheme, Diseases not covered, Premium and Claim Procedure
Awareness of HI Medium Highly aware Total Medium Highly aware Total Less aware Medium Highly aware Total Less aware Medium Highly aware Total Less aware Medium Highly aware Total No. of respondents 44 8 52 48 4 52 24 24 4 52 4 44 4 52 32 16 4 52 % 84.6 15.4 100 92.3 7.7 100 46.2 46.2 7.7 100 7.7 84.6 7.7 100 61.5 30.8 7.7 100

Awareness of scheme

Awareness of disease not cover by HI

Awareness of HI premium

Aware of claim procedure

Source: Primary Data

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International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 3, May- June (2013) From the above Table, the awareness level of Health Insurance, Awareness of Scheme, Premium in Imphal are medium with a score of 84.6% , 92.3% and 84.6% respectively. In case of Awareness of diseases not covered by Health Insurance (HI), respondents awareness level is in medium and less aware with a score of 46.2%. The awareness of Claim procedure for Health Insurance in Imphal is less aware having score of 61.5% out of the Total Respondents. 6.8 Analysis on the reason for the purchase of Health Insurance (HI) Table 9 Reason for the purchase of Health Insurance (HI) Reason for the purchase of HI No. of respondents % 22.0 Attractive schemes 36 Tax benefit 32 19.5 Expecting health problems 8 4.9 Better health care to family 12 7.3 To protect from rising cost of health care 44 26.8 Cover big expenses 32 19.5 Total 164 100 *Multiple responses tabulated Source: Primary Data From the Table above, 26.8% attributes To protect from rising cost of Health Care as the major reason for purchasing Health Insurance. Attractive schemes, Tax benefit and Cover big expenses are also important reasons for purchase of Health Insurance (HI). 6.9 Analysis on factors that influence purchase of Health Insurance (HI) Table 10 Factors that influence purchase of Health Insurance (HI) No. of Factors that influence in purchase of HI respondents* 52 Trust worthiness of company 32 Better Schemes Offer 8 Existing insurance with the Company Personal Relationship 32 Easy claim settlement 28 More Coverage of Diseases Low Premium Cost Better marketing by Agent Tax Saving Advertisement Total *Multiple responses tabulated

% 17.1 10.5 2.6 10.5 9.2

24 7.9 20 6.6 44 14.5 28 9.2 36 11.8 304 100 Source: Primary Data

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International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 6510(Online), Volume 4, Issue 3, May- June (2013) From the Table above, Trust worthiness of company, Better marketing by Agent and Advertisement are the three important factors that influence purchase of Health Insurance (HI). 7. CONCLUSION One important observation is people intend to take up HI if they are explained explicitly about it. But in contrast majority of people who know about health insurance does not own a HI policy. So, there seems to be a gap. And all stakeholders in Health Insurance (HI); Insurance companies, insurance agents, probable customers, existing clients etc. have a major role to play in increasing enrolment for Health Insurance (HI) policies. For a society like ours, level of unemployment is very high. Since major chunk of the population are unemployed, financing for treatment through Out Of Pocket (OOP), which occupies a sizeable section of respondents, will have a dent on the socio-economic pattern of the masses. Overall increase in the enrolment of Health Insurance (HI) therefore will be a win win for all stakeholders. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Bhatt, R., & Jain, N. (2006). Factors Effecting the Demand for Insurance in a Micro Health Insurance Scheme. Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad. India; W.P. No.2006-07-02 , 1-29. Blackshaw, P. (2008). The Six Drivers to Brand Credibility, - It is time to tell credible stories. MM . Choudhury, M. G. (2012). Health Care Financing Reforms in India. National Institute of Public Finance and Policy. Churchill, C. (2007). Insuring the Low-Income Market: Challenges and Solutions jfor Commercial Insurers. The International Association for the Study of Insurnace Economics , 401-412. Constella, F. (2008). Health Insurance Needs, Awareness. Dhar, A. (2012, September 2). The Hindu. Retrieved from The Hindu: www.thehindu.com/news/national/article3849441.ece Garg, C. C., & Karan, A. K. (2009). Reducing out of pocket expenditure to reduce poverty: A disaggregated analysis at rural-urban and state level in India. Health Policy and Planning . Journal of Health Management, Volume 12 Issue 3 , 116-28. Gumber A, K. V. (2000). Health Insurance for Informal Sector: A case study of Gujarat. Economic and Political Weekly , 3607-13. Gupta, H. (2007). The Role of Insurance in Health Care Management in India. International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance; Vol. 20: Iss: V , 379-391. IRDA. (2003). The Report of Sub-Group on Health Insurance constituted by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Hydrabad: IRDA. J.N. Seth, R.S. Sisodia. (2008). 4Ps of Marketing. American Marketing Association , p.8. Mathur, V. (Vol VIII No. 1 January - March 2011). Ethical Questions Regarding Health Insurance in India. Indian Journal of Medical Ethics , 23-27. Peters, D. H., A S, Y., R S, S., G N V, R., L H, P., & A, W. (2002). Better Health Systems for India's Poor. World Bank, Washington DC.
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