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Introduction and Basic Concepts Chapter 1

What is fluid mechanics?, Applications, The no slip condition, Classifications of fluid flow, Liquid and gases, Properties of fluids, fluids Pressure, Pressure Force, Force Mass, Mass Weight, Weight Units and conversion factors

Objectives

Understand the basic concepts of fluid mechanics Recognize the various types of fluid flow problems encountered in practice p p

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Fluid Mechanics ChE 343

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Introduction
Mechanics: Physical science that deals with both stationary and g bodies under the influence of forces moving Statics: Branch of mechanics that deals with bodies at rest Dynamics: Branch of mechanics that deals with bodies in motion Fluid Mechanics: the science that deals with the behavior of fluids at rest (fluid statics) or in motion (fluid dynamics), ) and the interaction of fluids with solids or other fluids in boundaries

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Fluid Mechanics ChE 343

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Categories
Hydrodynamics: Study of fluid motion that are practically incompressible (i.e. liquid, specially water, and gases at low speed Hydraulics: deals with liquid flows in pipes and open channels Gas dynamics: Deals with flow of fluids undergo density changes
Example: flow of gases through nozzles at high speeds

Aerodynamics: Deals with flow of gases (specially air) over bodies such as aircraft, rockets, and automobiles at high or low speed Other categories: Meteorology Oceanology, Meteorology, Oceanology and Hydrology: Deals with naturally occurring flow
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Fluid Mechanics ChE 343

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What Is a Fluid
Fluid: A substance in the liquid or gas phase
Distinction between a solid and a fluid is made on the basis of the substances ability to resist an applied shear (or tangential) stress that tends to change its shape Consider the weight force in the drawing which tends to pull ll the h rope a part

Stress: ratio of applied force to area Tensile force: weight force used to pull things apart Tensile stress: tensile force per unit cross-sectional area
Consider a steel column holding up a weight

Compressive force: weight force that tends to crush the


column

Compressive stress: compressive force divided by


the cross-sectional area
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Fluid Mechanics ChE 343

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Consider the system in which glue is used to hold a weight

Shear force: weight force that tends to make one surface


slide parallel to an adjacent surface Shear stress: shear force divided by the joint area

Solids
- Can permanently resist large shear forces - When Wh subjected bj t d to t a shear h forces f they th move a short distance (elastic deformation) and then stop moving

Fluids
- Can not permanently resist large shear forces no matter how small Wh subjected bj t d to t a shear h forces f - When they keep moving as long as the force is applied

Application pp Areas
Fluid mechanics is widely used both in every day activities and in the design modern engineering systems from vacuum cleaner to supersonic aircraft. Fluid mechanics is used extensively in the design of artificial hearts Natural flows and wheather

Boats

Aircraft and spacecraft

Power plant

Wind turbine

Piping, plumping, and Industrial applications

Basic Ideas in Fluid Mechanics


The principle of conservation of mass The first law of thermodynamics y The second law of thermodynamics Newtons Newto s law aw of o motion ot o (F = ma a)

Desired es ed forces, velocities, etc.

Experimental data and dimensional analysis Method of solution: Form equations q and solve analytically y y or numerically

The No-Slip Condition


Consider the flow of a fluid in a stationary pipe or over a solid surface that is nonporous

All experimental observations indicate that a fluid in motion comes to a complete stop at the surface and assumes a zero velocity relative to the surface

No-slip condition

Consequences of no-slip condition: Th layer The l that th t sticks ti k to t the th surface f slows l the th adjacent dj t fluid fl id layer l because of viscous forces between the fluid layers, which slow the next layer and so on. on Development of velocity profile - Boundary layer g( (skin friction drag) g) - Surface drag

Classification of Fluid Flows


Viscous versus Inviscid Regions of Flow Viscosity: y Internal resistance due to a friction force developed p when two fluid layers move relative to each other

Viscosity y is a measure of internal stickness of the fluid and is caused by cohesive forces between molecules in liquids and by molecular collisions in gases There is no fluid with zero viscosity, and thus fluid flow involve viscous effects to some degree

Viscous flows: flows in which the frictional effects are significant Inviscid flow: regions of flows where viscous forces are negligible
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Fluid Mechanics ChE 343

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Internal versus External Flow E External l flow: fl Fl of Flow f an unbounded fluid over a surface such as a p plate, , a wire or a p pipe p Internal flow: Flow in a pipe or duct p y where the fluid is completely bounded by solid surfaces Compressible versus Incompressible Flow p y approximation pp of flow when the density y Incompressibility: remains constant throughout (i.e. no change in volume) Compressible: p when density y changes g with pressure. p

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Fluid Mechanics ChE 343

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Laminar versus Turbulent Flow L i Laminar: Hi hl ordered Highly d d fl fluid id motion characterized by smooth layers y
Eg. Flow of high-viscosity fluids such
as oil at low velocity

Turbulent: Highly disordered fluid motion characterized by velocity fl fluctuations i Steady versus Unsteady Flow Steady: implies no change at a point with time Unsteady y or Transient: implies p change g with time Uniform: implies no change with time and location over a specified region
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Fluid Mechanics ChE 343

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Liquids and Gases


Fluids in common are in two types: liquids and gases which are different on molecular level. I Liquids In Li id , molecules l l are close l to each other and are held g by y significant g forces together of attraction In Gases, molecules are relatively l ti l far f apart t and d have h very weak forces of attraction
As temperature and pressure increase, increase these differences become less and less, until the liquid and the gas become identical at the critical point Imagine what could happen when raising the piston that holds a fluid, gas or liquid , which completely fills the space below the piston !!!
Fluid Mechanics ChE 343
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System and Control Volume


System, Surrounding, and Boundary

System: Quantity of matter of fixed mass and


identity upon which attention is focused for study

Surroundings: are the rest of the universe (all


excluding the system)

Boundary: imaginary surface that separates the


system from its surrounding
The systems thermodynamic state is defined by macroscopic

properties that can be measured (such as pressure).


The macroscopic properties are described in terms of fundamental scientific

dimensions: Length, time, mass, temperature etc. (ChE 204)


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Fluid Mechanics ChE 343

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Closed and Open Systems Closed System (or control mass): fixed amount of mass with no mass across its boundary Moving No mass enter or leave but energy Boundary 2 kg may enter and leave Fixed 3
Boundary

Heating
2 kg 1 m3

3m

Example: Heating of enclosed gas Isolated system: No energy crossing the boundary y

Gas

Gas

Energy

Open System (or control volume): selected region in space where both mass and energy can cross the th boundary b d of f a control t l volume l Usually encloses device that involves mass flow such as compressor, turbine, or nozzle Control surface: boundary of a control volume
Energy
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Control surface

mass Control Vl Volume mass

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Properties of Fluids
Intensive and Extensive Properties

Intensive thermodynamic variables: are those variables which are independent of the size or amount of the substance (eg., T and P)

Extensive thermodynamic variables: are those variables which depend on the size or amount of the substance (eg., V , m and n)

Note: Intensive variables are functions of T , P and composition

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Fluid Mechanics ChE 343

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Density and Specific Gravity


Density is defined as mass per unit volume. That is m = (kg/m ( g 3) V 9 How can we measure the density of a liquid?
9 9

What about the density of a cubic block of solid? What about the density of materials which contain holes inside? Imagine what happens when we measure the density of a large block of Swiss cheese and when we want to measure density at some point inside the block

Density of a substance is a function of temperature and pressure:

Proportional to pressure and inversely with temperature


9

Density of ideal gases:

PV = nRT

or

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( MW ) P RT
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Fluid Mechanics ChE 343

Specific gravity, or relative density, is defined as the ratio of the

density d it of f a substance bt to t the th density d it of f some standard t d d substance bt at t a specified temperature (usually water at 4oC)
SG =
9

H O, at 4 oC
2

Note that SG of a substance is a dimensionless quantity SG of f some substances b at 20oC Substances S bt with ith SG l less than 1 are lighter than water, and thus they would float on water

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Force and Weight g


Based on Newtons second law of motion:
Unit of force:

F = ma

According to SI system kg m s-2 = [N]


m = 1 kg m = 32.174 Ibm a = 1 m/s2 a = 1 ft/s2 F=1N F = 1 lbf

Be aware of the engineering

(lbf) ): see the unit for force ( textbook 1 lbf = 4.4482216 N

Weight properly refers to the force of gravity on a body

Viscosity
Vi Viscosity it measures the th fluid fl id resistance it to t flow fl
What happens if we tip glass of water on a table and if we tip a jar of honey?
Honey has more resistance to flow (more viscosity) than water

Consider two long, solid plates separated by a thin film of fluid

y At l low V0, the th velocity l it profile fil is i linear. li V = Vo This is demonstrated experimentally. yo
dV Vo = Shear rate = rate of strain = dy yo
Drag force: The force a flowing fluid exerts on a body in the flow direction Shear stress, = F/A
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Viscosity = =

N.s 2 dV / dy m
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Fluid Mechanics ChE 343

Newtonian versus Non-Newtonian Fluids


The equation =

dV dy

says that the shear stress is linearly proportional to the velocity yg gradient dV/dy y

is independent of shear rate.

Examples: gases and simple formula liquids. Such fluids are called Newtonian fluids

Almost all non-Newttonian non Newttonian fluids contain suspended particles or dissolved molecules which are large compared with the size of t i l fluid typical fl id molecules. l l

Three Common Types of Non-Newtonian Fluids


Bingham fluids: They resist a small stress but flow easily under larger shear stresses. Examples: toothpaste and jellies. jellies Pseudoplastic fluids (by far the most common): decreases as shear rate increases Examples: mud, most slurries, blood, polymer solutions. Dilatant fluids (uncommon): viscosity increases with increasing velocity gradient Such behavior is called shear thickening Examples: p starch suspensions p

m2 Kinematic Viscosity = = viscosity/density = / s

Surface Tension
Surface tension is the tendency of the surface of a liquid to behave like a stretched elastic membrane. Surface tension is caused by the attractive forces in liquids.

The fluid tries to take a shape that would have the greatest number of molecules near the center, a sphere. The fluid tries to minimize its surface area. For larger droplets, droplets the shape becomes flatter because of gravity. gravity Surface tension = force of one film/length or =

F l

N m

Pressure
Unit: in SI system y Nm =[ [Pa] ]

F Normal force exerted by a fluid per unit area of the acting surface P = A -2
In English engineering system: force per square inch (psi)

Example: for vertical column, under the influence of gravity The force acting on the system is the weight of the fluid

F = W = mg = ( V) g = A h g

F Ahg P= = = gh A A
Other units of pressure:

h
mg

Ptop

1 atm = 101,325 Pa = 101.325 kPa = 0.101325 MPa = 760 mmHg 1 bar b = 105 Pa P = 0.986923 0 986923 atm t

5 m height Room

Pbottom ?

Important!!

Thermodynamics deals with absolute pressure which is different than the g gauge g reading: g
Gauge reading = Absolute pressure Atmospheric pressure

Pressure above atmospheric


Pressure gauge reading (+ve)

Atmospheric pressure (1 atm)


Vacuum g gauge g reading g (-ve) ( ) Absolute pressure (> atm) Barometer reads atmospheric

Pressure below atmospheric


Absolute p pressure less than atmospheric

Datum (zero pressure)

Units and Dimensions


You use values, units and dimensions all the time: Grocery List 1 carton of milk (value: 1; units: carton; dimensions: volume (length3)) 1/4 pound burger (value: 0.25; units: pounds; dimensions:mass)

VALUE:
A value is the numerical quantity. quantity For example: 5.2 52

UNITS:
The units tell what that quantity represents. For example: 5.2 liters.

DIMENSIONS :
The dimensions are the measurable properties that the units represent. For example: a liter is a unit of volume (units are a specific example of a dimensional quantity).

Other examples: length, length time time, mass, mass T, P, length/time (velocity), (velocity) etc

Benefits of units

Diminished possibility of errors in your calculations, Reduced intermediate calculations and time in problem solving, A logical approach to the problem rather than remembering g a formula and substituting g numbers into formula, Easy interpretation of the physical meaning of the numbers you use

Relation between the basic dimension (in boxes) and various derived dimension (in ellipsoid)
Density Specific volume Volumetric Flow Volume Mass Flow

Time

Mass

Area

Velocity

Length
Acceleration Force

Diameter

Systems y of Units
System SI Length m Mass kg Time s Force
kg m s2

Customary Name Newton

Conversion Factor g c
1 kg m N s2

CGS

cm

cm s2
ft s2

dyn

g cm dyn s2 lbm ft lbf s2

FPS

ft

lbm

lb lbm

poundal

32.2

SI Units
Physical Quantity Velocity y SI Unit
m s

Energy

m2 J = kg 2 s

Acceleration

m s2 rad s
kg m3 m N = kg 2 s

Power

J m2 W = = kg 3 s s
Pa = N kg = m2 m s2

Angular velocity

Pressure

Density

Vi Viscosity i

J=

kg k ms

Force

Kinematic Viscosity

m2 s

Auxiliary Units
Physical Quantity Length Mass Volume Pressure Viscosity Unit micron Metric ton Liter bar Poise Symbol
m

Definition

106 m
103 kg 103 m3 105 Pa
101 kg ms

t L bar P

Kinematic Viscosity

Stokes

St

m2 10 s
4

Prefixes for Fractions and Multiples


Factor
1012

Name pico nano micro milli

Symbol p n

Factor
1012

Name tera giga i mega kilo

Symbol T G M k

109 106
103

109 106
103

Commonly Used Conversion Factors


See tables in the first and last pages of the textbook.

Units Algebra g

Treat units as algebraic entities: add/subtract them, if they are of the same units (3 cm - 1 cm =2 2 cm) multiply/divide them anytime (3 N . 4 m = 12 N.m OR 5.0 km/2.0h = 2.5 km/h) But you cannot cancel or merge units unless they are identical 3 m2/60 cm 3 m2/0.60 m 5 m EXAMPLES: Algebraic geb a c equation equa o

dollars (dozen eggs ) = dollars do e eggs dozen

y (x ) = y x
"Unit" equation "Unit" equation

1 cm + 2 cm = 3 cm

Conversion of Units

A measured quantity can be expressed in terms of any units having the appropriate dimension. Example: Velocity (ft/s, miles/h, km/h, cm/yr, etc.) Units with same dimensions -> easily inter-converted/ OR The equivalence between two expressions of the same quantity may be defined in terms of a ratio:
1 cm 10 mm 10 mm 1 cm
2

EXAMPLE:

(1 centimeter per 10 millimeters) (1 0 millimeters per centimeter )

100 mm 2 10 mm = 1 cm 1 cm 2

Ratios of the form of these equations are known as conversion factors.

Conversion of Units

Convert from one set of units to another: multiply the given quantity by the conversion factor (new unit/old unit). Example: Convert 36 mg to its equivalent in grams: 1g (36 mg ) 1000 mg

Example:

1g Convert 36 mg to its equivalent in grams: (36 mg ) = 0.036 g 1000 mg

Example: Convert 46 ft/min into its equivalent in m/s:

46 ft min

1m 3.281 ft

1 min 60 s

= 0.2336 m/s