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Submission on behalf of Music for the Populace to Local Music Grants Scheme, May 2009

Submission on Behalf of
Music for the Populace

To Local Music Grants Scheme


The Department of Environment, Heritage
and the Arts
Prepared by
Amanda Bevan, Zoee Bradley, Lauren Clinton, Melissa-Jane
Foggarty and Michael Perrin
May 2009

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Submission on behalf of Music for the Populace to Local Music Grants Scheme, May 2009

Contents
1………………………………………………………………………………………………..Title
2…………………………………………………………………………………………..Contents
3……………………………………………………………………………...Executive Summary
4-9………………………………………………………………………………….…Background
10…...........................................................................................................Using Popular Music to
…….………..Promote Social Interaction for Individuals with Communicative Impairments
11………………………...Activities for which Popular Music can be Used to Promote Social
………………………………..Interaction for Individuals with Communicative Impairments
12-14…………………..The Use of Popular Music to Enable Those of Varying Cultures and
……..Religions to Express their Beliefs Within an Atmosphere of Respect and Appreciation
15-17…………..Activities for which Popular Music Enables Those of Varying Cultures and
……..Religions to Express their Beliefs Within an Atmosphere of Respect and Appreciation
18-19………………The Use of Popular Music to Target Adolescents with Positive Messages

20……………………Activities for Which Popular Music can be used to Target Adolescents


…………………………………………………………………………….with Positive Messages

21…………………………………....Developmental Benefits of Music Education in Children


22-24………………………..Activities for the Improvement of Music Education in Children
25-28……………………………..The Physical and Mental Health Benefits of Popular Music

29-30…………..Activities for which Popular Music can be used to Promote Physical Health
31-32……………………………The Physical Health Benefits of Popular Music for Children
33-34…………………...Activities for which Popular Music can be used to Promote Physical
……………………………………………………………………..Health Benefits for Children

Executive Summary

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Submission on behalf of Music for the Populace to Local Music Grants Scheme, May 2009

Our organisation, Music for the Populace, wish to apply for a local grant in support of our
proposed activities pertaining to popular music and its benefits to the wider Newcastle
community.
The benefits we envisage through our proposed activities include:

• The promotion of social interaction for individuals with communicative impairments


• The enablement of those of varying cultures and religions to express their beliefs within
an atmosphere of respect and appreciation
• Positive messages, as targeted to adolescents through the use of popular music
• Physical and Mental health benefits through music use and music therapy
• Physical health benefits in children, including the combating of child obesity within the
Novocastrian community and;
• Improvement of music education in schools, including the varying developmental
benefits this will bring
Newcastle is widely known as a “musical” city, having the highest number of bands, venues, and
artists per capita than anywhere else in Australia1. Music for the Populace hopes to tap into this
ideology bringing it to the forefront of the community, through a series of workshops, activities,
demonstrations and festivals, which seek to showcase local talent as well as benefit the wider
Novocastrian population; physically, mentally, and spiritually.

1
Visit Newcastle, ‘Art Events’ 2007 [online]
http://www.visitnewcastle.com.au/images/newcastle/Art%20Events.pdf. (last updated, 2007, last
accessed 5th May 2009)
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Submission on behalf of Music for the Populace to Local Music Grants Scheme, May 2009

Background
What is Popular Music?
Defining “pop” music from a modern perspective means determining, not only the value
of social and cultural influences but also viewing economic and global influences.
Growth in technology has meant more access to music from radio, CDs, DVDs, music
videos, the internet, downloadable music etc. from all around the world. 2

In Australia 1998-1999, sales of pre-recorded audio CDs and DVDs totaled over $800
million3. This highlights the economic factors in determining popular music as the
industry is interested in making profit, therefore groups such as record labels and artists
seek to promote music that consumers will enjoy and buy.

Popular music is influenced by music communities, and the bigger the community; the
bigger the cultural production and the bigger the ability to reach wider audiences. Popular
music can range from rock, pop, blues, grunge to country, urban, rap and hip-hop - with
their growth and popularity relying mainly on the size of the music community in each
genre who are willing to buy and listen to artists in a particular genre and their ability to
reach wider audiences.

According to Turley,4four companies (Time Warner, BMG, EMI & Polygram) control
70% of the music produced around the world. These companies are able to control the

2
Gracyk, T, 1999, ‘Valuing and Evaluating Popular Music’, The Journal of Aesthetics and
Art Criticism, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 205-220.

3
Cultural Ministers Council (CMC) Statistics Working Group (SWG) ‘Music in Australia:
A Statistical Overview’, Cultural Data Online, [online]
http://www.culturaldata.gov.au/publications/statistics_working_group/other (last updated
18th November 2008, last accessed 3rd May 2009).

4
Turley, AC, 2001, ‘Max Weber and the Sociology of Music’, Sociological Forum, vol.
16, no.4, pp. 633-653.

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Submission on behalf of Music for the Populace to Local Music Grants Scheme, May 2009

music produced and played on radio, television etc, therefore popular music is not only a
choice, depending on your preferred genre or style, but a matter of what we are provided
with to listen to through the decisions of these companies.

The Importance of Music in the Community


Community music can be generally defined as active participation in music making and
listening through schools, performance organisations, ethnic groups, religious groups,
universities and colleges, informal arenas and groups such as individual musicians, bands
and so on. 5 Tucker and Mantie use the example of the murder of politician, Harvey Milk
(a leader in the gay community in San Francisco) and how music brought together
members of the community after his death when they gathered and sang together unifying
their community, their culture and their grief. This show of solidarity influenced the
creation of other music groups such as ‘The Gay and Lesbian Association of Choruses’
which now has over 200 choruses 6

Tucker and Mantie outline three ways in which communities need to revitalise music in
the community and music education:
1) To view community music as an outlet for improving and sustaining health and
wellbeing by establishing a relationship between music and daily life.
2) Seeing music education as a way to build individual skills and enable students to
participate in music endeavors after their school life and;
3) To break down the boundaries of music education as simply occurring in schools.

The idea of a “community” forges a sense of knowing, identity and a sense of belonging
for individuals. Music is an important tool in establishing a participatory and coherent
community, as it brings people together socially and can be used to initiate tradition and a
continuation of events, songs, festivals, activities, and so on in a positive way. Music

5
Tucker, L & Mantie, R, 2006, ‘Community: Music: Making: Connections’, The
Canadian Music Educator, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 34-39.

Tucker, L & Mantie, R, 2006, ‘Community: Music: Making: Connections’, The


6

Canadian Music Educator, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 35-36.


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Submission on behalf of Music for the Populace to Local Music Grants Scheme, May 2009

education is important for the community as it enables individuals to be involved and


establishes a sense of belonging. Music education builds an arena for creative expression
and learning in areas that might otherwise be unknown to the participant, which in turn
creates opportunities for the community by empowering their members with knowledge
and positive influences7

A research project undertaken in 2004 sought to analyse the influence of music and music
making to the cultural health of a community.8 The study discovered the importance in
the use of song and song creation in sustaining cultural identity which was apparent at
Zillmere State School, Queensland. A large proportion of the school community are
Indigenous and South Sea Islanders, with a number experiencing social and economic
disadvantage. The students wrote their own personal songlines and recorded the song
along with a music video that was played on 55 radio stations around Australia. Zillmere
State School received the ‘school of excellence’ award in 2002 and their choir frequently
performed at educational conferences and venues. 9 The creation of the song and the
involvement of the community in creating something successful had a positive social and
political impact in establishing a culturally united, diverse and proud community.

7
Jorgensen, RE, 1995, ‘Music Education as Community’, Journal of Aesthetic Education,
vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 71-84.

Dillon, S, 2006, ‘Assessing the Positive Influence of Music Activities in Community


8

Development Programs’, Music Education Research, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 267-280.

Dillon, S, 2006, ‘Assessing the Positive Influence of Music Activities in Community


9

Development Programs’, Music Education Research, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 270-271


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Submission on behalf of Music for the Populace to Local Music Grants Scheme, May 2009

The Use of Popular Music to Unite the Community


Research suggests that music can be viewed as a type of common cultural denominator that
transcends concepts such as age and gender. For example, MacDonald 10 locates music in the
recognition of newborns and describes it as one of the earliest forms of communication between
a child and its parent. Trevarthen 11agrees with this and argues that “musical sounds, especially
those resembling the mother's voice, can calm distress of a newborn.”

Moving on from infancy, Zillman and Gan 12suggest that music is one of the most important
recreational activities with which adolescents engage. MacDonald 13agrees with this and further
argues that music has a dictatorial presence in, among many other things, the locations in which
adolescents choose to socialise, the clothes they choose to wear, the magazines they choose to
read and those with whom they

There is also strong evidence to suggest that music remains an influential part of people's lives as
they move into old age. The only major difference is that older age alters musical tastes such that
they "become broader and less affiliated to a particular genre of music.” 14

10
MacDonald RAR 2008 'The universality of musical communication' in Zeedyk MS (ed) 2008
Promoting social interaction for individuals with communicative impairments London, England,
United Kingdom: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, p 39

11
Trevarthen C 2008 'Intuition for human communication' in Zeedyk MS (ed) 2008 Promoting
social interaction for individuals with communicative impairments London, England, United
Kingdom: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, p 33

Cited within MacDonald RAR 2008 'The universality of musical communication' in Zeedyk
12

MS (ed) 2008 Promoting social interaction for individuals with communicative impairments
London, England, United Kingdom: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, p 40.

MacDonald RAR 2008 'The universality of musical communication' in Zeedyk MS (ed) 2008
13

Promoting social interaction for individuals with communicative impairments London, England,
United Kingdom: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, p 40

MacDonald RAR 2008 'The universality of musical communication' in Zeedyk MS (ed) 2008
14

Promoting social interaction for individuals with communicative impairments London, England,
United Kingdom: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, p 40
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Submission on behalf of Music for the Populace to Local Music Grants Scheme, May 2009

It can be shown, therefore, that music infiltrates people's lives irrespective of gender and age.
This has lead Horden 15to content that every human has a biological, social and cultural
guarantee of musicianship, with the roots of which observably dating back to at least the ancient
Greeks. Furthermore, this innate musicianship, it is argued, exists “regardless of your musical
involvement [to the extent that] you have an identity as a musician,” and this identity is a
“defining feature of humanity.” 16

However, more than just an identity, music also provides a means of ways in which to
communicate. For example, in separate texts, Cross 17and Hodges 18 both argue that music can be
used to communicate emotions, intentions and meanings. Elaborating on this, DeNora 19
contends that music is part of the "cultural material through which 'scenes' are constructed,
scenes that afford kinds of agency, different sorts of pleasure and ways of being". Furthermore,
MacDonald 20claims that musical involvement also affects the way in which our social and
cultural surroundings are constructed and the way in which people relate to one another

15
Horden P (ed) 2001 Music as Medicine Aldershoot, England, United Kingdom: Ashgate
Publishing.

MacDonald RAR 2008 'The Universality of Musical Communication' in Zeedyk MS (ed) 2008
16

Promoting social interaction for individuals with communicative impairments London, England,
United Kingdom: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, p 39 and 41
17
Cross I 2005 'Music and Meaning, Ambiguity and Evolution' in Miell D, MacDonald RAR and
Hargreaves DJ (eds) 2005 Musical communication Oxford, England, United Kingdom: Oxford
University Press.

18
Hodges DA 1996 Handbook of Music Psychology San Antonio, Texas, United States of
America: IMR Press.Kennedy H & Sked H 2008 'Video Interaction Guidance: a Bridge to Better
Interactions for Individuals with Communication Impairments' in Zeedyk MS (ed) 2008
Promoting social interaction for individuals with communicative impairments London, England,
United Kingdom: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

19
DeNora T 2000 Music in Everyday Life Cambridge, England, United Kingdom: Cambridge
University Press, p 123.

MacDonald RAR 2008 'The Universality of Musical Communication' in Zeedyk MS (ed) 2008
20

Promoting Social Interaction for Individuals with Communicative Impairments London,


England, United Kingdom: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, p 42.
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Submission on behalf of Music for the Populace to Local Music Grants Scheme, May 2009

generally. This is particularly important given the earlier advancement of music's pan-cultural
presence, and the subsequent fact that communities―more than just cohorts―can collectively
relate to each other using music, which has the benefit of reinforcing socio-cultural constructs.

Another nuance of musical identity is that, more than an exhibition of our own understandings, it
is “a key feature of the communication process [and demonstrates a] level of attunement between
the communicating parties.” 21That is, we do not only have to take account of our own unique
style but also possess the ability to appreciate the style of the person with whom we are
communicating. An analogy is drawn between musically associated communication and that
of the synchrony exhibited in the harmony of an orchestra: "there is musicality inherent within
every successful communication, as those participating must 'play to the beat' while allowing
sufficient latitude for creativity and individual style.” 22

Therefore, an avenue opens through which community-based activities involving popular music
can be used to promote unity within the community. Specific activities will be discussed in the
ensuing sections.

21
Kennedy & Sked 2008 p. 141
22
Kennedy & Sked 2008 p. 141
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Submission on behalf of Music for the Populace to Local Music Grants Scheme, May 2009

Using Popular Music to Promote Social Interaction for Individuals with Communicative
Impairments
Music has been shown (refer to pages 6-8, The Use of Popular Music to Unite the Community)
to be inextricably linked to the way in which personal identity is perceived and, furthermore, to
provide a communicative, uniting process in the context of the community. For these reasons,
music acts as an appropriate mechanism for social interaction among those with communicative
impairments. Miell23, for example, find that music can facilitate the exchange of emotions,
meanings and intentions even in situations where spoken language is mutually incomprehensible.
Furthermore, MacDonald 24argues that, irrespective of other learning difficulties, individuals are
in vast majority of cases able to learn music skills to some extent, and that those skills learnt
have been shown to enhance “wider psychological developments and, in particular,
communication.” MacDonald further argues that the psychological effects music can have on
those with communicative impairments can “serve as a powerful therapeutic type of
communication [and lead to the further] development of wider, more general communication
skills.” 25

It is on this basis, therefore, that popular music can be used to promote social interactions for
those with communicative impairments and, furthermore, contribute additional psychological
benefits.

23
Miell D, MacDonald RAR and Hargreaves DJ (eds) 2005 Musical Communication Oxford,
England, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.

MacDonald RAR 2008 'The Universality of Musical Communication' in Zeedyk MS (ed) 2008
24

Promoting Social Interaction for Individuals with Communicative Impairments London,


England, United Kingdom: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, p 39

MacDonald RAR 2008 'The Universality of Musical Communication' in Zeedyk MS (ed) 2008
25

Promoting Social Interaction for Individuals with Communicative Impairments London,


England, United Kingdom: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, p 40
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Submission on behalf of Music for the Populace to Local Music Grants Scheme, May 2009

Activities for which Popular Music can be Used to Promote Social Interaction for
Individuals with Communicative Impairments.
Activities for which popular music can be used to promote social interactions for those with
communicative impairments should, in fact, fall under the category of music therapy. In turning
to a definition of music therapy in the context of communicative impairment, Watson 26states that
“music therapy is a primarily non-verbal form of therapeutic intervention, making it particularly
suitable for people who have communication difficulties or who find it hard to talk about their
feelings.”

From this definition, it can be argued that any form of music therapy for those with
communicative impairments would be largely devoid of the need for oral forms of
communication. For example, John 27suggests that any such activity should be viewed as
“experience orientated rather than insight orientated.” This means that, rather than an emphasis
on mental synchrony, a sense of unity and understanding is instead derived through the collective
experience of music. This allows “people to have an experience of finding different ways of
being with others, of expressing and sharing their feelings and of telling their stories through
music, when words are not available.” 28This, in turn, has a greater effect when activities are set
in large groups, due to the enhanced ability for “accessibility of the non-verbal medium of music
and the opportunities it gives to forming relationships, and sharing and expressing feelings.”

Subsequently, research indicates that those with communicative impairments would benefit from
activities days consisting of music-focused activities within large groups. Such activities, in turn,
would have an emphasis on relaying emotions, meanings and intentions. Furthermore, they
would focus on the overall development of non-lingual-based relationships between participants.

26
Watson T 2007 Music therapy with adults with learning disabilities London, England, United
Kingdom: Routledge, p 2.

27
John D 1992 'Towards music psychotherapy', Journal of British MusicTherapy, p 160.

Watson T 2007 Music Therapy with Adults with Learning Disabilities London, England, United
28

Kingdom: Routledge, p 2.
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Submission on behalf of Music for the Populace to Local Music Grants Scheme, May 2009

The Use of Popular Music to Enable Those of Varying Cultures and Religions to Express
their Beliefs Within an Atmosphere of Respect and Appreciation.
It is widely accepted from the vantages of cultural and religious studies that religiousness
features prominently within popular music. Gilmour 29makes the observation that “songwriters
engage religions and their texts and explore grand theological questions, sometimes deliberately,
sometimes not.” In turn, popular music provides a ceremonial function that, if applied with
appropriate tact, opens an avenue via which greater religious respect and appreciation can be
sought. Subsequently, further exploration of the ceremonial function of music is required, such
that any pursuit involving the religious respect and appreciation though music can be delivered
with maximum benefit.

In an extensive analysis, Gaston 30develops eight considerations in relation to the function of


music. One of these considerations is that music and religion are fundamentally integrated.
Following from this, Radocy and Boyle 31 argue that an “integral relationship [between] music
and religion is evident in virtually every culture” but that the “specific function of music in
religious ceremony tends to vary with its place in the ceremony,” 32However, Radocy and Boyle
go on to define this variable and identify several functions of music for which all religions aspire
to provide. These include drawing people together, defending against fear and loneliness, and
reaching the supernatural. In turn, a specific religious context is required in which to analyse the
these more defined functions of music.

Gilmour MJ 2005 'Introduction: Preliminary Reflections on the Study of Religion in Popular


29

Music' in Call me the Seeker: Listening to Religion in Popular Music London, England, United
Kingdom: Continuum International Publishing Group, p 7.

Gaston ET 1968 'Man and Music'. In Gaston ET (ed.) 1968 Music in Therapy New York, New
30

York, United States of America: MacMillan.

31
Radocy RE & Boyle JD 1988 Psychological Foundations of Musical Behaviour Springfield,
Illinois, United States of America: Charles C. Thomas Publishers, p 14

32
Radocy RE & Boyle JD 1988 Psychological Foundations of Musical Behaviour Springfield,
Illinois, United States of America: Charles C. Thomas Publishers, p 269
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Submission on behalf of Music for the Populace to Local Music Grants Scheme, May 2009

In the first instance, music can be seen to draw people together by serving as a “signal to
stimulate the congregation to respond in a certain way,” 33.This can mean the use of music to
establish a mood of respect and harmony, or to enable worshippers to collectively reflect on the
respective beliefs and values of their religion. Following from this the second function acts to
defend religionists against fear and loneliness by eliciting a positive and often uplifting
emotional response. Musselman 34 argues that this religious function of music stands as one of
the most consistent throughout the history of Western civilization. The third of these functions is
the ability of music to allow religionists to reach the supernatural. This function is firstly sought
through the ability of music “to lend to the formality of such occasions” 35and, secondly, to
“heighten the desired emotional effect in the listener, to emphasize the ritual text, especially
certain significant words, and to focus the worshipper's attention on the rite,”36. In turn, it is not
only the case that all religionists, despite their disparate religiousness, can come together under a
pan-cultural appreciation for music, but that their various religions are all fundamentally
integrated with music. Thus, there are two levels on which those of varying religiousness could
unite to promote and exhibit religious respect and appreciation.

The application of these notions of religious respect and appreciation is particularly important in
the context of Newcastle. The 2006 Australian Census, for example, indicates, quite significantly,
that 87 per cent of Novocastrians are religious (APM 2009). The same Census also shows that
Australia's religiousness is not merely confined to the more prominent Christian denominations,
such as Catholicism and Anglicanism, but that religions such as Buddhism, Hinduism and Islam
are becoming increasingly popular (ABS 2007). Thus, these statistics indicate the real need for

33
Radocy RE & Boyle JD 1988 Psychological Foundations of Musical Behaviour Springfield,
Illinois, United States of America: Charles C. Thomas Publishers, p 14

Musselman JA 1974 The uses of Music: an Introduction to Music in Contemporary American


34

Life Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, United States of America: Prentice-Hall, p 129

35
Radocy RE & Boyle JD 1988 Psychological Foundations of Musical Behaviour Springfield,
Illinois, United States of America: Charles C. Thomas Publishers, p 269

Perris A 1985 Music as propaganda: art to persuade, art to control Westport, Connecticut,
36

United States of America: Greenwood Press, p 124.

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Submission on behalf of Music for the Populace to Local Music Grants Scheme, May 2009

continuation and possible enhancement of religious respect and appreciation both


contemporaneously and in the future.

It has also been asserted that “music is a way of knowing culture,” 37 Music allows for an
intricacy of perspectives to be analysed, as it flows between cultures and provides a unique
bridging point between personalities. It helps “define who we are, creating our communal self
identity.” Furthermore, “music situates the listener,”38 and through the festival days that we wish
to promote, the “performance of, and engagement with, music enables participants to be a part of
an active articulation of the self and its identity, one that expresses the multiple and overlapping
positions of the subject, because of the plurality of meaning that arises as the performance
occurs. For many participants this attraction and appropriation of sounds gives expression to who
they believe themselves to be,”39.

MFTP have put forward several ways in which these attainments can be pursued with maximum
benefit.

37
Page, Nick The Cultural Connection Choral Journal 41:8 (March 2001) p. 29

Duffy, Michelle “We Find Ourselves Again?” Recreating Identity Through Performance in the
38

Community Music Festival Australasian Music Research 7 (2002) p. 109.

Duffy, Michelle “We Find Ourselves Again?” Recreating Identity Through Performance in the
39

Community Music Festival Australasian Music Research 7 (2002) p.109.


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Submission on behalf of Music for the Populace to Local Music Grants Scheme, May 2009

Activities for which Popular Music Enables Those of Varying Cultures and Religions to
Express their Beliefs Within an Atmosphere of Respect and Appreciation.

Research indicates that the nexus between religion and music can provide a common ground on
which varying religionists can unite in promotion of religious respect and appreciation. Such a
pursuit, in turn, could be attained through a Religious Tolerance Day in which music features
prominently. However, such a celebration also requires a significant degree of tact regarding both
the activities on the day and the music that supports them.
Suggestions for such a Day include invitations to various senior religious conductors across
Newcastle to participate in the day's festivities, decorations that carry messages of respect for all
religious, and visual and educative exhibitions presenting the commonalities of various religions.
In turn, such a Day would not aim to preach nor entertain any competitiveness between religions;
rather, it would seek to accompany the aforementioned activities with appropriate music to
concertedly promote religious respect and appreciation.

In regard to the need for appropriately tactful music, Perris 40 observes six underlying ways in
which music is used by the world's four major religions (Judaism, Christianity, Islam and
Hinduism). Firstly, music used in religious services must contain vocals that are comprehensible;
secondly, must employ unimposing melodies and performance style; thirdly, must use musical
instruments that are socially acceptable; fourthly, must be used in appreciation of the settings;
fifthly, must not detract from the overall purpose of the activity; and, lastly, artistic goals of
composers must not override theological concerns. Thus, any popular music selected, whether
live or not, would have to accord with Perris's six fundamentals. Moreover, the last of Perris's
characteristics is of particular concern in the context of the proposed Religious Tolerance Day.
That is, there is a danger that the music used might "be more seductive than the [religiousness]
itself, and that the musicians may evoke more interest than the [religious interest being
exhibited],”41. This would require greater emphasis to be placed on religious exhibition rather

40
Perris A 1985 Music as propaganda: art to persuade, art to control Westport, Connecticut,
United States of America: Greenwood Press.

41
Perris A 1985 Music as Propaganda: Art to Persuade, Art to Control Westport, Connecticut,
United States of America: Greenwood Press, p 124.
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Submission on behalf of Music for the Populace to Local Music Grants Scheme, May 2009

than musical exhibition throughout the planning stages of such a Day, precluding the delivery of
music through live performance.

Music is, by nature, “a vehicle for expression, common to all peoples,”42 It is said that, by
embracing the diversity of religion and cultures through music consumption that, we can “enrich
our lives, broaden our understanding of the world we live in, and deepen our appreciation for the
music of our own culture,”43 It is important to our organisation that misconceptions are not borne
from the experiences we wish to offer our fellow community members. As such, we hope to offer
a “cultural bridge”, allowing for an embrace of prior musical experience and a fusion of new and
exciting talents and cultural and religious differences. Through this “cultural bridge,” academic
research suggests that communities are “connected to new musical worlds… connecting us to
each other, and sometimes bringing us back to who we are,”44 This concept is a core foundation
of what we hope to achieve with our grant, eliciting involvement, awareness and facilitating
understanding through the music, traditions and values of other religions and cultures that share
our community.
In order to be successful, Music for the Populace must acknowledge our strengths and
weaknesses in this submission. One point of interest is that it is difficult to ensure that the
authenticity remains when presenting culturally different music. It must remain as true as
possible to the original context and flavour, to the people and values it represents, whilst also
establishing a connection with those who are unfamiliar with it. Common questions arise as to
which cultures and religions can be highlighted and showcased for public consumption? By
honouring one, are we ignoring another? In order to overcome these issues, Music for Populace
will actively engage the Novocastrian community in the selection process, calling for
nominations and suggestions of cultures, religious groups, styles and musicians to help bring a
real sense of community to the project. The idea is to involve the community at the grassroots

Blair, Deborah V ‘Bridging Musical Understanding Through Multicultural Musics’ Music


42

Educators Guide 94:5 (May 2008) p.54

43
Page, Nick ‘The Cultural Connection’ Choral Journal 41:8 (March 2001) p. 29.

Blair, Deborah V ‘Bridging Musical Understanding Through Multicultural Musics’ Music


44

Educators Guide 94:5 (May 2008) p.54


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Submission on behalf of Music for the Populace to Local Music Grants Scheme, May 2009

level and move forward with a cultural benefactor that can appeal to as wide an audience as
possible, whilst still reflecting the diverse Newcastle population.

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Submission on behalf of Music for the Populace to Local Music Grants Scheme, May 2009

The Use of Popular Music to Target Adolescents with Positive Messages

Research indicates that Australian adolescents aged from 14 through to 19 years find music the
most important media format45. The importance attributed to music outweighed other formats
commonly attributable to adolescents, such as sports and entertainment news. Moreover, the
same research indicates that adolescents, as a cohort, ascribe the highest quotidian importance to
music than any other cohort. In turning to the music consumption habits of youth culture, another
study conducted on Australian adolescents found that popular music was included in the top two
most liked genres of music46. Thus, research on Australian adolescents collectively indicates that
the consumption of popular music is an important facet of youth culture.

The importance of popular music in Australian youth culture was analysed by AUSMUSIC in
199447, with the study finding several motivations for popular music consumption in adolescents.
The research found that, for adolescents, music creates positive emotional responses; gives them
an identity; instills them with a sense of belonging; helps them study; and creates cultural and
social responses, which cover personal messages about living life, understanding themselves and
empathising with others. In a practical example, Skelton and Valentine 48argue that “music can
act to facilitate social offshoots,” and they give the example of the United States phenomenon
involving girl bands which, together with their fans, “wrote zines, arranged meetings and
organised events concerned with a broad range of issues tackling discrimination.”

45
Cupitt M, Ramsay G & Sheldon L 1996 Music, New Music and all that: Teenage Radio in the
90s Sydney New South Wales, Australia: Australian Broadcasting Authority, p 48-50.

46
Ramsay G 1998 Headbanging or Dancing: Youth and Music in Australia Sydney, New South
Wales, Australia: Australian Broadcasting Authority, p 42.

47
AUSMUSIC 1994 Music and Young People: Youth and Arts Discussion Papers Sydney, New
South Wales, Australia: privately circulated, p 10-11.

48
Skelton T & Valentine G 1998 Cool places: Geographies of Youth Culture New York, New
York, Routledge, p 104.

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Submission on behalf of Music for the Populace to Local Music Grants Scheme, May 2009

Furthermore, any effective effort to target Novocastrian adolescents with positive socio-cultural
messages is particularly important in light of the recent late-night antisocial behaviour
surrounding Newcastle in the media49, and the identification of Enterprise Park, opposite the
Newcastle Railway Station, as a NSW crime hot spot by the NSW Police Force50. In addition, the
2006 Australian Census indicates that, 28 per cent of the Novocastrian population is under 18
years of age51. It can be seen, therefore, that a large proportion of the Newcastle populace would
be affected by activities aimed at those unable to drink alcohol and frequent pubs and clubs. This
indicates, in turn, that a large audience stands to benefit from any positive messages associated
with activities involving popular music.

49
ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) 2009a 'Newcastle Police Back Pub Ban Proposal'
ABCNEWS [online] available at http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2009/03/04/2507292.htm
(last updated 4 March, 2009; last accessed 25 April, 2009).

50
ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) 2009b 'Police say Enterprise Park Crime Under
Control' ABCNEWS [online] available at
http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2009/03/24/2524480.htm (last updated 24 March, 2009; last
accessed 27 April, 2009).

51
APM (Australian Property Monitors) 2009 'Suburb Profiles: Demographics' Fairfax Digital's
Domain.com [online] available at
http://www.domain.com.au/pubic/suburbprofile.aspx?mode=buy&suburb=Newcastle&postcode
=2300 (last updated 2009; last accessed 23 April, 2009).

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Submission on behalf of Music for the Populace to Local Music Grants Scheme, May 2009

Activities for Which Popular Music can be used to Target Adolescents with Positive
Messages

Research indicates that popular music in association with positive socio-cultural messages would
be of benefit to Novocastrian adolescents, together with the wider Novocastrian populace. In
turning to activities that might facilitate this effect, it can be seen that a festival fashioned on the
the Live 8 concerts that have been successfully implemented in the past would draw parallels
with the aims being proposed. That is, a festival that uses role models, charities, and positive
messages and goals would be appropriate; however, given that the target audience, unlike Live 8
concerts, is strictly adolescent, it might be appropriate not to work in association with charities.
Rather, any such festival would use adolescent role models, whether from sports or
entertainment, to endorse positive socio-cultural messages of particular concern to adolescents.
Furthermore, Skelton and Valentine 52 argue that music has an increased ability to create an
emotionally charged atmosphere with youth. However, the desired emotional estate in which to
effect an acceptance of positive socio-cultural messages often requires not just the music itself,
but interaction with an emotionally charged crowd. Thus, a more enclosed, communal
atmosphere would better facilitate the transmission of any positive message being extended.

The socio-cultural messages promoted by such a festival would relate to the physical,
psychological and social anxieties associated with adolescence. This would include, but not be
limited to, physical concerns regarding healthy eating, diabetes, anorexia and sexually
transmitted diseases; psychological concerns regarding depression, tolerance and harassment;
and social concerns regarding respect for the property of others, dealing with anger and
frustration, and community work.

52
Skelton T & Valentine G 1998 Cool places: Geographies of Youth Culture New York, New
York, Routledge, p 272.

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Submission on behalf of Music for the Populace to Local Music Grants Scheme, May 2009

Developmental Benefits of Music Education in Children


“According to author Jenny Nam Yoon, a growing body of research reveals the beneficial effects
of music on education performance. Research indicates that music plays an important role in the
brain development of a child. Furthermore, researchers believe that children who have more
exposure to music and music training benefit from enhanced brain activity which has been
shown to increase students’ abilities to perform certain academic tasks. In addition many
practical life skills are acquired through music learning and music training,”53.
“’The Musical Mind’ by Susan Black ‘describes research on brain development and its
relationship to music education. It discusses how music helps some people organise the way they
think and work and how music helps them develop in other areas, including mathematics,
language and spatial reasoning’. Frances Rauscher contends that music stimulates thought
processes and enhances spatial reasoning, which is essential for academic achievement. Research
indicates that the spatial reasoning performance of preschoolers who receive music lessons far
exceeds that of comparison students. Even listening to music proves beneficial to spatial
reasoning,” 54
From the evidence presented above, it is clear to Music for the Populace that Newcastle would
benefit greatly from increasing funding and access to music programs in local schools. Music is
both an educational tool and something that children can enjoy, which is an essential piece of the
learning puzzle. Our organisation feels strongly that this program can be inclusive of all
members of the community, especially those who are economically disadvantaged. We want to
encourage all children to get the best out of education, and the research certainly indicates that an
active music program is something that our community should be striving towards.

53
Swanson,
Carl ‘The Private Studio: Be an Advocate for Public School Music’ Journal of
Singing – The Official Journal of the National Association of Teachers of Singing 63:5 (May-
June 2007) p. 573.

Swanson, Carl ‘The Private Studio: Be an Advocate for Public School Music’ Journal of
54

Singing – The Official Journal of the National Association of Teachers of Singing 63:5 (May-
June 2007) p. 573.
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Submission on behalf of Music for the Populace to Local Music Grants Scheme, May 2009

Activities for the Improvement of Music Education in Children


Music is considered to be an important tool for education, allowing children to grow as their
knowledge expands on the topics of different cultures, styles, forms and disciplines involved
with music education. “Arts advocate Charles Fowler asserted that music education has the
potential not only to preserve the values of the community but also to change them,”55.
Classroom teachers have recognised the value of a music education within schools, due to the
ability of music to “support general education goals,”56.
It has been suggested that for young children to be effectively taught in the area of music a
number of conditions must be met for success. MENC stated that, “Children learn best in
pleasant social and physical environments. Music learning contexts will be most effective when
they include (1) Play, (2) games, (3) conversations, (4) pictorial imagination, (5) stories, (6)
shared reflections on life events and family activities, and (7) personal and group involvement in
social tasks,”57.
Music has the capacity to open doors to afford students a glimpse into different cultures,
languages, locations and more. Music for the Populace submits that greater music education is
needed within schools in the local Newcastle community. Music education comes in many
forms, from the learning of an instrument (which effectively teaches the values of practice,
patience & perseverance) to going to the Opera or a live concert to immerse children in cultural
and enjoyable activities. Children are stimulated through enjoyment, and music has the ability to
be much more than a “pleasant distraction.”
Carlos Abril’s article Perspectives on the Music Program: Opening Doors to the School
Community has outlined a simple plan for the inclusion of greater music education in schools and
the outcomes that may come from such a program.

55
Abril, Carlos R Perspectives on the Music Program: Opening Doors to the School Community
Music Educators Journal 93:5 (May 2007) p. 32
56
Abril, Carlos R Perspectives on the Music Program: Opening Doors to the School Community
Music Educators Journal 93:5 (May 2007) p. 33
57
Kersten, Fred Inclusion of Technology Resources in Early Childhood Music Education General
Music Today (Online) 20:1 (Fall 2006) ‘MENC Position Statement on Early Childhood
Education’ www.menc.org/information/prek12/echild.htmlp. 16.

22
Submission on behalf of Music for the Populace to Local Music Grants Scheme, May 2009

“Transferability of Skills:
• Make teachers and principals aware of historical and socio-cultural information related to
music material used in class.
• Relate musical skills (reading and writing notation) to skills used in the regular classroom
(reading and writing language).
• Highlight skills that music instruction develops (listening, creativity) that can be used in
all instructional situations.
The Processes behind Musical Outcomes:
• Invite classroom teachers, principals, parents, and others to participate in a music class so
that they are aware of the “process” behind musical development.
• Use music programs as opportunities to demonstrate how students achieve performance
skills.
• Invite teachers, principals, parents, and others to participate in music-making in both
grade-level and school-wide programs.
Highlighting Musical Achievement:
• Find prominent places to post students’ achievements as documented in photographs,
compositions, concert programs, drawings, and essays.
• During performances, explain the context of unfamiliar or complex pieces so that the
audience has a greater understanding of what they hear,”58
“Music provides a potentially powerful medium of self-expression and communication with
others,”59. This closely aligns with Abril’s suggestion of community involvement in music
education. Music for the Populace strives toward the ideal of inclusion of these proposed
outcomes and hopes that with greater support and financial assistance, children’s access to the
skills learned through music will be improved. In turn, this will expand their knowledge and

58
Abril, Carlos R Perspectives on the Music Program: Opening Doors to the School Community
Music Educators Journal 93:5 (May 2007) p. 36.

59
Ockleford, Adam Music in the Education of Children with Severe or Profound Learning
Difficulties: Issues in Current U.K. Provision, a New Conceptual Framework, and Proposals for
Research Psychology of Music 28:2 (2000) p. 202.

23
Submission on behalf of Music for the Populace to Local Music Grants Scheme, May 2009

horizons, allowing them to be engaging participants with honed life skills in their schools and
communities.

24
Submission on behalf of Music for the Populace to Local Music Grants Scheme, May 2009

The Physical and Mental Health Benefits of Popular Music

Recent research conducted by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare60 indicates that
Australia is the second most obese nation in the world, with over 70 per cent of males and over
60 per cent of females being either overweight or obese. In turn, the illnesses spawned by obesity
are estimated to cost the Australian Government $25 billion annually and reduce the average
lifespan by 10 to 20 years61. Chief among the illness resulting from obesity is diabetes. It is
estimated that 275 Australians develop diabetes every day and, in total, 1.7 million Australians
currently have the disease. Furthermore, it has been predicted that by 2031 approximately 3.3
million Australian will have type-two diabetes62. However, music has been shown to possess
several attributes that, in effect, can be used to counter obesity and its subsequent ills.

Connel and Gison63 argue that music functions as a “remedy for both physical and psychological
imbalances,” and Maultsby64 identifies an "intrinsic relationship between music and movement
during performances by popular music groups.” However, more specifically than this,
Middleton65 draws relationships between specific attributes of music and the effect it has on the
human body. He argues that music invokes certain symbolisms through the peculiarity of its

60
AIHW (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare) 2007 'Overweight and Obesity in Australia'
Parliament of Australia: Parliamentary Library [e-brief] available at
http://www.aph.gov.au/library/INTGUIDE/sp/obesity.htm (last updated 14 June, 2007; last
accessed 26 April, 2009).

ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) 2008 'Obesity costing Australia billions'


61

ABCNews [online] available at http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2008/05/12/2242348.htm (last


updated 12 May, 2008; last accessed 28 April, 2009).

62
Diabetes Australia 2009 'Diabetes in Australia' Diabetes Australia [online] available at
http://www.diabetesaustralia.com.au/Understanding-Diabetes/Diabetes-in-Australia/# (last
updated 2009; last accessed 27 April, 2009).

Connell J & Gibson C 2003 Sound tracks: popular music, identity and place London, England,
63

United Kingdom: Routledge, p 276.

Maultsby P 2000 'On Africanisms' in Scott DB (ed) 2000 Music, culture and society: a reader
64

New York, New York, Unites States of America: Oxford University Press, p 95.
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Submission on behalf of Music for the Populace to Local Music Grants Scheme, May 2009

tempo, rhythmic structure, pitch-height relationships, intensity and textural contrasts. For
example, he connects the pitch of a song as either going 'up' or 'down'; the sound of a song as
either being 'closer' or more 'distant'; the rhythm of a song as 'in time', 'late' or 'out of phase', and
so on. In agreement with Middleton's thesis, DeNora66 analogises music's internal references and
structural elements to mechanisms by which one's body can be mapped, framed and configured.

Middleton continues with his thesis and argues for the existence of a secondary, or connotative,
element of music. That is, more than establishing relationships between musical attributes and
space and time, he suggests that music also contains sensuous mechanisms. For example, he
argues that "'high' sounds are 'light', 'bright' and 'clear'" and, furthermore, that such connotations
offer emotional responses "related to tension and relaxation schemas,”67. In specific relation to
exercise, DeNora68 describes this secondary effect “as a motivational device of bodily conduct,
and where it may be said to profile a range of subject positions associated with aerobic
grammar.” In turn, these two phenomena―time/space responses and sensuous responses -
provide avenues via which music can be used to stimulate bodily responses conducive to
exercise.

The effects of music therapy have also been studied for patients with both psychotic and non-
psychotic illnesses such as depression, dementia and psychosis69. For depression and psychosis,
music therapy sessions proved to improve the patients’ general and negative symptoms of the

Middleton R 1990 Studying popular music Milton Keynes, England, United Kingdom: Open
65

University Press, p 225.

DeNora T 2000 Music in Everyday Life Cambridge, England, United Kingdom: Cambridge
66

University Press, p 93.

Middleton R 1990 Studying Popular Music Milton Keynes, England, United Kingdom: Open
67

University Press, p 225.

DeNora T 2000 Music in Everyday Life Cambridge, England, United Kingdom: Cambridge
68

University Press, p 93.

Gold, Christian et al. ‘Dose–Response Relationship in Music Therapy for People with Serious
69

Mental Disorders: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.’ Clinical Psychology Review 29, no. 3
(April 2009): 193-207. Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed April 29, 2009).
26
Submission on behalf of Music for the Populace to Local Music Grants Scheme, May 2009

disease including depression, anxiety, and functionality. Music therapy also increased the
patients’ musical engagement and interest70. A study from the International Journal of
Neuroscience about the effects of music therapy in dementia patients was successful in showing
a significant improvement in those patients treated with music therapy71. In the study, twenty
patients were assigned to either a music therapy group or to a standard care group. The music
therapy group received 50 minutes of music therapy three times a week for five weeks, while the
control group did not. After the completion of all the sessions, the music therapy group showed
incredible improvement with regards to aggressiveness and agitation while members of the
control group had either no or standard improvement72

From this research, Music for the Populace can conclude there are significant physical and
mental health benefits associated with music and music therapy. Our organisation hopes to utilise
this research in conducting activities throughout the wider Newcastle community. Through
demonstration and awareness of the benefits of music therapy (both physically and mentally),
Music for the Populace hopes to improve the lives of countless Novocastrians.

Gold, Christian et al. ‘Dose–Response Relationship in Music Therapy for People with Serious
70

Mental Disorders: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.’ Clinical Psychology Review 29, no. 3
(April 2009): 193-207 [online] Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost (accessed April 29,
2009).

71
Ae-Na Choi et al. ‘Effects of Group Music Intervention on Behavioral and Psychological
Symptoms in Patients with Dementia: A Pilot-Controlled Trial.’ International Journal of
Neuroscience 119, no. 4 (April 2009): 471-481 [online] Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost
(accessed April 29, 2009).

72
Ae-Na Choi et al. ‘Effects of Group Music Intervention on Behavioral and Psychological
Symptoms in Patients with Dementia: A Pilot-Controlled Trial.’ International Journal of
Neuroscience 119, no. 4 (April 2009): 471-481 [online] Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost
(accessed April 29, 2009).
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Submission on behalf of Music for the Populace to Local Music Grants Scheme, May 2009

Activities for which Popular Music can be used to Promote Physical Health
In applying Middleton's73 thesis, aerobics can be seen as a specific type of activity based on
bodily movement in which “music is prominent as an orientational device,”74. This makes
aerobics an ideal activity for which popular can be used to promote the physical health of
Novocastrians. However, any such activity requires the proper selection of music in accordance
to the movement-promoting attributes identified by Middleton, and elaborated on by DeNora.

The first question that needs to be asked of any musical selection is whether it can “create and
sustain the body over the course of a forty-five-minute aerobic exercise session,”75. The question
implicates several other questions, such as the physical and emotional states needed for an
aerobics session and the attributes of music that sate those states. DeNora identifies particular
body movements, endurance and co-ordination as physical requirements, and motivation, arousal
and fatigue-constraint as emotional requirements76. However, another variable is the aerobics
session itself which, typically spanning a forty-five-minute period, involves the warm-up, core
and cool-down phases. In turn, each of these phases demand specific physical and emotional
responses which, furthermore demand specific musical attributes.

According to the thesis, DeNora observes that music with 130 to 138 beats per minute should be
used as a source of motivation for the first warm-up phase of the session. In the same regard,
music with 140 to 146 beats per minute should be used for the core phase for its fatigue-

73
Middleton R 1990 Studying Popular Music Milton Keynes, England, United Kingdom: Open
University Press.

74
DeNora T 2000 Music in Everyday Life Cambridge, England, United Kingdom: Cambridge
University Press, p 91.

75
DeNora T 2000 Music in Everyday Life Cambridge, England, United Kingdom: Cambridge
University Press, p 89

76
DeNora T 2000 Music in Everyday Life Cambridge, England, United Kingdom: Cambridge
University Press, p 89

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Submission on behalf of Music for the Populace to Local Music Grants Scheme, May 2009

constraining qualities. Finally, music with approximately 130 beats per minute should be used
for the cool-down phase as a source of relaxation.

Furthermore, the popular music used throughout the three phases of the aerobics session should
have 'heightened rhythmic clarity'77.By this, DeNora means that the music used should have its
rhythm positioned in the foreground such that the vocals are more obscure (in the background).
More specifically, the vocals should also be sung be a female whose pitch is at the higher extent
of the vocal range. This is because, DeNora argues, higher “melodies and harmonies press up
and lift in ways that are homologous with the gravity resistant physical practices of aerobics,” 78.

In this light, music can be seen as not only “good to think with [but] good to embody with,”79.
Consequently, popular music possesses specific attributes conducive to bodily movement and,
when accompanied with free aerobics sessions at various locations throughout Newcastle, can be
seen as a way to combat obesity and its related ills in the Novocastrian populace.

Our organisation hopes to utilise the positive effects of music therapy on individuals suffering
mental illnesses by holding a series of workshops and sample music therapy demonstrations in
order to educate the community about this beneficial treatment option. In conjunction with local
hospitals, doctors and institutions, Music for the Populace hopes to create awareness about music
therapy, and thus improve the lives of individuals (and their families) suffering mental illness in
the Newcastle region.

77
DeNora T 2000 Music in Everyday Life Cambridge, England, United Kingdom: Cambridge
University Press, p 91-92

78
DeNora T 2000 Music in Everyday Life Cambridge, England, United Kingdom: Cambridge
University Press, p 91

79
DeNora T 2000 Music in Everyday Life Cambridge, England, United Kingdom: Cambridge
University Press, p 91

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Submission on behalf of Music for the Populace to Local Music Grants Scheme, May 2009

The Physical Health Benefits of Popular Music for Children


Research conducted in 1995 indicated that 15.3 per cent of Australians aged two to 17 years were
overweight and, separately, another 4.6 per cent were obese. This amounts to nearly one in five
children being overweight or obese in Australia80. Despite theses startling statistics, further
research conducted in more recent times indicates that the problem of childhood obesity has
worsened. For example, a survey conducted in 2000 on New South Wales primary school
children found that 26.2 per cent of boys and 28.4 per cent of girls aged seven to 11 years were
overweight, with a further 9.9 per cent of boys and 7.1 per cent of girls obese81. Furthermore,
collective analysis of data from surveys conducted in Australia between 1967 and 1997 reveal
that the number of overweight and obese children has tripled.82

The increase in overweight and obese children over the past forty years has been attributed to a
“lack of physical activity, unhealthy eating patterns, or a combination of the two, with genetics
and lifestyle both playing important roles in determining a child's weight,”83. In the specific case
of physical activity, NSW Health identifies such sedentary activities as watching television,

80
AIHW (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare) 2007 'Overweight and Obesity in Australia'
Parliament of Australia: Parliamentary Library [e-brief] available at
http://www.aph.gov.au/library/INTGUIDE/sp/obesity.htm (last updated 14 June, 2007; last
accessed 26 April, 2009).

AIHW (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare) 2007 'Overweight and Obesity in Australia'
81

Parliament of Australia: Parliamentary Library [e-brief] available at


http://www.aph.gov.au/library/INTGUIDE/sp/obesity.htm (last updated 14 June, 2007; last
accessed 26 April, 2009).

AIHW (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare) 2007 'Overweight and Obesity in Australia'
82

Parliament of Australia: Parliamentary Library [e-brief] available at


http://www.aph.gov.au/library/INTGUIDE/sp/obesity.htm (last updated 14 June, 2007; last
accessed 26 April, 2009).

83
NSW Health'Obesity' New South Wales Department of Health [online] available at
http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/publichealth/healthpromotion/obesity/ (last updated n.d.; last
accessed 29 April, 2009).

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Submission on behalf of Music for the Populace to Local Music Grants Scheme, May 2009

playing video games and motor-travelling as contributing factors. In turn, any means by which
the effects of sedentary lifestyles can be thwarted will help to lower the incidence of
overweightness and obesity among children.

A link between music and physical activity is identified by Mazel84, who argues for the
importance of associating music with any attempt to encourage children to have fun while
exercising, “music has a dramatic effect on the body, inspiring the body to move; on the emotion,
evoking feelings; and on the mind, stimulating the right/left hemispheres of the brain.”
Subsequently, physical activities associated music provide an opportunity for children to have
fun while also reducing overweightness and obesity.

84
Mazel J, Monaco JE & Sobell S 1999 Slim and fit kids: raising healthy children in a fast-food
world Deerfield Beach, Florida, United States of America: Health Communications, Inc.

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Submission on behalf of Music for the Populace to Local Music Grants Scheme, May 2009

Activities for which Popular Music can be used to Promote Physical Health Benefits for
Children
Hills et al.85 argue that children who are overweight or obese often have a low sense of self-
esteem and that perceived success in whatever activities they pursue is an important form of
motivation. On this basis, they recommend activities where success cannot be determined with
precision (such as is the case with a running or swimming race, for example). Rather, they refer
to activities such as aerobics and dancing. Furthermore, they recommend that any such activities
accompany music, which is viewed as another form of motivation (refer to pages 27-28,
Activities for which Popular Music can be used to Promote Physical Health, for the
appropriateness of selecting specific kinds of music to accompany physical activity). Kumanyika
et al. 86 support this thesis, albeit from a different perspective, and argue that the option of dance
or aerobics is ideal for those "children with a strong dislike for traditionally structured P.E.
classes".

In addition, Hills et al.87recommended that children themselves choose their preferred activity
from a list. This is because children are more inclined to continue being active over time if they
feel to possess the ability to choose their own activities.

The research indicates, therefore, that, firstly, children's health would benefit from activity days
on the basis that such days would act to 'break' the socio-cultural habits that lead to
overweightness and obesity; and, secondly, that such days would act to suppress the limiting
notions of athletic success or failure (effected through activities that are without winners or
losers). However, more than this, activities days would also have to be structured with the liberty

85
Hills AP, King NA & Byrne NM 2007 Children, Obesity and Exercise: Prevention, Treatment
and Management of Childhood and Adolescent Obesity New York, New York, United States of
America: Routledge, p 153.

86
Kumanyika SK, Brownson RC & Satcher D 2007 Handbook of Obesity Prevention: a Resource
for Health Professionals New York, New York, United States of America: Springer, p 393.

Hills AP, King NA & Byrne NM 2007 Children, Obesity and Exercise: Prevention, Treatment
87

and Management of Childhood and Adolescent Obesity New York, New York, United States of
America: Routledge, p 153.
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Submission on behalf of Music for the Populace to Local Music Grants Scheme, May 2009

to enable children to choose their preferred activity. If all these elements are in place, music is
able to provide an additional form of motivation.

33