Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 3

IMAGE FUSION OF LANDSAT ETM+ AND SPOT SATELLITE IMAGES USING IHS,

BROVEY AND PCA




A. Eshtehardi, H. Ebadi, M. J. Valadan Zoej, A. Mohammadzadeh
*


Geodesy and Geomatics Engineering Faculty, K.N.Toosi University oI Technology, No. 1346, ValiAsr St., Tehran,
Iran, Postal Code: 1996715433 (eshtehardi, ebadi, valadanzouj)kntu.ac.ir,
*
alimohammadzadehalborz.kntu.ac.ir


KEY WORDS: Image fusion, IHS, PCA, Brovey, Landsat ETM+, SPOT


ABSTRACT:

Today various countries use remote sensing technology in a widespread way to collect terrestrial (land-based) data, to study and
identiIy geospatial objects in a short while. DiIIerent operating sensors and the great amount oI digital data acquired Irom these
sensors with various characteristics, it is necessary to combine the data Irom diIIerent sensors in order to use the existing and
available data optimally. This can be done by diIIerent data Iusion algorithms. While preserving the spectral speciIications, the
combined new data enjoy a higher degree oI spatial resolution. For example color image oI LANDSAT TM sensor has several bands
oI spectral inIormation but with low spatial resolution and on the other hand Spot pan-chromatic image is a high resolution image.
Since remote-sensing data are very widespread and since there are various methods and algorithms Ior combination oI pictures and
as there are special advantages Ior each algorithm along with ever-growing need to use oI this technique, as a result the research
about this Iield oI study becomes more sophisticated. In this research aIter producing a mosaic oI satellite image, diIIerent data
Iusion algorithms are tested to Iind the appropriate optimal one. Two LANDSAT ETM

images were used to build the mosaic image


and then it is Iused with a panchromatic band oI HRV (SPOT 4) image. Various image Iusion methods such as IHS, Brovey, and
PCA have been investigated. The Iinal results are assessed regarding spatial and spectral quality.


1. INTRODUCTION
Numerous earth observation satellites collect data Irom Earth
surIace. The collected images have diIIerent spatial, spectral
and temporal resolutions. For optimal use oI these multi-sensor
data various Iusion methods have been proposed by researchers.
These methods help combination oI diIIerent image sources
having both higher spatial and spectral resolution which result
in better discrimination oI terrestrial Ieatures and phenomena.
(Lillesand & KieIer, 1979; Richards, 1993; Homayouni, 1999).
In image Iusion, at Iirst all the images are geometrically and
radiometrically corrected. Then both images should be
registered to each other with high precision. AIter that, by using
various data Iusion methods like PCA, IHS and Brovey both
images will be Iused.


2. APPLIED FUSION METHODS
2.1 Principal Component Analysis (PCA)
Principal component analysis or hotelling transIormation is a
statistical approach based on eigen vectors and values
(Gonzalez & Woods, 1992; Gonzalez, & Wintz, 1987) which
basically is used Ior data dimension reduction (Lillesand &
KieIer, 1979). Furthermore PCA is used as an intermediate
stage in other types oI processing such as image classiIication,
changes detection and data Iusion (Ruiz-Armenta & Prol-
Ledesma, 1998; Harrison & Jupp, 1990). PCA can be carried
out in two ways: Standard or Optional. In Standard Method all
available bands participate in Iusion process. But in Optional
PCA a group oI bands are combined due to correlation matrix
or type oI application and use (Pohl & Genderen, 1998; Ruiz-
Armenta & Prol-Ledesma, 1998; Chavez & Kwarteng, 1989;
Chavez, 1986).

2.2 Brovey Method
Brovey method is introduced by Bob Brovey (Earth Resource
Mapping Pty Ltd, 1990; Abedini, 2000). In this method each
band is divided into all the layers and this normalizes band data.
Then it is multiplied with panchromatic band to achieve a Iused
image.

2.3 Intensity, Hue and Saturation (IHS) Method
The base concept oI IHS method is replacing the intensity band
oI Irom the low resolution image with a high resolution
panchromatic band (Karimi, 1999) which is a simulation Irom
color perception by human being. We can carry out the IHS
transIormation by contrast enhancement oI each oI I, H, S
channels to improve the Iinal results. Today IHS method has
been used in image interpretation, color-improvement oI
totally-correlated data, spatial resolution improvement, and
Iusion oI various data sources (Schetselaar, 1998).

3. METHODOLOGY
The study place is Varzaneh area in South Eastern IsIahan, Iran.
It is located between longitudes oI 52 12 to 59 to 53 6 30
and between latitude oI 32 6 3 to 32 37 25 . Remote
sensing satellite images oI Spot, and Landsat ETM is used Ior
Iusion purpose. Landsat images are acquired in the year 2001
with index numbers oI 163-38 & 16337 and Spot image is
acquired in 1993. The 1/50000 maps are used Ior
georeIerencing oI the Landsat ETM. Also the 1/25000 maps
have been used Ior georeIerencing oI Spot image. Spot and
Landsat images are geometrically corrected using control points
extracted Irom the maps. Then the mosaic image is carried out
by using the common points in overlapped area oI the two
Landsat images. Histogram equalization is carried out in the
overlapping area to increase the radiometric quality in the


overlapping area. Then both mosaic image oI Landsat and Spot
image are coregistered to reach a high quality Iusion result.
Now mentioned Iusion methods could be applied on the
coregistered images. The result oI applying PCA, Brover and
IHS methods is shown in the subset shown in Iigure 1. The road
junctions and some well known objects are extracted in
ERMapper soItware and compared with base map to calculate
the geometric accuracy oI the resultant image Irom each Iusion
method. Table 1 illustrates the achieved spatial accuracy Ior
PCA, Brovey and IHS method. For radiometric quality control
oI the Iused images three indexes will be examined over the
Iusion results.

Figure 1. Result oI applying diIIerent Iusion algorithms



Table 1. Spatial accuracy achieved Ior each Iusion method

3.1 First Index
In this index, the diIIerence between mean gray scale values oI
the Iused image and original image is considered as an index
Ior comparing the results.


(1)



Figure 2. Result oI applying Iirst index on the Iusion results
i
fused
is the band i oI the Iusion result and
i
ms
is band i Irom
the original input multispectral image. The result oI applying
the above mentioned index is shown in Iigure 2. From the
results, it is obvious that by applying Iirst index, the Iused
image by IHS method has the least diIIerence with the original
Landsat ETM image.

3.2 Second Index
In this index, the diIIerence between standard deviation oI gray
scale values oI the Iused image and original image is
considered as an index Ior comparing the results.


(2)


i
fused
is the band i oI the Iusion result and
i
ms is band i Irom
the original input multispectral image. The result oI applying
the second index is shown in Iigure 3.


Figure 3. Result oI applying second index on the Iusion results

From the Iigure 3, it could be concluded that by applying
second index, the Iused image by Brovey method has the least
diIIerence with the original Landsat ETM image.

3.3 Third Index
In this index, the normalized absolute diIIerence between gray
scale values oI the Iused image and original image is
considered as an index Ior comparing the results.


(3)


f i
F
,
is the value oI pixel (i,j) Irom the Iused image and
f i
MS
,
is the corresponding pixel Irom the input
multispectral image. The result oI applying the second index
is shown in Iigure 4. From the Iigure 4, it could be concluded
that by applying second index, the Iused image by IHS method
has the least diIIerence with the original Landsat ETM image.




Figure 4. Result oI applying third index on the Iusion results


4. CONCLUSIONS
In this paper, we examined three diIIerent Iusion methods and
also the resultant Iused images are evaluated geometrically with
reIerence maps and radiometric quality by three diIIerent
indexes. According to the achieved results Irom the tables and
Iigures, it can be conclude that considering the geometric aspect
IHS shows a higher spatial accuracy. Also Irom the radiometric
aspect, it can be deduced that mainly IHS has better results.
For Iuture works, we are interested in using diIIerent image
sources wit better Iusion algorithms like wavelet based
methods. Also using other indexes might result in better
accuracy control.


5. REFERENCE
Abedini, M., 2000. Satellite image Iusion using Brovey. MSc
thesis, Goematics engineering Iaculty, K.N.Toosi Univerisity oI
Technology, Tehran, Iran.
Chavez, P.S.Jr. Kwarteng, A.Y. 1989. Extracting spectral con-
trast in Landsat Thematic Mapper image data using selective
principal componenet analysis. Photogrammetric Engineering
& Remote. Sensing, Vol. 55, No. 3, pp. 339-348.
Chavez, P.S. 1986. Digital merging oI Landsat TM and digi-
tized NHAP data Ior 1:24,000-Scale image mapping. Photo-
grammetric Engineering & Remote. Sensing. Vol. 52, No. 10,
PP. 1637-1646.
Earth Resource Mapping Pty Ltd, 1990. The Brovev transform
explained. EMU Forum. Vol. 2, No. 11, available in
www.Ermapper.com/Iorum,new/emuI2-11 htm#aiticle5.
Gonzalez, R.C. and Wintz, P. 1987. Digital image processing.
2nd Ed., Addison Wesley.
Gonzalez, R.C. and Woods, R.E. 1992. Digital image process-
ing. 3rd Ed., Addison Wesley.
Harrison, B.A. and Jupp, D.L.B. 1990. Introduction to image
processing. MicroBRIAN Resource Manual Part. CSRIO Pub-
lications.
Homayouni, S., 1999. Evaluation oI satellite image Iusion Ior
classiIication improvement purpose Ior IsIahan city, Iran. MSC.
thesis ,Tarbiat Modares Univerisity, Tehran, Iran.
Karimi Ashtiani, M., 1999. Fusion oI Spot and Landsat TM im-
ages using wavelet transIorm over Tehran city. MSc. Thesis
,Tarbiat Modares Univerisity, Tehran, Iran.
Lillesand, T.M. and KieIer, R.W. 1979. Remote sensing and
image interpretation. 2nd Ed., John Wiley & Sons.
Pohl, C. and Van Genderen, J.L. 1998. Multisensor image Iu-
sion in remote sensing: Concepts, methods and application. In-
ternational Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 19, No. 5, pp. 823-
854.
Richards, J.A. 1993. Remote sensing digital image processing.
An introduction. 2
nd
Ed., Springer-Verlag.
Ruiz-Armenta, J.R. and Prol-Ledesma, R.M. 1998. Techniques
Ior enhancing the spectral response oI hydrothermal alteration
minerals in Thematic Mapper image oI central Mexico. Interna-
tional Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 19, No. 10, pp. 1981-
2000.
Schetselaar, E.M. 1998. Fusion by the IHS transIorm: Should
we use cylindrical or spherical coordinates. International Jour-
nal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 19, No. 4, pp. 759-765.