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AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO STREET CANYON POLLUTION

MODELLING
PAUL S. ADDISON, JOHN I. CURRIE, DAVID J. LOW
& JOANNA M. McCANN
Transport Research Institute, Napier University, Edinburgh.
Abstract. An integrated method for the prediction of the spatial pollution distribution within a
street canyon directly from a microscopic traffic simulation model is outlined. The traffic
simulation package Paramics is used to model the flow of vehicles in realistic traffic conditions
on a real road network. This produces details of the amount of pollutant produced by each
vehicle at any given time. The authors calculate the dispersion of the pollutant using a particle
tracking diffusion method which is superimposed on a known velocity and turbulence field.
This paper shows how these individual components may be integrated to provide a practical
street canyon pollution model. The resulting street canyon pollution model provides
isoconcentrations of pollutant within the road topography.
Key Words: street canyon, dispersion, pollution concentration, traffic microsimulation
1. Introduction
Microscopic car simulation models provide a realistic measure of traffic flow
on a network and allow for the type and number of vehicles to be varied. Each
vehicle is autonomous and follows a set of mathematical rules according to its
type (Low and Addison 1998a,b; Addison, 1997). The simulation model
determines each vehicles car-following and overtaking behaviour and includes
a statistical model of driver awareness and aggressiveness. In this way each
individual vehicle responds to the geometry of the road network, and the
presence of other road vehicles in a realistic fashion. The emissions data these
models provide can be collected for individual sections of roads and used as
initial input to dispersion models. A street canyon dispersion model is
currently under development by the authors to run in conjunction with a
microscopic traffic simulation model and provide isoconcentrations of
pollutant within the road topography. Dispersion of the pollutant is calculated
using a particle tracking diffusion method which is superimposed on a known
velocity and turbulence field. Particle tracking methods (Addison et al, 1997;
Addison et al, 1998) are extremely popular for modelling the Lagrangian
dispersion characteristics of pollutants in a variety of fluid flow fields due to
their flexibility and ease of use. The modelling of the production, emission and
subsequent fate of the pollutants within a street canyon is extremely difficult
due to a variety of factors. A full discussion of the relative merits of existing
models is outwith the scope of this paper. For more information the reader is
referred to Addison et al (1999) and the extensive references therein.)
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 65: 333342, 2000.
c 2000 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.
In developing an integrated model of street canyon pollution consideration
must be given to an appropriate choice of the following:
1 Microscopic traffic simulation model.
2 Vehicle emissions model.
3 Canyon velocity field: advection model.
4 Canyon velocity field: turbulence model.
5 Vehicle wake model to describe both the traffic induced turbulence and
associated initial mixing of the pollutants behind the vehicle.
6 Atmospheric model including solar flux and mean wind speeds.
7 Dispersion model, e.g. Fickian, non-Fickian, particle tracking, solution
of an advection-diffusion equation.
8 Canyon geometry model, due to the computational cost associated with
refining the geometric grid.
The authors believe that in order to produce a reasonably accurate, site specific
simulation of the concentration profiles within street canyons a global
approach must be taken which integrates on-site measurements with
computational models of the canyon. This paper details the initial attempts at
producing a fully integrated approach to street canyon pollution modelling:
from the microscopic simulation of traffic to the prediction of
isoconcentrations of pollution within the canyon.
2. Pollution Data from Paramics
The Paramics traffic simulation model, developed over the past six years by
SIAS Ltd and Quadstone Ltd, is used here. For each vehicle travelling on a
real road network it determines the instantaneous emission rate of carbon
monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen and particulate
matter. This calculation is performed at every simulation time step and the
amount of pollutant emitted along a link (a section of road between two of the
points, or nodes, used by Paramics to define the network geometry) determined
by summing the contribution from every vehicle on that link. Paramics allows
the user to specify the length of time for which a record is produced. For each
link Paramics details its length, the number of vehicles that travelled along it,
the amount of fuel used by these vehicles, and the total amount of each
pollutant emitted. (Table 1 shows a typical record). The emission rate is
defined as a function of instantaneous speed, instantaneous acceleration,
vehicle type (non-catalyst petrol, catalyst petrol, diesel), and engine size (less
334
than 1400cc, between 1400cc and 2000cc, greater than 2000cc) and is based on
data supplied by TRL.
In this study Paramics was used to simulate traffic flow around the
Fountainbridge area of Edinburgh (see Figure 1) and the emissions from cars
and light goods vehicles recorded over a two hour period. Table 1 shows data
collected along one road of the network: Detectors 101 to 107 are on various
links along this road and measure emissions from traffic on the westbound
carriageway. Detectors 201 to 207 relate to the eastbound carriageway. The
statistics from detector 101 (indicated by an arrow in figure 1) were used to
calculate the average amount of carbon monoxide emitted per vehicle per metre
length of road and this amount was used to represent an instantaneous point
source release in the canyon dispersion model.
Table I
Typical Pollution Output from Paramics
Detector Link
(2 nodes)
Length
(m)
Carbon Monoxide
(mg)
Vehicle Count
101 25b106 90.82 2203551.000 1829
102 7623 93.52 1826275.500 1820
103 112113 53.85 1248582.250 1558
104 22105 59.64 1256641.125 1282
105 10521 128.22 1421548.750 1292
106 2120 59.94 1011953.250 1274
107 1415 100.00 1816631.750 1185
Link-pollution after 2 hours using the basic 2 by 2 pollution matrix. Both light and heavy
vehicles are on the network but only light vehicles are counted, and their pollution detected.
Note: Emission used in this paper shown in bold.
3. The Canyon Velocity Field
The wind flow within the street canyon being modelled is clearly important in
determining the distribution of pollutant in the canyon. However, for the
purposes of demonstrating our integrated approach it is sufficient, at this stage,
to employ a rather nave canyon velocity model. This model is the
combination of both the mean velocity field (used for advection) and the field
of turbulent velocity fluctuations (used for dispersion). Details of these
component fields used are given below.
335
3.1 The Pollutant Transport Model
The dispersion of the pollutant is simulated using a Lagrangian stochastic
particle model proposed by Thomson (1985). The mass of pollutant is
represented by a collection of particles each defining a specific mass. Each
particle is assumed to move independently of the others and its trajectory is
described by
( )
[ ]
x x U x s t
n n n n +
+ +
1
[1]
At each time step the particle assumes the local mean wind speed, U(x
n
), and
an additional velocity, s
n
, representing turbulent velocity fluctuations. The
velocity fluctuation s
n
is given by the following three equations, where the first
equation describes the fluctuation as if the turbulence were homogeneous,
whilst the other two deal with any inhomogeneous behaviour. The latter two
equations are applied alternately.
i
n
j
n
ij i
n
i
n
s tT s s +
[2]
]
]
]
,

,
(
(
,
\
,
,
(
j
+ +

j
ij
j
ij
i
n
i
n
x x
t s s

2
1
[3]
( ) ( )
j
n n
ij j
n n
ij
s x s x
1 1
[4]

n
is a random variable drawn from a Gaussian distribution,
ij
is the ijth
component from the velocity covariance tensor, T
ij
is the ijth component from
the inverse matrix of local Lagrangian timescales.
The following conditions apply to the particle tracking model used:
1 - Particles are assumed to undergo elastic collisions with the canyon walls
and ground.
2 - No deposition is assumed.
3 - Once a particle has attained a height greater than the canyon (in this case
40m) it is deemed to have escaped and does not re-enter the canyon.
4 - Turbulence is assumed to be homogeneous.
5 - No chemical reactions are assumed to take place between pollutants.
336
Figure 1: Paramics Model Area (The arrow indicates the location of the pollution monitoring
site for the results presented herein.)
0 5 10 15 20 25
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Figure 2: Mean velocity field in a 40m by 25m canyon as simulated by the Hotchkiss and
Harlow model with a roof top wind speed of 5m/s
337
3.2 The Advective Velocity Field
A simple two dimensional model produced by Hotchkiss and Harlow (1973) is
used herein to calculate the mean wind field in a canyon. The model describes
a single vortex entirely contained within the canyon which although an over
simplification defines the essential mechanism for dispersion. The velocity
components are dependent on the canyon dimensions: height, H; width, B; and
roof level wind speed, u
0
.
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) kx kz e zy e
k
A
u
kz zy
sin 1 1 +

[5]
( ) ( ) kx e e Ay v
kz kz
cos

[6]
where x/z are the horizontal/vertical coordinates respectively and
k
B
e A
ku
kH

2 0
1
The model does not allow for complexities such as non-flat roofs or
asymmetrical canyons but Yamartino and Wiegand (1986), on comparing the
model with a complex two-dimensional model, concluded that that the H-H
model was satisfactory. Further, Yamartino and Wiegand (1986) give details of
extending the model to take into account flow along the canyon employing a
simple logarithmic velocity profile.
3.3 The Turbulent Velocity Field
The covariance tensor (x,t) is a tensor whose components are the covariances
of the turbulent velocities at (x,z). Yamartino and Wiegand (1986) suggest an
empirically determined formula for the diagonal components:
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) d f x z A s v A A h i u v w
i
ii i
m
i
r
i
r c
i
h
+ + +
,

,
]
]
]

1
2 2
2
2
1
2
, , , , [7]
2 2 2
r r r
v u s + [8]
B
Nae
S h
a
+ [9]
338
where u
r
, and v
r
are the mean wind components measured at a reference height
r. A
m
and characterise mechanical turbulence induced by the mean wind
field; A
c
characterises night time turbulence under the assumption of no traffic;
A
h
describes the turbulence induced by solar radiation and vehicle generated
heat flux. The function f(x,z) describes the spatial variability of the turbulence
field. Herein, again for simplicity, we have used Yamartino and Wiegands
values for the constants.
The time scale tensor T
ij
used is that suggested by Lanzani and Tamponi
(1995) who propose the following form for the diagonal components of the
inverse time scale tensor:
( ) 1 1 1
T
kB
d T
k B H
d T
kH
d
xx
u
yy
v
zz
w

* * *
min ,
where d
u
*, d
v
*, and d
w
* are the mean values of d
u
, d
v
, and d
w
, averaged over the
canyon.
4. Results
Figure 3 shows the initial results from a point source emission of pollutant
within the canyon. The pollutant is released at a height of 0.5m in the centre of
the canyon, and the subsequent isoconcentration contours are plotted through
times 5 to 200 seconds since release. The two dimensional cross-sectional
distribution pattern of the plume through time can clearly be seen. The
advective velocity field of figure 2 is used. Noticeable from the plots is both
the dispersion of the pollutant and clockwise mean advection of the cloud
through time. A distinct canyon effect is shown: that is, wind at roof-top level,
blowing from left-to-right, generates a recirculation vortex which moves the
street-level pollution from right-to-left, and produces higher concentrations on
the leeward side of the canyon.
5. Conclusions
The authors have outlined the basis for an integrated street canyon pollution
model, incorporating a variety of component modules. A very simple example
has been provided, in which pollutant emissions taken from a microscopic
traffic simulation model have been used to produce time series of the pollutant
isoconcentrations within a street canyon.
339
(a) (b) (c)
(d) (e) (f)
(g) (h) (i)
0
.
0
0
1
.
0
0
2
0
.
0
0
5
0
.
0
0
1
0
0
.
0
0
5
0
0
.
0
0
7
5
0
.
0
0
1
0
0
0
.
0
0
1
5
0
0
.
0
0
2
0
0
0
.
0
0
2
5
0
0
.
0
0
Figure 3: Development through time of the instantaneous release of 13.27mg of carbon
monoxide in a 40 by 25 metre canyon. Concentration contours given in mg/m
3
1000 at times (a)
5, (b) 10, (c) 15, (d) 20, (e) 25, (f) 30, (g) 60, (h)100, and (i) 150 seconds after release. Note:
Nonlinear scaling of concentration contour levels.
The authors have shown that it is possible to combine a variety of modular
components to produce an integrated model. The modular approach described
herein forms the basis of future work by the authors. The integrated model
described can be extended to incorporate complex canyon geometries, non-
stationary velocity fields (including inhomogenous turbulence), sophisticated
340
wake models and dispersion models. Further work will concentrate on the
exact form of these component modules. The integrated model needs to be
developed together with roadside data which (significantly) includes spatial
velocity measurements. The authors plan to undertake such a roadside study to
measure simultaneously the traffic flows, wind velocities and pollution
concentrations within a street canyon in order to calibrate their integrated
model.
Acknowledgements
We acknowledge the assistance of SIAS Ltd, Edinburgh for providing the
Paramics software used in the study. The Paramics data set used in this paper is
the property of Scottish and Newcastle plc. The work was partly funded by
EPSRC grant GR/L36086.
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