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ABE 482Environmental Engineering in Biosystems

September 8, 2008 Lecture 2

What is environmental engineering? Scope of the class Treatment processes Waste audits Collection, storage and analysis of solid waste

Environmental Engineering
The technology concerned with the reduction of pollution, contamination, and deterioration of the surroundings in which humans live. (Answers.com)

Environmental Engineering
The principal environmental engineering specialties are air-quality control, water supply, wastewater disposal, stormwater management, solid-waste management, and hazardous-waste management. Other specialties include industrial hygiene, noise control, oceanography, and radiology. (Sci tech encyclopedia)

Environmental Engineering
Environmental engineering is the application of science and engineering principles to improve the environment (air, water, and/or land resources), to provide healthy water, air, and land for human habitation and for other organisms, and to remediate polluted sites. (Wikipedia)

Scope of ABE 482

air-quality control water supply wastewater disposal Civil storm-water management Civil ChE 454/882 solid-waste management hazardous-waste management Chemical waste to energy conversions

Waste Management
What is waste? What is the cost of waste?

What is the cost of waste?


Waste Management
What is waste? What is the cost of waste? What incentives are there for reduction or alternative uses of waste?
Are they working?

Are the incentives working?


Waste Management
What is waste? What is the cost of waste? What incentives are there for reduction or alternative uses of waste?
Are they working?

Factors that affect production of waste

Waste Management Hierarchy

Waste Disposal vs Waste Treatment

Landfills Incineration

Composting Digestion Constructed wetlands Land application Conversion facility

Waste Treatment Processes

Liquid stream Solid stream

Reasons for Waste Processing

Treatment of organic solids
Reduces overall waste footprint of a process or facility Generate energy Generate useful by-product

Secondary and tertiary treatment of liquids

Reduces negative environmental impact when discharged

Waste Audits
An assessment of the current byproducts and analysis of current handling methods of a certain process May be conducted for many reasons
To ensure regulatory compliance To define existing liabilities To track costs of operation To improve efficiency of waste management

Waste Audits
If you were conducting a waste audit for a facility, what information would you need to know from your client? What types of waste streams would you expect from
U of S Cargill Canola Crushing plant

Waste Analysis
Sampling and analysis requirements
Must consider the medium to be sampled and the environment in which it is in Frequency of sampling and number of individual samples needed depends on the time or spatial variability of the sampling sites Must always take care to avoid contamination of the sample

Waste Analysis
Sampling and analysis techniques
Collection Solid waste Semi-solid waste Surface water Free flowing water Groundwater Gas Storage and preservation Analysis Interpretation of results

Sampling and Analysis Techniques

Collection of solid waste
Must obtain representative sample (may be difficult if material is heterogeneous) Random sampling Divide and conquer Must represent every area of pile or holding tank Often not possible to quantify the uncertainties associated with the sample selection Best to select as large a test sample as practical Sample size depends on analysis required

Sampling and Analysis Techniques

Collection of solid waste
Shallow depths (15 to 30 cm)
Scoops, shovels or soil punch

Depths greater than 30 cm

Trenching, augers, soil probes or split barrel samplers

Sampling and Analysis Techniques

Storage of solid waste
Depends on the type of analysis required Usually: air tight container made of noncontaminating material Sometimes: sample must be dried and/or frozen or refrigerated if stored before analysis Minimize time between sampling and analysis whenever possible

Sampling and Analysis Techniques

Analysis of solid waste
Physical parameters Inorganic parameters Organic parameters Metals Industrial hygiene Microbiological parameters

Sampling and Analysis Techniques

(For solid wastes, parameters of interest) Physical parameters (0.2 to 2 kg)
Moisture content/solids content Density, porosity

Chemical parameters (10 to 100 g)

pH, EC Nutrients (N, P, K, S, Ca, organic C, etc.) Metals

Microbiological parameters (1 to 10 g)
Coliform, E. coli, Enterococci

Waste Analysis Companies

ALS Laboratory Group (Saskatoon) Saskatchewan Research Council (SRC)

Next Day
Important terms/definitions Waste treatment processes (overview) Pre-treatment processes
Gravity sorting Mechanical sorting Sedimentation Coagulation/flocculation