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Summary: The Wahid techniques technique will depend on the nature of the activity Performance audited, the depth

and scope of examination, time of audit, processing methods, etc. In deciding on a specific technique, also need to take account of the objective of the audit action and the capacities limited by time or other factors. These Wahid techniques are closely related to and directly determined by the method how the audit activity is performed. And may use a number of techniques to ensure the dependability of resulting data, its quality required detecting the true causes of deviations, and its extent needed to devise generalized conclusions at a desired level. For each audit action Opening summary of final (03) Part: My endeavor this WAHID TECHNIQUES to be a valuable indication for not only accounting and auditing professionals one but also for persons who must relate with auditors, such as company managers, bank loan officers, suppliers, current and potential investors, and workers at governmental audit agencies such as the Securities and Exchange Commission. I have tried to explain through my article the values and their necessities fully, in clear words, using technical expressions only where necessary. My goal was to write a practical and effective article that how to lead. Performance audit The important part of auditing. At any Unacceptable auditing report in that circumstances Wahid techniques, are evidence of the crucial importance of this article (WAHID TECHNIQUES) This article tools and techniques covered can be adopted any financial error or misstatements on the basis of auditing standard. Accounting and auditing students and job holder of audit department will also benefit from this article; I hope they will keep this article for easy reference and daily use. Any confusing situation or problem may be solved by referring to the complete indicator. Corporate managers, internal auditors, and external auditors who closely wait to the Material, & suggestions, of this final part

Analysis /Questionnaire: Definition of Performance analysis/ Questionnaires: Assessment of various financial performance & indicators Performance analysis is the front end of the front end (such as return on assets and return on equity) in comparison with the results accomplished by synonyms are planning, scoping, auditing, and diagnostics. It's what we do to figure out what to do. Some Auditors can apply a number of techniques to analyze data: simple comparisons and reconciliations; statistical methods, such as mean, mode, median, standard deviation In statistics, the standard amount a number varies from the standard number in a series of numbers. The data collection methods adopted by the auditors should be explained; including rationales for any unusual techniques or procedures Analysis / Questions regarding the reliability of the data collected through consultants would likely be of special interest. In governmental planning and budgeting, the attempt to measure the social benefits of a proposed project in monetary terms and compare them with its costs. ; efficiency pricing; output budgeting; sensitivity testing; or cost-effectiveness

analysis cost-effectiveness analysis Cost-utility analysis Clinical trials A form of economic analysis in which alternative interventions are compared in terms of the cost per unit of clinical effect, this Analysis / Questions techniques used by the auditors along with reasons for reliance on a particular technique . In others: When start a main analysis for performance audit, auditor inform the ministries in question and any subordinate agencies about the purpose of the analysis, preliminary audit criteria, audit questions, method to be useful and the meeting of facts. The ministry makes comments, particularly to the audit criteria the norms and values that are relevant for the performance audit apprehensive. Audit is not an end in itself. However, it is an indispensable part of a system aimed at disclosing deviations from customary values and violations of the principles of authority, efficiency, effectiveness and economy; so that actions may be taken. When audit is measured to have a corrective function

Analysis /Questionnaire: Analysis /Questionnaires have an assortment in familiar as apparatus for collecting information. The Analysis /questions in an Analysis /questionnaire take more time and effort to develop, It is more complex to prompt people to answer the questions in a questionnaire, Allocation to respondents tends to be fairly complex Analysis /Questionnaires are better suited for more experienced auditors. Interviews and questionnaires have much in common as tools for collecting information. However, from the planning perspective, questionnaires are different in that: The questions in a questionnaire take more time and effort to develop, It is more difficult to motivate people to answer the questions in a questionnaire.

There are four most important make use of for performance analysis: 1. Like currently have no performance problems, but you just want to correct the system to give better performance. 2. An auditor wants to exemplify and adjust personal stand-alone communication as part of the documents of that communication, and for assessment with some future time when, possibly, they start behaving another way. 3. A system is departing from previously identified objectives, and you want to find out precisely where and why this is so. This inadequacy can usually be corrected by changing different joystick. At slightest some small adjustments usually have to be complete to any new system as it goes exist. 4. A system may or may not have performance purposes, but it materializes to be affliction relentless performance evils. Characteristic of performance audit analysis: When preparation the annual years performance audit assessments all the parts of the position of accounts are reviewed. Every third year a total analysis is approved.

Whereas only major modifies are reported in the intermediate years. Reviewing an area is base on the following characteristic: 1. Financial situation 2. Previous reports and important memorandum to the PAC the audit form 3. Organization arrangement and complication 4. political/public responsiveness and topicality 5. cross-ministerial problems 6. Remarks from the financial audit 7. Possibility for major disbursement programmes Before creation a report, an opening assessment is completed in order to obtain sufficient information regarding an area, so that an enough assessment may be finished of whether or not to start an assessment. Hub groups: A hub group is a qualitative research technique. It is a selection of some individuals brought together to discuss specific issues in an informal setting. Selected participants are related to the issue in a certain way. The reactions of the group are used to explore attitudes, beliefs, perceptions, and problems or to search for causes of problems and their solution. A facilitator is used to direct the group discussion and to hub attention on the specific aims of the session - this might involve developing practical recommendations Strategy of hub: The first port of identify for all troubled with policy making this site aims to encourage tactical thinking and develop policy making and delivery across government. It activities to provide users with access to a range of perspectives on policy matters. However, their appropriateness and value is a matter for personal users to judge and Policy Hub cannot and does not approve any materials included on this site which begin in non- government organizations. Quarterly, we spotlight an associate who has excelled in many areas of their work. This part is dedicated to showcase these skilled and highly talented folks who have exceeded our expectations and put our customers first in all they do with Quality Hub. In my mind, these kinds of results are no better than any "face for dollars" process and are what's preventing corporate recruiters from competing effectively with their external agency counterparts. A hub and spoke approach to sourcing passive candidates changes the underlying rules here by leveling the playing field. In Supplementary: This is where the use of the hub and spoke model for passive candidate sourcing can have a significant impact on both productivity and quality. While many corporate recruiters are successfully using Broad look to identify passive candidates, their productivity metrics are far below their external agency counterparts. The "too much work to do" excuse is part of the problem here, and this is a valid point. It does take more time to contact, persuade, and recruit passive candidates into the fold. However, from what I've seen, even with enough time, most corporate recruiters would still fall short. In my opinion, this is totally due to the use of unsophisticated recruiting techniques.

Hub Group each individual incentive option we describe also can work for groups. That is, two or more employees can be paid for their combined performance. Group incentives make the most sense where employees tasks are interdependent and thus require cooperation. Interviewing: To recruit the best employees and reduce turnover in internal audit staff, employers need Effective interview techniques to identify candidates who possess the skills needed for successful job performance. Traditional interview questions dont necessarily reveals the most pertinent information about internal audit candidates. Behavior description interviewing (and a related approach called situational interviewing) is a widely used technique for obtaining useful information about candidate behaviors and characteristics relative to specific job skills. The premise of behavior description interviewing is that past actions are the best indicators of future behavior. The interviewer begins by identifying necessary job skills and then develops interview questions to assess the candidate s ability to handle those job skills. Interview: effective interview techniques can help set a cooperative tone for audit engagements. Interview is commonly an assisting technique used by the auditor to get a better accepting of the issue to be audited and obtain additional information, where examination or paper study fail to recognize all relevant points. Information obtained through interviews gives the auditor certain clues when reviewing and assessing the actions of the auditee, also by allowing him to compare the comments of individual staff members on certain issues and thus form his opinion on their professional skills and moral virtues. In main questions, it is important to divide the interview into several topics or areas, and set their order: An auditor's ability to gain the client's confidence and develop a rapport can significantly affect the level and quality of information obtained during an interview. Setting the right tone and approaching interview subjects with tact and diplomacy can ensure questioning elicits useful, honest responses. Moreover, auditors need adequate preparation and training to ensure their client interviews are handled appropriately

Prior to the interview: Auditors should decide in progress the areas they want to cover, the correct questions they need to ask, and who best to perform the interview. Having these details in mind will hub the interview assembly and help auditors achieve intended results. Interviewers should also learn as much as possible about the client before the interview. Beginning rapport: At the beginning of an interview, auditors may want to use some form of icebreaking technique to make the client feel more contented. Initiating a informal, non-workrelated conversation can help start the interview on a positive note and defuse any possible opposition.

Although time constraints are always a worry during interviews, spending five or to minutes establishing an initial correlation can actually help speed up the overall process. Subjects will likely be more cooperative if they feel contented with the interviewer, which can help reduce the amount of time necessary for the initial assembly as well as the need for follow-up sessions Acquired buy in: Once rapport has been recognized, the interviewer can segue into the real purpose of the conference. Auditors should temporarily make clear why they're performing the interview and describe how the outcome of the discussion might help lead to improvements in the client's company area. If clients know what to expect, as well as how the interview might benefit them, they may be more inclined to assist. The interviewer can then elucidate that part of internal auditing's job is to help clients identify ways that their work can be simplified, streamlined, and possibly realigned to establish more effective internal controls. Auditors can also emphasize that this process is helpful not only to the client's immediate business area, but to the organization as a whole. Helping clients understand the larger picture will make it easier for them to understand the need for the interview Accomplish the interview: After ahead buy-in, the auditor can then begin the formal interview. Open-ended questions typically yield the best results. Questions that cannot be answered with one word, such as "Tell me about your bank settlement process," prompt the client to offer more information. When encouraged to provide narrative responses, interviewees may offer useful details and unreliable information they may not have revealed otherwise. Avoiding "blocked" questions can also help stop false answers. When asked a exact question linked to performance, such as "Have you completed all projects on agenda?" interviewees tend to answer "yes," even if it constitutes a unfair reply. Helpful Listening: No substance how methodically a client answers questions during an interview, the information will be of little value if the auditor doesn't hear what's being said. Many tools can help auditors to listen, appreciate, and retain information from interview sessions. Attractive notes is one evident and extremely successful means Packaging up: The internal auditor should also provide his or her contact information, in case clients later think of any details they may have forgotten to communicate during the interview. In addition, the auditor should mention that a follow-up conversation may be required for further clarification. The knack of the interview:

By helping clients feel more comfortable during the interview process, auditors may be able to obtain valuable information that would otherwise have been unavailable. The process may also reveal areas that, while not pertinent to the immediate audit, should be examined in the future

In interviews, data reliability and accuracy may be affected by: 1. The person interviewed, its position and vested interests, if any, 2, the situation during the interview, 3. The competence of persons conducting the interview. If, for any reason, an interview was made under pressure or if others were near to hear it, the reliability and accuracy of this interview is likely to be lower. Likewise, the reliability of answers may also be affected by how you formulate the questions Auditors can thus follow up on the progress of work Interviews and written documents should be filed according to certain standard rules. Listed below are a few basic questions which should help the auditor file and classify data. Interview 1 .who is the person being interviewed, 2. Who are the interviewing persons? 3. When did the interview take place? 4. How did the auditors contact the person interviewed, 5. Was the person interviewed given any promise of confidentiality, etc? Documents 1. Where do the documents come from? 2. What is the content? 3. Where can additional information are obtained, 4. Who can be contacted for additional information? In the course of the audit, the auditor may learn "responsive information", such as employees' opinions on management, etc.. For this reason as well, auditors should make sure mystery. Direct observation: Observation is a basic technique used in any financial activity. In the situation of audit, observation is a planned and embattled analysis of objects aspects of an action. The basic quality of observation, as an audit technique, depends on whether the auditor is part of the staff concerned (manager or expert) or an employee of a superior or other state pressure. Depending on this, observation can be done either by an insider or outsider Insider observation offers more in-depth knowledge of audited areas and a better chance to see the bigger demonstration, as the auditor can think all possibilities and actions, is familiar with the issues concerned, and has a lot more experience gained through useful work

For impartial result, outsider observation therefore seems the more suitable option, even if it takes greater effort to penetrate the issue, because its results are generally better. It is used in particular where the auditor is advised about the center and the objective of an audit action. In some cases, especially where there are suspicions of criminal activity, it is good to start the audit as a hidden outsider observation and only switch to obvious observation after acquiring compulsory proof Observation has to follow a certain procedure, consisting of the following stages: 1. Definition of observation subject, objective, and problems, 2. Creating conditions facilitating observation with a view to optimum results, 3. Gaining access to the environment and establishing contact to the staff and issues observed, 4. Actual observation, 5. Documentation and interpretation of observation results, 6. Audit of observation results. Only verified observation results, supplemented by results produced by other techniques, such as document study, discussion of findings with responsible staff, etc., may be used in the implementation. Conclusions A performance audit may run for a long time, and there may be changes in awareness and actuality from the point in time when it in progress. In performance auditing it is often difficult to make a variety between the directions set out in the work plan and the explanation of the audits structure on the one hand, and the interest in studying questions that the final stage in the analysis of data involves combining the results from different types of sources. There is no general method for doing this, but it is of central importance that the auditor works systematically and carefully in interpreting the data and arguments collected. This stage involves weighing up arguments and assertions, consulting experts, and making comparisons and analyses. As the work continues, the draft report gradually takes shape. Direct observations are put into structured and as internal and external discussions progress, assessed and written; details are checked and conclusions are discussed. There is a need for exchanges of information based on discussion papers to discuss main issues that have emerged during the way of the performance audit techniques. By definition of performance audit, a technique is the way and procedure leading to a certain aim, while a technique is the tool used to reach that intend. Also, the techniques applied in audit work are the way and procedure leading to the objectives pursued by the audit and audit techniques are the tools engaged to accomplish the purpose pursued by audit techniques. In general, performance audits should use techniques which are specially designed and applied in this particular activity. Above all, it is the comparison technique, which forms the basis for an array of other methods in that its application serves an essential audit need,

About The Author:

Mohammad Wahid Abdullah Khan (MBA, CPFA, CPIA, CFC) Dhaka, Bangladesh Home Page: http://wahidbd.page4.me MOHAMMAD WAHID ABDULLAH KHAN Dhaka, Bangladesh, is a PhD Candidate in "Criminal Psychology" as well he is freelance Author, online columnists, Human psychoanalyst, industrial psychotherapist, Certified Financial Consultant, & Certified Forensic Accountant, too dynamic entrepreneur, utilize creativity leadership and teamwork to design and execute solutions that creates customer value. Moreover Mr. Khan is CEO & Certified Consultant of Wahid & co, Wak Business Solutions, Wak Business Support, Wam Associates & leader of the Wahid Consulting Group; Prior to consultancy Mr. Wahid has fulfilled more than 14 (fourteen) years working in various fields of Business like - Accounts, Finance, Auditing (Internal & External Audit), Project budgeting and Project costing related positions in some of the largest group & join venture companies in Bangladesh. Which experience encouraged him to work as a professional consultant from a few years, Mr. Khan is realistic and implements his assignment within the bounds, objectives and capabilities of the organization. His extraordinary quick understanding of strategic options helps find direction and supports management in decision making. He has a doer attitude and gets things done on the technical and functional side. As a Consultant Mr. Wahid believe that his study & physiological motivation is very strong, as well my confident level is high & my quantitative skills are well-built also he is crystal clear about my every single goal which helped me to be a very tough contestant Consultant in the business consultant arena Professional Membership: Associate Member Institute of Management Consultants Bangladesh (IMCB) Member- Association of Proposal Management Professionals (APMP) Member The Next level Purchasing Association. Member- The Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD) Member - The Professional Risk managers international Association (PRMIA) Affiliate Member- Global Association of Risk Professional (GARP) Member - The International Association of Risk and Compliance Professionals (IARCP) Lifetime Member - Dragon fire martial arts association International (DFMAA) Individual Member: License Logic LLC Associate Membership - The American Psychological Association (APA) Member - The Global Community of Information Professionals