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Leader: Timing: Prerequisites: Structure: Assessment: Dr C Durkan (cd229@eng) Michaelmas Term 3B5 and 3B6 useful 12 lectures (including examples classes) + coursework Material / Format / Timing / Marks Lecture Syllabus / Written exam (1.5 hours) / Start of Easter Term / 75 % Simulation study / Report / End of Michaelmas Term / 25 %

AIMS The aim of this module is to introduce the basic quantum mechanical principles which underpin the design and operation of modern electronic devices. Mathematical formalism is kept to the minimum required for quantitative analysis of solid state devices. No previous knowledge of quantum phenomena is assumed. LECTURE SYLLABUS (Dr C. Durkan 12L) Nanotechnology & quantum phenomena Lecture 1. Introduction to Nanotechnology. The orgins of Quantum Mechanics (QM). Lecture 2. Wave-particle duality, wave equation, momentum, energy and Schrodinger's equation, probability density and normalisation. Lectures 3 & 4. QM expression for electron current, solutions to Schrodinger's equation (finite potential well, infinite barrier-tunnelling). Atoms & molecules. Approximate methods in QM - example, Field Emission. Lecture 5. Atomic vibrations in materials - the simple harmonic oscillator as seen by QM - application to understanding the thermal & electrical properties of materials Lecture 6. Electrons in crystals, Kronig Penney model, energy bands, effective mass and carrier transport, density of states, Conductors Vs insulators. Lecture 7. The future of the transistor & Nanotechnology. Molecular electronics. Lectures 8 & 9. Visulising the nanoworld - scanning probe microscopy. Lectures 10 & 11. Basic device concepts utilizing particle and wave nature of electrons: Quantum wells, 2-D electron gas and high electron mobility transistors (HEMT), resonant tunnelling, ballistic, transistors, optically absorbing and radiating devices. COURSEWORK 4 hour interactive computer simulation on aspects of solid state and quantum electronics. A formal report of the simulation is required (approximately six hours' work). OBJECTIVES

On completion of the module students should: Be able to explain basic principles of quantum mechanics; Understand how wave phenomena of electrons can be predicted; Understand the origin of band structure in solids; Appreciate how nanoscale engineering allows for wave based electronic devices to be realised; Prepare for design and research in solid state electronic/opto-electronic devices.

Leader: Timing: Prerequisites: Structure: Assessment: AIMS The course covers topics in machine learning and Markov proceses with application to examples from biology. No background in biology is assumed. The aims of this modules are to: Illustrate the approaches which are taken to decipher the genetic information encoded in genomes Demonstrate how evolutionary origin can be inferred from genome analysis Consider the advantages and limitations of the use of aray technology to study gene expression Illustrate how mathematical approaches can be used to study regulatory networks At the end of the course students will: Have developed an understanding of methodologies currently used for genome sequence analysis Understand the application of array techologies to study differential gene expression Appreciate how regulatory networks can be analysed mathematically Further details and online resources TOPICS Introduction to genomics (2L, Dr G. Micklem) Concepts of genes and genomes Organisation of genetic material in cells Gene Expression Analysis (4L,Dr N. Barbosa-Morais- Course material for Dr Barbosa) Introduction to microarray technology Exploratory analysis and pre-processing of microarray data Experimental design Dr G Vinnicombe Lent Term None 16 lectures (including 2 examples classes and 1 seminar Material / Format / Timing / Marks Lecture Syllabus / Coursework 100 %

Finding candidate genes for differential expression Downstream analysis of gene expression data Systems biology: The regulation of gene expression (4L, Dr J. Goncalves and Dr I. Lestas) Deterministic modelling. Notes for this part Notes for this part. Examples paper Regulatory networks will be described dynamically using sensitivity analyses and estimates for random fluctuations. Processes studied include gene expression, anabolic reactions and replications Genome annotation, evolution and analysis (4L, Dr. P. Lio) Identification of interesting features in a genome sequence Models of genome evolution Introduction of algorithms for genome analysis and phylogenetic inference

Toprovideanindepthunderstandingofthedesign,operationandperformanceofadvanced photonicdevicesincludinglightemittingdiodes,LEDs,arangeofsemiconductorlasers, photodetectors,liquidcrystaldevices,photovoltaicsolarcellsforavarietyofapplications including opticalcommunications.

LearningOutcomes:

Attheendofthecourse,studentsshouldbeableto: Tounderstandfundamentalphysicalprinciplesoflightgeneration,detection andmodulationandtousethistounderstandtheoperationandevolutionof advancedphototonicdevices. Todevelopdesignskillsincludingdefiningaproblemandidentifyingthe constraints,understandinguserneedsandcostdrivers,understandinghow creativitycanbeusedtoestablishinnovativesolutionsanddesignsfor componentstofulfilnewneedsensuringthatthedeviceperformancemeets therequiredspecifications. Tounderstandthecharacteristicsofparticulardevicematerialsanddevice fabricatinandtoappreciaterecentnewdevelopments Tounderstandtheapplicationsinwhichtheadvancedphotonicdevicesare used,includingfibreopticcommunicationsandsolarenergygeneration.

CourseContent:

Photonicmaterialsandproperties Glass;Crystals;RareEarthdoping;Semiconductors;Bulk;MultipleQuantumWells,MQW; Quantumdots;LiquidCrystal Photonabsorption;Spontaneousemission;Stimulatedemission;Nonradiativedecay; Birefringence;Energybands;TemperatureDependence;Densityofstates;Fermilevel; QuasiFermilevels;DirectandIndirectBandgaps Statesinthegap;impuritiesanddefects;Carrierrecombination;NonRadiative recombination;Radiativerecombination;Radiativeefficiencies;Lifetimes;Electrooptic refractiveindexmodulation:CIE,Plasmaeffect,QCSE;Nonlinearities LEDs,lasers,amplifiersandopticalfilters Gratings;Fabricationtechniques(FibreandSemiconductors);PhotonicBandgap structures Therateequationmodel;spectrallinewidth;LEDs;Amplifiers; Lasers;FabryPerotcavity;Ringcavity;LaserNoise,Laserexamples:VCSEL,DFB,DBR (includingSG,SSGandDSDBR),External;Laserdirectmodulation; Semiconductorlaserfabrication(Waveguide,verticalcavity) Photodetectors PINphotodiode;SolarCells;Photomultipliers;FabricationTechniques(Mesa, capacitance,waveguideorverticalstructure) LiquidCrystalPhotonicDevices

Assessment:

A2.5hourunseenwrittenexaminationisheldunderUCLMScexaminationregulationsatUCL.

Tutorials/Workshops:

AnafternoontutorialisheldontheFridayafternoonoftheweekfollowingthemodule deliveryorasspecifiedbythetimetable.

Introduce the theory and operation of short pulse lasers and their implication in nonlinear optics phenomenons

LearningOutcomes:

TBC

CourseContent:

TBC

Assessment:

A2.5hourunseenwrittenexaminationisheldunderUCLMScexaminationregulationsatUCL.

Tutorials/Workshops:

TBC

Leader: Timing: Prerequisites: Structure: Assessment: Professor M J Kelly (mjk1@eng) Lent Term unknown 17 lectures Material / Format / Timing / Marks Lecture Syllabus / Written exam (1.5 hours) / Start of Easter Term / 100 %

AIMS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Introduce the ideas behind modern electronic devices as used in computing and communications (including microwave and radar applications) Describe the relevant technologies for device fabrication Describe the operation and limitations for the various devices Introduce systems considerations leading to choice of devices Describe some current ideas and research

LECTURE SYLLABUS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. Introduction and Background Materials Homojunctions and Heterojunctions Key Fabrication Technologies Physics of Heterojunctions High-Field, High-Frequency Transport The Deep Submicron Silicon Transistor and Circuits Modern Field Effect Transistors (i) Deep Submicron Silicon FETs and GaAs MESFETs Modern Field Effect Transistors (ii) Heterojunction Field Effect Transistors Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors Microwave Sources (i) Gunn diodes and IMPATT Diodes Microwave Sources (ii) Tunnel diodes and tunnel transistor circuits Microwave Detectors (i) Schottky and Planar-doped-barrier diodes Microwave Detectors (ii) Tunnel detector diodes and others Optoelectronic Device Analogues Choice of Device against requirement Current New Device Ideas The Future

OBJECTIVES Students should have a sound appreciation of the principles, fabrication, performance and applications of a number of modern electronic devices.

ThecoursecoverstheprinciplesofPhotonicsubsystemsincluding: Externalopticalmodulators,opticalamplifiersbothsemiconductorandfibre,PhotonicsControl loopsandfrequency synthesis,PhotonicTransmittersandReceiversincludingcircuitry,noiseconsiderations,Clock recoveryandAutomaticGain Control.ItwillalsoconsideremergingtopicssuchasCoherentsystemsandSubsystemintegration aswellasusingguest lectureslotstocoverstateoftheartresearchtopics.

LearningOutcomes:

ThroughtheunderstandingofkeyconceptsandoperatorofPhotonicsubsystemsthe studentwillbeable toacquirethenecessaryskillstobuildanddesigncomplexphotonicsystem.Theywillalso learnwhatwould bethefuturedevelopmentofthefieldbeinggivenonoverviewofsomeofthemostrecent progresses.

CourseContent

Modulators, EAM,AOMMZM Amplifiers ...SOA,EDFA,MOPA PhotonicsControlloopsandfrequencysynthesisOIL,OPLL,OIPLL,Comb generation PhotonicsTransmitters LaserDriveCircuits,Forwarderrorcorrection,Laserdriverexamples, multiplexer/Demultiplexer examples PhotonicsReceivers Receiverscircuit,Noise,Clockrecovery,AutomaticGainControl CoherentSystems Masteroscillator,Heterodyne/Homodyne,Coherentopticalreceiver Subsystemintegration(DS&CR)(1.5Heach) Opticalinterconnectandhybridintegration,monolithicsemiconductorintegration (evanescent coupling,QWI,IIIVonsiliconsubstrate) GuestLectures CurrentUCLresearchexampleonPhotonicssubsystems(2seminars)

Assessment:

AtwoandhalfhourunseenwrittenexaminationwillbeheldunderUCLMScexamination regulationsat UCL

Tutorials/Workshops:

Threehourtutorial

Thismoduleintroducesthetechnologiesinvolvedinthedesignandconstructionoftransport networks(wireless,copperandoptical)andtheapplicationsareasinwhichtheyareused.It coversthephysicalfundamentalsofthegeneration,guidedtransmission,amplificationand receptionoflight,thedesignconsiderationandtechniquesusedinradionetworks,the principlesofdigitaltransmissionandtheroleofopticsandwirelessinbothaccessandcore networks.

LearningOutcomes:

Attheendofthecourse,studentsshouldbeableto: Describetheoperationofopticalcomponentssuchaslasers,receivers,opticalamplifiers wavelengthfiltersetc. Describetheelementsrequiredfortheconstructionofoptical,wirelessandcopperlinks intechnicalterms. Performbasicsystemdesigncalculationsforbothoptical(intermsofpowerand/or dispersionbudget)andwirelesssystems(powerbudget)aswellasconsidertoafirst approximationtheimpactofnoise. Appreciatetheroleofopticalandwirelesslinksintheconstructionofcommunications networks.

CourseContent

PrinciplesofDigitalTransmission OpticalFibrePrinciples PrinciplesofPhotonGenerationandReception OpticalAmplificationandWavelengthDivisionMultiplexing DesignofOpticalLinks OpticalNetworking RadioPropagation RadioSystemconcepts MicrowaveTransmissionsystems

Assessment:

A2andhalfhourunseenwrittenexaminationwillbeheldunderUCLMScexamination regulationsatUCL.

Tutorials/Workshops:

Atwohourtutorialwillbeheldintheweeksfollowingthecourse.

Leader: Timing: Prerequisites: Structure: Assessment: (@eng) Michaelmas Term 3B3 and 3B6 useful 12 lectures + examples class + experimental design exercise Material / Format / Timing / Marks Lecture Syllabus / Written exam (1.5 hours) / Start of Easter Term / 75 % Experimental work and design exercise / coursework / End of Michaelmas / 25 %

AIMS The aim of the module is to introduce solar electronic power for terrestrial use within a total system context. There are two distinct parts to the module. The first covers the main solar cell types suitable for terrestrial power generation and the underlying physical mechanisms utilised in photovoltaic solar energy conversion. The second examines the connection of solar cells to the power system. LECTURE SYLLABUS (Professor G.A.J. Amaratunga, and Professor W.I. Milne) Lecture 1 - The role of solar energy in terrestrial power generation and the photovoltaic effect Lectures 2,3 - Underlying physical principles of p-n junction solar cells Lecture 4 - Semiconductor materials for solar cells Lecture 5 - Solar power design study and cell demonstration Lecture 6 - Equivalent circuit representation, efficiency calculation Lecture 7 - Design of solar cells to maximise efficiency Lectures 8,9 - Interfacing of solar cells to the mains electricity supply Lecture 10 - Policy issues related to use of solar energy and current status Lectures 11,12 - Seminars given by guest speakers from industry and a policy body.

COURSEWORK Experimental work measuring two types of solar cells, crystalline Si and low-cost amorphous Si, and design exercise for application in a typical domestic consumer environment. OBJECTIVES On completion of the module, students should: Understand clearly the physical operating principles of solid state photovoltaic solar cells. Be aware of the main engineering aspects of maximising energy conversion efficiency from solar cells. Know how connection of solar cells into power modules is achieved. Understand how solar cells are connected to the grid electricity supply using power electronic systems. Be up to date on the latest technical developments leading to enhanced photovoltaic energy conversion. Appreciate the interaction of environmental, social, economic and political factors which are rapidly changing to promote the use of photovoltaic power generation. Be aware of the benefits of using solar power generation for substantial economic development across THe planet

Leader: Timing: Prerequisites: Structure: Assessment: Dr. T D Wilkinson Michaelmas Term 3B6 useful but not essential 16 lectures Material / Format / Timing / Marks Lecture Syllabus / Written exam (1.5 hours) / Start of Easter Term / 100 %

AIMS The aim of this module is to examine the advance of optical techniques into electronic systems for computation and communications. Two dimensional and three dimensional transmission, storage and processing of information using free space optics are discussed. Applications such as computer generated holography, optical correlation and optical switching are highlighted through the use of liquid crystal technology. LECTURE SYLLABUS Fourier Holograms and Correlation (6L, Dr T.D. Wilkinson) Fourier Transforms and Holography introduction and motivation; Fourier transforms: theoretical and with lenses: resolution of optical systems; Correlation and convolution of 2-dimensional signal patterns; Dynamic and fixed phase holograms. Electro-Optic Systems (6L, Dr T.D. Wilkinson) Free space optical components; wave plates and Jones matrices Spatial light modulation and optical systems; Shadow routing crossbars and the perfect shuttle interconnect; Holographic crossbars; Wavelength filters and routing systems Smart pixels and optical processing; The BPOMF and 1/f JTC correlators. Optical Waveguide Technology (4L Dr P. Hands) What is an optical waveguide - a simple definition Simple raytracing of waveguides Maxwell and the wave equations - a 'light' introduction Single mode and multimode structures Slab and fibre waveguides Key operational parameters for selected applications Principle technologies in use today - glass, e/o crystals, polymers and photonic crystals Demonstrations in the lectures will include: 1. 2D Fourier transform and diffraction patterns 2. Computer generated hologram for optical fan-out. 3. Optical beam steering with dynamic holograms on SLMs. OBJECTIVES On completion of the module students should: Appreciate the derivation and application of diffraction and Fourier optics; Be able to apply Fourier techniques to simple optical spatial patterns; Understand the principles of optical correlation and holography; Be able to explain the principles and construction of spatial light modulators (SLMs); Appreciate the application of SLMs to parallel processing and the functionality of smart pixel devices; To understand the operating principles and theory of optical waveguides Explain what an optical mode is Describe the applications and desired parameters of waveguides Describe the basic technologies available in optical waveguides

Leader: Timing: Prerequisites: Structure: Assessment: 4B6 Lecture Notes AIMS The aim of this module is to introduce the student to the theory, and design of MOS Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs), based on both single crystal and thin-film materials. This will be followed by application examples, including chemical/biological sensors in sensor technologies,ferroelectric and magnetic random access memories (FRAM and MRAM) in non-volatile memory technologies, and active matrix liquid crystal displays and micromechanical displays in display technologies. Emphasis will be placed on both device physics and application technology. . LECTURE SYLLABUS MOS Devices Introduction (4L) Properties of MOS Capacitors, Capacitance - voltage characteristics; MOSFET structures and operation. MOS Devices & Thin Film Transistors (6L) Short channel and hot electron effects; Applications and future trends in miniaturising single crystal devices; Amorphous and polycrystalline silicon and other thin-film transistors. Organic thin-film transistors, Ion-sensitive thin, film trasistors and biosensors. Non-Volatile Memory Devices and Displays (5L) Ferroelectrics and ferroelectric random access memories; Giant magneto-resistance (GMR) and magnetic random access memories. Directly driven liquid crystal displays; Active matrix liquid crystal displays and projectors; Micromechanical projectors; Other types of displays and emerging technologies. OBJECTIVES On completion of the module the student should: Understand MOSFET theory and standard approximations; Be able to correlate material properties and conduction mechanisms with the MOSFET electrical characteristics, for single crystal, amorphous and polycrystalline devices; Understand the basic properties of ferroelectrics and its application for memory devices. Understand the concept of giant magneto-resistance and its applications including non-volatile memory devices Understand the operation of liquid crystal displays; Understand the construction and operation of micromechanical displays, and other emerging display technologies. References Lecture Notes. S M Sze;" Physics of Semiconductor", John Wiley,1981, Chapters 7 and 8.But note that there is rather nore than covered in the lectures. J Singh : Semiconductor Devices", John Wiley 2001 Article "Thin -Film Transistors", by P Migliorato, in Encylopedia of Physical Science and Technology, (Excluding the mathematical derivations), distributed at the lectures. J F Scott: "Ferroelectric Memories", Springer, 2000. Dr. D. P. Chu (dpc31@eng) Lent Term 3B5 and 3B6 useful 14 lectures (including examples classes) Material / Format / Timing / Marks Lecture Syllabus / Written exam (1.5 hours) / Start of Easter Term / 100 %

Leader: Timing: Prerequisites: Structure: Assessment: Dr A Seshia (Engineering) and Prof E A H Hall (Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology) Lent Term None Lectures + coursework Material / Format / Timing / Marks Coursework / Two coursework assignments / The first assignment is laboratory based with reports due mid-term and the second assignment will involve team-based design projects assessed by group presentation and reports due end of term / 50% per assignment

AIMS This course covers the principles, technologies, methods and applications of biosensors and bioinstrumentation. The objective of this course is to link engineering principles to understanding of biosystems in sensors and bioelectronics. It will provide the student with detail of methods and procedures used in the design, fabrication and application of biosensors and bioelectronic devices. The fundamentals of measurement science are applied to optical, electrochemical, mass, and pressure signal transduction. Upon successful completion of this course, students are expected to be able to explain biosensing and transducing techniques, design and construct biosensors instrumentation. Further details and online resources LECTURE SYLLABUS Introduction Overview of Biosensors Fundamental elements of biosensor devices Engineering sensor proteins Electrochemical Biosensors Electrochemical principles Amperometric biosensors and charge transfer pathways in enzymes Glucose biosensors Engineering electrochemical biosensors Optical Biosensors Optics for biosensors Attenuated total reflection systems Mass and Acoustic Biosensors Saubrey formulation Acoustic sensor formats Quartz crystal microblalance Lab-on-chip technologies Microfluidic interfaces for biosensors DNA and protein microarrays Microfabricated PCR technology Diagnostics for the real world Communication and tracking in health monitoring Detection in resource limited settings COURSEWORK The coursework will be assessed on two marked assignments. The first assignment will involve a laboratory session illustrating the functional demonstration of glucose sensor technology. This assignment will be marked on individual reports handed in during week 5 of term. The second assignment will involve a team-based design exercise. This design exercise will involve teams of 4-6 students engaged in designing a real-world biosensor. Design projects will be discussed during week 2 of term and team assignments completed in week 3. The design assignment will be marked on a team presentation in week 7 with written reports due in week 8. OBJECTIVES

On completion of the module students should: Be able to extend principles of engineering to the development of bioanalytical devices and the design of biosensors Understand the principles of linking cell components and biological pathways with energy transduction, sensing and detection Appreciate the basic configuration and distinction among biosensor systems Demonstrate appreciation for the technical limits of performance Make design and selection decisions in response to measurement problems amenable to the use of biosensors

Leader: Timing: Prerequisites: Structure: Assessment: Dr T D Wilkinson (tdw13@cam.ac.uk) Lent none 14L Material / Format / Timing / Marks Lecture Syllabus / Written exam (1.5 hours) / Start of Easter Term / 100 %

AIMS The purpose of this module is to cover the technology behind the displays arena and highlight the technological developments that have occurred in this fast moving industry. Due to the vast number of different displays that are in production today, the course will be centred on three main subsections which represent the biggest growth areas in the past few years. The purpose of the module is to describe and analyse the technology behind the displays themselves starting from the fundamentals and leading on to the various sub-components and then the final mass-produced display system. LECTURE SYLLABUS Introduction to display optics 4 lectures Liquid crystal displays 4 lectures Emissive display technology 3 lectures Projection displays 3 lectures OBJECTIVES On completion of the module students should: Have a basic understanding of optics for use in displays Understand the basics of raytracing Understand the role of polarisation and birefringence Know the basic structure of key LC display modes, TN, STN, VAN, IPS Understand the principles of addressing fboth passive and active and the importance the TFTs The basic physics of LC materials, especially nematics and chiral nematics The fundamentals of emmissive technologies from CRLs, to EL to OLEDs Know the role of the backplane in emmissives, especially OLEDs and PLEDs Understand the basic optical structures of rear and from projection Understand the concept of etendu and how its limits are interpreted Build up a picture of how key display elements fit both manufacture and the environment SYLLABUS Introduction to display optics 4 lectures In order to understand display technology in general some fundamental properties of optics must be covered that are common to most display systems. This includes the basics of ray tracing and physical topics, reflection, TIR, polarisation and birefringence. This will be covered in these two opening lectures. 1) Liquid crystal displays 4 lectures LCDs have become a very dominant force in the modern display market from simple calculator displays right through to large area (>50 inch diagonal) flat panels. This section will start with the fundamental properties of liquid crystal materials and then develop the optics of these materials through to the latest generation of displays technologies such as VAN, IPS and ACS as well as more novel effects such as blue phases, chiral systems and scattering displays. 2) Emissive display technology 3 lectures Emissive displays are a well established technology with electro-optics such as CRTs, vacuum fluorescents and electroluminescent displays being in production. Displays such as plasma panes are also well established and new technologies such as OLED and PLEDs are now starting to make a serious impact in the displays market. This section will outline how these displays function and are fabricated as well as the enhancements that can be done to improve their overall performance. 3) Projection displays 3 lectures The final section will describe a wide range of displays loosely based on projection from classical image based devices using LCD to DLP based pixel engines to pico projectors. Also included in this will be some of the emerging display technologies such as those used in 3D cinema (both Real D and Dolby) as well novel displays such as Actuality and the Wedge.

Leader: Timing: Prerequisites: Structure: Assessment: Professor R Cipolla (cipolla@eng) Michaelmas Term None 16 lectures (including 3 examples classes) Material / Format / Timing / Marks Lecture Syllabus / Written exam (1.5 hours) / Start of Easter Term / 100 %

AIMS The module aims to introduce the principles, models and applications of computer vision. The course will cover image structure, projection, stereo vision, and the interpretation of visual motion. It will be illustrated with case studies of industrial (robotic) applications of computer vision, including visual navigation for autonomous robots, robot hand-eye coordination and novel man-machine interfaces. LECTURE SYLLABUS Introduction (1L) Computer vision: what is it, why study it and how ? The eye and the camera, vision as an information processing task. A geometrical framework for vision. 3D interpretation of 2D images. Applications. Image structure (2L) Image intensities and structure: edges and corners. Edge detection, the aperture problem. Corner detection. Contour extraction using B-spline snakes. Case study: tracking edges and corners for robot hand-eye coordination and man-machine interfaces. Projection (4L) Orthographic projection. Pin-hole camera model. Planar perspective projection. Vanishing points and lines. Projection matrix, homogeneous coordinates. Camera calibration, recovery of world position. Weak perspective, the affine camera. Projective invariants. Case study: 3D models from uncalibrated images using PhotoBuilder. Stereo vision (2L) Epipolar geometry and the essential matrix. Recovery of depth. Uncalibrated cameras and the fundamental matrix. The correspondence problem. Affine stereo. Case study: 3D stereograms. Object detection and tracking (4L, Prof A. Blake and Prof R. Cipolla) Basic target tracking; Kalman filter; application to B-spline snake. Active appearance models. Chamfer matching, template trees. Case study: intelligent automotive vision system. Example classes (3L, Prof R. Cipolla) Discussion of examples papers and past examination papers. OBJECTIVES On completion of the module, students should: Be able to design feature detectors to detect, localise and track image features; Know how to model perspective image formation and calibrate single and multiple camera systems; Be able to recover 3D position and shape information from arbitrary viewpoints; Appreciate the problems in finding corresponding features in different viewpoints; Analyse visual motion to recover scene structure and viewer motion, and understand how this information can be used for navigation; Understand how simple object recognition systems can be designed so that they are independent of lighting and camera viewpoint; Appreciate the industrial potential of computer vision but understand the limitations of current methods.

Leader: Timing: Prerequisites: Structure: Assessment: Dr JM Goncalves Lent Term 3F1 and 3F2 assumed 14 lectures + 2 examples classes Material / Format / Timing / Marks Lecture Syllabus / Written exam (1.5 hours) / Start of Easter Term / 100%

AIMS The aims of this module are to introduce fundamental concepts from nonlinear dynamic systems and to introduce techniques for the analysis and control of nonlinear and multivariable systems. LECTURE SYLLABUS PART 1:MULTIVARIABLE FEEDBACK SYSTEMS (7L + 1 example class, Dr G. Vinnicombe) Performance measures for multi-input/multi-output systems. Stabilization: stability conditions, all stabilizing controllers, small gain theorem. Models for uncertain systems. Robust stability and performance. Loop shaping design. Design of multivariable systems.

PART 2: NONLINEAR SYSTEMS (7L + 1 example class, Prof J.M.Maciejowski) Dynamical systems: Differential equations and trajectories. Equilibria, limit cycles, chaos and other phenomena. Examples from biology and mechanics. State space stability analysis: The theorems of Lyapunov, LaSalle invariance principle. Stability of nonlinear circuits and neural networks. Stability of predictive control. State-space tools for robustness analysis. Input/output stability analysis: Describing functions Small gain theorems, circle and Popov criteria, passivity.

OBJECTIVES On completion of the module, students should: Be able to apply standard analysis and design tools to multivariable and nonlinear feedback systems. Appreciate the diversity of phenomena in nonlinear systems.

Leader: Timing: Prerequisites: Structure: Assessment: Professor W J Fitzgerald (wjf@eng) Michaelmas Term 3F1 and 3F3 assumed; 4F7 useful 16 lectures (including examples classes) Material / Format / Timing / Marks Lecture Syllabus / Written exam (1.5 hours) / Start of Easter Term / 100 %

AIMS The availability of modern digital hardware now allows for many statistical techniques to be implemented, some in real-time, and applied to data and signal processing applications. The aim of this module is to build on module I7 and to introduce some statistical modelling to data and signals analysis. These techniques will be applied to both the detection of signals and the estimation of parameters of models that can account for the observed data. LECTURE SYLLABUS Signal detection Hypothesis testing. Likelihood ratios. Probability of detection and false alarms. Receiver operator characteristics. The matched filter. Bayes theorem and maximum a-posteriori methods Introduction of prior knowledge. Derivation of Bayes theorem. Joint and Marginal estimators. Effects of different priors. Model selection using evidence and other methods. Parameter estimation. Kalman Filters and tracking. Maximum entropy How to assign probabilities. Maximum entropy and Fisher Information. Spectral estimation. Image recovery and Inverse problems. Non-linear methods Examples of non-linear systems. Linear in the Parameters models. Volterra expansion and NARMAX models. Lectures will be supported by interactive computer demonstrations using MATLAB. OBJECTIVES On completion of the module students should: Have a good understanding of detection and estimation theory and practice; Appreciate the shortcomings of some of the various approximations used in the subject; Be able to apply the methods described to a host of various problems; Be able to run and understand software implementations of the methods.

Leader: Timing: Prerequisites: Structure: Assessment: Dr S.S. Singh (sss40@eng) Michaelmas Term 3F1 and 3F3 assumed 16 lectures (including examples classes) Material / Format / Timing / Marks Lecture Syllabus / Written exam (1.5 hours) / Start of Easter Term / 100 %

AIMS This module continues the study of digital signal processing (DSP) systems, continuing from the basics studied in 3F1/3F3. The first aim of the course is to introduce the fundamental concepts and methods of adaptive filtering, i.e. filters which attempt to adapt their parameters automatically on-line to the data at hand - good examples of this are echo cancellation in telephony or background noise cancellation for aircraft pilots. Modern filtering theory will be introduced for state-space models (i.e. the Kalman filter) and for Hidden Markov Models. This part of the course is an extension of the basic filter design material combined with the optimal filtering material from 3F3. In the second part of the course optimal spectrum estimation is studied. The aims are to develop the basic techniques for estimating the power spectrum of a random signal, i.e. what is the average frequency content of a signal, based just on a set of measured signal values. The course introduces both non-parametric (Fourier transform-based) and parametric model-based methods for this. LECTURE SYLLABUS Adaptive Filters (8L, Dr S.S. Singh) Optimal linear Filter: Wiener Filter LMS Algorithm and its variants Adaptive Filtering without Reference Signal RLS Algorithm State-space models and the Kalman filter Hidden Markov Models Applications Spectral estimation (8L, Dr S.S. Singh) Non-Parametric Methods: Data Windows; Frequency resolution; Correlogram; Periodogram; Bartlett; Blackman-Tukey; Welch methods Parametric Methods; Autogressive Moving Average (ARMA) models; Sinusoidal Models; YuleWalker Equations; Least Squares; Maximum Likelihood; Lectures will be supported by interactive computer demonstrations using MATLAB. OBJECTIVES On completion of the module students should: Understand the theory and objectives of optimal (Wiener) filtering in an adaptive setting Be able to recognise and describe the classes of problem where adaptive filtering might be applied; Be able to describe the implementation of the LMS and RLS adaptation algorithms, and understand the their convergence properties. Understand the basic principles of Kalman filtering and filtering for Hidden Markov Models; Understand the principles of spectrum estimation, windowing, resolution; Understand and be able to apply non-parametric spectral analysis methods; Be able to specify data requirements in order to achieve specified spectral analysis criteria; Be able to formulate signal processing tasks in a model-based framework, and to estimate the model parameters

Leader: Timing: Prerequisites: Structure: Assessment: Dr J Lasenby (jl@eng) Michaelmas Term 3F1, 3F3 assumed; 4F7 useful 16 lectures (including examples classes) Material / Format / Timing / Marks Lecture Syllabus / Written exam (1.5 hours) / Start of Easter Term / 100 %

AIMS Sophisticated processing of images by digital hardware is now fairly common, and ranges from special effects in video games to satellite image enhancement. Three of the main application areas are video data compression, image enhancement, and scene understanding. This module introduces the key tools for performing these tasks, and shows how these tools can be applied. The module will be split into two courses of 8 lectures each: Image Processing, and Image Coding. Lectures are supported by computer demonstrations. There will be one examples sheet for each of the two 8-lecture sections. LECTURE SYLLABUS Image processing (8L, Dr J Lasenby) This course covers the following topics, relevant to most aspects of image processing: 1. Two-dimensional linear system theory, as applied to discretely sampled systems: The continuous 2D Fourier transform and its properties Digitisation, sampling, aliasing and quantisation The discrete 2D Fourier transform (DFT) 2. 2D Digital Filters and Filter Design Zero phase filters Ideal 2D filters: rectangular and bandpass Filter design: the window method 3. Image Deconvolution Deconvolution of noiseless images -- the inverse filter The Wiener filter (conventional and Bayesian derivations) Maximum Entropy deconvolution 4. Image Enhancement Contrast enhancement Histogram equalisation Median filtering Image coding (8L, Dr N.G. Kingsbury) This course concentrates on video data compression techniques, and covers the following topics: 1. Characteristics of the human visual system which are important for data compression, such as spatial and temporal frequency sensitivities and distortion masking phenomena. 2. Block transforms (including the discrete cosine transform) and overlapped transforms, to provide good energy compaction of typical images. 3. Optimal quantisation techniques for coding the transform coefficients to provide maximum data compression. OBJECTIVES On completion of the module, students should: Understand the main elements of 2-dimensional linear system theory; Be able to design linear spatial filters for a variety of applications (smoothing etc); Understand techniques for the restoration and enhancement of degraded images; Be familiar with the main characteristics of the human visual system with particular reference to subjective criteria for image data compression;

Understand techniques for image coding using transform methods including the Discrete Cosine Transform (as used in the JPEG coding standard) and overlapped transforms; Understand methods for coding transform coefficients to provide maximum data compression.

CourseLecturers: ProfPolinaBayvel,DrSebSavory,DrPhilWatts,ProfTakis

Hadjifotiou.Guestlecturers:DrYannisBenlachtarPrinciplesofOFDMDrSteve DesbruslaisSubmarineSystemDesign 1.1.1 Summary Thismoduleprovidesthestudentwithanadvancedunderstandingofthephysicallayerofoptical transmission systemsandnetworksfromshorthaul(access)tolonghaul(coreandsubmarine)system applications.It includesindepthunderstandingofopticaltransmissionsystemdesign,opticalamplifiersand amplified systemsandtheoperationofwavelengthdivisionmultiplexedsystems.Bothlinearandnonlinear sourcesof transmissionimpairmentsareanalysed.Thechoiceofmodulationformats,fibredispersionand electronic processingtechniquesarediscussedwiththeaimofmaximisingthespectralefficiency,channel capacityand operatingsystemmargins. 1.1.2LearningOutcomes Attheendofthecourse,studentsshouldbeableto: Understandtheprinciplesofopticallyamplifiedopticaltransmissionsystems,powerlevels,noise accumulationandthetradeoffbetweenopticalsignaltonoiseratioandfibrenonlinearityCarry outpowerbudgetcalculationsforanopticallyamplifiedlinks Understandsignaltransmissionimpairments:fibredispersion,PMD,fibrenonlinearity Carryoutcalculationsquantifyingtheeffectsofdispersionandnonlinearityonanopticallink Understandtheconceptofspectralefficiency;appreciatethedifferencebetweenbaudrateand bitrateanddescribedifferentmodulationformatsthatcanbeused Understandandapplytheprinciplesofelectronicprocessing(transmitterandreceiverbased) andthebasicsofcoherentdetection Describe&analyseavarietyofopticalnetworkarchitectures:accessvscore,staticvsdynamic Understandtheopticalcomponentsusedforsignalroutinginwavelengthroutednetworks Describecurrentresearchinopticalcommunicationsandexplainexpectedfuturetrendsin opticalcommunications

1.1.3Syllabus Singlemodeopticalfibrepropagation

Herethephysicalpropertiesthateffectthepropagationofopticalsignalsareexplainedand thetechniquesformodellingthesearedescribed. Attenuation Dispersion Polarisationmodedispersion Nonlineareffects NonlinearSchroedingerEquation Opticallyamplifiedsystemsandcompensation Opticallyamplifiedsystemsforlongdistancetransmissionandthetechniquesusedto compensateforthefibretransmissionimpairmentsaredescribed. Noiseaccumulation Dispersioncompensation

DCF Dispersionmaps Electronicdispersioncompensation AdvancedModulationFormats Spectralefficiency IMDDandPhaseShiftKeyed(PSK)formats OFDM Coherentsystems DualpolarizationQPSK Digitalcoherenttransceivers DigitalSignalProcessing Wavelengthdivisionmultiplexing TheprincipleofWDMforincreasingthesystemcapacity,thepropertiescomponentsrequiredand theadditionalpropagationimpairmentsthatoccuraredescribed. AWGbasedWavelengthMUX/DEMUX EDFA:gainbandwidthandgainflattening Interchannelnonlinearpropagationimpairments:FWM,XPM OpticalNetworks Hereexamplesoftypicalopticalnetworksandtheirparticularcharacteristicsaredescribed. Whyrouteintheopticaldomain? WavelengthRoutedOpticalNetworks DynamicOpticalNetworks(packetswitching,opticalburstswitching,loadbalancing)

ReadingList

Thefollowingarebooksthatyoumayfindusefulforthissectionofthecourse. Coreandmetronetworks,AlexanderStavdas,WileySeriesinCommunications,Networkingand DistributesSystems,2010coversbothsystemsandnetworks FiberopticCommunicationSystems,GovindPAgrawal,WileyInterscience;3rdedition,2002 OpticalFiberTelecommunicationsVB,FifthEdition:SystemsandNetworks(Opticsand Photonics),I Kaminow,TLiandAEWillner,AcademicPress;5thedition,2008 MultiwavelengthOpticalNetworks,TEStern,GEllinasandKBala,CambridgeUnivPress2009

Thiscoursecoverstheapplicationofnanotechnologytobothdevicesand instrumentationforthedoctorpatientinterface,thepharmaceuticalindustry,the medicalresearchlaboratoryand,initsmoreadvancedtechniques,tothehospital environment.Thecourseincludesdescriptionsanddiscussionsoftheunderpinning techniques,thepresentstateoftheart,thefuturepotential,thebusinesscontextand theregulatoryconstraints.

TogivestudentsanunderstandingofRFdevices,circuitsandsystemarchitectures,including RF deviceconstructionandtheirproperties.

LearningOutcomes:

Attheendofthecourse,studentsshouldbeableto: Understandthebasicscienceandphysicalmechanismsunderlyingtheoperationof semiconductorRFdevices; Understandthedesign,fabrication,packaging,operationandcharacteristicsofawide rangeoftwoandthreeterminalRFdevices; Compareandcontrastestablishedandemergingrfdevicetechnologiesfordifferent applications,includingunderstandingeconomicandmanufacturingconstraints. Analysedeviceperformanceandunderstandfiguresofmerit,limitations,designcriteria andimplicationsforcircuits; UnderstandthedesignofRFcircuits,keyapplicationsandintegrationtechnology; UnderstandthetoolsandanalysistechniquesusedforRFcircuitdesignand optimisation.

CourseContent:

Reviewofcarrierdynamics:effectivemass,scattering,mobility;driftanddiffusion currents;negativedifferentialresistance. Twoterminaldevices(Schottkyandtunnelbarriers,detectorandmixerdiodes, varactors,PINswitches,transferredelectrondevicesandavalanchesources). RadiofrequencyCMOStechnology.Comparisonwithothersemiconductortechnologies. Threeterminaldevices(bipolardevicesincludingSiGeandIIIVHBTs,GaAsMESFETs, IIIVHEMTs,andSiGeheterostructureMOSFETs). Microwavetransmissionlinetheoryandscatteringparameters. RFcircuitdesigntechniquesinMICandMMICform. Amplifiergain,noiseandstabilityanalysisusingscatteringparameters. Applications:RFtransmittersandreceivers,amplifierlinearisation,mixers,modulators. IntegrationtechnologyandthedesignofmonolithicRFcircuits.Criticalcomparisonof differentrftechnologiesandmanufacturingprocesses.

Assessment:

A2.5hourunseenwrittenexaminationwillbeheldunderUCLMScexaminationregulationsat UCL.

Tutorials/Workshops:

AnafternoontutorialisofferedontheFridayafternoonoftheweekfollowingthemodule delivery.

ThiscoursewillprovideanintroductiontoObjectOrientedProgrammingandtheJava programminglanguage.ItwillhaveabigemphasisonNetworkprogrammingusingthesocket paradigm.FinallytherewillbeanintroductiontoSoftwareEngineeringtechniquesandtoUML

LearningOutcomes:

Attheendofthecourse,studentsshouldbeableto: CodesimpleprogramsinJava Buildaclient/serverapplicationsusingTCPsockets BuildUDPbasedsocketprograms KnowthebasicSoftwareEngineeringmethods KnowhowtospecifyadistributedapplicationinUML KnowhowtobuildanapplicationfortheAndroidplatform

CourseContent

Assessment:

Examinationwillbyassignment

Tutorials/Workshops:

AbouthalfofthecoursewilltakeplaceintheLaboratorydoingpracticalexercises Tutorialwillconsistofatwohoursession

GuestSpeakers:

DrAndreaSavigni,anITconsultantintheareaofSoftwareEngineeringwilldeliverthelastdayof Lectures.

Researchonnanostructureshasrevolutionizedthefieldofopticsandopticaldevices. Thiscoursewillfocusonuniqueopticalpropertiesofstructureswithdimensions smallerthantheopticalwavelength.Fromthefundamentalprinciplestothelatest advancesinresearch,thecoursewillexplorelightmatterinteractionsonthe nanometerscale,sizeeffectsinsmallobjectsandtheuseofnanostructuresinmodern opticaldevices.Theaimofthecourseistoprovideanintroductionthediversefieldof nanooptics.

Leader: Timing: Prerequisites: Structure: Assessment: Dr T H W Minshall (thwm100@eng) Michaelmas Term None Eight 2-hour sessions incorporating industry speakers. Material / Format / Timing / Marks Coursework / Report / Start of Lent Term / 100 %

AIMS The aim of this course is to provide students with an understanding of the ways in which technology is brought to market. It does this by focusing on key technology management topics from the standpoint of an established business as well as new entrepreneurial ventures. Strong emphasis is placed on frameworks and methods that are both theoretically sound and practically useful. It will provide students with both an understanding of the issues and the practical means of dealing with them in an engineering context. LECTURE SYLLABUS 1. Introduction: Technology in the business context Technology origins and evolution. How technology generates value. What are technology management processes and how are they used? 2. Developing new technologies: Managing research and development (R&D) and intellectual property rights (IPR) How do you manage a portfolio of R&D projects? What are the key aspects of IPR, and how are they managed? How do you put a value on R&D projects and IPR? 3. Making money from new technologies: How to choose the right business model What are the different ways in which an idea can be brought to market? Why do most innovations reach the market through new firms rather than established firms? How do new and established firms work together? 4. Resources to bring ideas to market: 'Make versus Buy' (MvB) and strategic alliances Strategic context for MvB and partnering decisions. Tools and techniques to support MvB decisions. Working in partnership with other organisations. 5. New product introduction (NPI) 1: Why is it so hard? Challenges in NPI. Balancing technology and market issues. People issues. 6. New product introduction (NPI) 2: How to manage the process Structuring the NPI process New product life cycles, time-to-market and metrics Completing an NPI project on time and within budget 7. Planning for the future: Technology strategy and planning Strategic technology management. Planning for the future by linking technology, product and market considerations Technology Roadmapping (TRM). Scenario planning tools to help manage the uncertainties of the future. 8. Technology management in application Company case studies of technology management one start-up, one large corporation delivered by senior managers from the companies. Review of module and guidelines for coursework. OBJECTIVES On completion of the course, students should:

Have a thorough appreciation of how technology is brought to address market opportunities, and how technology management supports that process. Be able to assess and utilise appropriate technology management methods in different contexts. Understand the core issues of technology management and the practical means of dealing with them in an engineering context.

Leader: Timing: Prerequisites: Structure: Assessment: Dr THW Minshall (thwn100@eng) Michaelmas Term None Four 3.5-hour sessions (total 14 hours) + one 2-hour guide to coursework session Material / Format / Timing / Marks Coursework / Report / Start of Lent Term / 100 %

AIMS This course addresses technological innovation and the ways industries emerge and change as they mature. It examines these issues from a research and an application standpoint. Key issues include the commercialisation of technical projects, the transfer of technologies from the lab to the market, the diffusion of innovation, the management of technological innovation on an international scale. LECTURE SYLLABUS Session One: Emergence and evolution of new industries Introduction to the module Identification of typical changes as a new industry emerges and matures Identification of the key drivers of these developments Understanding the role of technology standards Case study: the PC industry Session Two: Types of innovation Types of innovation; product, process, business models, et al. Technological combination and speciation Examples of key process innovations Case study: materials and process innovations Session Three: Knowledge, investment and new industries New firms versus incumbents Alliances and partnerships Technology transfer Investment Case study: Biotechnology Session Four: Evolving markets for innovation Markets for innovations Adoption of innovations by users/consumers Consumer networks and tipping points Investment and instability Case study: The Internet Session Five: Getting the most out of your coursework Review of module Options for coursework Report structure Sources of evidence OBJECTIVES Have an appreciation of how technologies create and are shaped by industries and markets. Be able to select and apply the appropriate means to analyse industry trends and technological developments Understand several important emerging industries and the interaction of technological innovations with their development.

TheobjectivesoftheTBEmoduleareforstudentstogainanappreciationoftheexternal environmentwithinwhichatelecommunicationsbusinessoperatesandhowacompanycan successfullyconductbusinessinthisenvironment.Twoperspectivesarethereforetaken: scenesettingdescriptionsofthemacroeconomicandregulatoryenvironmentoftoday (focusingontheUK,butwithaglobalviewalso);coupledwithanintroductiontothe managementofatelecommunicationsbusiness.

LearningOutcomes:

Attheendofthecourse,studentsshouldbeabletounderstand: ValueChainanalysis,thedetailedICTValueChainandthepositionoftelecommunications operatorswithinit; TheMacroeconomicenvironmentincludingregulation,globaltrendsandchanging customerneeds/expectations; Howtodevelopwinningstrategiesinthisenvironment TheKeyelementsofsuccessfultrading,includingstrategydevelopment,customer service,technologydevelopmentsandexploitationandportfolioandproduct development Thekeyelementsofsuccessfulproductandportfoliomanagementandhowtoapply theminachangingworld Howtousesystemsandtechnologicaldevelopmentstomeetcustomerneedsand improvecustomerservice Riskevaluationandmitigatingstrategies

ModuleContent

1)IntroductiontoTelecommunications&ICTBusiness Scenesettingfortodaysbusiness:coveringthetypesofnetworkoperatorandtherangeof competitors.TheconceptofICTisdefined,togetherwiththeconvergenceissues.Thissetof lectureswillpositiontheinteractionofallthefactorsaffectinganoperator:macroeconomic, themarketplace,governmentpolicy,regulation,competition,legacyaspectsandtechnology changes,customerexpectationandglobalisation.Thedotcombubbleburstwillbeexamined forlessonsfortodaysbusinessenvironment. 2)BusinessStrategicDrivers. Theconceptofstrategyisintroducedandappliedtoanetworkoperator(fixed,mobile,voice& data).Thevariousstrategyanalysistools(PEST,PUV,Porters5Forces,andSWOT)are introducedandexamplestrategiesarediscussed. 3)TheRegulatoryandLegalScene TheUK,andEuropeanlegalandregulatoryframeworkispresented,showingtheconstraints andopportunitiesofferedtoincumbentandotheroperatorsandserviceproviders.Apartfrom interconnectissues,theTelecommunicationsStrategicReviewisdescribed,asistheroleof OFCOMinregulatinginaconvergedworld. 4)ReviewoftheIndustry ThissectionpresentsaquantifiedviewoftheindustryfromaWorldwideperspective.The majorcost,revenue,demand,serviceandtechnologytrendsareanalysed. 5)InfrastructureEconomics Descriptionofthecostdynamicsofatelecommunicationsinfrastructure,coveringaccessand corefundamentaltoallnetworks(includingrailways,airlines,electricitysupply,etc),fixed andvariablecost,effectofvolumeonunitcost,costandrevenueapportionment,andlongrun costs. 6)ProductManagement&Marketing

Anoverviewoftheprinciplesofmarketingandproductmanagementispresented,together withrecentpracticalexamples.Thescopeincludes:marketsegmentation,pricing,promotion, salesstrategies,customerrelationshipmanagement,billingissuesandproduct/service development.Inparticular,theproductlifecycleisusedasastructuretoconsiderallaspects ofproduct/servicemanagement.Althoughtheseprinciplesaregeneric,theexamplesgivenwill relatespecificallytothetelecommunicationsindustry. 7)BusinessCases Thekeyaspectsofabusinesscaseareintroduced,coveringitsroleincorporategovernance, theessentialcontent,thefinancialcaseandsupportingevidence. 8)FinancialManagement Theroleoffinancialmanagementinanybusinessisdescribed,withdetailedapplicationtothe telecommunicationsnetworkoperatorsfunctions.Studentswillgainanunderstandingof financialstatementsandhowtoreadthem,aswellastheprinciplesofamortisationand depreciation,ebitda,profit,cashflow,costofcapital,sharepricedynamicsanddividendpolicy.

Assessment:

Attheendofthemodulestudentswillbesetanexaminedassignmentdesignedtoassesstheir understandingofthedriversandforcesaffectinganetworkoperatorandhowitcan successfullycompeteintodaysmarketplace.

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