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Executive summary

The proposed Base mount Solar Photovoltaic Power Plant at Indic institute would utilize vacant area of about 150 sq. f. available on the back side of the of the building. The SPV power plant with proposed capacity of 2.4 kWp would be connected to Communication Hall. Battery storage has been provided. It would meet partial load of the Hall during Whole day & night. The SPV project would be a demonstration plant to harness renewable energy and the data on generation would be utilized for analysis of the various aspects of operation as also that of availability of power. The 2.4 kWp SPV power plant is estimated to afford annual energy feed of 4.03 MWh considering efficiency of the solar module as 16%, Inverter/ Power Conditioning Unit (PCU) as 94% and losses as 3% in the DC and AC system. The Plant would operate at an annual capacity utilization factor of 19%. The SPV Power Plant is estimated to cost Rs. 1,77,550 based on the normative cost of Rs. 17 Crores per MW adopted by CERC notification dated 16th September 2009. The tariff for sale of electricity has been worked out adopting the parameters given in the CERC notification and energy generation as presented in this report.

Salient features Location iState iiLocality iii Name of College Odisha Indic heights, Bhubaneswar IIDR

Area for SPV Plant i Length4.572m ii Width3.048 m iii Location Western side of college building SPV Power Plant i Output 2.4kWp ii No. of modules 6 iii No. of modules in series3 iv No. of parallel combination 2 v DC BUS 1 No.

4. Technical details of a SPV Module (a) PV Module type Poly crystalline (b) PV Module I Model no SVL-1210 SVL-2169 (c) Electrical Parameter I Maximum Power ii Rated Current5.88 A iiiRated Voltage 17.0 V iv Short Circuit Current6.35 A v Open Circuit Voltage 21.0 V
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100 Wp

5. Mounting Arrangement I MountingFixed Type ii Surface azimuth angle of PV Module iii Tilt angle(slope) of PV Module 32.1 180

6. Inverter/ Power Conditioning Unit (PCU) i Number of units ii Rated Capacity iii Input Voltage range iv Output Voltage v Frequency 50 Hz vi Efficiency 94% 7. Grid Connection Details I Electrical parameters for interconnection 11. Construction Time40hour 220 V, 1Ph ,50 Hz 1 2.4 kWp 48 V (Max.) 220 V AC

1. INTRODUCTION:

Harnessing of non polluting renewable energy resources to control green house gases is receiving impetus from the government of India. The solar mission, which is part of the National Action Plan on Climate Change has been set up to promote the development and use of solar energy in for power generation and other uses with the ultimate objective of making solar energy competitive with fossil-based energy options. The solar photovoltaic device systems for power generation had been deployed in the various parts in the country for electrification where the grid connectivity is either not feasible or not cost effective as also some times in conjunction with diesel based generating stations in isolated places and communication transmitters at remote locations. With the downward trend in the cost of solar energy and appreciation for the need for development of solar power, solar power projects have recently been implemented. A significant part of the large potential of solar energy in the country could be developed by promoting grid connected solar photovoltaic power systems of varying sizes as per the need and affordability coupled with ensuring adequate return on investment.

Renewable energy sources occur in nature which are regenerative or inexhaustible like solar energy, wind energy, hydropower, geothermal, biomass, tidal and wave energy. Most of these alternative sources are the manifestation of solar energy as shown figure 1.1.

Figure 1.1 Renewable sources of energy.

India is implementing one of the worlds largest programmes in renewable energy. The country ranks second in the world in biogas utilization and fifth in wind power and photovoltaic production. Renewable sources contribute to about 5% of the total power generating capacity in the country.

1.1 IDEAS ON RENEWABLE ENERGY: Renewable energy is energy which comes from natural resource such as sunlight, wind, tides & geothermal heats.In other words Renewable is natural energy which doesn't have a limited supply, which can be used again & again, and will never run out. About 16% of global final energy consumption comes from renewables, with 10% coming from traditional biomass, which is mainly used for heating, and 3.4% from hydroelectricity. New renewables (small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and bio fuels) accounted for another 3% and are growing very rapidly.The share of renewables in electricity generation is around 19%, with 16% of global electricity coming from hydroelectricity and 3% from new renewables. Renewable energy replaces conventional fuels in four distinct areas: electricity generation, hot water/space heating, motor fuels, and rural (off-grid) energy services. In other word renewable energy is also known as nonconventional energy source. 1.1.1 ADVANTAGES OF RENEWABLE ENERGY:

The major advantage of renewable energy is that it is renewable & so will never run out. Renewable energy facilities generally require less maintenance than the traditional generators. More importantly these are environment friendly because it produces little or no waste products like carbon dioxide or other chemical pollutants.

Renewable energy projects can also bring economic benefits to many regional areas. These economic benefits may be from the increased use of local services as well as tourism. 1.2 TODAYS SCENARIO: From the end of 2004, worldwide renewable energy capacity grew at rates of 10 60% annually for many technologies. For wind power and many other renewable technologies, growth accelerated in 2009 relative to the previous four years. More wind power capacity was added during 2009 than any other renewable technology. However, grid-connected PV increased the fastest of all renewables technologies, with a 60% annual average growth rate. In 2010, renewable power constituted about a third of the newly built power generation capacities. By 2014 the installed capacity of photovoltaic will likely exceed that of wind, but due to the lower capacity factor of solar, the energy generated from photovoltaic is not expected to exceed that of wind until 2015.

1.3 IDEAS ON SOLAR ENERGY: Solar energy is energy that is present in sunlight. Solar energy technologies include solar heating, solar photovoltaics, solar thermal electricity and solar architecture, which can make considerable contributions to solving some of the most urgent problems the world now faces. Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute solar energy. Active solar techniques include the use of photovoltaic panels and solar thermal collectors to harness the energy. Passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with favourable thermal mass or light dispersing properties, and designing spaces that naturally circulate air.

1.4 TYPES OF TECHNOLOGY ASSOCIATED WITH SOLAR ENERGY: 1.4.1 Solar power plants

Solar power plants strive to converting, either directly using photovoltaic(PV), or indirectly using Concentrated solar power systems (CSP). Concentrated solar power systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam. Photovoltaic converts light into electric current using the photoelectric effect. 1.4.2 Solar heating: House with solar panels for heating and other needs in Jablunkov and other foreign countries. The sun may be used to heat water instead of electricity or gas. There are two basic types of active solar heating systems based on the type of fluid either liquid or air that is heated in the solar energy collectors. (The collector is the device in which a fluid is heated by the sun.) Liquid-based systems heat water or an antifreeze solution in a "hydronic" collector, whereas air-based systems heat air in an "air collector. Both air and liquid systems can supplement forced air systems. 1.4.3 Solar cells: Solar cells can be used to generate electricity from sunlight. It is a device that converts lightenergy into electrical energy. Sometimes the term solar cell is reserved for devices intended specifically to capture energy from sunlight, while the term photovoltaic cell is used when the light source is unspecified. Solar cells have many applications. They have long been used in situations where electrical power from the grid is unavailable, such as in remote area power systems, Earth-orbiting satellites and space probes, consumer systems, e.g. handheld calculators or wrist watches, remote radiotelephones and water pumping applications.

1.4.4 Solar water pumps:-

Earlier, DC (direct current) motors had to be used for solar power units because the photovoltaic (PV) cells produce DC current. Since the power produced by the PV cells fluctuates with the intensity of the sunshine, it had to be used to charge batteries first and then the batteries used to run the DC motors.

2.SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM (PVS): 2.1 INTRODUCTION Photovoltaic power generation is a method of producing electricity using solar cells. A solar cell converts solar optical energy directly into electrical energy. A solar cell is essentially a semiconductor device fabricated in a manner which generates a voltage when solar radiation falls on it. In semiconductor, atoms carry four electrons in the outer valence shell, some of which can be dislodged to move freely in the materials if extra energy is supplied. Then, a semiconductor attains the property to conduct the current. This is the basic principle on which the solar cell works and generates power. 2.2SOLAR CELLS: Solar cells are the building block of PV system. . It is a form of photoelectric cell which, when exposed to light, can generate and support an electric current without being attached to any external voltage source. Solar cells produce direct current electricity from sun light, which can be used to power equipment or to recharge a battery. The first practical application of photovoltaics was to power orbiting satellites and other spacecraft, but today the majority of modules are used for grid connected power generation. In this case an inverter is required to convert the DC to AC. Cells require protection from the environment and are usually packaged tightly behind a glass sheet. When more power is required than a single cell can deliver, cells are electrically connected together to form photovoltaic modules, or solar panels. Solar cells are often electrically connected and encapsulated as a module. Photovoltaic modules often have a sheet of glass on the front (sun up) side, allowing light to pass while protecting the semiconductor wafers from abrasion and impact due to wind-driven debris, rain, hail, etc. Solar cells are also usually connected in series in modules, creating an additive voltage. Connecting cells in parallel will yield a higher current; however, very significant problems exist with parallel connections. For example, shadow effects can shut down the weaker (less illuminated) parallel string (a number of series connected cells) causing substantial power loss and even

damaging the weaker string because of the excessive reverse bias applied to the shadowed cells by their illuminated partners. Strings of series cells are usually handled independently and not connected in parallel, special paralleling circuits are the exceptions. The efficiency of a solar cell may be broken down into reflectance efficiency, thermodynamic efficiency, charge carrier separation efficiency and conductive efficiency. The overall efficiency is the product of each of these individual efficiencies. The cost of a solar cell is given per unit of peak electrical power. High-efficiency solar cells are of interest to decrease the cost of solar energy. Many of the costs of a solar power plant are proportional to the panel area or land area of the plant. A higher efficiency cell may reduce the required areas and so reduce the total plant cost, even if the cells themselves are more costly. Materials presently used for photovoltaic solar cells include monocrystalline silicon, polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, cadmium telluride, and copper indium selenide. Many currently available solar cells are made from bulk materials that are cut into wafers between 180 to 240 micrometers thick that are then processed like other semiconductors. 2.3 SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIALS FOR SOLAR CELLS: 2.3.1Monocrystalline silicon (c-Si): Monocrystalline siliconoften made using the Czochralski process. Single-crystal wafer cells tend to be expensive, and because they are cut from cylindrical ingots, do not completely cover a square solar cell module without a substantial waste of refined silicon. Hence most c-Si panels have uncovered gaps at the four corners of the cells. 2.3.2Polycrystalline silicon or multicrystalline silicon, (poly-Si or mc-Si): Polycrystalline silicon or multicrystalline silicon, (poly-Si or mc-Si):made from cast square ingots large blocks of molten silicon carefully cooled and solidified. Poly-Si cells are less expensive to produce than single crystal silicon cells, but are less
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efficient. United States Department of Energy data show that there were a higher number of polycrystalline sales than monocrystalline silicon sales.

2.3.3Ribbon silicon is a type of polycrystalline silicon: Ribbon silicon is a type of polycrystalline silicon: it is formed by drawing flat thin films from molten silicon and results in a polycrystalline structure. These cells have lower efficiencies than poly-Si, but save on production costs due to a great reduction in silicon waste, as this approach does not require sawing from ingots.

2.4 SOLAR PANEL: A solar panel (also solar module, photovoltaic module or photovoltaic panel) is a packaged connected assembly of photovoltaic cells. The solar panel can be used as a component of a larger photovoltaic system to generate and supply electricity in commercial and residential applications. Each panel is rated by its DC output power under standard test conditions, and typically ranges from 100 to 320 watts. The efficiency of a panel determines the area of a panel given the same rated output - an 8% efficient 230 watt panel will have twice the area of a 16% efficient 230 watt panel. Because a single solar panel can produce only a limited amount of power, most installations contain multiple panels. photovoltaic system typically includes an array of solar panels, an inverter, and sometimes a battery and or solar tracker and interconnection wiring. Solar panels use light energy (photons) from the sun to generate electricity through the photovoltaic effect. The structural (load carrying) member of a module can either be the top layer or the back layer. The majority of modules use wafer-based crystalline silicon cells or thin-film cells based on cadmium telluride or silicon. The conducting wires that take the current off the panels may contain silver, copper or other non-magnetic conductive transition metals.

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The cells must be connected electrically to one another and to the rest of the system. Popular photovoltaic panels, in terrestrial applications typically use MC3 (older) or MC4 connectors to facilitate easy weatherproof connections. Cells must also be protected from mechanical damage and moisture. Most solar panels are rigid, but semi-flexible ones are available, based on thin-film cells. Electrical connections are made in series to achieve a desired output voltage and/or in parallel to provide a desired current capability. Depending on construction, photovoltaic panels can produce electricity from a range of frequencies of light, but usually cannot cover the entire solar range (specifically, ultraviolet, infrared and low or diffused light). Hence much of the incident sunlight energy is wasted by solar panels, and they can give far higher efficiencies if illuminated with monochromatic light. Therefore, another design concept is to split the light into different wavelength ranges and direct the beams onto different cells tuned to those ranges.This has been projected to be capable of raising efficiency by 50%. 2.4.1 Crystalline silicon modules: Most solar modules are currently produced from silicon photovoltaic cells. These are typically categorized as monocrystalline or polycrystalline modules. 2.4.2 Rigid thin-film modules:In rigid thin film modules, the cell and the module are manufactured in the same production line. 2.4.3 Flexible thin-film modules:Flexible thin film cells and modules are created on the same production line by depositing the photoactive layer and other necessary layers on a flexible substrate.

2.5 SOLAR ARRAYS: A photovoltaic array (or solar array) is a linked collection of solar panels.

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The power that one module can produce is seldom enough to meet requirements of a home or a business, so the modules are linked together to form an array. Most PV arrays use an inverter to convert the DC power produced by the modules into alternating current that can power lights, motors, and other loads. The modules in a PV array are usually first connected in series to obtain the desired voltage; the individual strings are then connected in parallel to allow the system to produce more current. Solar panels are typically measured under STC (standard test conditions) or PTC (PVUSA test conditions), in watts. Typical panel ratings range from less than 100 watts to over 400 watts.The array rating consists of a summation of the panel ratings, in watts, kilowatts, or megawatts.

3. SOLAR TRACKER& MPPT: A solar tracker is a device that orients various payloads toward the sun. Payloads can be photovoltaic panels, reflectors, lenses or other optical devices. 3.1 Basic concept on Solar tracking system:-

Sunlight has two components, the "direct beam" that carries about 90% of the solar energy, and the "diffuse sunlight" that carries the remainder - the diffuse portion is the blue sky on a clear day and increases as a proportion on cloudy days. As the majority of the energy is in the direct beam, maximizing collection requires the sun to be visible to the panels as long as possible. The energy contributed by the direct beam drops off with the cosine of the angle between the incoming light and the panel. In addition, the reflectance (averaged across all polarizations) is approximately constant for angles of incidence up to around 50, beyond which reflectance degrades rapidly. a. Types of Solar Tracker: Photovoltaic trackers can be classified into two types: standard photovoltaic (PV) trackers and concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) trackers.

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Beside these two again we can classified solar tracker in to two types considering its axis: Single axis trackers & Dual axis trackers. 3.1.1 Non-concentrating photovoltaic (PV) trackers:-

In flat-panel photovoltaic (PV) applications, trackers are used to minimize the angle of incidence between the incoming light and a photovoltaic panel. This increases the amount of energy produced from a fixed amount of installed power generating capacity. In standard photovoltaic applications, it is estimated that trackers are used in at least 85% of commercial installations greater than 1MW from 2009 to 2012. Photovoltaic panels accept both direct and diffuse light from the sky. The panels on standard photovoltaic trackers always gather the available direct light. The tracking functionality in standard photovoltaic trackers is used to minimize the angle of incidence between incoming light and the photovoltaic panel. This increases the amount of energy gathered from the direct component of the incoming light. 3.1.2 Concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) trackers:-

In concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) and concentrated solar thermal (CSP) applications trackers are used to enable the optical components in the CPV and CSP systems. The optics in concentrated solar applications accept the direct component of sunlight light and therefore must be oriented appropriately to collect energy. Tracking systems are found in all concentrator applications because such systems do not produce energy unless oriented closely toward the sun. The optics in CPV modules accept the direct component of the incoming light and therefore must be oriented appropriately to maximize the energy collected. In low concentration applications a portion of the diffuse light from the sky can also be captured. The tracking functionality in CPV modules is used to orient the optics such that the incoming light is focused to a photovoltaic collector.

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CPV modules that concentrate in one dimension must be tracked normal to the sun in one axis. CPV modules that concentrate in two dimensions must be tracked normal to the sun in two axes.

I.

Single axis trackers: Single axis trackers have one degree of freedom that acts as an axis of rotation. The axis of rotation of single axis trackers is typically aligned along a true North meridian. It is possible to align them in any cardinal direction with advanced tracking algorithms. There are several common implementations of single axis trackers. These include horizontal single axis trackers (HSAT), vertical single axis trackers (VSAT), tilted single axis trackers (TSAT) and polar aligned single axis trackers (PSAT). The orientation of the module with respect to the tracker axis is important when modeling performance.

II.

Horizontal single axis tracker (HSAT): The axis of rotation for horizontal single axis tracker is horizontal with respect to the ground. The posts at either end of the axis of rotation of a horizontal single axis tracker can be shared between trackers to lower the installation cost. Field layouts with horizontal single axis trackers are very flexible. The simple geometry means that keeping all of the axis of rotation parallel to one another is all that is required for appropriately positioning the trackers with respect to one another. Horizontal trackers typically have the face of the module oriented parallel to the axis of rotation. As a module tracks, it sweeps a cylinder that is rotationally symmetric around the axis of rotation. In single axis horizontal trackers, a long horizontal tube is supported on bearings mounted upon pylons or frames.

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The axis of the tube is on a north-south line. Panels are mounted upon the tube, and the tube will rotate on its axis to track the apparent motion of the sun through the day.

III.

Vertical single axis tracker (VSAT): The axis of rotation for vertical single axis trackers is vertical with respect to the ground. These trackers rotate from East to West over the course of the day. Such trackers are more effective at high latitudes than are horizontal axis trackers. Field layouts must consider shading to avoid unnecessary energy losses and to optimize land utilization. Also optimization for dense packing is limited due to the nature of the shading over the course of a year. Vertical single axis trackers typically have the face of the module oriented at an angle with respect to the axis of rotation. As a module tracks, it sweeps a cone that is rotationally symmetric around the axis of rotation.

IV.

Tilted single axis tracker (TSAT): All trackers with axes of rotation between horizontal and vertical are considered tilted single axis trackers. Tracker tilt angles are often limited to reduce the wind profile and decrease the elevated ends height off the ground. Field layouts must consider shading to avoid unnecessary losses and to optimize land utilization. With backtracking, they can be packed without shading perpendicular to their axis of rotation at any density. However, the packing parallel to their axis of rotation is limited by the tilt angle and the latitude. Tilted single axis trackers typically have the face of the module oriented parallel to the axis of rotation. As a module tracks, it sweeps a cylinder that is rotationally symmetric around the axis of rotation.

V.

Polar aligned single axis trackers (PASAT):-

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This method is scientifically well known as standard method mounting a structure which
supports a telescope. The tilted single axis is aligned to the polar star.

It is therefore called polar aligned single axis tracker (PASAT). In this particular
implementation of a tilted single axis tracker the tilt angle is equal to the latitude of the installation. This aligns the tracker axis of rotation with the earths axis of rotation.

VI.

Dual axis trackers: Dual axis trackers have two degrees of freedom that act as axes of rotation. These axes are typically normal to one another. The axis that is fixed with respect to the ground can be considered a primary axis. The axis that is referenced to the primary axis can be considered a secondary axis. There are several common implementations of dual axis trackers. They are classified by the orientation of their primary axes with respect to the ground. Two common implementations are tip-tilt dual axis trackers (TTDAT) and azimuthaltitude dual axis trackers(AADAT).
Dual axis trackers allow for optimum solar energy levels due to their ability to follow the sun vertically and horizontally. No matter where the sun is in the sky, dual axis trackers are able to angle themselves to be in direct contact with the sun.

VII.

Tiptilt dual axis tracker (TTDAT): A tiptilt dual axis tracker is so-named because the panel array is mounted on the tip of a
long pole. Normally the east-west movement is driven by rotating the array around the top of the pole.

On top of the rotating bearing is a T- or H-shaped mechanism that provides vertical rotation of the panels and provides the main mounting points for the array. The posts at either end of the primary axis of rotation of a tip tilt dual axis tracker can be shared between trackers to lower installation costs.

Field layouts with tiptilt dual axis trackers are very flexible. The simple geometry means that keeping the axes of rotation parallel to one another is all that is required for appropriately positioning the trackers with respect to one another.
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Normally the trackers would have to be positioned at fairly low density in order to avoid one tracker casting a shadow on others when the sun is low in the sky. Tip-tilt trackers can make up for this by tilting closer to horizontal to minimize up-sun shading and therefore maximize the total power being collected. The axes of rotation of tiptilt dual axis trackers are typically aligned either along a true north meridian or an east west line of latitude. It is possible to align them in any cardinal direction with advanced tracking algorithms. VIII.

Azimuth-altitude dual axis tracker (AADAT): An azimuthaltitude dual axis tracker has its primary axis vertical to the ground. The
secondary axis is then typically normal to the primary axis.

They are similar to tip-tilt systems in operation, but they differ in the way the array is
rotated for daily tracking. Instead of rotating the array around the top of the pole, AADAT systems typically use a large ring mounted on the ground with the array mounted on a series of rollers.

The main advantage of this arrangement is the weight of the array is distributed over a
portion of the ring, as opposed to the single loading point of the pole in the TTDAT.

This allows AADAT to support much larger arrays. Unlike the TTDAT, however, the AADAT
system cannot be placed closer together than the diameter of the ring, which may reduce the system density, especially considering inter-tracker shading.

3.2 Maximum power point tracking: Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is a technique that grid tie inverters, solar battery chargers and similar devices use to get the maximum possible power from one or more solar panels.

Solar cells have a complex relationship between solar irradiation, temperature and total resistance that produces a non-linear output efficiency known as the I-V curve.

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It is the purpose of the MPPT system to sample the output of the cells and apply the proper resistance (load) to obtain maximum power for any given environmental conditions.

Figure 3.1 I-V curve Photovoltaic cells have a complex relationship between their operating environment and the maximum power they can produce. The fill factor, abbreviated FF, is a parameter which characterizes the non-linear electrical behavior of the solar cell. Fill factor is defined as the ratio of the maximum power from the solar cell to the product of Open Circuit Voltage V oc and ShortCircuit Current Isc. For any given set of operational conditions, cells have a single operating point where the values of the current (I) and Voltage (V) of the cell result in a maximum power output. These values correspond to a particular load resistance, which is equal to V / I as specified by Ohm's Law. The power P is given by P=V*I. A photovoltaic cell has an approximately exponential relationship between current and voltage.
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From basic circuit theory, the power delivered from or to a device is optimized where the derivative (graphically, the slope) dI/dV of the I-V curve is equal and opposite the I/V ratio (where dP/dV=0). This is known as the maximum power point (MPP) and corresponds to the "knee" of the curve. A load with resistance R=V/I equal to the reciprocal of this value draws the maximum power from the device. This is sometimes called the characteristic resistance of the cell. This is a dynamic quantity which changes depending on the level of illumination, as well as other factors such as temperature and the age of the cell. If the resistance is lower or higher than this value, the power drawn will be less than the maximum available, and thus the cell will not be used as efficiently as it could be. Maximum power point trackers utilize different types of control circuit or logic to search for this point and thus to allow the converter circuit to extract the maximum power available from a cell. 4. SOLAR POWER SYSTEM: Solar power system can be classified as following types depending on the connection to the system 1.On grid system 2.Off grid system(Stand-alone system)

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Figure 4.1 Block diagram of solar power plant 4.1 On grid system:Grid-connected photovoltaic power systems are power systems energised by photovoltaic panels which are connected to the utility grid. Grid-connected photovoltaic power systems comprise of Photovoltaic panels, MPPT, solar inverters, power conditioning units and grid connection equipment. Unlike Stand-alone photovoltaic power systems these systems do not have batteries. When conditions are right, the grid-connected PV system supplies the excess power, beyond consumption by the connected load, to the utility grid.

Figure 4.2 Diagram of a residential grid-connected PV system Advantages of grid connected system:I. A grid-connected photovoltaic power system will reduce the power bill as it is possible to sell surplus electricity produced to the local electricity supplier. II. Grid-connected PV systems are comparatively easier to install as they do not require a battery system. III. Grid interconnection of photovoltaic (PV) power generation systems has the advantage of effective utilization of generated power because there are no storage losses involved. IV. A photovoltaic power system is carbon negative over its lifespan, as any energy produced over and above that to build the panel initially offsets the need for burning

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fossil fuels. Even though the sun doesn't always shine, any installation gives a reasonably predictable average reduction in carbon production and use.

4.2

Off-grid sytem:The term off-grid refers to not being connected to a grid, mainly used in terms of not being connected to the main or national transmission grid in electricity. In electricity off-grid can be stand-alone systems (SHS) or mini-grids typically to provide a smaller community with electricity. Off-grid electrification is an approach to access electricity used in countries and areas with little access to electricity, due to scattered or distant population. It can be any kind of electricity generation. The term off-the-grid (OTG) can refer to living in a self-sufficient manner without reliance on one or more public utilities.

Figure 4.3off-grid PV system with battery charger 5. Charge controller: A charge controller, charge regulator or battery regulator limits the rate at which electric current is added to or drawn from electric batteries.The terms "charge controller" or "charge regulator" may refer to either a stand-alone device, or to control
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circuitry integrated within a battery pack, battery-powered device, or battery recharger. It prevents overcharging and may prevent against overvoltage, which can reduce battery performance or lifespan, and may pose a safety risk. It may also prevent completely draining ("deep discharging") a battery, or perform controlled discharges, depending on the battery technology, to protect battery life. 5.1 TYPES OF CHARGE CONTROLLER: Solar charge controller basically divided in to two types : stand alone charge controller & integrated charge controller. Stand-alone charge controllers:

I.

Charge controllers are sold to consumers as separate devices, often in conjunction with solar or wind power generators, for uses such as RV, boat, and off-the-grid home battery storage systems.

II.

In solar applications, charge controllers may also be called solar regulators. Some charge controllers / solar regulators have additional features, such as a low voltage disconnect, a separate circuit which powers down the load when the batteries become overly discharged.

III.

A series charge controller or series regulator disables further current flow into batteries when they are full.

IV.

A shunt charge controller or shunt regulator diverts excess electricity to an auxiliary or "shunt" load, such as an electric water heater, when batteries are full.

V.

Simple charge controllers stop charging a battery when they exceed a set high voltage level, and re-enable charging when battery voltage drops back below that level.

VI.

Pulse width modulation (PWM) and maximum power point tracker (MPPT) technologies are more electronically sophisticated, adjusting charging rates depending on the battery's level, to allow charging closer to its maximum capacity.

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VII.

Charge controllers may also monitor battery temperature to prevent overheating. Some charge controller systems also display data, transmit data to remote displays, and data logging to track electric flow over time.

Integrated charge controller circuitry:-

I.

Circuitry that functions as a charge regulator controller may consist of several electrical components, or may be encapsulated in a single microchip, an integrated circuit (IC) usually called a charge controller IC.

II.

Charge controller circuits are used for rechargeable electronic devices such as cell phones, laptop computers, portable audio players, and uninterruptible power supplies, as well as for larger battery systems found in electric vehiclesand orbiting space satellites.

III.

Charge controller circuitry may be located in the battery-powered device, in a battery pack for either wiredor wireless[(inductive) charging, inline with the wiring, or in the AC adapter or other power supply module.

Modern multi-stage charge controllers: Most quality charge controller units have what is known as a 3 stage charge cycle that goes like this : 1)BULK:- During the Bulk phase of the charge cycle, the voltage gradually rises to the Bulk level (usually 14.4 to 14.6 volts) while the batteries draw maximum current. When Bulk level voltage is reached the absorption stage begins.

2)ABSORPTION:- During this phase the voltage is maintained at Bulk voltage level for a specified time (usually an hour) while the current gradually tapers off as the batteries charge up.

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3)FLOAT:- After the absorption time passes the voltage is lowered to float level (usually 13.4 to 13.7 volts) and the batteries draw a small maintenance current until the next cycle.

Figure 5.1 Block diagram of charge controller 5.1.1 How it Works:-

I.

The principle behind a solar charge controller is simple. There is a circuit to measure the battery voltage, which operates a switch to divert power away from the battery when it is fully charged.

II.

Because solar cells are not damaged by being short or open-circuits, either of these methods can be used to stop power reaching the battery.

III.

A controller which short-circuits the panel is known as a shunt regulator, and that which opens the circuit as a series regulator.

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IV.

Optionally there may also be a switch which automatically disconnects the power from the appliances or loads when the battery voltage falls dangerously low. This is known as a low-voltage disconnect function.

Figure 5.2 circuit diagram of charge controller 6. LOCATION: INDIC Institute is situated in the southern most side of chandaka reserve forest at Muktapur village, Khurda District ODISHA. INDIC Institute is a B-Tech engineering college (approved by AICTE and affiliated to BPUT).The location of the site is shown in the Exhibit I.

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7. SITE DESCRIPTION: The western side of college building Is open space. The lay out of the space is shown in the Exhibit II. An area of about 150 sq f. is vacant which could be used for SPV installation of 2.4 kWp. It is proposed to utilize the vacant area available on the western for installation of 2.4 kWp which could serve as a grid connected demonstration system and could be used for collection of data for analysis on the of availability of solar power.

8. EXISTING POWER SUPPLY ARRANGEMENTS: 8.1 SESU SUPPLY The power requirement for INDIC institute is nearly 180 kva. The power received at 11 kV level and step down to 440 V. 8.2 EMERGENCY POWER SUPPLY DG set of 1x180 kVA capacity has been installed for providing back up supply to important services like lifts, corridor lights, chairman & Members office and essential lighting in the building during the period of load shedding.

9. FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION OF SPV POWER SYSTEM: 9.1 The solar PV system shall be designed with either mono/ poly crystalline silicon modules or using thin film photovoltaic cells or any other superior technology having higher efficiency. 9.2 Three key elements in a solar cell form the basis of their manufacturing technology.

The first is the semiconductor, which absorbs light and converts it into electron-hole pairs. The second is the semiconductor junction, which separates the photo-generated carriers (electrons and holes), and the third is the contacts on the front and back of the cell that allow the current to flow to the external circuit. The two main categories of

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technology are defined by the choice of the semiconductor: either crystalline silicon in a wafer form or thin films of other materials. 9.3 The grid interactive roof top solar PV system generally comprises the following equipment.

I. SPV Power Source II. Inverter (PCU) III. Mounting Structure IV. AC and DC Cables V. Earthing equipment /material VI. Junction Boxes or combiners VII. Instruments and protection equipment 9.4 Photovoltaic solar system use the light available from the sun to generate electricity and feed this into the main electricity grid or load as the case may be. The PV panels convert the light reaching them into DC power. The amount of power they produce is roughly proportional to the intensity and the angle of the light reaching them. They are therefore positioned to take maximum advantage of available sunlight within siting constraints. Maximum power is obtained when the panels are able to 'track' the sun's movements during the day and the various seasons. However, these tracking mechanisms tend to add a fair bit to the cost of the system, so a most of installations either have fixed panels or compromise by incorporating some limited manual adjustments, which take into account the different 'elevations' of the sun at various times of the year. The best elevations vary with the latitude of the load location. 9.5 The power generating capacity of a photovoltaic system is denoted in Kilowatt peak (measured at standard test conditions of solar radiation of 1000 W per m2). A common rule of thumb is that average power is equal to 20% of peak power, so that each peak

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kilowatt of solar array output power corresponds to energy production of 4.8 kWh per day (24 hours x 1 kW x 20% = 4.8 kWh) 9.6 Solar photovoltaic modules can be developed in various combinations depending upon the requirements of the voltage and power output to be taken from the solar plant. No. of cells and modules may vary depending upon the manufacturer prudent practice 10. SOLAR INVERTER: I. A controller which short-circuits the panel is known as a shunt regulator, and that which opens the circuit as a series regulator. II. Optionally there may also be a switch which automatically disconnects the power from the appliances or loads when the battery voltage falls dangerously low. This is known as a low-voltage disconnect function. III. It is a critical component in a photovoltaic system, allowing the use of ordinary commercial appliances. Solar inverters have special functions adapted for use with photovoltaic arrays, including maximum power point tracking and anti-islanding protection. IV. Many different types of inverter can be used in a solar power system. There are dedicated inverters for solar power available, but what's important is that the correct inverter is used for the job it has to do. V. This job is converting a certain amount of power from low voltage DC to 230 Volts AC to power mains appliances. The right inverter will deliver enough power but will be no bigger than necessary, and will have the right output waveform.

10.1 Classification:Solar inverters may be classified into three broad types: standalone inverters, grid tied inverters & battery backup inverters.

1. Stand-alone inverters:-

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I.

Stand-alone inverters, used in isolated systems where the inverter draws its DC energy from batteries charged by photovoltaic arrays.

II.

Many stand-alone inverters also incorporate integral battery chargers to replenish the battery from an AC source, when available. Normally these do not interface in any way with the utility grid, and as such, are not required to have anti-islanding protection.

III.

Unlike grid-tie inverters, stand-alone inverters use batteries for storage.As these types of inverters are not connected to the grid, they do not have anti-islanding protection equipments.

IV.

As there is a risk of back-feed from the load, circuit breakersare provided at the load side for protection.Stand-alone inverter power ratings range from about 250 W to 5000 W for residential systems and if the power output is greater than the individual inverter rating, many inverters can be connected.

V.

Battery banks connected to the inverters operate at 12 V, 24V or 48V so that the inverter can operate at hundreds of amps of current at full load. In stand-alone inverters, the installers usually must install the dc main bonding jumper as most inverters do not have the arrangement.

Applications Of Standalone inverter: I. Stand-alone inverters are mostly used in conjunction with renewable energy sources like solar panels or wind turbines powering residential and industrial buildings in remote locations. II. They are also used in battery operated vehicles and electric boats where AC power is required for the operation. 2. Grid-tie inverters: I. Grid-tie inverters are designed to shut down automatically upon loss of utility supply, for safety reasons. They do not provide backup power during utility outages. II. A grid-tie inverter (GTI) or synchronous inverter is a special type of power inverter that converts direct current (DC) electricity into alternating current (AC) and feeds it into an existing electrical grid.

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III.

GTIs are often used to convert direct current produced by many renewable energy sources, such as solar panels or small wind turbines, into the alternating current used to power homes and businesses.

IV.

The technical name for a grid-tie inverter is "grid-interactive inverter". Gridinteractive inverters typically cannot be used in standalone applications where utility power is not available.

V.

During a period of overproduction from the generating source, power is routed into the power grid, thereby being sold to the local power company. During insufficient power production, it allows for power to be purchased from the power company.

Typical operation of grid-tie system:I. Inverters take DC power and invert it to AC power so it can be fed into the electric utility company grid. The grid tie inverter must synchronize its frequency with that of the grid (e.g. 50 or 60 Hz) using a local oscillator and limit the voltage to no higher than the grid voltage. II. A high-quality modern GTI has a fixed unity power factor, which means its output voltage and current are perfectly lined up, and its phase angle is within 1 degree of the AC power grid. III. The inverter has an on-board computer which will sense the current AC grid waveform, and output a voltage to correspond with the grid. IV. Grid-tie inverters are also designed to quickly disconnect from the grid if the utility grid goes down. This is a requirement that ensures that in the event of a blackout, the grid tie inverter will shut down to prevent the energy it produces from harming any line workers who are sent to fix the power grid. V. Properly configured, a grid tie inverter enables a home owner to use an alternative power generation system like solar or wind power without extensive rewiring and without batteries. VI. If the alternative power being produced is insufficient, the deficit will be sourced from the electricity grid. VII. The inverters may use the newer high-frequency transformers, conventional lowfrequency transformers, or without transformer.
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VIII.

Instead of converting direct current directly to 120 or 240 volts AC, high-frequency transformers employ a computerized multi-step process that involves converting the power to high-frequency AC and then back to DC and then to the final AC output voltage.

How an Inverter works:I. Most people are familiar with the idea of a transformer. A transformer is a device that converts one voltage into another, so why do we need an inverter? Well the problem with a transformer is that it can only work with alternating current or AC. The power from the battery in a solar power system is direct current or DC. II. Roughly, what an inverter does is to turn this DC into AC by rapid transistorised switching, and then use a transformer to convert it to the correct AC voltage. III. Depending on how this is done, the result can be either a sine wave like the mains or a modified sine wave which approximates to the mains.

b. PROTECTION AND CONTROL: I. Inverter shall be provided with islanding protection to isolate it from the grid in case of no supply, under voltage and over voltage conditions so that in no case there is any chance of accident. II. In addition to above, PV systems shall be provided with adequate rating fuses, fuses on inverter input side (DC) as well as output side (AC) side for overload and short circuit protection and disconnecting switches to isolate the DC and AC system for maintenances are needed. III. Fuses of adequate rating shall also be provided in each solar array module to protect them against short circuit

11. ARRANGEMENT :

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The general layout arrangement of the SPV panels is shown in the drawing given at Exhibit III and installation details of the panels are shown in the Exhibit IV. 12. ESTIMATES OF COST: Based on the normative cost adopted by CERC the cost is estimated as Rs.1.77 Lakh. 13. PROCEDURE TO INSTALL A SOLAR POWER PLANT: There are seven steps involved in designing a successful solar PV installation Scoping of the project Calculating the amount of solar energy available Surveying the site Calculating the amount of energy needed Sizing the solar system Component selection and costing Detailed design Step 1 Scoping of the project I. As with any project, you need to know what you want to achieve. This basically involves detailing what you want from the captive PV installation, once installed. II. Do you want it to completely provide your day time electricity usage? Or do you want it to support a part of your usage? To start with, the scope of the project can be simple and later as we progress we can flesh it out to suit the requirements. III. Defining the scope is in fact the most important step because once the basic scope is wrong, we might not be able to get the system do, what we exactly want it to do.

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Step2 - Calculating the amount of solar energy available I. Solar insolation is the amount of electromagnetic energy (solar radiation) incident on the surface of the earth. Basically that means how much sunlight is shining down on the area under consideration. II. The values are generally expressed in kWh/m2/day. This is the amount of solar energy that strikes a square metre of the earth's surface in a single day. Of course this value is averaged to account for differences in the days' length. There are several units that are used throughout the world. III. By knowing the insolation levels of a particular region one can determine the number of PV modules that are required. An area with poor insolation levels will need a larger number of PV modules than an area with high insolation levels. Once the regions insolation level is known, one can more accurately calculate collector size and energy output. IV. The typical thumbrule that is used for the amount of electricity that solar PV can produce is as follows: On average, 1 W of solar PV, at current crystalline silicon panel efficiencies, can produce about 4 Wh of electricity per day. This is however only an average estimate and based on the location, this could be a bit lower or higher than the average. Step 3 Surveying the site I. A site survey basically consists of a brief interview with the developer to get a feel for their electricity needs and a physical inspection of the proposed array site to see if it is suitable for solar. When a qualified photovoltaic design professional visits a potential solar site, he or she has many things to watch out for. II. Primarily, they will be checking the roof's orientation (azimuth) and solar access. Orientation refers to the direction the roof faces - directly south is ideal, with some leeway to the Southwest or Southeast. III. Solar access quantifies the percentage of time when the proposed array location will be receiving the full unshaded power of the sun during different days of the year. IV. A shady roof might disqualify a site from receiving incentive money from the state, and is not a responsible choice for solar anyway. There are ways to get around shade
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issues - either by looking at alternate sites, trimming or removing trees, or by using micro-inverters in the system design rather than one large central inverter. Step 4 - Calculating the amount of energy needed I. The next big task for any photovoltaic system designer is to determine the system load. This load estimate is one of the key factors in the design and cost of the stand-alone PV system. II. A simple way to determine the approximate ceiling for the solar PV system capacity for all electricity needs is as follows: 1. 2. Find out your total monthly electricity consumption. Lets say it is 100000 kWh Divide it by 30 to get an approximate daily consumption. In the example, it is

about 3300 kWh. 3. Using the thumb rule that 1 W of solar PV can approximately produce 4 Wh of

electricity per day, you can determine the approximate maximum solar PV capacity you will require to power all your systems using solar PV. In this case, if the total daily consumption of electricity is 3300 kWh, you will require a maximum of 3300/4 = 825 kW. 4. It is however very unlikely that you would require such a high capacity for solar

PV as you will need solar PV primarily as a backup power source, perhaps as a replacement for diesel based power generation. Ceiling for the solar PV required for complete diesel replacement 5. In most cases, you will be using solar only as a backup power source to replace diesel based power production. 6. One simple way to determine the amount of solar PV for this purpose is to determine the total amount of electricity you produce using diesel every month. In the example provided, out of the 100000 kWh of total electricity you consume every month, lets
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say 10% or 10000 kWh is generated from diesel gensets. This provides you the ceiling for the solar PV system capacity for complete diesel replacement. In this case, it is 82.5 kW. 7. As a thumb rule, one litre of diesel produces 4 kWh, so you can also compute the above with the data for the amount of diesel used every month. While estimating the load, the designer should consider energy conserving substitutes for items that are used often. Identifying large and/or variable loads and determining if they can be eliminated or changed to operate from another power source will save cost. Step 5 Sizing the system From the results obtained in step 2 and step 4, we can determine the size of the solar system that will be needed to power the site. The necessary systems involved in the setting up of captive power plants are: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Array(collection of solar PV modules) Charge controllers Batteries Inverters Mounting systems

PV array sizing Array sizing is determined by taking into account the daily energy requirement (in Kilowatt hours) and average daily peak sunshine hours in the design month. No part of a PV array can be shaded. The shading of small portions of a PV module may greatly reduce output from the entire array. PV modules connected in series must carry the same current.

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If some of the PV cells are shaded, they cannot produce current and will become reverse biased. This means the shaded cells will dissipate power as heat, and over a period of time failure will occur. However, since it is impossible to prevent occasional shading, the use of by pass diodes around series - connected modules is recommended. Controllers - Charge controllers are included in most photovoltaic systems to protect the batteries from overcharge or excessive discharge. Overcharging can boil the electrolyte from the battery and cause failure. Allowing the battery to be discharged too much will cause premature battery failure and possible damage to the load. The controller is a critical component in your PV system. Thousands of rupees of damage may occur if it does not function properly. In addition, all controllers cause some losses (tare loss) in the system. One minus these losses, expressed as a percentage, is the controller efficiency. The cost of the controller increases rapidly as the current requirement increases. Controllers for 12-volt and 24-volt systems with currents up to 30 amperes are available at a reasonable cost. Controllers with 30- 100 amperes are available but 2-5 times more expensive. Controllers that will switch currents over 100 amperes are usually custom designed for the application. One way to work with currents over 100 amperes is to connect controllers in parallel. It is often less expensive to use five 20ampere rated controllers in parallel than one 100-ampere unit. The controller must be installed in a weather resistant junction box and can be located with other components such as diodes, fuses, and switches. Excessive heat will shorten controller lifetime so the junction box should be installed in a shaded area and venting provided if possible. Controllers should not be mounted in the same enclosure with batteries. The batteries produce a corrosive environment that may cause failure of electronic components.

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Battery sizing - To determine the size of the battery storage required for a standalone PV system, it is required to make a number of decisions. Before making these choices, one should study and understand battery parameters and the concept of system availability. First, you must choose the amount of back-up energy you want to store for your application. This is usually expressed as a number of no sun days, in other words, for how many cloudy days must your system operate using energy stored in batteries. There is no right answer to this question. It depends on the application, the type of battery, and the system availability desired. Inverters - Power conditioning units, commonly called inverters, are necessary in any stand-alone PV system with ac loads. The choice of inverter will be a key factor in setting the dc operating voltage of your system. When specifying an inverter, it is necessary to consider requirements of both the dc input and the ac output. The choice of inverter will affect the performance, reliability, and cost of your PV system. Usually, it is the third most expensive component after the array and battery. The selection of the inverter input voltage is an important decision because it often dictates the system dc voltage. An inverter should be installed in a controlled environment because high temperatures and excessive dust will reduce lifetime and may cause failure. The inverter should not be installed in the same enclosure with the batteries because the corrosive gassing of the batteries can damage the electronics and the switching in the inverter might cause an explosion. However, the inverter should be installed near the batteries to keep resistive losses in the wires to a minimum. Mounting structures- Ground mounting of PV arrays is recommended for standalone systems. Regardless of whether you buy or build the mounting structure make sure it is anchored and the modules are restrained.

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Many module manufacturers and distributors sell mounting hardware specifically designed for their modules. This hardware is intended for multiple applications and different mounting techniques and considerations like wind loading have been included in the design. Using this mounting hardware is the simplest and often the most cost effective. Customized array mounting structures can be expensive.

Others- It is important to select wire, connectors, and protection components such as switches and fuses that will last for twenty years or more. To obtain this long life, they must be sized correctly, rated for the application, and installed carefully. Connections are particularly prone to failure unless they are made carefully and correctly.

Step 6 Component selection and costing Once the various components have been sized, the next important step is the selection and costing of the components. There are many players in the market vying to establish their products. At thisjuncture, the system developer has to select components by taking into account factors like technical specifications, reliability, and lifetime of the components in addition to the cost. Investment for the solar modules is for a period of 25 years, so selecting a high efficient solar panel is of prime importance. The manufactures of the batteries claim a lifetime of about 7 years, whereas inverters guarantee at most 2 years. As can be seen from these numbers, selection becomes a crucial part of the captive solar PV installation. Step 7 Detailed design

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Now that the major components have been sized and selected, it is time to consider how to interconnect everything as a working system. The detailed design is the more actionable form of the captive solar PV installation. The system developer accumulates all the data collected from the previous 6 steps and prepares a layout of the installation on paper. The developer removes obvious engineering fallacies and prepares a corrected version of the layout on paper. The confirmed design will have all the necessary data like the average consumption per day(kWh), the insolation levels at the area under consideration(in hours) , the optimal plant size, the area required for the same, the number of panels required to be installed in that area, the number of charge controllers, batteries, inverters required for the determined plant size, the cost of all the components and many more intricate details like the viability of installing tracking systems etc. Stand-alone PV systems will be reliable power producers for more than two decades if properly sized for the application, engineered well, and installed carefully. PV arrays for stand-alone systems are installed in many unique and innovative ways. However, there are common issues involved in any installation, whether the array is fixed or tracking, mounted at ground level, or on a pole or building. 14. Preventive Maintenance The integral part of any completed installation is the periodic checks that are recommended for any stand-alone PV system so that little problems can be found and corrected before they affect system operation. The system should be checked soon after installation when it is presumably operating well.

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CONCLUSION:
Power generation & efficient distribution is the prime need of the day. To explore the new avenues to sustain the ever increasing demands is the present challenge. This is a provoking seminar topic. To make this type of topic is really feasible for us. I wish this topic motivate you all and made us think for our future generation.

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REFERENCE:

Butti, Ken; Perlin, John (1981). A Golden Thread (2500 Years of Solar Architecture and Technology). Van Nostrand Reinhold. Carr, Donald E. (1976). Energy & the Earth Machine. W. W. Norton & Company. Halacy, Daniel (1973). The Coming Age of Solar Energy. Harper and Row. www.wikipedia.com/solarenergy

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