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Optical Applications with CST Microwave Studio

Dr. Frank Demming-Janssen

Outline
Whats so special on optical simulations?
optics for beginners materials

Solver overview for optical simulation Application examples

2n dO

na nd k
l n o i at

rd er an d

TF

F S /

u c l Ca

3r dOr de rn on

ss au G

lin e

ar ma ter

am Be

ial s

Gradien t Index

Fiber/O

Fresnel equations
ptics
m s a Pl on

n and k
are called the refractive index and extinction coefficient

) * n = n + i k = n (1 + i )

re = n k im = 2nk
2

optical user will ALWAYS use these parameters

* sometimes:
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) n = n + i

Calculate Drude Parameter Macro

Optical WG Modes with CST MWS

n = 1.16 a = 500 nm

n = 1.45

Freq: 330 THz -> 909 nm wavelength


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optical_wg_sweep.zip

www.cst.com

Theoretical Dispersion Plot

With:

b=

/ ko n2
n1 n2

V = ko a n1 n2
2

1 2 2

*G.P. Agrawal: Fiber Optics Communication Systems, Wiley Series in Microwave and Optical Engineering, pp 34

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Modes

HE11

HE12
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Modedispersion Mode 1

Error calculation: Because of the use of the normalized propagation const. b the error in this curve seems larger then it is! An error of less the 1% in the might show up as a error of more then 5% in b!
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Modedispersion Higher Order modes

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www.cst.com

Plasmon

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Materials

For metals the real part of eps is NOT negligible and is negative and dispersive!

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CST MICROWAVE STUDIO Solver Overview Optical Applications


Large Problems Memory efficient algorithm Hardware Accelerator, Cluster Computing Perfect Boundary approximation eliminates staircase error at dielectric/dielectric and dielectric/PEC interface Broadband Solution Broadband Farfield Monitor periodic structures with Floquet port modes unit cells surface plasmons TET mesh accurate field solutions at dielectric/Drude metal interface periodic boundaries (unit cells) Dispersion diagrams

Transient

Frequency Domain

Eigenmode

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Transient Solver - advantages Memory efficient algorithm


solves electrical large problems

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Transient Solver - advantages Memory efficient algorithm Perfect Boundary Approximation


eliminates staircase error at dielectric/dielectric and dielectric/PEC interface

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Transient Solver - advantages Memory efficient algorithm Perfect Boundary Approximation Calculates Broadband Solution

Coated Silica Sphere


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Transient Solver - some weaknesses -

Local Field Error (Drude Material)

MWS

FDTD from publication

PBA works only perfect on normal dielectric materials. On Drude materials with a sign change of real par of at interface PBA has no effect only affect local field values
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Frequency Domain Solver - advantages TET and HEX mesh


TET mesh resolves material interfaces: Accurate local field information for Drude Materials

HEX
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TET

Frequency Domain Solver - advantages -

TET and HEX mesh


TET mesh resolves material interfaces: Accurate local field information for Drude Materials

HEX
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TET

Fields along line across material interface

Example: Nanometric Optical Tweezers

metal tip
P

dielectric Sphere: 5 nm radius

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Reference: Lukas Novotny, Randy X. Bian, and X. Sunney Xie, Physical Review Letters, Volume 79, No. 4, 28 July 1997

Acrobat-Dokument

Field enhancement
Incident field = 810 nm

P E

Polarization of the incident E-field aligned with tip axis: enhancement factor 75

Polarization of the incident E-field perpendicular to the tip axis: no enhancement E P

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Trapping a particle underneath the tip


Incident field = 810 nm

Trapped dielectric particle

Trapped metallic particle


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Frequency Domain Solver - advantages TET and HEX mesh Periodic and Unit cell calculation
Allows arbitrary angle of incidents for plane waves

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Example: Frustrated Total Reflection

Transmission vs. Gap Width

Power Flow vs. Gap Width

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Example: Surface Plasmon Generation

= 1.69

= -15.99 + 0.8i
P E

metal sheet 50 nm
= 2.56

Incident field phi > phi critical

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Example: Surface Plasmon Generation

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Example: Plasmon Scattering

Grating distance

P E

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Example: Plasmon scattering by grading scattered field

P E

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Example: Plasmon excitation by grading

E P

Surface Plasmon

Grating distance

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Example: Plasmon excitation by grading - structure setup -

2 D Solution
setup only 1 mesh cell in height

Periodic Boundaries Ports at both ends

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Example: Plasmon excitation by grading - structure setup -

record balance: Energy absorb by system


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Example: Plasmon excitation by grading TD Simulation

grating 450 THz

550 THz
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Frequency Domain Solver - advantages TET and HEX mesh Periodic and Unit cell calculation Arbitrary material dispersion

For FD Solver ignore warning concerning material fit


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Example: Scattering on a coated sphere

Test vehicle: nano shell - silver coated silica

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Results: Extinction Cross Section

Published results

MWS: different solvers

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Thank you

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