Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 24

1

Christian Alliance S C Chan Memorial College F3 to F4 Chemistry Summer Assignment and Revision Notes
Name : Class : F.4 ( ) ( ) Grade :

Group : 4X / 4Y / 4Z Here are some summer

Welcome! You will be studying Chemistry in the coming three years. assignments that you need to complete during this summer vacation. Part 1 Part 2 Part 3

References : NSS Chemistry Curriculum (Secondary 4 6) Revision : Fundamental knowledge in Chemistry. ( Ch 1, 5-8 ) A quiz will be held in early September, 2011. Exercises : Q.1 to Q.9 covering Chapters 5 to 8 of Book 1B. assignment on 1 September, 2011. You should hand-in this

Part 1

Reference : Chemistry Curriculum (Secondary 4 -6)

A. Compulsory Part
Topic 1 Planet Earth ( Book 1A) 1.1 The atmosphere 1.2 The ocean 1.3 Rocks and minerals 2 Microscopic World I 2.1 Atomic structure 2.2 Periodic Table 2.3 Metallic bonding ( Book 1B ) F6 Content

F3 and F4

2.4 Structures and properties of metals 2.5 Ionic and covalent bond 2.6 Structures and properties of giant ionic substances 2.7 Structures and properties of simple molecular substances 2.8 Structures and properties of giant covalent structure 2.9 comparison of structures and properties of important types of substances

Summer assignment and revision notes / F3 to F4 Chemistry

Metals ( Book 1C ) 3.1 Occurrence and extraction of metals 3.2 Reactivity of metals 3.3 Reacting masses 3.4 Corrosion of metals and their protection Acids and Alkalis ( Book 2) 4.1 Introduction to acids and alkalis 4.2 Indicators and pH 4.3 Strength of acids and alkalis 4.4 Neutralisation and salts 4.5 Concentration of solutions 4.6 Volumetric work involving acids and alkalis

F4

F4

Fossil Fuels and Carbon Compounds ( Book 2 ) 5.1 Hydrocarbon from fossil fuels 5.2 Homologous series, structural formulae and naming of carbon compounds 5.3 Alkanes and alkenes 5.4 Addition polymers

F4

6.

Microscopic world II ( Book 3 ) 6.1 Bond polarity 6.2 Intermolecular forces 6.3 Structures and properties of molecular crystals 6.4 Simple molecular substances with non-octet structures 6.5 shapes of simple molecules Redox reactions, chemical Cells and electrolysis 7.1 Chemical cells in daily life ( Book 3 )

F4

7.2 Reactions in simple chemical cells 7.3 Redox reactions 7.4 Redox reaction in chemical cells 7.5 Electrolysis 7.6 Importance of redox reactions in modern way of living 8. Energy changes in chemical reactions ( Book 3 ) 8.1 Energy changes in chemical reactions 8.2 Standard enthalpy change of neutralization, solution, formation and combustion 8.3 Hesss law 9. Rate of reaction ( Book 4A ) 9.1 Rate of chemical reaction 9.2 Factor affecting rate of reaction 9.3 Molar volume of gases at r.t.p.

F4 and F5

F5

F5

Summer assignment and revision notes / F3 to F4 Chemistry

10.

Chemical equilibrium ( Book 4A ) 10.1 Dynamic equilibrium 10.2 Equilibrium constant 10.3 The effect of changes in concentration and temperature on chemical equilibria Chemistry of carbon compounds ( Book 4B ) 11.1 Introduction to selected homologous series 11.2 Isomerism 11.3 Typical reaction of various functional groups 11.4 Inter-conversion of carbon compounds 11.5 Importance of organic substances

F5

11.

F5

12.

Patterns in the Chemical World ( Book 4B ) 12.1 Periodic variation in physical properties of the elements Li to Ar 12.2 Bonding, stoichiometric composition and acid-base properties of the oxides of elements Na to Cl 12.3 General properties of transition metals

F5

B. Elective Part
Topic 13 Content Industrial chemistry ( Book 5 ) 13.1 Importance of industrial processes 13.2 Rate equation 13.3 Activation energy 13.4 Catalysis and industrial processes 13.5 Industrial processes 13.6 Green Chemistry 14 15 Material chemistry Analytical chemistry ( Book 7 ) 15.1 Detecting the presence of chemical species 15.2 Separation and purification methods 15.3 Quantitative methods if analysis 15.4 Instrumental analytical methods 15.5 Contribution of analytical chemistry to our society F6 ------

F6

Summer assignment and revision notes / F3 to F4 Chemistry

Part 2. Revision
Please study well the following fundamental knowledge of Chemistry. You will have a quiz in early September. The quiz will cover chapters 1, 5 to 8.

Chapter 1 Fundamentals of Chemistry

What is chemistry?
The study of substances, about their compositions, structures, properties ( physical and chemical ) and the changes among them.

Chemistry is closely related to our daily life, for examples :


- Clothing, Food , Housing , Transport , Medicines , etc.

Classifications of matter:
Element: - a pure substance that cannot be broken down into anything simpler by chemical methods - a pure substance that is made up of one kind of atoms only

Compound: a pure substance made up of two or more elements chemically combined together

Mixture : consists of two or more pure substances ( elements or compounds ) which have NOT chemically combined together.

Summer assignment and revision notes / F3 to F4 Chemistry

Observations in experiments include FOUR activities : - Seeing with eyes , i.e. What color change , gas bubbles produce , solid dissolve, precipitate form / what color flame/ ... - Feeling with hands, i.e. solution become hot / warm / cold / - Smelling with nose , i.e. with burning smell , choking / pungent smell, - Hearing with ears , i.e. hissing sound produce , burn with pop sound,

Physical change : occur without changing into new substances , usually just involves states change ( solid , liquid , gas ) Chemical change: occur chemical reactions involved, i.e. new substances are formed

Physical and chemical properties of substances

Physical properties of substances are those properties that can be determined without the substance changing into another into substance.

Physical Property appearance odour taste hardness Density* Solubility ( in water ) Malleability & ductility Electrical conductivity Thermal conductivity Melting points and boiling point -----

Examples Chalk white solid ----hard high Insoluble Malleable & ductile Good conductor Good thermal conductor high Iron clip Shiny silver solid Table salt White solid No smell Salty Hard ---Soluble non malleable & non-ductile Non- ( solid state) Cond- ( molten ) Poor thermal conductor high Water

hard but brittle Low Insoluble non malleable & non-ductile/ hard but brittle Non-conductor / insulator Poor thermal conductor Low

Summer assignment and revision notes / F3 to F4 Chemistry

Chemical properties : - of the substances are chemical reactions take place at the respective conditions. e.g. rusting of iron Iron only rusts if presence of water and oxygen. e.g. burning of a candle Candle can be burned if there are oxygen and with sufficient of energy supply to start the reaction.

Hazard warning labels: ( Laboratory Handbook P.3 ) Label Hazard Explosive Example -Potassium, Sodium, explosive, Hydrogen , LPG, town gas, alcohol, Chlorine, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulphide , Carcinogenic Benzene , Tetrachloromethane, Asbestos Oxidizing Concentrated nitric acid , potassium permanganate, conc. acids , conc. alkalis, - wear gloves and safety glasses -Handle it in the fume cupboard. -Wear gloves Safety Precautions Keep away from heat and flame

Flammable

- Keep away from heat and flame - stored in well ventilated place -Handle it in the fume cupboard. -Wear gloves

Toxic

Corrosive

- wear gloves and safety glasses

Harmful

Lead compounds, - wear gloves and safety glasses Trichloromethane, Dilute acids and alkalis, - wear gloves and safety glasses

Irritant

Summer assignment and revision notes / F3 to F4 Chemistry

Particle Theory - states that all matter is made up of tiny particles. Kinetic theory of matter: All matter is composed of tiny particles, with spaces between them. Particles are in constant, random motion and so have kinetic energy. The average kinetic energy of particles in a substance increases with temperature The 3 states of matter uses Kinetic Theory to explain the arrangement / movement of particles :Solid Packing of particles Tightly packed Volume Fixed ( incompressible ) Fixed Liquid Fairly close Fixed ( incompressible ) Not fixed Gas Widely separated Not fixed ( Compressible / Expand easily ) Not fixed

Shape

Definitions of :Decomposition: to decompose (break down) a compound using chemical methods e.g. electrolysis or strong heating . Differences between compounds & mixtures : Properties Composition by mass Mixture Variable Compound Fixed e.g. for H2O , the mass ratio of H : O is 2(1) :1(16) 1 : 8 Changes in formation No chemical reaction occur Chemical reaction occur, usually heat is given out (exothermic) or absorbed (endothermic) A wide range Retains own properties of elements / compounds Components can be by Physical methods: Filtration, Evaporation Crystallization, Distillation A sharp m.p. & b.p. Totally different from its constituent elements By Chemical methods only i.e. Decomposition by strong heating or Electrolysis ( involve chemical reaction because new substances form)

m.p. & b.p. General properties Separation methods

Summer assignment and revision notes / F3 to F4 Chemistry

Chapter 5 Atomic structure

Classifications of Elements (i) By Physical states - Solid ( 104 ) Br and Hg )

- Liquid ( 2 , - Gas

( 12 , H, He, N, O, F, Ne, Cl, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn, Uuo)

(ii)

Metal and Non-metal

Properties of metals and non-metals: Properties State at room temp & pressure ( r.t.p.) Melting pt & boiling pt Appearance
usually

Metals All are solids except Hg(l)

Non-metals Most are gases (O2, N2, He, etc.), Some are solids (C, S, etc), one liquid (Br2)

High

Low, (except C, Si) Dull ( except graphite ) and in various colours

Shiny, silvery white; (except Au and Cu , golden /shiny brown )

Hardness and strength Malleability & ductility Density Thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity

usually

Hard and strong

Not uniform Brittle Low Bad conductors of heat, non-conductors of electricity, (except graphite)

Malleable & ductile High All are good conductors

Summer assignment and revision notes / F3 to F4 Chemistry

Semi-metals (metalloids): boron and silicon (Si is a semi-conductor which is used in making computers chip )

Subatomic particles Symbol Proton Neutron Electron p n eRelative mass 1 1 0 Relative charge +1 0 -1 Position in atom Inside the nucleus Inside the nucleus Moving around nucleus

Full symbol of an atom: A: mass number

A Z

X (different for isotopes) (fixed for each element)

= no. of p + no. of n

Z: atomic number = no. of p

Isotopes: Isotopes are atoms of the same element with the same number of protons ( atomic number ) but different number of neutrons ( mass number ).

Relative atomic mass ( R.A.M. ) : - is the averaged mass of isotopes of the element.

e.g. chlorine-35 & chlorine-37 have relative abundances 75% & 25% respectively, the R.A.M. of chlorine = 35 x 75% + 37 x 25% = 35.5 ( No unit ! One decimal place !)

Summer assignment and revision notes / F3 to F4 Chemistry

10

Electronic arrangement / Electronic configuration: Max no. of e- in the nth shell: 2n2 e.g. The electronic arrangement of a Chlorine atom : 2 , 8 , 7

( For HKDSE , the maximum no. of e- in the outermost shell is assumed to be 8 ) therefore for a calcium atom is 2 , 8 , 8 , 2 a potassium atom is 2,8,8,1

Stability of noble gases: they are stable and unreactive because their electronic arrangement : He : 2 (duplet) 8 (octet)

Ne, Ar , ( other noble gases ) .:

Chapter 6

The Periodic Table:

Group no. = no. of electrons in outermost shell Period no. = no. of occupied electron shells

(Group I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, 0) (Period 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7)

A zig-zag line in the Periodic Table to classify metals and non-metals (the Be | B line)

Special names of Group : Group I Group II Group VII Group 0 : : : : Alkali metals Alkaline earth metals Halogens Noble gases
Summer assignment and revision notes / F3 to F4 Chemistry

11

Patterns in the Periodic Table: Across a period, elements change from metals through semi-metals to non-metals (i.e. more non-metallic) An interesting rule: an element with group no. > period no. is a non-metal (except H and noble gases)

Groups : similarities and trends down a group * Elements in the same group have similar chemical properties. * Reactivity increases / decreases down the group.

Properties of Group I elements (alkali metals: Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr ): ---soft (can be cut by knife) low density (float on water) reactive (more reactive than other groups, stored under paraffin oil), e.g. all react with water to form hydroxide solution and give off hydrogen; Observation of reaction of alkali metals with water (p.144)

Reactivity of metals increases down the group (reactivity: Li < Na < K < Rb < Cs < Fr)

Summer assignment and revision notes / F3 to F4 Chemistry

12

Properties of Group VII elements (halogens, X : ----poisonous with pungent choking smell form diatomic molecules, X2 m.p. & b.p. increases down the group: F2 : (g),

F, Cl, Br, I, At ):

Cl2 : (g),

Br2 : (l),

I2 : (s);

because van der Waals forces increase with the size of molecules -colour intensity increases down the group, F2(g) : pale yellow Cl2(g) : greenish yellow Br2(l) : dark red / reddish brown I2(s) : dark purple /black I2(aq) Br2(aq) : orange / reddish brown, : brown Br2(g): brown

I2(g) : purple

I2(heptane) : purple -reactive : Reactivity of non-metals decreases down the group ( reactivity : F > Cl > Br > I )

Properties of Group 0 elements (noble gases: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn) -----colourless gases density down the gp (He is less dense than air, but Xe is much denser than air)

exist as monoatomic molecules m.p. & b.p. down the gp because van der Waals forces increase with molecular size unreactive (Q having stable electronic arrangement, He is duplet, the others are octet)

Summer assignment and revision notes / F3 to F4 Chemistry

13

Chapter 7 & 8

Chemical bonding : Ionic bonding (Ch.7) and Covalent bonding (Ch.8)

All ionic compounds can conduct electricity when they are in molten or in aqueous solution because of mobile ions produced in molten state or in aqueous solution. (In solid state, the ions are not mobile, but in molten or aqueous states, the ions become mobile!)

Ions: Cation: when atom loses e- , it becomes a cation and carries +ve charge, (usually metals form cations) Anion : when atom gains e- , it becomes an anion and carries ve charge, (usually non-metals form anions)

Simple ion : a ion derived from a single atom. Polyatomic ions : a ion derived from a group of atoms.

Examples : Cl chloride ion is a simple anion. Na+ sodium ion is a simple cation.

SO42- sulphate ion is a polyatomic anion. NH4+ ammonium ion is a polyatomic cation.

Exercises : OH hydroxide ion is a Fe3+ is a Br is a


Summer assignment and revision notes / F3 to F4 Chemistry

14

Names & formulae of ions: ( names & formulae of ionic compounds)

Cations
Charge 1+ Formula Na+ K+ Cu+ Ag+ NH4+ H+ Name sodium potassium copper (I) silver ammonium hydrogen Charge 1-

Anions
Formula H FClBrIOHNO3NO2HCO3HSO4MnO4ClOName hydride fluoride chloride bromide iodide hydroxide nitrate nitrite hydrogencarbonate hydrogensulphate permanganate hypochlorite oxide sulphide sulphate sulphite carbonate chromate dichromate

2+

Mg2+ Ca2+ Fe2+ Cu2+ Ni2+ Mn2+ Pb2+ Hg2+ Zn2+

magnesium calcium iron(II) copper(II) nickel(II) manganese(II) lead(II) mercury(II) zinc aluminium iron(III) chromium(III)

2-

O2S2SO42SO32CO32CrO42Cr2O72-

3+

Al3+ Fe3+ Cr3+

3-

N3P3PO43-

nitride phosphide phosphate

Summer assignment and revision notes / F3 to F4 Chemistry

15

Colours of ions: Fe2+ pale green Fe3+ brown Cu2+ Blue/green Ni2+ green Cr3+ green Cr2O72orange Mn2+ Colourless
/ Very pale pink

MnO4purple

Migration of ions: - Evidence of presence of ions ( in Book 1B, P.144-146 )

Under electric field / during electrolysis, the migration of coloured ions can be observed. For KMnO4, purple colour ( MnO4- ) is observed at the +ve electrode. ( Figure 7.5 ) For CuCr2O7, blue colour ( Cu2+ ) is observed at the ve electrode while orange colour (Cr2O72-) is observed at the +ve electrode. ( Figure 7.4 ) Expt.7.2 Migration of potassium and permanganate ions: Observation: purple colour moves towards the +ve electrode Conclusion: KMnO4 consists of colourless K+ ions and purple MnO4- ions. In aqueous KMnO4(aq), the ions become mobile. So, the negative, purple MnO4- ions move towards the +ve electrode while the positive, colourless K+ ions move towards the ve electrode (which cannot be seen). Note: the filter paper should be moistened with sodium sulphate solution to increase electrical conductivity (Q it provides more ions to conduct electricity)

Summer assignment and revision notes / F3 to F4 Chemistry

16

Summary and comparison of ionic and covalent bondings.

Ionic bonding
Formed between metals & non-metals to attain noble gas electronic arrangement By e- transfer, metal atoms lose e- to form cations (+); non-metal atoms gain e- to form anions (-)

Covalent bonding
Formed between non-metals to attain noble gas electronic arrangement By e- sharing, non-metal atoms share e- between nuclei to form molecules, e.g. Cl2 , CH4, etc.

Strong non-directional electrostatic attraction Strong directional electrostatic attraction between +ve and ve ions. between the shared electrons and the two nuclei of the bonded atoms. Electron diagram of MgF2 Electron diagram of NCl3

Ionic formula : ( F-)(Mg2+)( F-) / (Mg2+)( F-)2 Empirical formula : MgF2 * names & formulae names & formulae of ions of ionic cpds e.g. magnesium ion and fluoride ion magnesium fluoride with water of crystallization as: n water e.g. CuSO47H2O copper (II) sulphate -7-water * all ionic compounds are in giant ionic structure, i.e. each Mg2+ ion is surrounded by 6 F- ions and vice versa. Structural formula: Molecular formula : NCl3 * molecular formula & structural formula * single bond (), double bond (=), triple bond () * bond pair electrons & lone pair electrons * shapes of molecules: linear (CO2), V-shaped (H2O), trigonal pyramidal (NH3), tetrahedral (CH4) * atomicity of molecules ( for elements ) monoatomic (He), diatomic (Cl2), triatomic (O3)

Summer assignment and revision notes / F3 to F4 Chemistry

17

Ionic compound An ionic compound ( or ionic substance ) is a compound which consists ions.

Covalent substance A covalent substance is a non-ionic substance in which the atoms are held together by covalent bonds.

Molecule A molecule is the smallest part of an element or a compound which can exist on its own under ordinary conditions.

Distinguish between name, symbol & formula of some elements: Element Hydrogen Nitrogen Oxygen Chlorine Helium Sodium Sulphur Atomic / Chemical symbol H N O Cl He Na S Molecular formula H2 N2 O2 Cl2 ( for all halogens ) He ( for all noble gases ) --S8

Summer assignment and revision notes / F3 to F4 Chemistry

18

Part 3.
1.

Exercises
The particles

a) Complete the following table of particles and their particle composition. are either atoms or ions. Number of Particle
18

Mass number

Protons

Neutrons

Electrons

O O 2 Cl W Y Z 37 37 17 10 20 17 18 10

17

35

64

Ni Ni2+ Ca

64

39

b) What is the relationship between 35Cl and particle W?

Explain your answer.

c) What is the name of (i) W? (ii) Y ?

(iii) Z ? d) Which of the above particles are metals ? e) Which of the above particles are ions ?
Summer assignment and revision notes / F3 to F4 Chemistry

19

2.

The table below shows the colours of solutions of three ionic compounds containing four ions: W+, X2+, Y2 and Z2. Ionic compound W2Z W2Y XZ Colour of solution of compound Colourless Orange Blue

Deduce and explain the colour of the ions : W+(aq), X2+(aq), Y2(aq), Z2(aq).

3.

Iron occurs naturally as a mixture of four isotopes. The relative abundance of these isotopes is tabulated below:
54 56 57 58

Isotope Abundance (%)

Fe

Fe

Fe

Fe

5.84

91.68

2.17

0.31

a) What is meant by the term 'isotopes'?

b) Calculate the relative atomic mass of iron.

Summer assignment and revision notes / F3 to F4 Chemistry

20

4.

An element X occurs naturally as a mixture of two isotopes. The relative atomic masses of the two isotopes are 63.0 and 65.0. The relative atomic mass of X is 63.6. What is the percentage abundance of the two isotopes?

5.

The student places a drop of copper(II) chloride solution at A and a drop of potassium permanganate solution at B.
filter paper moistened with sodium sulphate solution

microscopic slide

20 V d.c. power supply

a) Why is the filter paper moistened with sodium sulphate solution?

b) Write the chemical formula of the ions responsible for the purple colour of potassium permanganate.

c) What will be observed on the filter paper after an electric current is passed for about 10 minutes? Explain your answer.

Summer assignment and revision notes / F3 to F4 Chemistry

21

6.

The table below gives the group number of four elements. Element Caesium Indium Tellurium Astatine Symbol Cs In Te At Group number I III VI VII Explain your answer.

a) Would you expect caesium to be a conductor of electricity?

b) Give the chemical formula of caesium sulphate.

c) Give the chemical formula of indium oxide.

d) Give the chemical formula of tellurium oxide.

e) Caesium and astatine combine to form a compound. (i) Draw the electron diagram of the compound. (showing the outermost shell electrons only.)

(ii) Would an aqueous solution of the compound conduct electricity? Explain your answer.

f) Astatine and hydrogen combine to form a compound. (i) Draw the electron diagram of the compound (showing the outermost shell electrons only.)

(ii) Give the chemical formula of the compound.

Summer assignment and revision notes / F3 to F4 Chemistry

22

7.

W, X, Y and Z are four different elements. Their atomic numbers and electronic arrangements of their atoms are as follows. Element W X Y Z Atomic number 14 18 35 37 Electronic arrangement of atom (i) (ii) p, q, 18, r p, q, 18, 8, s

a) Calculate the values of p, q, r and s in the above table.

b) In which groups and periods of the periodic table should Y and Z be placed?

c) (i)

What is the electronic arrangement of atom W: X:

(ii) In what way are the electronic arrangements of the atoms of W and X. (1) similar to one another?

(2)

different from one another?

d) Which TWO of the four elements would form i) an ionic compound?

ii) a covalent compound?

Summer assignment and revision notes / F3 to F4 Chemistry

23

8.

With reference to the part of the periodic table shown below, answer the following questions.
Group I Period 2 Period 3 Period 4 Li II Be III B Al Cr IV C Si V N P VI VII O S F Cl Br 0 Ne Ar

Na Mg K Ca

a) Name two elements which are mainly obtained from sea water.

b) Name two elements which are present in the free state ( elemental form ) on land.

c) Explain why argon is monoatomic.

d) Name a metal which can form a coloured anion. Give the chemical formula and colour of this anion.

e) In what way are the electronic arrangements of the atoms of magnesium and calcium. i) similar to each other?

ii) different to each other?

f) Point out the gradual change in the reactivity of Group I elements down the group.

g) Suggest TWO gradual changes in the physical properties of the Group VII elements down the group.

Summer assignment and revision notes / F3 to F4 Chemistry

24

For Q.9, write your answer in full sentences and in paragraphs 9. "When atoms combine, they tend to achieve the electronic arrangements of atoms of noble gases." Write an essay to discuss, with reference to suitable examples, how atoms of Group VI elements achieve the electronic arrangements of atoms of noble gases.

*** The End***


Summer assignment and revision notes / F3 to F4 Chemistry