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SPECIFICATION OF STEAM TURBINE SL. NO.

DESCRIPTION DATA

Type of steam turbine 1. Type : Horizontal, impulse, multi-stage, multi valve, axial flow, condensing, extraction, geared. (Axial exhaust type) Operating conditions: 2. Speed (Turbine / generator) 3. 4. 5. 6. Inlet steam pressure Intel steam Exhaust steam pressure Max. 1st extraction pressure un-controlled extraction Operation case 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Inlet steam pressure Inlet steam temperature Inlet steam flow Exhaust pressure Exhaust temperature Exhaust flow : : 64 kg/cm2A : 485.0 deg. C : 49.80 t/h : .18 kg/cm2A : 57.41 deg. C : 43.81 t/h 1 64 kg/cm2A 485.0 deg.C 50.20 t/h .20 kg/cm2A 59.66 deg. C 44.31 t/h 2 : 64 kg/cm2A : 485 deg. C : .02 kg/cm2A : 2.96 kg/cm2A at turbine nozzle : 7810 / 1500 rpm

13. 14.

Gland leakage Generator power

: 0.1 t/h : 12 kW

0,1 t/h 12kW

Direction of rotation: (Viewed from generator to turbine / axial exhaust steam turbine) 15. 16. Steam turbine Generator : C.W : C.C.W

Lubrication, Governor and control oil: 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. Type of lubrication Lubrication oil pressure Trip oil pressure Control oil pressure Normal required lub oil & trip oil flow 22. Normal required control oil flow 23. Kind of oil : Turbine oil ISO VG46 : 50 lpm : Forced lubrication : 1.0 kg/cm2(G) : 4.0 kg/cm2(G) : 10.0 kg/cm2(G) : 440 lpm

Reduction Gear 24. Type : Horizontal, single reduction, Double helical gear type

Emergency stop valve 25. Type : Oil pressure operated type with steam strainer and limit switch for indication of closed position Journal Bearing 26. Type : Tilting pad type, forced lubricated

Thrust Bearing 27. Type : Multi segment tilting pad, double side type, combined with coupling side journal bearing (Kingsbury type)

Speed Governor 28. 29. Type Model / Manufacture name 30. Speed regulation : 4% as droop : Electro Hydraulic Governor : 505 / Woodward

Over speed Governor 31. Type : Electric signal from governor & 2 out of 3 voting electric type ( Woodward protect GII) 32. Tripping speed : 114% of rated speed (Elec. By Governor) 115% of rated speed (electrical 2 out of 3) Governing valve: 33. Coupling 34. Coupling between turbine and R/gear 35. Coupling between R/gear : Oil contained gear type and generator Turning Device 36. Type : Electric (AC) motor driven, Combined of Cyclo & Bevel gear or worm gear reduction, automatic engage and automatic disengagement. Oil reservoir 37. Type : Steel plate fabricated type : Flexible type Type : Bar lift and multi valve

Reservoir is furnished with oil level indicator, drain valve, oil charging nozzle, 1X100% gas vent fan. Main lube oil pump

38. 39.

Type Discharge pressure

: Gear type, driven by low speed shaft of gear box : 7.5 kg/cm2G

Auxiliary Lube oil pump 40. 41. Type Discharge pressure : Screw type, driven by the AC motor : 7.0 kg/cm2G

Main control oil pump 42. 43. Type Discharge pressure : Screw type, Mounted : 11.9 kg/cm2G

Auxiliary control oil pump 44. 45. Type Discharge pressure : Screw type, Mounted : 11.9 kg/cm2G

Emergency oil pump 46. Type : Gear type mounted on oil reservoir and driven by DC electric motor. 47. Oil cooler 48. Type : Duplex plate type Discharge pressure : 1.4 kg/cm2G

Lube oil filter 49. 50. Type Filtration : Duplex with change over clock : 40 Micron

Control oil filter 51. 52. Type Filtration : Duplex with change over clock : 10 Micron

Oil pressure adjusting valve

53.

Type

: Self acting type

Gland steam condenser 54. Type : Shell and tube, fixed tube sheet type with AC motor driven exhaust fan

Material List SL. NO. DESCRIPTION DATA

Steam turbine 1. 2. Turbine HP casing part Exhaust casing part : Cast Alloy Steel : Carbon steel

Emergency stop valve 3. Body : Cast Alloy Steel

Governor valve 4. Body : Cast Alloy Steel

Reduction gear 5. Oil filter 6. Body : Carbon steel Body : Cast Iron

Instrumentation: Protection Schedule: SL.NO. 1. 2. Protection device Over speed of turbine Low lube oil pressure Alarm Trip

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Low control oil pressure Hand Trip Remote trip High lube oil temperature High bearing temperature Excessive vibration Excessive axial displacement High exhaust pressure Failure, control loop of governor Low oil reservoir level High extraction pressure High extraction temperature High LO/CO filter Different pressure

Steam turbines are prime movers for driving generators in thermal power plants.In steam turbines the thermal energy of steam is converted to mechanical work. Steam turbines can be classified into impulse turbine and reaction turbine.If the ratio of heat drop in moving blades and the total heat drop in moving and stationary blades is less than 40 % then the turbine is known as impulse turbine. If the above ratio is greater than 40 % the turbine is known as reaction turbine. Our turbine is of the impulse type. A steam turbine depends upon the dynamic action of steam. A turbine consists of fixed blades or nozzles and moving blades.The nozzles create pressure drop in the steam thus increasing its kinetic energy. The steam from the nozzles after this boost in velocity enters the moving blades wherein the flow is diverted causing a change in angular momentum resulting in force. This force rotates the shaft of the turbine thus driving the generator. If there is no pressure drop across the moving blades the turbine is known as a impulse turbine. While if there is a

pressure drop across the moving blades then it is known as an impulse-reaction turbine. If steam is allowed to expand to condenser vacuum in a single row of nozzles due to large enthalpy drop, the velocity at exit of nozzles is very large resulting in high blade speed leading to higher centrifugal stressess or high wheel diameters. Therefore the steam is passed through several stages. Each stage consists of a row of nozzles followed by a row of blades. In that way the same enthalpy is dropped without the above difficulties. Our turbine has 9 stages and is a velocity compounded turbine. The pressure drops in the nozzles only. One row of nozzles is followed by a row of blades where the kinetic energy is absorbed partially by the blades. No drop takes place in the blades (theoretically).

. The assembly drawing of a steam turbine along with the components are given below:

The major parts of the turbine are described below:

Casing: The casing has two parts , High Pressure and Low Pressure. On the upper casing in the HP side a governor valve is provided.This valve is controlled by electro-hydraulic governor to regulate the flow of steam to the turbine.The turbine is axial flow.Hence the exhaust nozzle is provided axially at the LP end.The casing is of single shell type.The wall of the casing is thick since the entire pressure drop across the turbine and the hoop stress has to be withstood by the single shell. Rotor The rotor is of disc type with the blades fitted with the disc and is of forged construction.The rotor houses a magnetic pick up gear for speed detection, a labyrinth packing to prevent steam leakage from shaft gland. The mechanical overspeed trip is mounted on the rotor shaft end.This consists of a ball governor which moves apart due to centrifugal force on increase of speed of the rotor thus actuating reduced flow to the turbine. Bearing Housing The turbine bearing housing consists of bearings to support the rotor. There are two bearing housings one at front and the other at rear end. Due to thermal expansion occurring in turbine the bearing housing in the high pressure side is provided with sliding support. Gland sealing In turbines gland sealings are provided to stop leakage of steam from the cylinder or casing. The seal used here is of labyrinth type.Labyrinth packing is provided to seal the shaft with rotor and reduce the leakage of steam from HP side to LP side Journal Bearing In both HP and LP side bearing housing a journal bearing is housed to support the rotor radially. The bearing is designed with respect to the rotors static weight, steam force and vibration and is lined up for wedge effect with tilting pad. Thrust bearingTo withstand all axial forces due to rotor vibration and steam, a thrust bearing is provided to support the rotor and disk. Both bearings are coated with white metal. For stable operation of turbine an oil film is established between the rotor and the bearing to prevent temperature build up on bearing surface due to friction and high speed. Emergency Stop Valve: When the turbine is tripped the emergency stop valve is shut off by the overspeed trip device

to prevent entry of steam into the turbine. To explain the emergency stop valve and its actions one needs to understand the trip system of a turbine.

The emergency stop valve consists of a pilot piston, a cylinder, a liner and a spring. In opening the emergency stop valve the trip oil at a pressure of 4.4 kgf/cm2 is supplied, facilitated by the opening of the two solenoid valves in the trip oil line to the pilot piston in the oil relay. So the pilot piston moves under the action of trip oil thus unraveling a port on the liner in the emergency stop valve and admitting control oil through the port into the cylinder at the bottom of the ESV. When control oil flows into the cylinder the hydraulic pressure will exceed the spring pressure and the valve is opened. At trip the solenoid valves close thus preventing the flow of trip oil and in the process, retracting the pilot valve and closing the oil inlet port in the ESV cylinder. As a result of this the stored energy in the spring gets the better of the oil pressure and closes the valve. Turbine Protection System Schematic

TRIP SOLENOID VALVE

MANUAL TRIP COCK EMERGENCY TO OIL RESERVOIR STOP VALVE

TRIP SIGNAL

EXTRACTION CHECK VALVE

TO OIL RESERVOIR MAGNETIC SPEED PICK UP DIGITAL SPEED GOVERNOR GOVERNOR VALVE

TRIP OIL TRIP CONDITION FLOW TRIP OIL NORMAL OPERATING FLOW SIGNAL

Trip system of the turbine works due to action of emergency stop valve.The valve is closed due to the action of a solenoid valve or a manual trip valve which block the trip oil line. The trip signal is received from the digital governor, Woodward 505. Also Protech GII overspeed trip system is present which signals the solenoid valve.Two speed sensors receive speed from pick up gear to transmit signals to the WoodWard 505 Governor.There are three more sensors meant for the Protech Overspeed Trip System.

TURBINE EMERGENCY SHUTDOWN

OR

SAHH

SAHH

WOODWARD 505 GOVERNOR

WOODWARD PROTECH GII OVERSPEED (2 OUT OF 3 VOTING SYSTEM)

SENSOR SPEED PICK UP GEAR

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF OVERSPEED TRIP SYSTEM Flexible Coupling: The turbine is coupled to a gear box by a flexible coupling which can absorb the misalignment caused due to thermal expansion due to steam. Expansion below: Due to large expansion in case of an axial exhaust steam turbine an expansion bellow is provided. In downflow turbines gland packing is provided to absorb the thermal expansion. HP Governor valve This is actuated by a servo motor. When the hydraulic motor power exceeds spring force the lifting bar will go up to open the valve. The hydraulic motor receives oil from the control oil line at apressure of 10.4 kgf/cm2. Gland Steam Condenser This is a shell and tube type single pass heat exchanger with cooling water passing through the tubes and steam/air passing through the shell. The condenser is provided with a gland vapour fan drawing steam at 50 kg/h from the glands of the turbine. The steam is condensed by the condensate of turbine exhaust steam after it passes through the ejector condenser and before it enters the turbine. The non-condensable gases present in steam is rejected to the atmosphere while the steam which is condensed gets drained out. Since the condenser is maintained at vacuum the drain is piped out through a U-seal.The condenser is designed with a cleanliness factor of 85 %. Gland sealing system The purpose of the sealing system is to prevent atmospheric air from entering the turbine casing. Steam is used to do this sealing. The pressure of sealing steam is 0.1 -0.2 kg/cm2.At start up an ejector is used to maintain vacuum in the exhaust and the Air Cooled

Condenser. If air enters the turbine via shaft gland it will be impossible to raise vacuum and start the turbine. So at start-up the sealing system prevents air from entering the turbine both from the high pressure and low pressure glands. During normal operation presre in the HP side of the turbine is much higher than the atmosphere. So no air can enter the turbine from that end. The sealing steam therefore seals atmospheric air to enter the turbine casing via the exhaust glands during normal operation.Also a part of the high pressure steam is also used for sealing the LP side. The sealing steam is derived from the main steam line. The tapping for gland sealing steam is taken from the main steam line which is passed through a pressure reducing and desuperheating system where its pressure and temperature are reduced to 11 kgf/cm2 and 250 deg C and then finally passed through a pressure control valve which reduces it to the sealing steam pressure as given above. Extraction Steam A part of the steam generated in the turbine is extracted by a bypass line.This is done from the exit of the 1st stage nozzles and is delivered to the deaerator for stripping the condensate of dissolved gases. The bleed is done at a pressure of 2.9 kgf/cm2 and a temperature of 161 deg C. Spray water

Spray water from the discharge of Condendate Extraction pump at 12 kgf/cm 2, a flow of 0.77 tph and a temperature of 62 deg C is supplied to turbine exhaust if the exhaust temperature reaches above 80 degC. Lube Oil System The turbo-generator has a lube oil system to supply oil for lubrication of turbine, generator and gear box bearings. Also there is a control oil system for operating the governor valve and a trip oil system which supplies the pressure to keep the Emergency Stop Valve open. Lube oil is normally supplied for hydrodynamic lubrication of bearings. The pressure is created by a main oil pump which is a gear pump driven by the main shaft. The gear pump delivers lube oil at required pressure only at or above 95 % shaft. Below that speed the oil is supplied by a AC motor driven Auxiliary Oil Pump. Also keeping in mind emergency conditions like grid failure an Emergency Oil pump is provided as a partial stand by for the Auxiliary Oil Pump. This pump gets automatically activated on failure of auxiliary oil pump and is driven by DC motor driven by a battery. The control oil pump supplies oil to HP governor valve and the port in the liner of the Emergency Stop Valve. There is also an auxiliary control oil pump which gets automatically activated on failure of the main control oil pump. All these pumps draw water from an oil

reservoir. Oil in the reservoir is passed through an oil centrifuge for removal of water in the oil. Also to maintain the viscosity of oil at desired values the oil in the reservoir is heated by a resistive element heater if the temperature falls. Both control oil and lube oil are passed through duplex filters which removes solid contaminants. Downstream of the filter pipes are made of stainless steel to prevent corrosion. The lube oil system additionally is provided with a cooler. Also a part of the lube oil is pressurized by a pressure control valve to cater to the trip oil line for supply of oil to the ESV oil relay. A centrifugal fan is provided for removal of oil fumes from the oil reservoir and deliver them outside the building.

Gear Box The turbo-generator is provided with a gear box to reduce the turbine rpm of 7810 to 1500 at the generator shaft. Turning Gear During shut down or trip if the turbine is suddenly brought from full speed of 7500 rpm to rest then the rotor may get bend or distorted due to unequal expansion and thermal stresses. So the turbine is cooled uniformly by rotating it by a barring gear at a speed of 11 rpm for 24 hours. During start up also the turbine is rotated at barring speed of 11 rpm for over 8 hrs to warm up the turbine before steam is injected to it. The turning gear consists of an electric motor driving a worm gear reducer connected to an overrunning SSS clutch encased in an oil tight housing. The clutch can be engaged or disengaged automatically. The initials SSS denote the 'Synchro-Self-Shifting' action of the clutch, whereby the clutch teeth are phased and then automatically shifted axially into engagement when rotating at precisely at the same speed. The clutch disengages as soon as the input speed slows down relative to the output s

SSS Clutch A Pawl B Clutch Teeth E Input Shaft

C Sliding Component F Output Clutch Ring D Helical Splines G Ratchet Teeth

Basic Principle of Operation of Synchro Self-Shifting Clutch

The initials SSS denote the 'Synchro-Self-Shifting' action of the clutch, whereby the clutch teeth are phased and then automatically shifted axially into engagement when rotating at precisely the same speed. The clutch disengages as soon as the input speed slows down relative to the output speed.The basic operating principle of the SSS Clutch can be compared to the action of a nut screwed on to a bolt. If the bolt rotates with the nut free, the nut will rotate with the bolt. If the nut is prevented from rotating while the bolt continues to turn, the nut will move in a straight line along the bolt.In an SSS Clutch the input shaft (E) has helical splines (D) which correspond to the thread of the bolt. Mounted on the helical splines is a sliding component (C) which simulates the nut. In the diagram, the sliding component has external clutch teeth (B) at one end, and external ratchet teeth (G) at the other.When the input shaft rotates, the sliding component rotates with it until a ratchet tooth contacts the tip of a pawl (A) on the output clutch ring (F) to prevent rotation of the sliding component relative to the output clutch ring. This position is shown in Figure 1.As the input shaft continues to rotate, the sliding compo- nent will move axially along the helical splines of the input shaft. When a ratchet tooth is in contact with a pawl tip, the clutch engaging teeth are perfectly aligned for inter-engagement and thus will pass smoothly into mesh in a straight line path.

As the sliding component moves along the input shaft, the pawl passes out of contact with the ratchet tooth, allowing the clutch teeth to come into flank contact and continue the engaging travel as shown in Figure 2. Note that the only load on the pawl is that required to shift the lightweight sliding component along the . Driving torque from the input shaft will only be transmit- ted when the sliding component completes its travel by contacting an end stop on the input shaft, with the clutch teeth fully engaged and the pawls unloaded as shown in Figure 3. helical splines

When a nut is screwed against the head of a bolt, no external thrust is produced. Similarly when the sliding component of an SSS Clutch reaches its end stop and the clutch is transmitting driving torque, no external thrust loads are produced by the helical splines.

Where necessary, an oil dashpot is incorporated in the end stop to cushion the clutch engagement.

If the speed of the input shaft is reduced relative to the output shaft, the torque on the helical splines will re- verse. This causes the sliding component to return to the disengaged position and the clutch will overrun.

At high overrunning speeds, pawl ratcheting is pre- vented by a combination of centrifugal and hydrodynamic effects acting on the pawls.

Driving torque from the input shaft will only be transmit- ted when the sliding component completes its travel by contacting an end stop on the input shaft, with the clutch teeth fully engaged and the pawls unloaded as shown in Figure 3.

When a nut is screwed against the head of a bolt, no external thrust is produced. Similarly when the sliding component of an SSS Clutch reaches its end stop and the clutch is transmitting driving torque, no external thrust loads are produced by the helical splines.

Where necessary, an oil dashpot is incorporated in the end stop to cushion the clutch engagement.

If the speed of the input shaft is reduced relative to the output shaft, the torque on the helical splines will re- verse. This causes the sliding component to return to the disengaged position and the clutch will overrun.

At high overrunning speeds, pawl ratcheting is pre- vented by a combination of centrifugal and hydrodynamic effects acting on the pawls.

Elements of basic

SSS Clutch A Pawl B Clutch Teeth E Input Shaft

C Sliding Component F Output Clutch Ring D Helical Splines G Ratchet Teeth

1 E

A F 2 3

C D G

In hydrodynamic lubrication a film of oil separates the shaft from the bearings to minimize wear by eliminating metal metal contact. The following are the major factors considered. Oil film formation: The oil forms a wedge whose thickness and pressure depends on the viscocity, tenacity of the lubricant, the geometry of the moving parts, their relative velocity and the load supported by the film. The gradient between the oil velocity at the moving parts and that at the centre of the fim creates a shear force.The viscosity is the ability of that oil to withstand the shear force and the energy required for that resistance is converted to heat.

The most common example of hydrodynamic bearing is the journal bearing (Figure 2 ). The shaft (journal) rotating inside a circular bush with a thin film of oil separating the two. The gap between the shaft and the bush is generally about 0.001 to 0.002 times the shaft diameter. Usually a load W (eg. weight of the impeller in a pump) has to be supported. When the shaft is rotating, position of the shaft with respect to the bush is shown in Figure 2b. Rotation of the shaft drags in the oil into a narrowing gap (marked A in the Figure ),bearing pressure develops and this in turn

supports the load. The oil film ensures low wear and low friction. In practice, the design must ensure a minimum film thickness to prevent breakage of the film and the subsequent contact between the shaft and the bush surfaces. When the load is high or the shaft speed is low this minimum film thickness cannot be maintained. In these cases roller element bearings (eg. ball bearings) or hydrostatic bearings are used. Interestingly even in ball bearings, we have hydrodynamic lubrication at the ball surface. Journal Bearing

Figure 2 Journal bearing (a) front view indicating shaft, bush and the oil-film. (b) cross-section in the side view indicating the pressure developed in the oil-film and the relative positions