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This is Project Report/Essay - Cancer. Among disease, Cancer ranks high as a major killer being responsible in recent years. Cancer is estimated that about one million people in United States receives treatment for some kind of Cancer each year. Of these, more than half are new cases, having been diagnosed for the first time during the year. If present trends continue, about one forth of the nation's citizen's will sooner or later develop cancer. These are several kinds cancer all of them malignant tumors. A tumor is a swelling or mass resulting from abnormal growth of tissue. Cancer is likely to damage important or vital organs or tissue in any or all part of the body. Causing serious disease and often death. OBSERVATION :Now a days, lot of people suffer from unavoidable disease known as cancer. PROBLEM :Cancer still tolls huge numbers of lines. In spite of effective treatment, basic understanding of the causes and factors responsible for cancer. HYPOTHESIS :1. Cancer remain unidentified in initial stage. 2. Carcinogens induces cancer which are prevent in environment due to pollution. 3. Normal genes of body become defective and cause cancer. 4. Lack of awareness in public to identify the cancer. The cancer is an incurable disease but it can be treated by combination of surgery, drugs and radiation therapy. TYPES OF CANCER Some important type of Cancer are :-

1. Leukemia : Cancer of blood in which white blood cells show an abnormal increase. 2. Carcinomas : Cancer of epithelial cells. 3. Sarcomas : Cancer of connective tissue. 4. Lymphomas : Cancer of lymphatic tissue. 5. Lipomas : Cancer of adipose tissue.


A few important characteristic of Cancer Cells are given below : 1. Cancer cell cultures are immortal and can grow indefinitely. 2. Cancer cell do not show contact inhibition. 3. Cancer Cells lack intracellular adhesion. 4. Cancer Cells does not depend upon anchorage. 5. In cancer cells molecular changes in all membrane components (glycolipids and glycoprotein) have been found. 6. Tuberous cells consume much more glucose than normal cell because they have to grow and multiply.

The cause of cancer are not fully understood. However it is known that some chemicals are carcinogenic or cancer causing. Some causes of cancer are given below : 1. Certain chemicals found in cigarette and smoke, asbestoses, nickel and certain dyes, to mention only a few of the many substances implicated in the induction of cancer. 2. Heredity has a definite influence on the occurrence of cancer in human being.

3. Exposure of ultraviolet rays also cause cancer. 4. X-Rays can also induce cancer. 5. Tobacco chewing is also the main cause of the oral cancer. 6. Syphilis of the tongue, jagged teeth often precedes cancer of the tongue. There must be still other factors in the causing of cancer. We should lookout for any condition likely to cause cancer or for the earliest signs of what may be developing cancer.

1. Any persistent lump or thickening in tissue, especially in the lip and tongue or breast. 2. Unexplained lose of weight. 3. Difficulty in swallowing. 4. Persistent cough or hoarseness. 5. A change in digestive habits. 6. Loss of blood through natural orifice or excess out of date loss of blood in women. 7. Change in colour of infected areas (like male wart) 8. A swelling or sore throat that does not heal easily.

Carcinogen Target Tissue 1. Coulter (3, 4 benzopirene) 2. Cadmium Oxide 3. Afiotoxin (a mould metabolite) Skin, Lungs Prostrate glands Liver

4. Mustard gas 5. Nickel and Chromium

Lungs Lungs

6. 2-Napthylamine and 4- aminobiphynle Urinary bladder 7. Cigarette Smoke Lungs

Location for Cancer

Cancer occurring in any one part of body has unique characteristic. Now there is a list in alphabetical order the various parts of body in which cancer commonly occurs. 1. Bile Ducts : The bile ducts may become involved either with cancer developing within the ducts themselves or with cancer in adjacent structures. The earlier significant symptom in Jaundice, which results from continuous obstruction to flow of bile. 2. Breast : The breast is the common site of cancer in women lumps in the breasts is caused by cancer. So the physician is dealing with early case of lump in the breast, has to differentiate between benign tumour and malignant one. 3. Bone : The cancer of bone grows due to blood streams or from some adjacent organ or tissues. Bone cancer causes pain swelling and weaken the bone. 4. Esophagus : Cancer of Esophagus is also common it may occur in any part of organ from the throat on down, but mostly in the lower part. Due to cancer of Esophagus, there is difficulty in the swallowing. 5. Lung :

The cancer of lungs is becoming more prominent in our country which causes maximum death in our country. The main reason for the lung cancer is cigarette without treatment the survival rate for the usual type of lung cancer is zero. In the total type of cancer 40% are infected by the lung cancer. The reason for the high mortality rate : 1. It is highly malignant. 2. It causes no distinctive early symptoms. 6. Ovary : This is the most dreadful cancer amongst the women. The most of the women die due to cancer of ovary in our country. This can be treated by surgery. 7. Pancreas : The cancer of pancreas causes the pain in the upper part of the membrane. Cancer of pancreas also causes Jaundice. The cancer is highly malignant cancer of pancreas is more common in men than women. This can be removed by surgery. 8. Stomach : Cancer of stomach is also more common in men than women. Symptoms are indigestion, loss of appetite, loss of weight etc. Surgical removal without delay of all or part of the stomach is only proper treatment. 9. Thyroid : This cancer causes the enlargement of thyroid gland, development of nodules in the gland. The removal of these nodules is very necessary for the treatment of this disease. 10. Tongue : Cancer of tongue cause more death than any other cancer within the mouth. It results persistent inflammation.


Diagnosis : Biopsy of tissue, endoscopy (Gastro scope for stomach), X-Rays ultrasound are important tests. Antcarcinogens : They are the substances which prevent the action of carcinogens. Antcarcinogens occur in green yellow vegetables, fruits, milk. They are riboflavin (milk), flavonoids (green-yellow vegetables and fruits), Vitamin C, indoles (Cabbage) etc. B-carotene present in green yellow vegetables is promoter-inhibitor which weakens the action of cancer promoters. Treatment of Cancer: Surgery, Bone marrow grafting (for leukemia), radiotherapy (exposure to radio isotopes), hormonal therapy, chemo therapy (use of chemicals) drugs which are more toxic to cancer cells than normal cells. Two drugs (Vincristin and Vinblastin) from catharanthus roseus (Vinca-rosea) are effective in controlling leukemia. Toxal is anticancer drug obtained from Taxus baccata.

Cancer disease is incurable, but timely action can cure this disease to some extent. X-Rays and Radium have proved to be valuable aid to surgery in the treatment of many cases. They provide the only useful treatment for cancer of lymph node tissues, for cancers too extended to the curable irritation also helps to cause the cancer tissue to shrink and give relief. We feel that we must consult an experienced physician for a through examination and advice if any suspicious sign or symptoms is observed. Delay can cause the death or a person. Therefore such delay is very dangerous.


The main reason of Air Pollution is burning of fossils fuels in large quantities accent decades has resulted in gradual increase in carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere. It is estimated that content of carbon dioxide has increased by 25% during the last 100 years. Carbon dioxide allows in solution to pass through but absorbs out going terrestrial radiation increase of Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has the effect of increasing the temp of atmosphere. It is estimated that global main temp has increased bet 0.3 degree - 0.7 degree celsius in the last 100 years. Trees carbon dioxide content in also attributed to large-scale deforestation. Trees absorb carbon dioxide accumulated in the atmosphere. Burning of coal & oil also add sulphur to the atmosphere. Lead, Co & nitrogen oxide on adding to the atmosphere from automobile exhaust. Inhalation of automobile exhaust causes nasal irritation & respiratory diseases. These gases are also responsible for causing acid rain in industrial region of Europe & North America. Acid rain affect aquatic ecosystem as water. So polluted cannot support fish other life forms. Lakes in Sweden, orway, Canada & U.S are effected by acidification. Acid rain also damages forests to great extent. Growth of trees is affected. About ten million he heacters of forests are damaged in Europe. The ozone layer is affected by exhausts from jet aircraft. CFC (cloro fluro carbon) is a stable compounds used in aerosol propellants in sprayers refrigeration's & for depletion of ozone layer to the extent of 3%-4%. In the last 100 years the ozone in the higher atmosphere serves as shield protecting the

earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation enters the earth surface & may cause skin cancer.

Gaseous effluents from factories pollute the atmosphere. Smoke, dust & particles of carbon, lead etc enter the atmosphere on coal night when bag occurs these particles remain suspended in the air. This condition is called smog. The smog over London in 1952 resulted in the death of about 4000 persons by suffocation. Accident moving escape of poisonous gases from industries cause illness & death. The escape of poisonous gas from pesticides plant in Bhopal in 1984 resulted in the death of 1000 person. The accident at ehernoply atomic power plant in the former soviet union in 1986 caused intensive damage owing to leakage of radioactive material to the atmosphere.

Global Problem - Air Pollution

Air pollution is global significance unlike water or land pollution. Which are of local or regional effects air pollution transfers the pollutants to water & land or oceans as pollution result of rainfall Air pollution affects plants & animals as well as human being. In urban environment, pollution of air from automobiles exhausts is so high that people wear facemask to protect themselves. The major component of the piosphere is air without which no life can live, without air pure quality;here can be no healthy life. Clean air is pollution rare thing now a day espeially in metropolitan cities. Air pollution differs from industrid less perennial during working hours and they can drift high or low & in any direction depending on the wind & weather. Air pollution spreads & has wide impact than other form of pollution. If water is polluted, one can avoid drinking or may drink it purification. But cannot avoid breathing polluted air. This kind of air contain solid & liquid particles such as dust, carbon, hydro-carbon etc which are elecrically charged & thus kept in suspension by electrostatic forces. It may also contain gases, which are poisonous in nature Sulphur dioxide, Co, nitrogen, hydrogen vaporous & other substances this must harmful element in benzopyrene. Air pollution may rise due to domestic fire, which is needed for cooking & heating it is a weak & inevitable source of air pollution. Air pollution is caused by vehicles & other combustion engine with constant increase in transportation, the problem of air pollution have become very acute course we have less vehicle then the west yet pollution level is almost the same. This is mainly because of the poor maintenance of vehicles emmi9ting out poisnous smoke & the absence of any effecting deterrent to play such vehicles on the roads. Industry is also the main source & it covers all type of unit,which consume energy in any form. It includes coal, oil, natural gas, electricity or nuclear fission. Dark smoke of industries pollutes the air very much. Thermal power plant also pollutes the air very much. This cause respiratory disease like tubrculosis.

It is to be noted that air pollution adversely affects our health as well as ecology. It is a reality that people living in polluted areas are suffering from certain diseases i.e. lung cancer etc. than the people living in fresh air.