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 Guidelines in Using STATISTICA Prof. Carlo Magno

Correlation Coefficient

Phi Coefficient

 ∑ Function: Correlating 2 sets of nominal data with 2 categories for each variable ∑ Procedure: 1. Click ‘Statistics’ 2. Click ‘Nonparametrics’ 3. Select ‘2X2 Tables (X 2 /V 2 /Phi 2 , McNemar/Fisher Exact)’ 4. Click ‘OK’
• 5. Enter the values in a 2X2 contingency table then click ‘Summary.’ • 6. Look for the value of

in the label ‘Phi-Square.’

• 7. If hypothesis is one tailed compare the

(.05 or .01) with the p value for ‘Fisher

exact p, one tailed.’ If the hypothesis in nondirectional look for the p value in the ‘two-tailed.’

Spearman Rho

 ∑ Function: Correlating two sets of ranks (ordinal data) ∑ Procedure:
• 1. Enter the first set of ranks in column 1 and the next set on column 2.

• 2. Click ‘Statistics’

• 3. Click ‘Nonparametrics’

• 4. Select ‘Correlations (Spearman, Kendall’s Tau, gamma)’

• 5. Click ‘Variables:’

• 6. Select 1 for the ‘First variable list’ and select 2 for the ‘Second variable list’

2 • 7. Click ‘OK’

• 8. On the ‘Advanced Pad’ click ‘Spearman rank R’

• 9. If the p value is less than the alpha (.05/.01) result is significant

Pearson r

 ∑ Function: Correlating two variables that are interval or ratio scale ∑ Procedure:
• 1. Enter the data for the variable X on the first column and the data for variable Y on the second column.

• 2. Click ‘Statistics’

• 3. Click ‘Basic Statistics/Tables’

• 4. Select ‘Correlation Matrices’

• 5. Click ‘OK’

• 6. Click ‘Options’ in the menu pad

• 7. Select ‘Display detailed table of results’ 3

• 8. Click ‘one variable list’ or ‘two variable list’

• a. For one variable list select both 1 and 2 then click OK • b. For two variable list select 1 for first variable list and select 2 for second variable list then click OK • 9. Click summary, the relationship is significant if the p value is less than the alpha (.05/.01). The Pearson r value is r(X,Y), the variance is r 2

One Sample Case

Chi-square Goodness of Fit Function: Tests if the observed frequency of one sample is significantly different with the expected frequencies. Procedure:

• 1. Enter the observed frequencies on the first column, then the expected frequencies on the second column.

• 2. Click ‘Statistics’

• 3. Click ‘Nonparametrics’

• 4. Select ‘Observed versus Expected X 2

• 5. Click ‘OK’

• 6. Click ‘Variables’

• 7. Select 1 for ‘Observed frequencies’ and select 2 for ‘Expected frequencies’

• 8. Click ‘OK’

• 9. Click ‘Summary’

10. The chi-square value, df, and p value is shown, result is significant if p value is

less than the alpha (.05/.01)

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Kolmogorov Smirnov

 ∑ Function: tests the difference between the observed and expected frequency of a set ∑ of ranks. Procedure:
• 1. Enter the data where in the first row of the spread sheet label the both observed and expected frequencies and on the next column indicate the frequencies • 2. Click ‘Statistics’

• 3. Click ‘Nonparametrics’

• 4. Select ‘Comparing two independent samples (groups)’

• 5. Click ‘OK’

• 6. Click ‘Variables’

• 7. Select 2 for ‘Dependent variable list’ and select 1 as the ‘Indep (grouping) variable’ • 8. Click ‘OK’

• 9. Click ‘Kolmogorov Smirnov two sample test’

10. Result is significant is p value is less than the alpha (.05/.01)

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z-test/t-test for single means

Function: Compare the sample mean and the population parameter (data is interval or ratio) Use z-test – if standard error of the population is given Use t-test – if the standard deviation of the sample is given Procedure:

• 1. Enter the data for the sample in a column.

• 2. Click ‘Statistics’

• 3. Click ‘Basic Statistics/Tables’

• 4. Select ‘t-test, single sample’

• 5. Click ‘OK’

• 6. Click ‘Variables:’

• 7. Select 1

• 8. Click ‘OK’

• 9. Select ‘Test all means against:’ then enter the population parameter to be compared with the sample 10. Click ‘Summary’ 11. Result is significant if p value is less than the alpha (.05/.01)

Two Sample Repeated Measures

McNemar Change Test

 ∑ Function: Assess the significance of before and after change ∑ Procedure: 1. Click ‘Statistics’ 2. Click ‘Nonparametrics’ 3. Select ‘2X2 Tables (X 2 /V 2 /Phi 2 , McNemar/Fisher Exact)’ 4. Click ‘OK’
• 5. Enter the values in a 2X2 contingency table then click ‘Summary.’

6 6. Look for the value on ‘McNemar Chi-square (A/D)’ in column 1 and in column 2 the p value is indicated. 7. Result is significant if the p value is less than the alpha (.05/.01). Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test ∑ Function: Asses the significant difference between two set of ranks that are repeated measures. ∑ Procedure: 1. Enter the first set of ranks on the first column and the next set of ranks on the second column 2. Click ‘Statistics’ 3. Click ‘Nonparametrics’ 4. Select ‘Comparing two dependent samples (variables)’ 5. Click ‘OK’ 6. Click ‘Variables:’ 7. Select 1 in the first variable list, select 2 in the second variable list 8. Click ‘OK’ 9. Click ‘Wilcoxon Matched pairs test’

10. Result is significant if the p value is less than the alpha (.05/.01)

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t-test for Dependent Samples

Function: Tests the difference of two set of scores (interval/ratio) from the same sample (repeated measures) Procedure:

• 1. Enter the first set of scores in the first column and the second set n the second column

• 2. Click ‘Statistics’

• 3. Click ‘Basic statistics/Tables’

• 4. Select ‘t-test, dependent samples’

• 5. Click ‘OK’

• 6. Click ‘Variables:’

• 7. Select 1 in the ‘First variable list’, select 2 in the ‘Second variable list’

• 8. Click ‘OK’

• 9. Click ‘Summary’

10. Result is significant if the p value is less than the alpha (.05/.01)