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The Engine

The engine is a machine that converts chemical energy of fuel into mechanical energy. The heat from combustion of a fuel produces power which propels the car. Sometimes the engine is even called the power plant of a car. There are two types of engine 1. Internal combustion engine( combustion of fuel takes place internally) 2.External combustion engine( combustion of fuel takes place externally) In the external combustion engines the power is generated outside the engine cylinder by burning the fuel and it is transferred to the cylinder by means of some working fluid (steam) to do work.The example for an external combustion engine is a steam engine which was used in the locomotives,this is a double acting engine which means the pressure acts on both sides of the piston alternatively making it to reciprocate inside the cylinder.

In an Internal combustion engine the power is developed inside the engine cylinder by burning the fuel in the cylinder itself.The heat energy produced during the combustion of fuel is converted into mechanical energy by the expansion of gases against the piston due to which it rotates the crankshaft attached to it by means of a connecting rod (connecting rod is used to connect the piston with the crankshaft to convert the reciprocating motion of piston into rotary motion of the crankshaft).

Types of internal combustion engine


Engines can be classified in many different ways: By the engine cycle used, the layout of the engine, source of energy, the use of the engine, or by the cooling system employed.

Engine configurations
Internal combustion engines can be classified by their configuration. Common layouts of engines are: Reciprocating: Some of the other important classification of internal combustion engine is based on working cycle or number of piston strokes.

Two-stroke engine Four-stroke engine (Otto cycle) Six-stroke engine Diesel engine Atkinson cycle Miller cycle

Rotary:

Wankel engine

Reciprocating motion means either moving up and down or back and forth. Most automotive engines are reciprocating type and have pistons confined in the cylinders that reciprocate or move up and down. Conversely, rotary engines have rotors that impart rotational motion but the only such engine used in cars is the Wankel engine. Wankel engine(rotary) The Wankel engine (rotary engine) does not have piston strokes. It operates with the same separation of phases as the four-stroke engine with the phases taking place in separate locations in the engine The Wankel engine is a type of internal combustion engine using an eccentric rotary design to convert pressure into a rotating motion instead of using reciprocating pistons. Its four-stroke cycle takes place in a space between the inside of an ovallike epitrochoid-shaped housing and a rotor that is similar in shape to a Reuleaux triangle but with sides that are somewhat flatter. The very compact Wankel engine delivers smooth high-rpm power.

Reciprocating Operation
Strokes per Cycle:
Strokes per cycle are the number of times the pistons travel up and down during one cycle. Modern engines have four strokes per cycle: intake, compression, power, and exhaust.

Two-stroke-cycle engine cycle

Two-stroke engine: combustion engine whose cycle (intake, compression, combustion and exhaust) requires one up-and-down movement of the piston. The two stroke engine employs both the crankcase and the cylinder to achieve all the elements of the Otto cycle in only two strokes of the piston.

UPWARD STROKE: During the upward stroke the piston moves from BDC to TDC,thus compresses the charge present in the combustion chamber (the transfer port and exhaust ports are closed by the piston) and the spark plug ignites the compressed charge at the end of the stroke meanwhile the fresh charge is sucked in the crankcase due to the vaccum created in it. DOWNWARD STROKE: As soon as the charge is ignited it exerts pressure on the piston thus forcing it to move downwards and it rotates the crankshaft.Due to the downward movement the intake port is covered and then first the exhaust port is uncovered and later the transfer port is uncovered.The burnt gases shold leave the chamber before the fresh charge enters so the exhaust port is first uncovered and then the fresh charge enters into the combustion chamber through the transfer port

Intake The fuel/air mixture is first drawn into the crankcase by the vacuum that is created during the upward stroke of the piston. The illustrated engine features a poppet intake valve; however, many engines use a rotary value incorporated into the crankshaft. Crankcase compression During the downward stroke, the poppet valve is forced closed by the increased crankcase pressure. The fuel mixture is then compressed in the crankcase during the remainder of the stroke. Transfer/Exhaust

Toward the end of the stroke, the piston exposes the intake port, allowing the compressed fuel/air mixture in the crankcase to escape around the piston into the main cylinder. This expels the exhaust gasses out the exhaust port, usually located on the opposite side of the cylinder. Unfortunately, some of the fresh fuel mixture is usually expelled as well. Compression The piston then rises, driven by flywheel momentum, and compresses the fuel mixture. (At the same time, another intake stroke is happening beneath the piston). Power(expansion) At the top of the stroke, the spark plug ignites the fuel mixture. The burning fuel expands, driving the piston downward, to complete the cycle. (At the same time, another crankcase compression stroke is happening beneath the piston.) Since the two stroke engine fires on every revolution of the crankshaft, a two stroke engine is usually more powerful than a four stroke engine of equivalent size. This, coupled with their lighter, simpler construction, makes the two stroke engine popular in chainsaws, line trimmers, outboard motors, snowmobiles, jet-skis, light motorcycles, and model airplanes. Unfortunately, most two stroke engines are inefficient and are terrible polluters due to the amount of unspent fuel that escapes through the exhaust port. Two-stroke engines are not used due to their poor power output at low rpm, motor oil mixed with the fuel, less fuel efficient, generate an unacceptable amount of pollution, and require more maintenance.

4-Stroke Engine As their name implies, four-stroke internal combustion engines have four basic steps that repeat with every two revolutions of the engine. In the four stroke cycle engines there is one power stroke in every two revolutions of the crank shaft or for four strokes of the piston. The four strokes in this cycle are 1.Suction stroke 2.compression stroke 3.Power stroke 4.Exhaust stroke.

In the four stroke engines these strokes are carried out by valves which are operated by a camshaft which is meshed with the engine crankshaft. The camshaft has lobes which operates the valves according to the firing order(in multi cylinder engines). The top most position to which the piston can travel is called TOP DEAD CENTRE (TDC) and the bottom most position is called BOTTOM DEAD CENTRE (BDC),the piston reciprocates between these two extreme positions which is called stroke of the piston(swept volume).When the piston is at TDC position the space between the top of the piston and bottom surface of the cylinder head is called Clearance volume. The space above the piston where the combustion takes place is called Combustion chamber.
OPERATION OF A FOUR STROKE SI ENGINE Petrol Engine The petrol engines(otto cycle) are also called as gasoline engines or spark ignition engines(SI) because they use petrol as the fuel and spak plug is used to ignite the charge.Petrol is a highly volatile fuel,so a carburetor is used to atomize and vapourize the liquid particles so that they can be readily ignited and also fuel consumption is achieved.The operation of a SI engine is as follows

1. Intake Stroke - The inlet valve is opened and the air-fuel mixture mixture is drawn in from the carburetor (in SI engines) as the piston travels down (piston moves from TDC to BDC). 2. Compression Stroke - The inlet valve is closed and the piston travels back up the cylinder compressing the fuel/air mixture. Just before piston reaches the top of its compression stroke a spark plug emits a spark to combust the fuel/air mixture. The number of degrees before the top its stroke is the ignition advance. When the piston is at the top of its travel it is at top dead centre (TDC). 3. Combustion Stroke - The piston is now forced down by the pressure wave of the combustion of the fuel air mixture. The engines power is derived from this stroke. 4. Exhaust Stroke - The exhaust valve is opened and the piston travels back up expelling the exhaust gases through the exhaust valve. At the top of this stroke the exhaust valve is closed. This process is then repeated. Four-stroke engines require two revolutions. The above is the cycle of operation of one cylinder of a 4-stroke engine. Generally engines have 2 or more cylinders acting in concert with each other to produce the engine power It is interesting to note that one complete engine cycle takes two revolutions but that individual valves and spark plugs only operate once in this time. Hence their timing needs to be taken from a half engine speed signal, which is the camshafts speed. PARTS OF A PETROL ENGINE CAMSHAFT Camshaft opens and closes the valves at the proper point in the engine cycle. It runs the length of the engine and has one cam (lobe) at each intake and exhaust valve. In a four-stroke cycle engine, the camshaft is geared to the crankshaft so that it runs at half the crankshafts speed. The camshaft may be located in the head of an overhead valve engine, or in the crankcase. VALVES In a four-stroke cycle engine, each cylinder has one or two intake valves, to let the air-fuel mixture into the combustion chamber, and one or two exhaust valves, to let the burned gases escape. These are called poppet valves, because they pop up and down as they open and close. The opening in the cylinder block or head uncovered by the valve is called the port. In many two-stroke cycle engines, the movement of the piston takes the place of separate valves. As the piston moves, it covers and uncovers the ports.

Diesel engine
Diesel engines use compression ignition (no spark.) The working of Diesel Engines(Diesel cycle) is similar to that of petrol engines but in Diesel engines only air is sucked inside during the suction stroke and the fuel(diesel) is sprayed on the compressed air at the end of the compression stroke by the fuel injector and the combustion takes place due to heat of compression of air. In Diesel engines carburetor is not used to form the air fuel mixture but it is instantaneously mixed during the suction,to ensure proper mixing the air is sucked in before the suction stroke by opening the valve a bit earlier than its usual timing.If this is not done the airfuel does not mix properly and the fuel is not burnt completely and leads to wastage and also unburnt hydrocarbons are released into the atmosphere which causes air pollution.

Number of Cylinders:
The core of the engine is the cylinder, with the piston moving up and down inside the cylinder The number of cylinders is often used in combination with the engine block geometry (V6, slant four, inline four.) The number of cylinders is an indication of how smooth the car engine will run. Lastly, the use of lower friction parts can further enhance smoothness and quietness. An eight-cylinder engine will run smoother than a four-cylinder engine since power strokes occur with greater frequency. The number of cylinders also contributes to power output; more cylinders, more power. However, this is not

always a good indicator of power output. A turbocharged, four-cylinder engine can produce more power than a normally aspirated six-cylinder engine. Single cylinder engine : A single-cylinder engine is a basic piston engine configuration of an internal combustion engine. * Single cylinder engines have several advantages : 1 - It's simple design . 2 - economical construction . 3 - Balance shafts and counterweights on the crankshaft must be used to balance the weight of reciprocating parts. That is typical of most lawn mowers In-line cylinder engine : The inline-four engine or straight-four engine is an internal combustion engine with all four cylinders mounted in a straight line, or plane along the crankcase. The single bank of cylinders may be oriented in either a vertical or an inclined plane with all the pistons driving a common crankshaft. Where it is inclined, it is sometimes called a slant-four. In a specification chart or when an abbreviation is used, an inline-four engine is listed either as I4or L4 (for longitudinal, to avoid confusion between the digit 1 and the letter I).

Vee in-line engine : A V engine, or Vee engine is a common configuration for an internal combustion engine. The cylinders and pistons are aligned, in two separate planes or 'banks', so that they appear to be in a "V" when viewed along the axis of the crankshaft. The Vee configuration generally reduces the overall engine length, height and weight compared to an equivalent inline configuration. - The V arrangement , with two banks of cylinders provides a compact block and is used extensivlely for larger displacment engines.

-The V arrangement ,with two banks of cylinders provides a smooth , low vibration .

Ignition Type:
1. Spark ignition engine (Working on Otto cycle). 2. Compression ignition engine (Working on Diesel cycle) Spark ignition The term spark ignition is used to describe the system with which the air-fuel mixture inside the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is ignited by a spark. Compression ignition The concept behind compression ignition involves using the latent heat built up by highly compressing air inside a combustion chamber as the means for igniting fuel.

Engine displacement
Engine displacement is the volume swept by all the pistons inside the cylinders of a reciprocating in a single movement from top dead Centre (TDC) to bottom dead Centre (BDC). It is commonly specified in cubic

centimeters (cc), litres (l), or (mainly in North America) cubic inches (CID). Engine displacement does not include the total volume of the combustion chamber. Engine displacement is determined from the bore and stroke of an engine's cylinders. The bore is the diameter of the circular chambers cut into the cylinder block. One liter is the total volume of gas/air mixture that enter the chambers (cylinders) to be compressed by the pistons. If we have a 2.0l engine meaning 2 liters of gas/air mixture will enter the chambers and therefore moore power. The more cylinders we have, the easier the flow of this volume of gas/air mixture will move-more power 1 litre engine=1000cc(cubic centimeter)

Hybrid vehicle
A hybrid vehicle is a vehicle that uses two or more distinct power sources to move the vehicle.The term most commonly refers to hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), which combine an internal combustion engine and one or more electric motors.

Name Roll no. Subject

Saad Asif 03 General Engineering

Department of Chemical engineering