Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 36

NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION JOURNAL VOLUME 29, NUMBER 3, 2012-2013

THE EFFICACY OF AFFECTIVE DOMAIN INSTRUCTION ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF AFRICAN AMERICAN HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS
Dorothea Gordon Walden University
ABSTRACT
Fewer than 50% of African American high school students demonstrated mastery on a math assessment. Affective domain instruction provided the basis for a study that explored math academic achievement. Research has indicated that affective domain instruction improves academic performance and high school graduation rates. In a quasi-experimental study, the effectiveness of one type of affective domain instruction, Advancement Via Individual Determination (AVID), was examined. No statistically significant differences in mathematics achievement were found between 51 African American high school students in the AVID group as compared to the 51 in the control group. It is significant for educators to provide affective domain instruction using the AVID framework, engage in embedded staff development, or explore the efficacy of instruction on academic achievement. The social change implications include providing educators with an evidence-based approach to testing the effectiveness of AVID instruction before implementing the framework to improve student achievement on standardized assessments.

Introduction

he purpose of the study was to examine the impact of AVID instruction on mathematics achievement among African American high school students. The objective was to contribute to positive social change by illuminating the significance of AVID instructional strategies influence on student achievement, especially for African American students.
4

NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION JOURNAL

According to Varlas (2008), 30% students of United States drop out of high school each school year. The National Center for Education Statistics ([NCES] as cited in Stillwell, 2008) reported that the dropout rate among 9th through 12th grade students during 20072008 was 25.2%. Stillwell (2008) noted that the dropout rate among African American students was 6.7%, compared to 2.8% for European American students. NCES (2010) reported that although the dropout for African American is narrowing compared to the European American student dropout rate (2.8%), from 1971 to 2009 a higher percentage of European American students than African American students graduated from high school. In Texas, the dropout rate among African American students is higher than for any other ethnic group by 5% (Texas Education Agency [TEA], 2010). These statistics suggest that African American students are in more danger of not finishing high school than other ethnic groups, and the consequences of this dropout rate may reflect larger social problems. Traditionally, African American students have a larger achievement gap and higher unemployment, as well as higher dropout, juvenile detention, and poverty rates (Carpenter II, Ramirez, & Severn, 2006; Child Trends DataBank, n.d.; DeCuir-Gunby, Taliaferro, & Greenfield, 2010; Info Please, n.d.; Pearce, 2006; TEA, 2007). Among the many factors that contribute to the dropout problem are a lack of educational opportunities and a lack of connection with the intended learning experience of the mandated state and local curriculum. A lack of disciplined collective inquiry about the intended learning and a lack of a significant teacher-student relationship further contribute to the problem (DeCuir-Gunby et al., 2010; Foote, 2007; Marzano, 2003; Payne, 1995; Schlechty, 2002; Schmoker, 2006; Spring, 2008; Walker, 2006). Historically, the lack of these factors negatively affect student achievement and present an educational inequity (Baker, 2005; Hargreaves, 2003; Lewis, James, Hancock, & Hill-Jackson, 2008; Pearce, 2006; Shipler, 2005; Spring, 2008; Stinson, 2006; Tatum, 2003; Walker, 2006) that exists in in specific content areas.

Dorothea Gordon

Student proficiency in mathematics is below 50% nationwide (Ratner, 2007), which further emphasizes the problem of mathematics achievement among African American students. The National Assessment for Educational Progress ([NAEP], as cited by Aud, 2010) reported in the 2009 math assessment data for eighth grade African American students that a 32% achievement gap exists between European American and African American students. If the problem persists, African American students will remain educationally underserved unless educators find solutions. One solution might exist with increased teacher-student relationships. Payne (1995) noted the importance of teacher-student relationships for increased achievement. Payne indicated that before learning can occur, educators must develop relationships intended to enhance the educational experience of African American students. Payne further claimed, For students from poverty, the motivation for their success will be in the relationships (p. 218). Denton (2008) reported that trust is the foundation for the success of positive teacherstudent relationships. Smith and Lambert (2008) also found that students seek out positive connections with their teachers, which might help to foster academic achievement. Instruction that emphasizes positive teacher-student relationships helps to build social interactions that contribute to student achievement (Advancement Via Individual Determination [AVID], 2010). Kirt (n.d.) referred to this type of instruction as affective domain instruction. According to Kirt, the affective domain consists of interests, attitudes, appreciations, values, and emotional preconceptions. Values, attitudes, beliefs, and emotions construct the framework of the affective domain and their impact on the cognitive realm of student achievement (De Martino & Zan, 2003). One form of affective domain instruction is provided by the Advancement Via Individual Determination (AVID) framework. AVID (2010) provides affective domain instruction that integrates social and academic support to disadvantaged students. AVIDs

NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION JOURNAL

instructional framework consists of a means for ensuring positive connections between teachers and students. Kirt (n.d.) defined the affective domains - AVIDs principle theoretical base as learning objectives that emphasize a feeling tone, an emotion, or a degree of acceptance or rejection. Affective objectives vary from simple attention to selected phenomena to complex, but with internally consistent qualities of character and conscience (p. 1). In this study, I explored the relationship of affective domain strategies through AVID instruction and the extent to which these strategies resulted in increased student achievement for African American students on mathematics assessments. The quasi-experimental study, based on a review of archival test data and record of AVID participation, contributed to the body of knowledge needed to know the extent to which AVID instruction contributes to increased academic achievement for African American students. This study posed the following research question: To what extent does AVID framework affect student achievement in mathematics for African American students? Literature Review Studies that have addressed academic acheivement focused on effective teaching methods, direct and indirect relationships, school and teacher level factors, and the level of student engagement as it pertains to the affective domain through AVID instruction (c.f. DeCuir-Gunby et al., 2010; Foote, 2007; Jennings & Greenberg, 2009; Marzano, 2003; Modlin, 2008; Oesterle, 2008; Schlechty, 2002; Ware, 2006; Wiggan, 2007; Woolley et al., 2008). The purpose of this quasiexperimental study was to examine the significance of the relationship between AVID instruction and student achievement for the African American students. The population represents ethnic minority students who are educationally disenfranchised, which results in higher dropout rates, educational underachievement, and inequitable

Dorothea Gordon

access to and participation and progress in college readiness advanced placement classes (Marshall & Oliva, 2006). Affective Domain and AVID Instruction The interpersonal relationship shared between teacher and student is an important component of learning. Whereas course content lies in the cognitive domain, the direct and indirect relationship between student and teacher and student and curricula lie in the affective domain. Researchers have offered varying perspectives of the direct and indirect relationships of the affective domain instruction (c.f. Black, 2007; Eiss & Harbeck, 1969; Hansen, 2008; Holt & Hannon, 2006; Kessler, 2000; Lemons-Smith, 2008; Martin & Dowson, 2009; Modlin, 2008; Nasir et al., 2009; Newberry, 2008; Vall, 2007). Kessler (2000) described the affective domain as the soul of education (p. x) where students develop relationships, empathy, and spirit through the positive interactions between teacher and student. Newberry (2008) concurred with Kesslers definition of the affective domain. In a study of teacher-student relationships, Newberry found that the closeness of the teacher-student relationship emerged as a significant factor in student success. Affective Domain A domain-based learning model has emerged that segments learning into one of three domains: cognitive, affective, and psychomotor. The affective domain energizes both the cognitive and psychomotor domains (Black, 2007; Eiss & Harbeck, 1969). Because of this interaction, Holt and Hannon (2006) argued that the affective domain is an essential yet often overlooked part of learning. According to Eiss and Harbeck, the cognitive domain (the thinking processes) is not active until the affective domain (teacher-student relational capacity based on students interests and attitude) is stimulated. Engagement occurs only when stimuli from the cognitive and affective domains trigger action in the psychomotor domain (Eiss & Harbeck, 1969; Schlechty, 2002). Teaching to all three domains is

NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION JOURNAL

common in physical education (Hansen, 2008; Holt & Hannon, 2006; Vall, 2007). Before any action can occur, the cognitive domain (knowing what do to) combines with the affective domain (motivation to do it) and stimulates activity in the in the psychomotor domain (doing it). The benefits of instruction in the affective domain may persist beyond the classroom in which it is delivered. According to Black (2007), students whose teachers attended to the affective domain not only increased student achievement in the subject being taught, but the relationships built with one teacher helped to improve academic performance in other classes. Other studies supported this carryover effect. In a mixed methods study of teacher-student relationships, Modlin (2008) found that overall achievement was higher for students with at least one positive relationship with a teacher. Malikow (2006) described the benefits of affective domain instruction using the acronym CRIER, which represents complaining, responding, initiating, embedding, and recruiting: Teaching in the affective domain provides students with an opportunity to progress from expressing reluctance or distress (crying) in response to a proposed activity or subject to recommending it to others (crying, in the old style of town criers, who loudly and enthusiastically proclaimed public announcements). (p. 37) Studies of Affective Domain Several researchers have identified affective domain instruction as a significant predictor of student achievement. The quantitative, qualitative, and mixed method studies of Adelabu (2008), Ebey (2006), Estrada (2009), Foote (2007), Cunningham et al. (2009), Modlin (2008), Oseterle (2008), Spencer and Boon (2006), Thornhill (2006), and Ware (2006) all concurred that effective teaching strategies and learning experiences sustain quality teacher-student relationships. The comparable findings of the studies concluded that

Dorothea Gordon

10

affective domain instruction, as defined for this study, is a contributing influence on student achievement. In one such study, Modlin (2008) used a mixed method exploratory design that included approximately 250 Midwestern secondary students. The study, conducted in two phases, examined the teacher and student discernment of teacher-student relationships and academic achievement. The first phase used focus groups to determine the elements of teacher-student relationships and student achievement. In the second phase, Modlin surveyed students perceptions of teacher-student relationships and the effect on academic achievement. Modlin concluded that proactive development of positive relationships between the teacher and student increases achievement at the secondary level. In a mixed method study, Thornhill (2006) found that positive teacher-student relationships and instructional coaching emerged as contributions to improved student achievement. The purpose of the study was to identify and determine the contributing strategies that develop positive interpersonal relationships and improve student achievement. Thornhill interviewed, surveyed, and conducted focus groups with 40 of 57 seventh and eighth grade English Language Arts teachers of African American students in six California suburban middle schools. The study produced two key findings that are pertinent to the present study: (a) student engagement increased when teachers demonstrated personal interest in the students social and academic success, and (b) student participation increased when lesson were designed to involve all students. In a qualitative ethnographic study of effective teaching methods, Oseterle (2008) found that student achievement was enhanced when positive relationships were developed between the teacher and student. Oseterle interviewed approximately 23 teachers and 53 underperforming seventh and eighth grade students from a Phoenix, Arizona school district. The survey assessed three major areas of effective teaching: (a) teacher traits, (b) teaching methods, and

11

NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION JOURNAL

(c) teacher-student relationships. Oseterle found that the students had a tendency to focus on teacher traits and classroom climate for their academic success, whereas the teachers attributed student success to the instructional delivery methods. Students perception of the teachers behavior toward them influenced their academic success. The students were more engaged when the teacher showed a caring interest toward the students and interpreted this relationship as kind and supportive. The findings indicated that teachers and students recognize the value and importance of teacher-student relationships to academic success. Foote (2007) explored positive teacher-student relationships through middle school advisory programs. In this mixed method study, Foote collected data using a questionnaire and interviews of 37 teacher advisors from four California middle schools. The study examined the teachers perception of advisory programs and academic success. The teachers identified three key roles of the advisory teacher: (a) academic advisor, (b) group facilitator, and (c) student advocate. Foote noted that when the roles were in concert, academic achievement, student management, and student motivation increased. Foote concluded that positive teacher-student relationships could be developed through advisory programs that improve student engagement and academic achievement. Ware (2006) explored culturally responsive teaching and its impact on academic achievement among African American students. This qualitative study employed interviews and observations of two intercity urban African American teachers and compared literature research data. The purpose of the study was to explore teaching strategies and to operationalize what Ware described as the warm demander (p. 432). Ware found that positive connections between teacher and student enhanced student achievement. The significance of Wares research as it relates to the present study is that that a positive effect on student achievement emerged when teachers provided synergy in relationships.

Dorothea Gordon

12

Cunningham et al. (2009) examined perceptions of learning experiences and achievement expectations among 129 high achieving African American high school students from a southern city. The quantitative study utilized questionnaires to test the hypothesis that future expectations contributed to academic outcomes. Cunningham et al. noted that the findings might be bidirectional in that academic achievement also contributed to future expectations. Cunningham et al. also noted that students did not let negative friendships affect their academic achievement, and that teacher support influenced academic achievement. Adelabu (2008) examined contributory factors to academic achievement among 661 African American rural and urban middle and high school students. This quantitative study examined factors such as hope, future time perspective, and ethnic affirmation and their effect on student achievement. Higher academic achievement aligned with higher ethnic affirmation. Among the urban students, hope and ethnic affirmation correlated with higher academic achievement. Hope was the only predictor of academic achievement among rural students. Teacher commitment to their community and culturally responsive teaching methods correlated with higher academic achievement among urban and rural students. Ebey (2006) examined similarities and differences of 9th through 11th grade students perception of teacher knowledge of them and academic achievement. The quantitative study surveyed 177 suburban high school students in seven classrooms of three teachers. Surveys assessed four categories: (a) teacher conduct and interaction, (b) student and teacher expectations, (c) safe environment with the opportunity to communicate openly, and (d) teacher engagement with the student and ability to design lessons based on student needs and interests. Findings indicated that students perception of teacher interactions were positive. Students were pleased with the eagerness of teachers to allow students to verbalize the learning processes. Further, students perception of school safety was high in terms of feeling safe at school and the ability to communicate concerns safely

13

NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION JOURNAL

to the teacher. Student and teacher expectations also rated satisfactory for meeting the academic expectations and awareness of academic progress. Most importantly, in terms of the present study, students perceptions of teacher engagement correlated positively with academic progress. Further, students rated teacher interaction, respect, and interest in their academic success highly. In addition, high expectations for achievement were associated with increased teacher knowledge of the student and knowledge of their academic performance. Student perceptions of teacher-student interaction positively influenced their academic success. In a qualitative study of student perceptions of effective and ineffective learning, Spencer and Boon (2006) interviewed four male high school students from a suburban area of a mid-Atlantic state. These students indicated that the teacher relationship positively influenced both their perception of the class and their pending academic success. Spencer and Boon also found that positive teacherstudent relationships influenced learning experiences and were predictive of effective learning experiences. Further, Spencer and Boon indicated that cooperative learning experiences and purposeful, meaningful connections with real world experiences were characteristics of effective learning experiences. In terms of the present study, effective learning experiences were embedded in positive teacher-student relationships. In a mixed methods study of attributes of academic success, Estrada (2009) utilized focus groups and surveyed 275 third through fifth grade students and their parents, as well as 24 staff members of an urban elementary school in Northern California. Data generated from the surveys formulated the questions for the focus groups. Three major themes emerged as contributors to academic success: (a) student engagement with the school environment, (b) parent involvement, and (c) positive teacher-student relationships. As it relates to the present study, Estrada found that a positive teacher-student relationship predicted academic success.

Dorothea Gordon

14

The quality of the teacher and student relationships facilitates the mandated curriculum and improves student achievement (Jennings & Greenberg, 2009; Lemons-Smith, 2008; Martin & Dowson, 2009). When the instruction embeds the students cultural experiences, beliefs, goals, and interests, student achievement increases even more. This provides an opportunity to explore the use of affective domain teaching strategies through AVID instruction with African American students. AVID Instruction Closing the achievement gap is a priority of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 (20 U.S.C.A. 6301 et seq.). It places on states and school districts greater accountability to close the achievement gap by rigorously achieving academic proficiency of the African American student population including the economically disadvantaged. To address the achievement gap, increase student achievement, provide equitable access to advanced placement classes and enrollment postsecondary institutes, a Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) model is required under the NCLB Title 1 funding. The school district selected for this study used this funding to implement AVID instruction as the CSR (Watt, Yanez, & Cossio, 2003; Watt, Huerta, Cossio, 2004). AVID provides the framework for the historically underrepresented student population that has been denied access to the rigorous advanced placement courses, yet is eager for that knowledge (Mendiola, 2010; Watt et al., 2003; Watt, Powel, Mendiola, & Cossio, 2006). The AVID framework was established when an English teacher, Swanson, believed that underrepresented students could achieve in rigorous classes with supplementary support (AVID, 2010). Swanson designed an elective class to provide social and academic support to students. The AVID framework is structured around students who are considered to be in the academic middle (AVID, 2010; California Department of Education, 2010). These students earn average grades of Bs and Cs; however, they have been identified as

15

NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION JOURNAL

having the intellectual potential to achieve at higher standards and are prospective college students. An AVID student has the desire to increase student achievement but faces challenges that potentially hinder achievement. AVID students meet one or more of the following criteria: the first generation college student, economically disadvantaged, or minority student. Through affective domain strategies, AVID students gain self-management, self-advocacy, self-control, and increase in student achievement (AVID, 2010). Cunningham, Corpew, and Becker, (2009) concurred, writing that instilling values of [academic and social] achievement and college aspirations might assist students to engage more in the academic process (p. 290). Watt et al. (2006) demonstrated that students enrolled in AVID classes improved in advanced placement enrollment and high school graduation rates. In another qualitative study, Mendiola et al. (2010) found that student participation in AVID classes developed the positive teacher relationships that influenced their educational experience. The students form positive relationship with their AVID elective teachers. These teachers collaborate with the counselors to design the AVID student schedule and course selection. The students are withdrawn from unchallenging courses and enrolled into a college preparation pathway with at least one advanced placement class to increase the instructional rigor (AVID, 2010; California Department of Education, 2010; Davidson County Schools, 2010; Department of Defense Education Activity, 2010). Studies have supported the principle of increased instructional rigor in advanced placement courses for African American students for increased academic achievement (Blanchett, 2006; Ringo, 2008; Wiggan, 2007). Wiggan (2007) found that increased access to more advanced and rigorous coursework could have a significant impact on African American mathematics achievement directly and indirectly via improved student engagement (p. 909). Blanchett (2006) asserted that for African American students who have constant access to a rigorous curriculum and high standards from the educational

Dorothea Gordon

16

practitioner, the achievement gap is significantly narrowed. AVID students course selection and schedules are designed based on acceleration versus remediation, engagement versus noncompliance, mastery of the intended learning objectives versus lack of mastery. AVID elective teachers instructional experience, collegial relationships, and relational capacity with the students play a significant role in the course selection, scheduling process, access to and progress in advanced placement classes. Watt et al.s (2004) research on AVID implementation process noted that the elective teacher is the change agent in nurturing the relational capacity between the teacher and student. Watt, Johnston, Huerta, Mendiola, and Akans (2008) mixed method study reported that the relational capacity developed between the teacher and student was critical to academic access, progress, and achievement in high school, college preparedness, and college achievement. Methodology This quasi-experimental study based on archival data explored differences in mathematics achievement of 51 African American students enrolled in an AVID elective course with a control group of 51 African American students not enrolled in an AVID elective course. The research design and approach, findings, and recommendations are reviewed in the following sections. Research Design and Approach This study used a quasi experimental design that focused on African American students in a suburban school district. A postpositivist theoretical framework that focuses on the relationship of AVID instruction for student achievement of the African American students at the secondary level informed this study. Creswell (2003), Hatch (2002), and Merriman (2005) described the postpositivism framework as a structure that examines the depth and complexity of the cause and effect of a phenomenon. The postpositivist framework

17

NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION JOURNAL

extends knowledge through hypothesis testing, experiments, and data collection and statistical analysis (Creswell, 2003). In terms of the present study, the postpositivism framework informed the examination of the significance of the relationship between AVID instruction and student achievement. Because tests of between-groups differences support a postpositive framework, I used a t test to determine the efficacy of AVID instruction. This between-groups test of mathematics achievement revealed the effect of the intervention on student performance. Students assigned to the experimental condition received instruction from teachers trained in the delivery of AVID instruction; counterparts in the control group did not receive AVID instruction. Using SPSS computer software version 16 (Statistical Packages for Social Sciences; SPSS Inc.), I compared Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) scores of students assigned to AVID instruction with scores from the control group in order to determine whether there were any statistically significant differences between the experimental group and the control group. In the first phase of this study, I examined 2009 mathematics assessment data for all student participants. I examined scores on the 2010 TAKS mathematics exams and compared them to 2009 scores for each group. The purpose of comparing 2009 and 2010 scores was to detect statistically significant differences between the two groups. In the second phase of the study, I examined changes in scores for the AVID students and compared them to the scores of students in the non-AVID group. If the AVID group had shown significant improvement over the non-AVID group, I would have rejected the null hypothesis in favor of the alternative. Teachers trained and qualified in the delivery of AVID instruction facilitated the elective course.

Dorothea Gordon

18

Instrumentation and Materials TAKS is a mandated, criterion-referenced assessment. It is a statewide program designed to assess student progress in the state mandated curriculum, the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills ([TEKS] TEA, 2010). Students take the TAKS assessment in grades 3 through 11 and, and an end of course assessment in mathematics, language arts/reading, science, and social studies. The dependent variable in this study was TAKS mathematics scores. I recorded 2009 TAKS scores of all participants at the commencement of the study, as well as 2010 scores at the conclusion. In order to comply with NCLB requirements, Texas mandates annual assessments for proficiency in mathematics for all secondary students (TEA, 2008). The TEA accountability standard for mathematics is 60% is academically acceptable, 80% is recognized, and 90% is exemplary. In terms of district and campus accountability ratings, exemplary is 90% passing for all subjects, 80% for all subjects is recognized, and academically acceptable varies by subject area 55% for science, 60% for mathematics, and 70% for English language arts/reading, writing, and social studies (Heilig & Darling-Hammond, 2008; TEA, 2010). At the conclusion of the study, I compared 2009 TAKS mathematics scores to 2010 scores to determine changes in academic performance. To ensure, reliability and validity, the AVID teacher must have attended the AVID Summer Institute, Pathway Training, and local regional and district training sessions. The primary objective of this training is the AVID curriculum, instructional delivery process, data collection and analysis, college readiness, and collaborative processes. The AVID district director monitors the use and delivery of the AVID framework through classroom observations, review of the data analysis, and by completing the AVID campus certification checklist.

19

NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION JOURNAL

Hypotheses and Data Analysis Mean scores for both the experimental and control groups are reported in Table #1. See Appendixes A and B for the full data set for both the AVID and non-AVID groups respectively. Table 1
AVID and non-AVID 2009 and 2010 TAKS Scores

Mean 2009 AVID Group 2010 AVID Group 2009 non-AVID Group 2010 non-AVID Group 2260.87 2245.84 2253.14 2214.02

SD 157.12 110.58 150.56 94.86

Std. Error 22.00 15.48 21.08 13.28

In order to determine differences in TAKS scores for the AVID and non-AVID groups, I conducted a dependent samples t test for each group. For the AVID group, the difference between 2009 and 2010 TAKS scores was a mean change in score of .918 and a significance of p=.363 (see Table #2). For the non-AVID group, the difference between 2009 and 2010 TAKS scores was a change of 2.188 and a significance of p=.033 (see Table 3).

Dorothea Gordon

20

Table 1 Change in TAKS Scores for AVID Group


Mean Change AVID 2010 AVID 2009 14.95 SD 117.22 t .918 Sig. .363

Table 2 Change in TAKS Scores for non-AVID Group


Mean Change Non-AVID 2010 non-AVID 2009 39.12 SD 127.66 t .219 Sig. .033

After determining that the differences in TAKS scores were not significant, I conducted an independent samples t test for mean group differences between the AVID and non-AVID group. A Levenes test of equal variances showed that scores in both the AVID and non-AVID group were not equally distributed ( F=.762; p=.384). The result of the independent samples t test for unequally distributed groups was t= 1.075 (p=.284), which falls within the critical region (see Table 4).

21

NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION JOURNAL

Table 3 Independent Samples T Test of Mean Differences


95% Confidence Interval t AVID vs. nonAVID Group 1.07 5 df 20 2 Sig. . 284 Mean Diff 19.74 Std. Error Diff 18.36 Upper Bound -16.47 Lower Bound 55.94

Hypothesis 1 The null hypothesis stated that there is no statistically significant difference in mathematics achievement between students in the AVID experimental group and students in the non-AVID control group. To test this hypothesis, I conducted a dependent samples t test to compare 2009 TAKS mathematics test scores to the 2010 scores for both the experimental and control groups. This test resulted in a value of t that was small for the numerator and dominator, which signified failure to reject the null hypothesis 1. The value of t for the experimental group was .918 (p=.363), which indicated no real statistical change. Therefore, the failure to reject the null hypothesis indicated that AVID instruction had no significant effect on mathematics achievement among the African American high school students in ABC school district in this study. For the control group, the value of t was 2.188 (p=.033), which suggested that while not statistically significant, the non-AVID students had demonstrated more improvement on the 2010 TAKS mathematics than did the AVID group. After failing to reject null hypothesis 1, I examined individual growth in each group (see Table 5). I compared within group 2009 and 2010 TAKS scores of the AVID group to determine whether any

Dorothea Gordon

22

improvement was evident. The results indicated that among the AVID group, mean scores improved by 14.95 points (SD=117.22) and that among the non-AVID group, mean scores increased by 39.12 points (SD=127.66). The relatively large standard deviations in both groups suggest that extremely low and extremely high improvements in scores skewed the results somewhat. Table 4 Improvements in 2010 TAKS Scores
Group AVID Non-AVID Mean Change in Score 14.95 39.12 SD 117.22 127.66

Subject Mastery Among the AVID Group According to TEA (2010), scores at or above 2100 on the TAKS mathematics assessment indicate subject mastery. Scores at or above 2400 are in the commended group. A score of 2400 indicates that the student responded correctly to 95% of the assessment items. As indicated in Appendix A, 49 AVID students demonstrated mastery on the 2010 TAKS mathematics assessment. Of those 49 students, 45 achieved scores of 2100 or above. The data indicated that among the AVID group, 6 students improved from the nonmastery level in 2009 to the mastery level in 2010. Only 1 student went from mastery in 2009 to nonmastery in 2010. Furthermore, only 1 student failed to achieve the mastery level on both the 2009 and 2010 TAKS administrations. That 9 students earned the commended rating on the 2010 TAKS was evidence of academic growth. Of those 9 students, 8 maintained the commended rating between 2009 to 2010 TAKS.

23

NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION JOURNAL

Subject Mastery Among the non-AVID Group Although the study found no significant differences in mean score changes, I compared the individual student growth of the nonAVID group. The data (see Appendix B) demonstrated that 48 nonAVID students showed mastery on the 2010 TAKS mathematics assessment. Of those 48 students, 45 maintained the mastery rate of 2100 or above between 2009 and 2010 TAKS administrations. Four non-AVID students increased scores that moved them from the nonmastery level in 2009 to the mastery level in 2010. Only 2 nonAVID students decreased from the mastery level in 2009 to the nonmastery level in 2010. Furthermore, 1 non-AVID student performed at the nonmastery level on both the 2009 and 2010 TAKS math assessments. When reviewing commended level performance, only 4 non-AVID students earned that rating on the 2010 TAKS, 2 of whom maintained that rating on both 2009 to 2010 TAKS administrations. The lack of statistical significance throughout the study indicates that AVID instruction did not have an effect on student achievement among African American students enrolled in AVID instruction. Scores did not significantly improve for either the AVID group or the non-AVID group between the 2009 and 2010 TAKS administrations. Hypothesis 2 To analyze hypothesis 2, an independent samples t test was used to compare 2009 and 2010 TAKS math assessment for the AVID and non-AVID groups. The null hypothesis held that there is no statistically significant increase in mathematics achievement between AVID students and the non-AVID students. Because of the failure to reject null hypothesis 1, I could not reject null hypothesis 2. As noted above, the results of the independent samples t test indicated a t value of 1.075 (p=.284), which falls within the critical region. Therefore, the analysis resulted in a failure to reject the null hypothesis 2 as well,

Dorothea Gordon

24

indicating no significant increase in mathematics achievement between the AVID experimental group and the non-AVID control group. The analysis of 2009 and 2010 TAKS mathematics assessment data resulted in a failure to reject null hypothesis 1. I could not reject the first null hypothesis because TAKS scores did change significantly between the AVID and non-AVID students. Because scores did not change significantly between the 2009 and 2010 administrations for either group, the AVID group scores could not have been significantly higher than scores in the non-AVID group. Discussion and Conclusion The purpose of the study was to determine if AVID instruction affected achievement on the TAKS mathematics assessment among African American high school students in ABC school district. To test the hypotheses in this study, I examined and compared the results of TAKS mathematics assessments administered in 2009 and 2010. The goal of AVID instruction is to provide academic support to identified students in order to increase academic access and participation in advanced placement courses in order to comply with the NCLB mandate that schools close the achievement gap for underrepresented students. Null hypothesis 1 predicted that there would be no significant difference in mathematics achievement as measured by the TAKS performance standards between the experimental group and the control group. For this hypothesis, I conducted a dependent samples t test to compare the results on the 2009 and 2010 TAKS mathematics assessments for AVID and non-AVID students. The data analysis resulted in no significance between groups difference in mathematics achievement among African American high school students enrolled in AVID instruction. Tests further demonstrated that students in the non-AVID group showed more improvement on the 2010 TAKS

25

NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION JOURNAL

mathematic assessment when compared to students in the AVID group. Null hypothesis 2 predicted that there would be no significant increase in mathematics achievement as measured by the TAKS performance standards between the AVID experimental group and the non-AVID control group. For this hypothesis, I conducted an independent samples t test to compare increases in TAKS mathematics scores between the 2009 and 2010 administrations. For the experimental group, the analysis did not find that the AVID group significantly increased mathematics achievement when compared to the control group. The findings of this study may provide assistance for educational practitioners who are researching methods to improve student achievement in mathematics in an attempt to close the academic achievement gap for African American high school students. As educational practitioners and professional learning communities revisit and refine their campus improvement plans, educational standards, performance assessments, and address student achievement in math, decisions must favor research based frameworks Interpretation of the Findings Analysis of 2009 and 2010 TAKS mathematics assessment data resulted in a failure to reject the null hypotheses in this study. The failure to reject the null hypotheses indicated that AVID instruction had no significant effect on academic achievement among students in the experimental group. As such, I found that AVID instruction did not significantly affect student achievement in mathematics for African American high school students. There was not a significant increase in TAKS scores for either the AVID experimental group or the non-AVID control group. While academic achievement in mathematics did not significantly increase among

Dorothea Gordon

26

AVID students, neither did it improve among students in the nonAVID group. The results of the study support the existing body of literature on the affective domains impact on relational capacity (Mendiola et al., 2010; Watt et al., 2004; 2008). Watt et al. (2008) stated that the relational capacity developed between the teacher and the student is essential to the students academic performance. Watt et al. found that an effective AVID elective teacher is crucial for the AVID instructional process to systemically impact achievement. The elective teacher provides the academic and personal support through the AVID curriculum, tutorials, and engagement activities in college readiness and career paths. The AVID framework promotes academic and personal support for the AVID students through the AVID instructional process. The data suggested that in order for AVID instruction to affect significantly achievement in mathematics among the African American high school students in this study, there must be a systematic approach to the delivery of AVID instruction. The mathematics teachers of AVID students must have the opportunity to receive training in the AVID instructional strategies and curriculum. All teachers who have AVID elective students in their classrooms must have access to AVID curriculum and staff development training. In general, the present study provided a foundation for further exploration of the effectiveness of AVID instruction. Implications for Social Change In order to contribute to the development of a citizenry that is fully able to participate and have access to a global economic marketplace, educational practitioners must understand the impediments to academic achievement and the significance of closing the achievement gap. In order to comply with NCLB mandates, it is

27

NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION JOURNAL

paramount that educators find a way to close the achievement gap for historically underserved student populations. The goal of public education is to provide all students with access to and opportunities for participation, and to allow students to progress and succeed in an academically rigorous curriculum. Such a curriculum prepares students to graduate from high school fully prepared for college. AVID instruction is one instructional delivery process that attempts to meet this goal. As indicated, the goal of the present study was to increase awareness of AVID instruction and its impact on academic achievement for an underserved student population. One such population is African American high school students, the population with the largest achievement gap. The results of the study can support efforts to close the achievement gap, and to produce a citizenry of strong moral character, real world problem solvers, and critical thinkers crucial to the global economic society of the 21st century. Recommendations Educators using the AVID framework to close the achievement gap need to reexamine the AVID mission. During the 2010 AVID Summer Institute, the new AVID mission emphasizes a systemic approach through elementary, secondary, and postsecondary education. The goal of the AVID framework is to close the achievement gap for all students by preparing students in fourth grade through postsecondary grades for college readiness, access, and success in a global economic society (AVID, 2010). It is vital to explore the lack of a systematic approach to AVID instruction. In order for AVID instruction to translate into increases in achievement on the annual TAKS mathematics assessment, those responsible for administering the AVID framework must embed it in the district and campus cultures.

Dorothea Gordon

28

A failure to find a significant effect of AVID instruction on academic achievement among African American students in this study suggests the need to examine further the delivery of AVID instruction. The district has since embedded AVID instructional strategies such as the use of Cornell notes, learning logs, structured tutorials, and Socratic questioning into the instructional delivery. The findings herein emphasize the need for more research of instructional delivery and the impact of the effective teacher practitioner. Marzano (2003) identified eight factors that influence student achievement, the most significant of which is having an effective teacher in the classroom. Marzano noted that student achievement increases 34% when an effective teacher facilitates the learning experiences contained in the curriculum. Further, Modlin (2008) found in a mixed method study that student engagement increased when facilitated within an effective teacher-student relationship. Mendiola et al. (2010) found that the AVID elective teacher influenced the learning experiences of students enrolled in an AVID elective class. Finally, Watt et al. (2008) concluded that an effective AVID elective teacher positively influenced academic achievement, college readiness, and college performance. Summary Several researchers (Jennings & Greenberg, 2009; Martin & Dowson, 2009; Marzano, 2003; Modlin, 2008; Schlechty, 2002; Ware, 2006; Woolley et al., 2008) have studied affective domain instruction in general and specifically, AVID instruction (Mendiola, 2010; Watt et al., 2003; Watt et al., 2004; Watt et al., 2006). These studies emphasized the importance of positive teacher-student relationships, and access to and participation in an instructionally rigorous curriculum. The results of these studies showed a positive effect of affective domain instruction on academic achievement among underrepresented student populations when embedded in the district, campus, and classroom culture.

29

NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION JOURNAL

For 30 years, AVID instruction has demonstrated measureable outcomes as an established data-driven program when embedded in the district and campus organizational culture (AVID, 2010). Eightyone percent of AVID students are underrepresented minorities; 78% of the class of 2008 were accepted into a 4 year university (AVID, 2010). Nationally, 38% of AVID students successfully completed college entrance exams. In Texas, the 2009 graduation rate among AVID students was 89%. Closing the achievement gap for the underrepresented students requires access, participation, progress, and success in a rigorous curriculum. Sixty-four percent of AVID students represent ethnically diverse populations now enrolled in advanced placement classes nationally (AVID, 2010). The present study explored AVID instruction and academic achievement among African American high school students. This study did not find a statistically significant improvement in test scores on the TAKS mathematics assessment among AVID enrolled students. Because the present study did not find a significant effect, researchers should begin to explore differences as they relate to AVID implementation. With every new initiative comes an implementation dip. In order for AVID instruction to be effective, the embedding of a systematic approach in the district and campus culture is required. To the extent that perception is reality, the perception of the effectiveness of AVID instruction for improving academic achievement of underserved student populations has been the reality for AVID supporters. Although not supported in this study, there is some merit to affective domain instruction for students identified as underserved. Ideally, the results of the present study will generate future discussions and encourage research of the systematic implementation of AVID instruction for all students in support of the AVID mission: To close the achievement gap, educators must prepare all students for college readiness performance in order to have access and to participate in a global economic society.

Dorothea Gordon

30

REFERENCES Adelabu, D. H. (2008). Future time perspective, hope, and ethnic identity among African American adolescents. Urban Education, 43(3), 347-360. doi:10.1177/0042085907311806 Aud, S., Hussar, W., Planty, M., Snyder, T., Bianco, K., Fox, M., Frohlich, L., Drake, L. (2010). The condition of education 2010 (NCES 2010-028). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2010/2020028.pdf AVID. (2010). About us. Quick facts. Retrieved from http://www.avidonline.org Baker, P. B. (2005). The impact of cultural biases on African American students education: A review of research literature regarding race based schooling. Education and Urban Society, 37(3), 243-256. doi:10.1177/0013124504274187 Black, D. L. (2007). The relationship between affect and constructivism as viewed by middle school science teachers. (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 3244138) Blanchett, W. J. (2006). Disproportionate representation of African American students in special education: Acknowledging the role of white privilege and racism. Educational Researcher, 35(6), 24-28. doi:10.3102/0013189X035006024 California Department of Education. (2010). Advancement Via Individual Determination: An in-school academic support program for grades 6 through 12. Retrieved from http://www.cde.ca.gov/ci/gs/ps/avidgen.asp Carpenter, II, D. M., Ramirez, A., & Severn, L. (2006). Gap or gaps: Challenging the singular definition of the achievement gap. Education and Urban Society, 39(1), 113-127. doi:10.1177/0013124506291792 Child Trends Databank. (n.d.). High school dropout rates. Retrieved from http://www.childtrendsdatabank.org

31

NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION JOURNAL

Creswell, J. W. (2003). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Cunningham, M., Corprew, C. S., & Becker, J. E. (2009). Associations of future expectations, negative friends, and academic achievement in high-achieving African American adolescents. Urban Education, 44(3), 280-296. doi: 10.1177/0042085908318715 Davidson County Schools. (2010). What is AVID? Retrieved from http://www.davidson.k12.nc.us/education/components/scrapbo ok/default.php? sectiondetailid=39012&PHPSESSID=87404792aa90d4ad6177 896 Department of Defense Education Activity. (2010). AVID Program. Retrieved from http://www.pac.dodea.edu/edservices/educationprograms/avid. htm De Martino, P. D., & Zan, R. (2003). What does positive attitude really mean? Paper presented on July 13-18, 2003, at the 27th International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education Conference Held Jointly with the 25th PME-NA Conference, Honolulu, HI. DeCuir-Gunby, J. T., Taliaferro, J. D., & Greenfield, D. (2010). Educators perspectives on culturally relevant programs for academic success: The American excellence association. Education and Urban Society, 42(2), 182-204. doi:10.1177/0013124509349874 Denton, P. (2008). The power of words. Educational Leadership, 66(1), 28-31. Ebey, T. (2006). The relationship of student perception of teacher treatment and student achievement (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 3264741) Eiss, A. F., & Harbeck, M. B. (1969). Behavioral objectives in the affective domain. National Science Teachers Association. Washington, DC: NEA Publications.

Dorothea Gordon

32

Estrada, A. (2009). Conditional success: Identifying the conditions which are perceived to influence urban elementary school student success (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 3362480) Foote, D. J. (2007). Building positive student-teacher relationships through middle school advisory programs (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI 3302564) Hansen, K. (2008). Teaching within all three domains to maximize student learning. Strategies, 21(6), 9-13. Hargreaves, A. (2003). Teaching in the knowledge society: Education in the age of insecurity. New York, NY: Teachers College Press. Hatch, J. A. (2002). Doing qualitative research in educational settings. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Heilig, J. V., & Darling-Hammond, L. (2008). Accountability Texasstyle: The progress and learning of urban minority students in a high-stakes testing context. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 30(2), 75-110. doi:10.3102/0162373708317689 Holt, B. J., & Hannon, J. C. (2006). Teaching-learning in the affective domain. Strategies, 20(1), 11-13. Info Please Database. (n.d.). High school dropout rates by sex. Retrieved from http://www.infoplease.com Jennings, P. A., & Greenberg, M. T. (2009). The prosocial classroom: Teacher social and emotional competence in relation to student and classroom outcomes. Review of Educational Research, 79(1), 491-526. doi:10.3102/0034654308325693 Kessler, R. (2000). The soul of education: Helping students find connections, compassion, and character at school. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Kirt, K. (n.d.). What is the affective domain? Student motivations and attitudes: The role of the affective domain in geoscience learning. Retrieved from http://serc.carleton.edu

33

NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION JOURNAL

Lemons-Smith, S. (2008). Dr. Asa G. Hilliard III: Trumpeter for the academic and cultural excellence of African American children. Review of Educational Research, 78(4), 908-920. doi:10.3102/0034654308321296 Lewis, A. G., James, M., Hancock, S., & Hill-Jackson, V. (2008). Framing African American students success and failure in urban settings: A typology for change. Urban Education, 43(2), 127-153. doi:10.1177/0042085907312315 Malikow, M. (2006). Teaching in the affective domain: Turning a crier into a crier. Kappa Delta Pi Record, 43(1), 36-38. Marshall, M., & Oliva, M. (2006). Leadership for social justice: Making revolutions in education. Boston, MA: Pearson Education. Martin, A. J., & Dowson, M. (2009). Interpersonal relationships, motivation, engagement, and achievement: Yields for theory, current issues, and educational practice. Review of Educational Research, 79(1), 327-365. doi: 10.3102/0034654308325583 Marzano, R. (2003). What works in schools: Translating research into action. Alexandra, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Mendiola, I. D., Watt, K. M., & Huerta, J. (2010). Impact of advancement via individual determination (AVID) on Mexican American students enrolled in a 4-year university. Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, XX(X), 1-12. doi:10.1177/1538192710368313 Merriam, S. B., & Associates. (2002). Qualitative research in practice: Examples for discussion and analysis. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Modlin, C. (2008). Student-teacher relationships and their effect on student achievement at the secondary level (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 3336717)

Dorothea Gordon

34

Nasir, N. S., McLaughlin, M. W., & Jones, A. (2009). What does it mean to be African American? Constructions of race and academic identity in an urban public high school. American Education Research Journal, 46(1), 73-114. doi:10.3102/0002831208323279 National Center of Educational Statistics. (2007). Fast facts. Retrieved from http://www.nces.ed.gov National Center of Educational Statistics. (2010). Fast facts. Retrieved from http://www.nces.ed.gov Newberry, M. (2008). Examining conceptual understandings in the building and maintaining of student-teacher relationships by way of productive reflection practices (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 334294) Oesterle, M. (2008). Student perceptions of effective teaching (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 3304869) Payne, R. (1995). A Framework: Understanding and working with students and adults from poverty. Baytown, TX: RFT Publishing. Pearce, R. R. (2006). Effects of cultural and social structural factors on the achievement of White and Chinese American students at school transition points. American Educational Research Journal, 43(1), 75-101. doi:10.3102/00028312043001075 Ratner, G. M. (2007). Why the No Child Left Behind Act needs to be restructured to accomplish it goals and how to do it. University of the District of Columbia Law Review, 9, 1-45. Ringo, S. R. (2008). Increasing black student participants and achievement in advanced placement courses: A comparative analysis of two schools (Doctoral Dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 3307937) Schlechty, P. (2002). Working on the work: An action plan for teachers, principals, and superintendents. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishing.

35

NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION JOURNAL

Schmoker, M. (2006). Results now: How we can achieve unprecedented improvements in teaching and learning. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Shipler, D. K. (2005). The working poor: Invisible in America. New York, NY: Random House. Smith, R., & Lambert, M. (2008). Assuming the best. Educational Leadership, 66(1), 16-21. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org Spencer, V. G., & Boon, R. T. (2006). Influencing learning experiences: Lets ask the students! Intervention in School and Clinic, 41(4), 244. doi: 10.1177/10534512060410040801 Spring, J. (2008). The American school: From the Puritans to No Child Left Behind (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. SPSS, Inc. (2007). SPSS for Windows (Computer Software; Rel. 16.0). Chicago, IL: Author. Stillwell, R. (2010). Public school graduates and dropouts from the common core of data: School year 200708 (NCES 2010-341). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp? pubid=2010341 Stinson, D. W. (2008). Negotiating sociocultural discourses: The counter-storytelling of academically (and mathematically) successful African American male students. American Educational Research Journal, 45(4), 975-1010. doi:10.3102/0002831208319723 Tatum, B. (2003). Why are all the black kids sitting together in the cafeteria? and other conversations about race. New York, NY: Basic Books. Texas Education Agency. (2007). Assessment and accountability. Retrieved from http://www.tea.state.tx.us Texas Education Agency. (2008). Assessment and accountability. Retrieved from http://www.tea.state.tx.us Texas Education Agency. (2010). Assessment and accountability. Retrieved from http://www.tea.state.tx.us

Dorothea Gordon

36

Thornhill, V.J. (2006). Improving English language arts achievement among seventh- and eighth-grade socioeconomically disadvantaged African-American and Hispanic students in six suburban California middle schools (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 3234472) Vall, E. (2007). Relationships between teacher expectations of student ability and best practice teaching (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 3296695) Varlas, L. (2008). Full-service community schools. Info Brief, 54, 1-8. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org Walker, E. N. (2006). Urban high school students academic communities and their effects on mathematics success. American Educational Research Journal, 43(1), 43-73. doi:10.3102/00028312043001043 Ware, F. (2006). Warm demander pedagogy: Culturally responsive teaching that supports a culture of achievement for African American students. Urban Education, 41(4), 427-456. doi:10.1177/0042085906289710 Watt,K.M., Huerta, J., & Cossio, G. (2004). Leadership and AVID implementation levels in four south Texas border schools. Catalyst for Change, 33(2), 10-14. Retrieved from http://avid.panam.edu Watt, K. M., Johnston, D., Huerta, J., Mendiola, I. D., & Alkan, E. (2008). Retention of 1st generation college-going seniors in college preparatory AVID. American Secondary Education, 37(1), 17-40. Retrieved from http://www.avid.org Watt, K. M, Powell, C. A., Mendiola, I. D., & Cossio, G. (2006). School-wide impact and AVID: How have selected Texas high schools addressed the new accountability measures? Journal of Education for Students Placed At Risk, 11(1), 57-73. Retrieved from http://www.avid.org

37

NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION JOURNAL

Watt, K. M, Yanez, D., & Cossio, G. (2003). AVID: A comprehensive school reform model for Texas. National Forum of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 19(3), 43-59. Retrieved from http://www.avid.org Wiggan, G. (2007). Race, school achievement, and educational inequality: Toward a student-based inquiry perspective. Review of Educational Research, 77(3), 310-333. doi:10.3102/003465430303947 Woolley, M. E., Kol, K. L., & Bowen, G. L. (2008). The social context of school success for Latino middle school students: Direct and indirect influences of teachers, family, and friends. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 29(1), 43-70. doi: 10.1177/0272431608324478

Dorothea Gordon

38

Appendix A: AVID Group 2009 and 2010 TAKS Scores


Student 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 2009 2142 2298 2499 2342 2478 2323 2253 2061 2275 2100 2253 2433 2195 2298 2253 2061 2400 2171 2452 2213 2142 2478 2125 2636 2176 2109 2010 2151 2233 2283 2492 2400 2323 2126 2302 2190 2079 2265 2400 2102 2302 2249 2171 2402 2274 2482 2163 2204 2427 2176 2437 2204 2114 9 -65 -216 150 -78 0 -127 241 -85 -21 12 -33 -93 4 -4 110 2 103 30 -50 62 -51 51 -199 28 5 Student 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 2009 2298 2636 2125 2025 2261 2142 2433 2213 1885 2120 2213 2275 2323 2279 2261 2233 2077 2275 2557 2084 2298 2478 2145 2253 2245 2010 2218 2265 2102 2160 2321 2126 2401 2218 2100 2274 2204 2218 2346 2220 2207 2163 2056 2163 2176 2195 2346 2400 2233 2204 2220 -80 -371 -23 135 60 -16 -32 5 215 154 -9 -57 23 -59 -54 -70 -21 -112 -381 111 48 -78 88 -49 -25

39

NATIONAL FORUM OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION JOURNAL

Appendix B: Non-AVID Group 2009 and 2010 TAKS Scores


Student 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 2009 2557 2100 2414 2195 2171 2103 2195 2253 2195 2100 2213 2275 2275 2037 2233 2253 2350 2275 2109 2158 2108 2414 2452 2049 2195 2414 2010 2249 2183 2402 2072 2207 2253 2100 2126 2204 2126 2233 2249 2190 2195 2138 2102 2402 2218 2009 2305 2171 2176 2346 2195 2102 2283 -308 83 -12 -123 36 150 -95 -127 9 26 20 -26 -85 158 -95 -151 52 -57 -100 147 63 -238 -106 146 -93 -131 Student 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 2009 2298 1927 2049 2298 2253 2298 2145 2298 2414 2253 2120 2350 2400 2769 2275 2158 2323 2195 2499 2056 2233 2233 2452 2350 2171 2010 2204 2103 2058 2249 2151 2265 2233 2204 2323 2114 2183 2249 2402 2283 2400 2220 2138 2114 2437 2184 2249 2176 2233 2233 2274 -94 176 9 -49 -102 -33 88 -94 -91 -139 63 -101 2 -486 125 62 -185 -81 -62 128 16 -57 -219 -117 103