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COGNITIVE DISCOURSES

INTERNATIONAL MULTIDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL


(Bi-Monthly)

Volume 1, Issue 1, July 2013

ISSN 2321 - 1075

A PEER REVIEWED JOURNAL

nAs
PUBLISHERS

Editor

Prof. (Dr.) A. Sudharma Professor, School of Pedagogical Sciences, Dean, Faculty of Education, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala, India. Associate Editors Dr. Mariamma Mathew Associate Professor, Peet Memorial Training College, Mavelikara, Kerala, India. Naseerali. M. K. Research Scholar, Government College of Teacher Education, Thycaud, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. Editorial Board Dr. T.V. Sunish Lecturer, Inter University Centre for Disability Studies, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala, India. Manikandan Alungal Dharmadasan ICSSR Fellowship Awardee, School of International Relations and Politics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala, India. Dhanya Krishna Assistant Professor, Department of Commerce, SNG College, Chelannur, Kozhikode, Kerala, India. P. Rintarajan Varghese Head, Medical Surgical Department, Bel-Air College of Nursing, Pune, Maharashtra,India. Prince. T. R. Government Higher Secondary School, Kunchithanni, Idukki District, Kerala, India. Sibu. V. G. Department of English, St. Xaviers International School, Panchgani, Maharashtra, India. Publisher Naseerali. M. K. Research Scholar, Government College of Teacher Education, Thycaud, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. Hashif Manzil, Perinthattiri P.O. Cheloor, Malappuram Dt. Kerala, India. Ph: 09745073615, 08907162762, Email: naspublishers@gmail.com Web: naspublishers.blogspot.com v4u Computers Opp. M.G. University, Kottayam

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The views expressed in this publication are not necessarily those of the Editor or the Editorial Review Board. Papers published in this journal cannot be reproduced elsewhere without the permission of the Publisher.

Contents
From the Desk Waves on Cognitive Discourses Prof. (Dr.) A Sudharma Articles The Saturated Sponges Mohammed Saud P.P and Aseel Abdul Wahid Ergonomics in Agricultural Education Poornima Rajendran and G. Lokanadha Reddy Disability and Farming in India: Problems and Prospects Dr. G. Lokanadha Reddy and Dr. R. Vijaya Anuradha Disabilities and Assistive Technologies in Agriculture Farming Dr. R. Vijaya Anuradha and Dr. G. Lokanadha Reddy Effect of Role Play On Developing Communication Skills of Children with Moderate Mental Retardation Dr. T. V. Sunish Awareness of Special Educators Regarding Persons with Disabilities Act 1995 Dr. Sreeja S and Sinimol P.S Role of Education in Determining the Awareness Level about Welfare Schemes among Backward Classes: A Study of Rural Haryana Dr. Prem Kumar, Dr. Sunil Kumar and Suresh Kumar Review of the Article The Idea of Integrated Education: From the Point of View of Whiteheads Philosophy of Education Beena Indrani The Role of Open and Distance Learning in Quality Education Value Education and National Reconstruction Preety Agarwal Value Education and National Reconstruction Dr. Uday Singh Self Concept and Parental Involvement of the Learning Disabled Students of Secondary Schools Aseel Abdul Wahid and Dr. Mohamedunni Alias Musthafa Exploring Perspectives of Scientific Literacy: An Overview Dr. Animesh K. Mohapatra Effect of Argument Mapping Technique on Achievement in Physics of Students at Secondary Level Mrs. Rajasree S. and Mrs. Rakhy Radhakrishnan 89 79 75 69 63 61 51 47 41 28 14 4 2 1

Effectiveness of an Instructional Package in Physical Sciences Based On Explicit Instruction Strategy for Enhancing Creativity Among Higher Secondary School Students Prakash Alex A Diagnostic Study of Errors in Solving Problems in Geometry by Students of 7th Grade Dr. Shruti Anand and Dr. Avinash Pandey Marketing Problems and Suicides of the Handloom Weavers-A Study in Kadapa District of Andhra Pradesh Dr. S. Babu Praveen Kumar Nutritional Well-Being of Persons with Dementia-Some Good Practices in Dementia Family Care in Kerala Robin Jose and Dr Mahajan P Mani Socio Economic Conditions of Pachamalai Tribes Dr. R. Shankar and S. Manimaran Self-Acceptance of Street Children Dr. A. Kusuma Incidents of Suicide among Youth in Kerala: An Analytical and Retrospective Study Into Psychosocial Determinants And Consequences Sudheer K.V and Dr. A.Sethurama Subbiah Social Determinants Contributing for Persistent Manual Scavenging Practices A Case Study M. Ponnuchamy, A. Thomas William, V. Davis Raja and B. Alex Pandi Treatment Seeking Behaviour among the Rural Widows Living With Hiv/Aids B. Alex Pandi, A. Thomas William, V. Davis Raja and M. Ponnuchamy A Study on Emotional Intelligence Based on Hemispheric Specialization Boban Eranimos Is Social Networking Sites a Catalyst to Socialization? Dr. Reni Francis Prevalence and Determinants of Depression among Rural Elderly Dr. S. Gunesekaran and Dr. A. Thomas William Youth and Consumer Behaviour- A Study among the College Students in Thrissur District Manjima. M. V Charlotte Brontes Jane Eyre as an Unconventional Novel Dr. Kaushal Kotadia and Dr. Parul Popat Colours of Courage-Characterization of Women by Raja Rao Wadhwaniya Mayur The Metamorphosis of Culture Conflict in Chinua Achebes Things Fall Apart Soniya Rajput Women in Milletcrop Management Influencing Policy Change Dr. R. Shankar and Dr. A. Lalitha

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An Empirical Study on Stress Level among Women Employees and Its Impact on Their Behavior/Health Rajesh Sain and Madhumala Pathy A Study on Mahabharata Dr. Sreeletha. P NGO's For the Cause of Disaster Management M. Sreedhar Pros and Cons of Employees Stock Options in India Dr. Deepak R. Raste Effect of Deep Breathing on Blood Pressure in Women with Hypertension in Selected Community Areas Ms. Adriana Pinto Development of a Communication Board to Identify Needs of Patients on Mechanical Ventilation Post Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Ms. Rinta Rajan Measurement of Concentration of U, Th and K in the Sediments from the Permian Triassic Sections, Spiti Valley, H.P. India Punam Mehta Characterization of Plasma Treated Polyester Fabric Naseerali.M.K. To Study Antimicrobial Properties of Eucalyptus Globules Plant on E.Coli species, Bhopal, M.P. India Ankur Pauranik lwj vkSj czt&laLd`fr

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Just do what must be done.


This may not be happiness, but it is greatness.
George Bernard Shaw

Cognitive Discourses International Multidisicplinary Journal ISSN 2321-1075 Volume 1, Issue 1, July 2013

From the Desk WAVES ON COGNITIVE DISCOURSES


Prof. (Dr.) A Sudharma

The purpose of the journal is to provide a practically set design parameters to construct prototypes for being an interdisciplinary approach. The educational imperative of an interdependent world are becoming so clear in the educational enterprise that traditional programs and their component disciplines are becoming truly internationalised. It creates flexibility in thinking and ability to approach and formulate cognitive questions to lead and develop an interdisciplinary network of knowledge production. It may also be that the trend towards infusing this state of mind in all aspects of our educational systems has progressed fast the take off point, if so the future will see increasing innovation in education for global interdependence in all of the related convergent strands. As an interdisciplinary journal, it intensifies to establish coherent theories, conceptual frameworks and a body of research studies/ literature that is in the form of position papers, evaluative reports, and a lot of other articles attempts to legitimise cognitive discourses and dispositional transformation in the field. I hope that in the future there will be more systematic studies and research on the various strands in the multidisciplinary landscape.In addition, more interdisciplinary and inter professional studies and research is needed to clarify the relationships in the thrust areas. It is an attempt to make use of research in the multidisciplinary field should keep clearly in mind that the processes, systems, artefacts, structures and the power of dynamic functioning that have been given due weightage in the arena of the journal. In general the journal has a comprehensive design parameter focus on linking and instrumenting knowledge base, procedures and process for propositional patterning.

Cognitive Discourses International Multidisicplinary Journal ISSN 2321-1075 Volume 1, Issue 1, July 2013

THE SATURATED SPONGES


Mohammed Saud P.P1 and Aseel Abdul Wahid2 Abstract The teaching learning exercise in the heart of the present education system particularly at school level and at higher education level in general is still no better than an input process output activity. Instead of helping to evolve a learning to learn group that are unsaturated in reception, contribution, creation, innovation and change, the teaching learning process and the educational mechanism is producing a calculated product that eats and vomits what is being supplied without having given a chance to know the ingredients even. This vicious circle of cognitive, affective and psychomotor poverty continues and virtually saturates the learning potential of the most gifted species the humans. INTRODUCTION It looks Greek and Latin to me when it comes to the question of teaching learning process at the school level, let alone the higher level. Man, the most gifted of all species on earth is endowed with the faculty of reasoning and judgment power. Using this faculty, humans had been transmitting the accumulated wisdom of the yesteryears to its younger generations, down the ages. The latter made predictions on future and changed their behavior accordingly. We used the more generic term education for this organized process. I would prefer to call this simply schooling. We shall see how the plight of this transmission had taken down the ages. Human beings are by nature and culture a small group species. We have survived, despite our physical vulnerability, by working together and solving problems as a group. And it is through collaboration not competition that we learn best. In fact, competitive learning environments (my mark is higher than your mark) encourage surface-level thinking, increase dislike for school and decrease both creativity and subject interest . People learn best through interactions with others, and these interactions strengthen both community and individuals. Learning is about actively making sense of the world around us by taking in new information, comparing it to our current understanding and negotia ting meaning out of those interactions. We construct our knowledge through experience by doing. The human mind is better equipped to gather information about the world by operating within it than by reading about it, hearing lectures on it, or studying abstract models of it. And this process works most effectively when it is situated in a context that is authentic where new knowledge and skills would actually be used. Learning is not something that requires time out from productive activity; learning is at the very heart of productive activity. THE UNSATURATED Before the invention of this education or schooling, every elder generation passed on its products to the younger generation and the younger generation absorbed and consumed it with zero transmission loss. Eskimos thus transmitted fishing on ice-covered Polar Regions. Tribals in Kenyan forests learned archery the same way, potter in Kerala crafted a pot with dexterity of his teacher with skillful twist and turn of his fingers right through the cool clay. How efficiently and effectively the wisdom of a generation has been transmitted! No direct cost to society, no corruption, no assessment and measurement, no in-service workshops. no building for council for education and research This was the case with all types of learning, not skill learning alone. The point is that the learners had a functional curriculum, which was transacted in a natural way. In this process, what they unlearned is more than what they learned; meaning by, there were scope for expansion of knowledge, skills and values. The learners thought, observed, experimented, practiced, discovered, invented and altered the status quo. More than that, they were left alone in the learning process. Hence they unlearned. It is this unlearning or unsaturation, that develops, polishes and refines the unique human faculty of reasoning and judgment power. True learning process help develop these powers. The unsaturated learners themselves contribute to an ever expanding curriculum as it is not finite in its dimensions. Such a curriculum never hits back or spilt over. It went into the brain; in to the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domain. Those generations knew, understood, applied, analyzed, evaluated and created. They learned. It was the quantum of this unsaturation that begot furthering of learning, absorption of new wisdom. In those ages, the content, the method, the evaluation and the behavioral changes were in perfect synchrony. The

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Senior Lecturer, Department of EPD, Caledonian College of Engineering, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman Research Scholar, Karpagam University, Coimbatore

Cognitive Discourses International Multidisicplinary Journal ISSN 2321-1075 Volume 1, Issue 1, July 2013

learner, the sponge had enough cavities to ab sorb water. it remained unsaturated as ever. as there were no government, no ministry of HRD, no Quality Improvement Programmes, no text books, no biological and boring machine called teacher no tests no teaching THE SATURATED A defined Constitution, a defined Government, Ministry for human resource development, Councils for education and research and , programme of action, QIPs, SSAs, thousands of schools, faculties, thinkers, experts, teachers, administrators, NGOs, syllabus, course books, handbooks, textbooks, class tests, workshops, orientations,. I dont understand. Do you? Where is the learning process? Where is the learner? They are shackled in syllabus, text books, mark list, certificate, promotion rules, and trite and fossilized evaluation system. The result? The learner is saturated too early. Learning is not expressed in evaluation process, synthesizing, analyzing, applying, understanding. What is there is a little bit of knowledge acquisition only. Contrary to the unsaturated generation, there is no synchrony and harmony among content, method, evaluation and behavioral changes. Down the generations, now, only the intellectual cloning is happening. Learning never results in the development and refinement of greatest human faculties. Here, all the agents and missionaries of the process called education; schooling and learning are bankrupt in ideas, strategies, techniques and modalities. Learners are just lathers, dense in vacuum and saturated with nothing. We only pour into. Never patient to get the cavities saturated. Hence whatever is poured gets spilled out. Learning is how to learn. But present generations never learns how to learn. Each learner is locked from inside. He hears in a defined way; speaks in a defined way, writes in a defined way, and reads in a defined way and questions in a defined way. Observation and experience in a defined way. Unbelievably, they learn also in a defined way. The poor learner is overfed with minerals, vitamins, carbohydrates and fats, the saturated fat. We have educational cholesterol, blood sugar and hypertension. Discussion, open book exam, reference system, projects are the least. Travel, heuristic guidance, no learner to teacher transmission, no critical thinking, no preparing questions for given answers, no activity that result in unlearning or unsaturation. Entire educational machinery is propelled to saturation. Then how do we traverse the learning continuum through creation, evaluation, analysis, application, understanding powers? The younger generation absorbed and consumed Will mere knowledge acquisition do? Can this species on the planet, the most gifted, the homosapiens, survive the challenges of time at the least resource expense? The more we squeeze the sponge, the more it gets and saturated; I pity the poor Saturated Sponges! ENDNOTES Alfie Kohn. [[http://changelearning.ca/books/schools-our-children-deserve-moving-beyond-traditional classrooms and-tougher-standards|The Schools Our Children Deserve: Moving Beyond Traditional Classrooms and Tougher Standards]]. Houghton Mifflin, 1999. Alfie Kohn. Feel-Bad Education: The Cult of Rigor and the Loss of Joy (Education Week, Sept 15, 04). Visit [[http://www.alfiekohn.org/articles.htm| Alfie Kohns website]] for a list of articles, including this one, available online.-Bass Publishers, 2005, Sanfransisco, CA Carol Dweck. [[http://changelearning.ca/programs/learning-about-learning-boosts-student-motivationand-success| Learning About Learning Boosts Student Motivation and Success]]. Education Canada, Spring 2007, Canadian Education Association. Elizabeth F Barkley, K. Patricia Cross, Claire Howell Major Harold J. Morowitz and Jerome L. Singer, Editors. The Mind, the Brain and Complex Adaptive Systems. From the summary of findings by the Sante Fe Institute. Westview Press; New Ed edition, 1995. John Abbott. [[http://changelearning.ca/articles/we-are-small-group-species| We Are A Small Group Species]]. 21st Century Learning Initiative, 2004. Jossey. Collaborative Learning Techniques: A handbook for College Faculty Shoshana Zuboff. In the age of the smart machine: The future of work and power. Basic Books, New York, NY, 1988.

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Cognitive Discourses International Multidisicplinary Journal ISSN 2321-1075 Volume 1, Issue 1, July 2013

ERGONOMICS IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION


Poornima Rajendran1 and G. Lokanadha Reddy2 Abstract Development can only be sustainable when it is equitable, inclusive and accessible for all. Persons with disabilities need therefore to be included at all stages of development processes, from inception to monitoring and evaluation. Addressing negative attitudes, the lack of services or ready access to them, and other harmful social, economic and cultural barriers will benefit all of society Ban Ki-moon (2011). Keeping this in view, the authors in this paper by discussing the concept of ergonomics detailed the significance of ergonomics in farming and agriculture filed. Further, they enumerated the ergonomic components and research in agricultural education in Indian context and proposed a model where three components i.e. agriculture, ergonomics and disability should go hand in hand for preparing quality human resources and in improving the quality of agricultural science through new innovations. These will in-turn inculcates accountability in learners and promote the principle of equity which make them to respect and value diversity. Key words: Ergonomics, Agriculture, Farming and Disability. International Labor Office (ILO) and International Ergonomic Association (IEA) in 2012 documented agriculture as one of the most hazardous sectors in both the developing and the developed worlds. Similarly, Institute on Human Development and Disability established by the University of Georgia in its Update (2006) emphasized that the agricultural production is one of the nations most hazardous occupations. They noted that each year hundreds of thousands of people working in agriculture experience injuries that limit their ability to perform essential farm tasks. Tens of thousands farmers more become disabled as a result of non-farm injuries, illnesses, other health conditions, and the aging process. Like their urban counterparts, approximately 20% of farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural workers have disabilities that interfere with their work. Injuries related to agricultural equipment are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality both in high-income and low-income countries (Kumar, Varghese and Mohan, n.d.). As cited in Kumar et al. (n.d.) The farm injuries were reported to be severe, as quite a significant percentage (20 %) of them resulting in permanent disability (Cogbill et al. 1991). If a farmer is disabled by an agricultural injury he is doubly handicapped as he is not trained for any other activity (Knapp, 1965). Increasing attention is being drawn by several international and national organizations to the application of practical actions in rural and agricultural settings to help reduce work-related accidents and illness, improve living conditions and increase productivity. Many effective and feasible ergonomic modifications in improving living and working conditions of those involved in agriculture have been introduced in many countries. When the world is moving towards inclusiveness, the developmental policies and activities are focused to involve everyone including the persons with disabilities in all the fields. When it comes to the agricultural field, they are equally responsible to contribute and benefit the fruits of agriculture. World Bank reported that agriculture in India contributes only 21% of Indias GDP, but its importance in the countrys economic, social, and political fabric goes well beyond this indicator. Also, it was noted that agricultural growth in the 1990s reduced rural poverty to 26.3 percent by 1999-2000. The rural areas are still home to some 72 percent of the Indias 1.1 billion peopl e, a large number of whom are poor. Most of the rural poor depend on rain-fed agriculture and fragile forests for their livelihoods. When we consider persons with disabilities (PwDs) in urban areas, their livelihood depends on variety of economic generati ng activities while for PwDs in the rural areas, agriculture may be the only opportunity. Anne (2006) pointed out that poverty is a cause of disability since the poor often lack resources to prevent malnutrition, and do not have access to adequate health services that may prevent some disabilities. One can say the poverty as both the cause and consequence of disability and vice versa. Poor people are disproportionately disabledand people with disabilities are disproportionately poor, (Holzmann, World Ba nk). On one hand, Vision Document of ICAR (2011) noted agriculture as one of the pivotal sector for ensuring food and nutritional security, sustainable development and for alleviation of poverty. It is the key sector for generating employment opportunities for the vast majority of the population. However, on the other hand, National Crime Bureau (NCRB) in 2009 recorded 2, 16, 000 farmers suicide across India. Deshmukh (2011) listed out various economic, social, political, individual and environmental causes of farmers suicide in India. Some of them to be noted are: absence of adequate social
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Assistant Professor, Krishna College of Education for Women, Tiruchengode - 637 205, Tamilnadu State, India. Professor and Head, Dept., of Education and HRD, Dravidian University, Kuppam-517 426, A.P. State, India.

Cognitive Discourses International Multidisicplinary Journal ISSN 2321-1075 Volume 1, Issue 1, July 2013

support and poor infrastructure at the level of village, minimal financial support from the Govt., for small farmers, lack of irrigation facilities, environmental pollution, exploitation of natural resources, unfavourable policies, fall in prices of farm products, poor health and illness, inability to meet the necessary expenditure on medicine and health services, rising cost of cultivation etc.,. This trend warns any individual not to choose agriculture as their occupation. United National Development Programmes (UNDP) and Planning Commission in their Summary Report (UNDP, 2011) of their project Livelihood Promotion Strategies highlighted the fact that the disadvantaged women and men have limited livelihood options and are highly dependent on agriculture and the informal sector. Also, emphasized improved access to basic education, vocational training relevant to labour market needs and jobs suited to their skills, interests and abilities, with adaptations as needed for promoting more inclusive societies and employment opportunities for people with disabilities in both developed and in developing countries. For example, AgrAbility Project established in America influenced training needs, resource development, utilization of assistive technology, networking, underserved audience, youth involvement and international outreach for promoting success in agriculture for people with disabilities and their families. Green Revolution enabled the country to achieve self-sufficiency in food grains, seeds of high-yield varieties, fertilizer, associated crop management practices and stave off the threat of famine. Ergonomic Revolution in the country may enable the work/vocation to be fit according to the needs of all types of workers. One way to promote ergonomic revolution may be through agricultural education and research. Planning Commissions Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012 -17) report of the Working Group on Agricultural Research and Education identified ergonomics for increasing the safety and comfort of workers, particularly of women by proper consideration in the design and development of hardware and processing farm mechanization and postharvest processing, as one of the priority and thrust areas of research. Also, stressed agricultural education as a most important sector that provides quality human resources to the countrys agriculture in general and agricultural research in particular. In XII Plan, the focus was on faculty & institution development, reforms in governance, curriculum and instructional material development, which will go a long way in harmonizing agricultural education with excellence in science and technology output for livelihood security and sustainable development. The following section of this paper presents the concept of ergonomics and the ergonomic components in agricultural education. CONCEPT OF ERGONOMICS The word ergonomics is derived from two Greek words ergon and nomos which means work and law respectively. Etymologically, the word ergonomics refers to the science of work. The words ergonomics and human factor engineering denotes the same issue and are used interchangeably. The former is used in the history of European tradition and the later in American tradition. Also, Wickens and Hollands (2000) noted the expression engineering psychology which is used often to denote the same perspective. The International Ergonomics Association (IEA, 2000) defined ergonomics as a science that deals with understanding the interaction between humans and other elements of a socio-technical system. This refers ergonomics as a profession that applies theory, principles, data and design methods to optimize human wellbeing and the overall performance of a system. It is in particular responsible for the design and evaluation of tasks, jobs, products, environments and systems to make them compatible with the abilities, needs and limitations of people (as cited in Caas, Velichkovsky and Velichkovsky, n.d.). In other words, one can define ergonomics as a science concerned with the fit between people and their work. It puts people first, taking account of their capabilities and limitations. Ergonomics aims to make sure that tasks, equipments, information and the environment suit each worker. Kao (1976) inspected the discipline of ergonomics as a promising field of research and application that is concerned with the scientific study of systems performance and human factors in work, systems control, facilities and equipment design and work environment design. Anything that has to do with human aspects of work design, work improvement, work performance towards overall systems efficiency falls within the scope of ergonomics. Because of the diverse and complex nature of work systems, ergonomics is necessarily interdisciplinary in orientation and methodology as well as in practical application. It deals with methods and procedures of work efficiency in operations, attainment of systems objectives and satisfaction of systems participants. It is a science of work for the well being of men. INDG90-rev2 (2007) highlighted the essential aspects to be considered by an ergonomists to assess between a person and their work. These include: the job being done and the demands on the worker; the equipment used (its size, shape, and how appropriate it is for the task); the information used (how it is presented,

Cognitive Discourses International Multidisicplinary Journal ISSN 2321-1075 Volume 1, Issue 1, July 2013

accessed, and changed); the physical environment (temperature, humidity, lighting, noise, vibration); and the social environment (such as teamwork and supportive management). Ergonomists consider all the physical aspects of a person, such as: body size and shape; fitness and strength; posture; the senses, especially vision, hearing and touch; and the stresses and strains on muscles, joints, nerves. Ergonomists also consider the psychological aspects of a person, such as: mental abilities; personality; knowledge; and experience. The four main domains of expertise crucial for investigating interaction between humans and sociotechnical systems proposed by Caas, (n.d.) are given below. This domain deals with the anatomical, anthropometric, physiological and biomechanical parameters in static and dynamic physical work. Among the main topics are the physical postures that people adopt when they are working, fatigue and other problems associated with handling physical and musculo-skeletal tasks associated with physical efforts. Cognitive ergonomics is a sub-discipline of ergonomics that studies the cognitive processes at work with an emphasis on an understanding of the situation and on supporting reliable, effective and satisfactory performance. This approach addresses problems such as attention distribution, decision making, formation of learning skills, usability of human-computer systems, cognitive aspects of mental load, stress and human errors at work. It is a relatively new development which involves the application of more in-depth neuro-physiological methods such as brain imaging techniques. This advanced methodology can be used for evaluating the customers preferences for one or another design of human-computer interfaces or for a particular version of industrial products (this latter task is sometimes related to the field of neuromarketing). This deals with the optimization of socio-technical work systems, including their structures, policies and organizational processes. Thus, ergonomists are often involved into the social design of communication systems, interaction routines within the working groups, times and shifts schedules in a company, and other related issues.

Physical Ergonomics

Cognitive Ergonomics

Neuroergonomics

Social or Organizational Ergonomics

SCOPE OF ERGONOMICS Ergonomics in agriculture was now seen as a one-dimensional phenomenon in reducing and removing the risks involved in accessing the machines, vehicles and the work environment. Traditionally, ergonomics was considered as work done, in a workplace. More recently, this scope has broadened, and the concept of 'work' may now be applied to the satisfactory completion of any task (Benedyk, Woodcock and Harder, 2009). Thus, the completion of a task in any field viz. agriculture, the farmer interacts with the workstation (farmland), farmers, machines, tools, vehicles, family, community, agricultural organizations, and the policies at large; the effectiveness of these workplace interactions is influenced by many factors both inside and external to the organisation. To optimize such a multi-factorial process requires the application of an ergonomic approach. The extent of the application of ergonomics in the field of agriculture should be holistic, multi-dimensional, taskrelated and transferable across a range of variety of settings focussing the individual and empowering them to contribute for the agricultural revolution. This multi-dimensional approach of viewing ergonomics was in line with the Concentric Rings Model of ergonomics proposed by Kao and Hexagon-Spindle Model suggested by Benedyk et al. (2009). This approach of ergonomics extends to characterise a time base for serial and simultaneous tasks, and space shared by multiple stakeholders involved in agriculture, and highlights the areas where the system conflicts may arise. ERGONOMIC RISK FACTORS There are several challenges for the stakeholders involved in agriculture in India. NSS Farmers survey of 2003 brought out many issues relating to small and marginal farmers. Based on this Survey, NCEUS (2008) says that some of the general issues that confront marginal -small farmers as agriculturalists are: imperfect markets for inputs/product leading to smaller value realizations; absence of access to credit markets or imperfect credit markets leading to sub-optimal investment decisions or input applications; poor human resource base;

Cognitive Discourses International Multidisicplinary Journal ISSN 2321-1075 Volume 1, Issue 1, July 2013

smaller access to suitable extension services restricting suitable decisions regarding cultivation practices and technological know-how; poorer access to public goods such as public irrigation, command area development, electricity grids, greater negative externalities from poor quality land and water management, etc (p.7). Dev (2012) have discussed certain challenges faced by small holders in agriculture. Those include : impact of climate change; water problems; risks and vulnerability (health shocks: illness, injuries, accidents, disability; labour market risk: many work in informal sector and have high risk of unemployment and underemployment; harvest risks, life cycle risks, social risk, special risks for vulnerable groups and community risks such as droughts, floods, cyclones, structural adjustment policies etc); land issues (land and tenancy security); low level of formal education and skills and; globalization challenges. When we talk about persons with disabilities (PwDs), UNDP (2011) highlighted that in India, the PwDs talent, skills and potential mostly remain untapped, under-utilised or under-developed. Further, the education and employment rates for persons with disabilities are far lower than the non-disabled persons. The opportunities for PwDs, to earn is less and their expenses more, resulting in them being one of the more impoverished communities in India. Also, UNDP (2011) pointed out the barriers like (i) inadequate management information system, (ii) lack of universal definition in understanding disability, (iii) lack of detailed and centralized reporting system, (iv) lack of transparency and information sharing, (v) underutilization of the quota for PwDs in schemes including job reservations, (vi) impact of gender on disability is manifold and, (vii) prejudice remains deeply embedded in social, political and economic institutions in making the PwDs to involve in livelihood activities. Apart from these barriers, other barriers that make the PwDs to access the agricultural and farming occupations includes lack of basic knowledge in agriculture and farming, lack of human resources in teaching and training the PwDs on various skills, inaccessible work place, tools and machineries, lack of material resources, unsupportive family, community, GOs and sometimes NGOs, lack of confidence in PwDs and, failure to recognize/identify/categorize suitable jobs in agriculture and farming for the PwDs. Also, the data pertaining to the disabled persons engaged in agriculture and informal sector was not known, which add on to the barrier to design programmes for skill up gradation for the workers in the informal employment and self employment and create backward and forward linkages for their economic activities. AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION IN INDIA Agricultural education in India remains vigilant and responsive to changing scenario through development of novel technologies and by promoting problem-solving knowledge products. It envisions challenges that agricultural sector is facing especially for ensuring food, nutritional and environmental security and is in look out for emerging domestic and global opportunities. The Indian Council of Agricultural Research is an apex organization in the country spearheading agricultural research, education and extension activities for productivity enhancement and diversification of Indian agriculture. India has a very strong agricultural education system in the country consisting of two Central Agricultural Universities, forty six State Agricultural Universities (SAUs) and five National Institutes of Indian Council of Agricultural Research having the status of Deemed to be Universities. Among the Deemed Universities, Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) was established a century ago and was given the status of Deemed University in 1958. The other Deemed Universities viz., Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI), Izzatnagar (U.P.), National Dairy Research Institute (NDRI), Karnal and Central Institute of Fisheries Education (CIFE), Mumbai cater to quality education in animal sciences, dairy & fishery sectors respectively. The SAUs are spread over the entire country and cater to HRD in agriculture and allied fields in different agro-climatic regions. Many of these universities are registered under Indian Agricultural Universities Association. The disciplines of Veterinary medicine and Forestry are regulated by Veterinary Council of India and Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education respectively. Further, a National Academy of Agricultural Research Management (NAARM) at Hyderabad was established for facilitating capacity building of the National Agricultural Research System (NARS) in research and educational policy, planning and management. Also, there is one National Research Centre for Women in Agriculture (NRCWA) located in Bhubaneswar (Orissa). These universities are modeled on US land grant university pattern with integration of education, research and extension education and have contributed a great deal in propelling agricultural growth in the country. With about 265 constituent colleges having about 35,000 student intake capacity, the Agricultural Universities impart education in 11 major disciplines at undergraduate (Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, Home Science, Agricultural Engineering, Dairy Technology, Food Technology, Fisheries Science etc.,) and about 95 subjects at post-graduate level. In higher agricultural education, about 55 % students are from rural back ground and on an average, 36 % are the girl students. Besides, the IIT, Kharagpur imparts education in the

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field of Agriculturaal Engineering, and about 100 privately owned colleges, majority of them affliated to general unversities while some, particularly in the States of Maharashtra and Chhattisgarh, affliated to SAUs, impart higher agricultural education to over 10000 students annaully (ICAR, 2012). When it comes to distance agricultural education, Nimbalkar, Patil and Ingle (n.d.) noted that a few Open Universities are offering educational programmes related to agriculture leading to various degrees. Among them, Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University (YCMOU), Nashik, Maharashtra is pioneer in distance agricultural education programmes. Agricultural education programmes offered at YCMOU includes 1) Certificate courses in gardening, 2) Foundation in horticulture sciences, 3) Diploma in fruit production, 4) Diploma in vegetable production, 5) Diploma in floriculture and landscape gardening, 6) Diploma in agribusiness management, 7) B.Sc. in agriculture and horticulture, 8) M.Sc. in agricultural communication, agricultural extension and agricultural development and, 9) Ph.D. in agricultural communication/ agricultural extension and agricultural development. IGNOU offers only one course i.e. B.Tech Agricultural Engineering and all other OUs have yet to start agricultural education. When it comes to the agricultural extension services, the Agricultural Extension Division of ICAR through the networking of 631 Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs) carry out major activities like assessment, refinement and demonstration of technology/products. There are 44 Agricultural Technology Information Centres (ATIC) established under ICAR institutes and State Agricultural Universities. The thrust areas of KVKs include i) assessment, refinement and demonstration of technology/products, ii) training of farmers, iii) training of extension personnels in the areas of technology, iv) single window delivery system for technology products, diagnostic services and information through Agricultural Technology Information Centres, v) development of gender-specific technologies and, vi) creating awareness of improved agricultural technologies among the farmers. The other Agricultural Development Programmes includes: Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP), High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP), Institution Village Linkage Programme (IVLP), Watershed Development Programme (WDP), National Agricultural Technology Project (NATP), ATMA, ATIC. Social Justice and Poverty alleviation programmes includes Integrated Tribal Development Agency (ITDA), Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP), Swarna Jayanthi Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY), Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP), Prime Minister Employment Yojana (CMEY), Training of Rural Youth for Self-Employment (TRYSEM). Women Development Programmes includes Development of Women and Children in Rural Areas (DWCRA), Rashtriya Mahila Kosh (RMK), Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS), Mahila Samriddi Yojana (MSY) and many more. NAEP Report of ICAR (2012) noted that regardless of the laudable contribution made by ICAR Agricultural Universities system towards technology generation, human resource development and extension education, Indias present higher educational scenario is undergoing serious challenges owing to low access, not meeting quality standards, low funding, gender inequality, non-contemporary course curricula and delivery methods, inbreeding, lack of faculty-competence in cutting edge technology, lack of industry and university partnership,......As of now the pace and quality of technology generation and human capacity building in most of the SAUs have slackened owing mainly to inadequate state funding, depleted faculty strength, inadequate faculty development programmes, lack of competence of existing faculty in new and emerging areas, extensive inbreeding in faculty, lack of modern infrastructure for education and research. Establishment of new and sectoral state agricultural universities and new colleges without matching resources has compounded the problem.... ERGONOMIC COMPONENTS IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION The curriculum of agricultural education generally replicates inter-disciplinary orientation of the specific field. For example, the undergraduate courses in horticulture includes papers like : fruit science, vegetable crops, post harvest technology, floriculture and landscaping, plant protection, natural resource management, basic sciences and others like agro-forestry. The components in these papers does not have link with other disciplines like economics, community rehabilitation etc.,. The papers like agricultural engineering includes ergonomic components like : physiological stress indices and their methods of measurement, anthropometry and bio-mechanics, visibility/readability of dials, design of controls and work space envelope, energy cost of various activities, physiological factors affecting operator machine performance and postural comfort and operator safety. Even these ergonomic components do not address the problems of the farmers holistically (one-dimensional) and focuses only the wellbeing of SC/ST and women farmers. The other sections of the society like youths, old age people, persons with disabilities, women with disabilities etc., are not addressed holistically.

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ERGONOMIC RESEARCH IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION Singh and Arora (2010) in their study highlighted ergonomic intervention strategies for preventing musculoskeletal disorders among farm women. Those include (1) prioritization of researches based on prevention of farm women from musculoskeletal disorders, (2) development of new technologies for women for critical field problems such as hand cutting of plant materials, stooped posture, and lifting and carrying of heavy materials and, (3) funding and support for awareness and prevention programmes for musculoskeletal disorders. Injuries due to machineries like fodder cutter, thresher, tractor, trolley, tillage tools, hand tools, auger, mower and farm machinery was reported by Mohan and Patel (1992) and, Kumar, Mohan and Mahajan (1998) in India. Likewise, researches on prevention of injuries because of various machineries was carried out in India (eg.: Mohan and Patel, 1992; Kumar et al., 1998) and researches by Kalenak (1978); Field and Gong (1980); Suutarinen (1992); Kelsey and Jenkins (1991); Owen and Hunter (1983); Simpson (1984) and; Huston and Smith (1969) was reported in other countries. A study was taken up by Mohanty, Behera and Satapathy (2008) to have a comparative study on the ergonomics of farm women in pedal threshing with single and double operators (N =15) and suggested modifications for further reduction of human drudgery. Musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) management is another important element in ergonomic research. It was reported that MSDs are likely to cause De Quervains disease, Trigger finger, Rotator cuff tendinitis, Tenosynovitis, Raynauds syndrome and Back disability. Researches pertaining work related musculoskeletal disorders, types of work causing ergonomic hazards, parts of body affected by musculoskeletal disorders (arms, hands, fingers, neck, back, wrists, legs and shoulders) were carried out by the U.S. Dept. of Labor, OSHA (2000). There are numerous types of work-related musculoskeletal disorders that are reported in agriculture. These include disorders of the back and neck, nerve entrapment syndromes, musculoskeletal disorders such as tenosynovitis, tendinitis, peritendinitis, epicondylitis and nonspecific muscle and forearm tenderness (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health-NIOSH, 1997). Studies with reference to Anthropometric dimensions were reported by (Sen et al., 1977; Gupta et al., 1983; Gite and Yadav, 1989; Fernandez and Uppugonduri, 1992; Yadav et al., 1997; Dewangan et al., 2005; Philip and Tewari, 2000; Tewari and Ailavadi, 2002). For example, the research by Tewari, Ailavadi, Dewangan and Sharangi (2007) suggested the following anthropometric dimensions for designing a tractor seat to suit the individual needs. The tractor seat height should be designed such that the foot of the short legged person rests on the foot rest. The seat height is generally chosen 10 mm less than the sitting popliteal height. The seat depth should ensure that the buttocks are supported and it should be such that it can accommodate shorter people. For the seat depth, three-forth of the buttock knee length is used as general guide. Therefore, for seat height and seat depth design, a 5th percentile value has to be considered. The seat width should be greater than buttock width of 95th percentile operator. The slight inclination of the seat pan at the front helps to prevent the gradual slippage out of the seat. Therefore 3 to 50 seat pan angle should be provided for tractor seat. The back rest is provided to support the lumber region of the body. A high back rest prevent full mobility of the arms and shoulders in rear viewing and hydraulic control lever operation. Therefore small back rest which supports the 5th lumber vertebra is suitable. Provision should be made for forward and backward movement of the seat so that operator of different body sizes can be accommodated.... The All India Coordinated Research Project (AICRP) on Ergonomics and Safety in Agriculture was started by ICAR during the year 1996. This project was earlier known as AICRP on Human Engineering and Safety in Agriculture. The Coordinating Cell of the project is at CIAE Bhopal and there are seven cooperating centres those being located at CIAE Bhopal, TNAU Coimbatore, OUAT Bhubaneswar, PAU Ludhiana, MPUAT Udaipur, NERIST Nirjuli and IIT Kharagpur. The last three centres have been started in October 2004 during X Plan. Three new centres are being started in XI Plan, those being at Dr. BSKKV Dapoli, CSKHPKV Palampur and CAEPHT Gangtok to address the productivity, comfort, occupational health and safety issues of agricultural workers in hill agriculture and horticulture. The mandate of the Project was to create databases on ergonomic parameters of Indian agricultural workers and to develop/ adapt the equipment/ technology/ work system for increasing production, reducing drudgery and minimizing accidents in agricultural and allied activities through application of ergonomics. Thus the objectives of the project was to (i) analyse farm accidents and assess the causes from actual accident site, and plan strategies to minimize these accidents; (ii) design and develop safety devices for selected machines, testing and standardization and popularization in rural areas and; (iii) collect and compile anthropometric data on Indian

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agricultural workers for design of grips, handless seats, work height, work spaces and controls in agricultural machinery. In this project, the equipments and tools like four row direct paddy seeder, sugarcane stripper (detrasher), groundnut stripper, fertilizer broadcaster, fruit harvester, pedal operated paddy thresher, diaphragm pedal pump, hand ridger, hanging type grain cleaner, CRRI two row rice transplanter, CRRI four row rice transplanter, cotton stalk puller and, improved sickle were modified and designed especially for the women farmers. Also, the training programmes and demonstrations of ergo refined safe farm tools, equipment and machines was carried out as a part of this project which includes : Fixing of SMV symbols/fluorescent stickers on tractor-trailers for improving visibility and thus avoiding accidents due to collision; Demonstration of spraying safety kits (face mask, eye goggles, aprons, field caps, hand gloves and gum boot) to farmers to get feedback and reducing exposure to chemicals; Demonstration of ergonomically improved tools and equipment; Safety awareness programmes on tractors and other agricultural machines and; Training programmes/ demonstrations of women friendly tools and equipment. Further, the Project collected information from various states on adoption of DMRA (Adoption of Dangerous Machine Regulation Act) 1983 and problems in its implementation. Based on the feedback, a proposal for revision in DMRA 1983 have been prepared and sent to concerned authorities for revision of the Act. Also, the information was collected from various state governments on compensation provisions available, if any, for agricultural accident victims in their states. Based on this information a model proposal for compensation to agricultural accident victims was prepared and send to central government and all the state governments for their information and necessary action. Due to these efforts, some states have started compensation schemes/ social security schemes to provide better compensation benefits to agricultural accident victims or their families. CONCLUDING REMARKS All the above ergonomic research studies, curriculum components and the extension activities of agricultural education in India was functioning with inter-disciplinary orientations. There is a need for paradigm shift from single discipline orientation to multi disciplinary approach. Now the trend in agricultural education is moving towards developing promising technologies and management options to raise productivity to meet the growing food demand in a situation of deteriorating production environment at the lowest cost and to develop appropriate technologies, create required infrastructure and to evolve institutional arrangements for production, post-harvest and marketing of high-value and perishable commodities and their value added products. At the same time, the agricultural education was thriving to prepare quality human resources to better carry out the multiple tasks to fulfil the demands of the agricultural society. Thus, the teaching, research and extension activities of the agricultural education should include ergonomic components which are of multi-dimensional in nature focussing the individual. Such agricultural education will meet the needs of the stakeholders involved in agriculture. The stakeholders involved in agriculture include farmers, families of the farmers, industries manufacturing fertilizers and manures, vehicle designers, community people, land holders, market, ration shops (public distribution shop), factories, students, researchers, mentors, trainers, agricultural institutions, policy makers, co-operative banks etc.,. Anyone involved in agriculture may face challenges and are disabled in one way or the other to perform the desirable task. Also, there are several cases where a person was disabled because of injuries caused by the agricultural activities. As disability in border sense refers to a social, physical or mental condition that limits a persons movements, senses or activities, either a person may be disabled or the environment may be disabled to carry out the agricultural activities. According to the words of Ban Ki-moon (2011) Development can only be sustainable when it is equitable, inclusive and accessible for all. Thus the agricultural educatio n (teaching, training, research and extension) in India should include the ergonomic components that facilitate continuous development of all the stakeholders. The significance of application of ergonomics in any workplace is laudable, particularly in the field of agriculture, its role is commendable. The significance of applying multi-dimensional model of ergonomics in agriculture pave ways to reduce the potential for accidents; reduces the potential for injury and ill health; improves performance and productivity; reduce the likelihood of an accident; reduce the potential for ill health at work, such as aches and pains of the wrists, shoulders and back; consider the layout of controls and equipment; help to design the workplace that is accessible to all; identify and understands the problems of the stakeholders holistically; workout possible solutions to solve and prevent the problem; controls and manages various factors hindering the work process; help to develop cooperation and communications between various groups of stakeholders (between family and farmer, farmer and community, farmer and

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agricultural organization etc.,.); identify suitable jobs according to the needs of the individual farmer and the job market; provide skill training to the farmers; helps in disability management; create and organize the database; facilitates technology transfer; find possible ways of utilizing the local resources etc.,. Also, ILO and IEA (2012) suggested ten ergonomic checkpoints in agriculture which are the examples of practical ergonomic interventions that can be achieved at low or no costs in agricultural and rural settings and are particularly applicable in developing countries. The checkpoints includes 1) storage and handling of materials, 2) workstations and tools, 3) machine safety, 4) agricultural vehicles, 5) physical environment, 6) control of hazardous chemicals, 7) environmental protection, 8) welfare facilities, 9) family and community cooperation and, work organization and work schedules.
Teaching Training Research Extension Formal Informal Non-formal

Quality Human Resources Equality Innovations Economic Independence Accountability

Machine, vehicles, tool design & safety Physical environment Welfare facilities and resources Family & community cooperation Work organization & schedules Policy framework etc.,

Personal/biological Medical Socio-cultural Socio-economical Psychological Environmental

Figure1. Integration of Ergonomic and Disability Components in Agricultural Education For example, the ergonomics /agricultural engineering paper or any other paper in agricultural education shall include components like, disability and agriculture; risk factors involved in a particular job for the disabled farmer; equipment design; machine and vehicle safety; opportunities available for the disabled farmer to market the products; resources available; ways and means of organizing self-help groups, seeking support from community people etc.,. The inclusion of the ergonomic components in the curriculum of agricultural courses will prepare the human resources to organize the agricultural activity in a way to better meet the needs of the farmers holistically which in particular develops their expertise in disability management. McNamara (2004) refers disability management in agriculture as the process of seeking to reduce the impact of disability to the fullest possible extent. The four main approaches noted by her include: 1) prevention of disability, where possible, by such means as implementation of safety measures, 2) promotion of health and creating a healthy working environment, 3) early intervention which involves immediate measures following the occurrence of disability to minimise its impact and, 4) case management helps in co-ordinating the return of the person into normal life and work activities to the fullest extent possible. Apart from these disability management skills, the students and researcher by knowing the ergonomic and human factors well in advance shall involve in identifying jobs suitable for a disabled farmer, empowered to train them to posses the necessary skills required to perform a job, make the environment accessible to them, motivate the family members to support the disabled farmer, suggest the favourable policies etc.,. The scope of application of ergonomics in agricultural education is wider. This will go a long way in producing quality human resources and in improving the quality of agricultural science through new innovations. These will in-turn inculcates accountability in learners and promote the principle of equity which make them to respect and value diversity (Fig. 1). REFERENCES Anne, L. (2006). Good Practices for the Economic Inclusion of Persons with Disabilities in Developing Countries Funding Mechanisms for Self Employment, Handicap International.

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Ban Ki-moon (2011). Preface, Summary Report of the Project Livelihood Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities, UNDP, New Delhi. Benedyk, R., Woodcock, A. and Harder, A. (2009). The Hexagon-Spindle Model for Educational Ergonomics, Work, 32 (3), 237-48. Caas, J.J., Velichkovsky, B.B. and Velichkovsky, B.M. (n.d.). Human Factors and Ergonomics. Deshmukh, P.V. (2011). Farmers Suicides in India, Indian Streams Research Journal, 1(1), 113-117. Dev, M.S. (2012). Small Farmers in India : Challenges and Opportunities, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, Retrieved from http://www.igidr.ac.in/pdf/publication/WP-2012014.pdf on 02.01.13. Dewangan, K.N., Prasanna Kumar, G.V., Suja, P.L. and Choudhury, M.D. (2005). Antropometric Dimensions of Farm Youth of the Nortehrn Eastern Region of India, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 35, 979-989. Fernandez, J.A. and Uppugonduri, K.G. (1992). Anthropometry of South Indian Industrial Workman, Ergonomics, 35 (11), 1393-1398. Field, W.E. and Gong, S-F. (1980). Agricultural Machinery Safety in China, Paper presented at the 1982 Summer Meeting, ASAE, Paper No. 82-5007. Gite, L.P. and Yadav, B.G. (1989). Antropometric Survey for Agricultural Machinery Design, Ergonomics, 20 (3), 191-196. Applied

Gupta, P.K., Sharma, A.P. and Gupta, M.L. (1983). Anthropometric Survey of India Farm Workers, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America, 16 (1), 27-30. Huston, A.F. and Smith, C. (1969). Farm Accidents in Saskatchewan. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 100, 764-769. ICAR (2011). Vision Document 2030, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, Retrieved from www.icar.org.in on 02.01.13. ICAR (2012). National Agricultural Education Project Draft Document, Education Division, ICAR, New Delhi. IEA (2000). International Ergonomics Association: Triennial report, Santa Monica, CA : IEA Press. ILO and IEA (2012). Ergonomics Checkpoints in Agriculture : Practical and easy-to-implement solutions for improving safety, health and working conditions in agriculture, International Labor Office, Geneva. INDG90-rev2 (2007). Understanding Ergonomics at Work-Leaflet, Health and Safety Executive Books, p. 2. Kalenak, A., Gordon, S.L., Miller, S.H., Greer, R.B. and Graham, W.P. (1978). Power Take-off Injuries, Journal of Trauma, 13, 775-782. Kao, H.S.R. (1976). On Educational Ergonomics, Ergonomics, 19 (6), 667-651. Kelsey, T.W. and Jenkins, P.L. (1991). Farm Tractors and Mandatory Roll-over Protection Retrofit : Potential Costs of the Policy in New York, American Journal of Public Health, 81, 921-923. Kumar, A., Mohan, D. and Mahajan, P. (1998). Studies on Tractor related injuries in Northern India, Accident Analysis and Prevention, 30, 53-60. Kumar, K., Varghese, M. and Mohan, D. (n.d.). Equipment related Injuries in Agriculture: An International Perspective. McNamara, J. (2004). disability in Farm Households, Retrieved from www.oasis.gov.ie on 02.01.13. Mohan, D. and Patel, R. (1992). Design of Safer Agricultural Equipment: Application of Ergonomics and Epidemiology, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 10, 301-309. Mohanty, S.K., Behera, B.K. and Satapathy, G.C. (2008). Ergonomics of Farm Women in Manual Paddy Threshing, Agricultural Engineering International : The CIGR E Journal, Manuscript MES 08 002, X.

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Nimbalkar, S.A., Patil, V.D. and Ingle, P.O. (n.d.). Distance Agricultural Education : Perspectives in Agricultural Development in India. NIOSH (1997). Musculoskeletal Disorders and Workplace Factors, Cincinnati (OH), Pub. No. 97-114. OSHA (2000). Ergonomics : The Study of Work, Occupational Safety and Health Administration OSHA 3125, U.S. Dept. of Labor. Owen, G.M. and Hunter, A.G.M. (1983). A Survey of Tractor Overturning Accidents in the United Kingdom, Journal of Occupational Accidents, 5, 185-193. Philip, G.S. and Tewari, V.K. (2000). Anthropometry of Indian Female Agricultural Workers and Implication on Tool Design, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America, 31 (1),Pp. 63-66. Sen, R.N., Nag, P.K. and Ray, G.G. (1977). Some Anthropometry of the People of Eastern India, Journal of Indian Anthropological Society, 12, 201-208. Simpson, S.G. (1984). Farm Machinery Injuries, Journal of Trauma, 24, 150-152. Singh, S. and Arora, R. (2010). Intervention for preventing Musculoskeletal Disorders among Farm Women, Journal of Agricultural Science, 1(2), 61-71. Suutarinen, J. (1992). Tractor Accidents and their Prevention, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 10, 321-29. Tewari, V., Ailavadi, R., Dewangan, K. and Sharangi, S. (2007). Rationalized Database of Indian Agricultural Workers for Equipment Design, Agricultural Engineering International: the CIGR E Journal, Manuscript MES 05 004, IX. Tewari, V.K. and Ailavadi, R. (2002). Ergonomic Database for Engineering Design of Agricultural Macchines, Final Report, An Ad-hoc Project Sponsored by Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi. Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012-17). Twelfth Five Year Plan Report of the Working Group on Agricu ltural Research and Education, Volume, 1, Planning Commission, Govt. of India, October 2011. UNDP (2011). Summary Report of the Project Livelihood Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities , UNDP, New Delhi. Update (2006). Agr-abilities Project Helps Farmers with Disabilities Succeeds in Agriculture, Institute on Human Development and Disability, University of Georgia. Wickens, C.D. and Hollands, J.G. (2000). Engineering Psychology and Human Performance (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ : Prentice-Hall. Yadav, R., Tewari, V.K. and Prasad, N. (1997). Anthropometric Data of Indian Farm Workers - A Module Analysis, Applied Ergonomics, 28 (1), 69-71. ABOUT THE AUTHOR Poornima Rajendran (Poornima, R.) Poornima, R. did her Ph.D. on emotional intelligence, occupational stress and job satisfaction of special education teachers and investigated the teacher training programmes in Norway with special reference to inclusive education in her post doctoral research funded by the Research Council of Norway under Yggdrasil Grant 2011-12. Her research area focuses on teacher education particularly focusing on professional development of student teachers, teachers and teacher educators. G. Lokanadha Reddy (Reddy, G. L.) Reddy, G.L. is a Professor and Dean of the School of Education and HRD, Dravidian University, India. He is also a Commonwealth Academic Staff Fellowship awardee twice (1997 and 2012) and visited Department of Education, University of Wales, Swansea to pursue the education of children with special needs and, the Department of Health and Life Sciences, Coventry University to explore the disability studies programmes in the universities of UK. His area of specialization includes education, adult education, inclusive education and disability studies. ******

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DISABILITY AND FARMING IN INDIA: PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS


Dr. G. Lokanadha Reddy1 and Dr. R. Vijaya Anuradha2 Abstract Farming often is listed as one of the most stressful and hazardous occupations, yet most farmers say they wouldnt trade it for any other job. In several countries the fatal accident rate in agriculture is double the average for all other industries. Women in agriculture, like many other rural workers, have a high incidence of injuries and diseases and are insufficiently reached by health services (ILO, 2000). Exposure to pesticides and other agrochemicals constitutes a major occupational risk which may result in poisoning and death and, in certain cases, work-related cancer, reproductive impairments and permanent disability (Crisp et al., 1998; Hurley et al., 1998). This paper elaborately deals with the meaning of disability, problems involved in farming like; production risk, marketing risk, financial risk, older equipments and machineries, risk of human resources, lack of health and disability insurance etc. Barriers faced by farmers with disabilities include lack of information on effective worksite accommodation, economic constraints resulting from lack of wage-loss, isolation from needed services, lack of professionals trained on how to help people accommodate their disabilities in an agricultural occupation, lack of financial resources to pay for needed health care services, and negative attitude among professionals in the medical, rehabilitation, and agriculture-related industries about the ability of agricultural workers with disabilities to continue in a high-risk physically demanding occupation were highlighted here. The authors also discusses the frequent hazards in agriculture that leads to multiple fractures, lacerations and traumatic amputations etc. due to machineries such as tractors, trucks and harvesters, and cutting and piercing tools; hazardous chemicals like pesticides, fertilizers, antibiotics, livestock & veterinarian products and also some toxic or allergenic agents. The paper also focused on the means of disability management for farmers with disabilities such as; ways of minimizing safety risks, use of good agricultural practices, support of/to the neighbors, health and disability insurance, social security system, supportive services, rehabilitation centers, agriculture extension programmes etc. Finally, the authors concluded with some suggestions in terms of Agriculture and Allied Farming, Horticulture, Animal Husbandry and Related Activities, Fisheries, Forestry and Natural Resources and; Other Activities suitable for disabled farmers. Agriculture and Allied Farming such as; Betel leaves, Crop cultivation, Harvesting rice, Growing vegetables, Mushroom cultivation, Onion fields, Paddy cultivation, Irrigation etc; Horticulture involving Gardening (flowers, fruits, vegetables), Nurseries, Caring of plants and flowers, Cut flowers, Selling of fruits, vegetables, flowers, etc; Animal Husbandry and Related Activities like Cattle rearing or caring for cows and buffaloes, Duck and chicken rearing for eggs, Pig farming, Poultry farming, Quail raising for eggs, Silk worm raising or Sericulture etc; Fisheries including Aquaculture, Crab farming, Fishing - catfish from river, Otter raising, Mussels farming, Shrimp farming etc; Forestry and Natural Resources like Broom production, Handicraft from palm trees, Hat making from forest and natural products, Weaving etc. and; Other Activities like Basketry, Clothing production, Farm machinery repair, Handicrafts, Incense stick production, Mat weaving, Distribution of finished goods, Flower making, etc. INTRODUCTION Agriculture sector is vital for the food and nutritional security of the nation. The sector remains the principal source of livelihood for more than 58% of the Indian population though its contribution to the national GDP has declined to 14.2% due to high growth experienced in industries and service sectors. Compared to other countries, India faces a greater challenge, since with only 2.3% s hare in worlds total land area it has to ensure food security of its population which is about 17.5% of world population (Annual Report, 2010-11). Also, the forward and backward linkage effects of agriculture growth increase the income in the non-agriculture sector. The growth of some commercial crops has significant potential for promoting exports of agricultural commodities and bringing about faster development of agro-based industries. Thus agriculture not only contributes to overall growth of the economy but also reduces poverty by providing employment and food security to the majority of the population in the country and thus it is the most inclusive growth sectors of the Indian economy. The 12th Five Year Plan Approach Paper also indicates that agricultural development is an important component of faster, more inclusive sustainable growth approach (Mahendra Dev, 2011).
1 2

Professor and Head, Dept. of Education, School of Education and HRD, Dravidian University, Kuppam 517 426, A.P. State. Post Doctoral Fellow, Dept. of Education, School of Education and HRD, Dravidian University, Kuppam 517 426, A.P. State.

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The definition of agriculture is often general and imprecise, and may include one or more of the following activities: Tillage of the soil, cultivation and harvesting; Livestock rearing; Breeding of other animals (poultry, apiculture, fish farming); Manufacture of animal husbandry products; Seeds and plants production; Forestry work and forest conservation; Primary processing of agricultural products etc.

An estimated 1.3 billion workers are engaged in agricultural production worldwide. This represents half of the total world labour force. Only 9% of agricultural workers are in industrialized countries. Almost 60% of them are in developing countries. A great majority of agricultural workers are found in Asia, which is the most densely populated region of the world, with more than 40% of the world's agricultural population concentrated in China and more than 20% in India. Agricultural work involves multiple tasks and multiple locations, both on a daily and seasonal basis. Some of the specific features of agricultural work which determine working conditions are: The fact that most of the tasks are carried out in the open air, exposing the workers to climatic conditions The seasonal nature of the work and the urgency of certain tasks in specific periods The variety of tasks to be performed by the same person The type of working postures and the length of the tasks performed The contact with animals and plants, thus exposing workers to bites, poisoning, infections, parasitic diseases, allergies and other health problems The use of chemicals and biological products The considerable distances between workers' living quarters and workplaces (ILO, 2000).

Agriculture is one of the most hazardous occupations worldwide. In several countries the fatal accident rate in agriculture is double the average for all other industries. According to ILO estimates, workers suffer 250 million accidents every year. Out of a total of 335,000 fatal workplace accidents worldwide, there are some 170,000 deaths among agricultural workers. The intensive use of machinery and of pesticides and other agrochemicals has raised the risks. Machinery such as tractors and harvesters has the highest frequency and fatality rates of injury. Available data from developing countries shows that there has been an increase in the accident rate in agriculture. Such accidents occur mainly among migrants and daily workers, as well as women and children whose numbers in waged labour are constantly rising. Exposure to pesticides and other agrochemicals constitutes a major occupational risk which may result in poisoning and death and, in certain cases, work-related cancer, reproductive impairments and permanent disability. Women in agriculture, like many other rural workers, have a high incidence of injuries and diseases and are insufficiently reached by health services. Most of them have practically no education, training or access to information on the risks involved in their work. Exposure to poor working conditions has serious repercussions on pregnancy, and can worsen pathologies brought on by old age. The risk of miscarriages, premature deliveries and spontaneous abortions has been directly related to work in greenhouses microclimates and exposure to pesticides. Heavy work during crop cultivation and harvesting is frequent. Some studies have shown that traditional female tasks, such as sowing out, picking out, and clearing, implies a significant workload, particularly because they are not assisted by mechanical means during irrigation, ridging and farming. When such tasks involve machinery handling, they are traditionally undertaken by male workers. Carrying loads is one of the major chores of rural women-workers in developing countries. They can spend over 20 hours a week on trips collecting water, firewood, laundry and livestock, tending and marketing goods and carrying weights of more than 35 kg on their heads and backs over considerable distances. Carrying heavy loads can cause serious musculoskeletal disorders, such as chronic back pain, chest pain and miscarriages.

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Women represent one of the crucial development force in the world. As per the World Economic Profile, they form 50% of the Worlds Population, contribute 60% working force, making upto 30% of the official labour force and contribute 50% in the food production (FAO). At the home front, nearly 84% of all economically active women in India are engaged in agriculture and allied activities. Agriculture employs 4/5 th of all economically active women; they make 1/3rd of the agriculture labour force and 48% self-employed farmers. There are 75 million women as against 15 million men in dairying, the number of women engaged in animal husbandry accounts for 20 million (as against 1.5 million men). According to the latest ILO estimates, at least 250 million children between 5 and 14 years of age work in developing countries. Almost half of these children work on a full-time basis. The participation rate of children in economic activities is much higher in rural areas than in urban centers. Rural children, particularly girls, tend to start working at an early age. Most children work seven days a week and are paid less than the prevailing rates in their localities. They work long hours, and a very high proportion of these children are injured at work. Exposure to poor working conditions has serious repercussions on children's growth, development and health. The most common injuries include: cuts and wounds, eye infections, skin problems, fever, and headaches caused by excessive heat or by exposure to pesticides while working in agricultural fields. These injuries may leave the farmers with partial or permanent disabilities. MEANING OF DISABILITY Any study on disability has to deal with the challenges of defining and measuring disability because different conceptual models have been developed to define disability. In the medical model, disability is considered to be a problem of the individual that is directly caused by a disease, an injury or other health conditions, and that requires medical care in the form of treatment and rehabilitation. An individual with any impairment is considered disabled, irrespective of whether the person experiences limitations in his or her life activities due to the impairment, where impairment is the term used for an individuals condition (e.g. deaf, blind). In contrast, the social model considers disability purely as a social construct. Disability is not the attribute of an individual; rather it is created by the social environment and requires social change. An individual with impairment may not be able to find work not because of his or her inability to work per se, but as a result of inaccessibility of work places or discrimination (Mitra and Sambamoorthi, 2006). A third model of interest is the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) developed by the World Health Organization. Conceptually, ICF is presented as an integration of the medical and the social models (WHO, 2001). In this model, disability is an umbrella term, which includes impairments, activity limitations (e.g. limitation in walking) and participation restrictions (e.g. restrictions in remunerative employment). Thus disability is a complex phenomenon, reflecting an interaction between features of a persons body and the society in which he or she lives. The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2006), the first legally binding disability specific human rights convention, adopted by the United Nations gives two descriptions of disability. The Preamble to the Convention states that Disability results from the interaction between persons with impairments and attitudinal and environmental barriers that hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others. Again it emphasizes that Persons with disabilities include those who have long term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairments which in interaction with various barriers may hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others. Both the expressions reflect a shift from a medical model to social model of disability. In India, different definitions of disability conditions have been introduced for various purposes, essentially following the medical model and, as such, they have been based on various criteria of ascertaining abnormality or pathologic conditions of persons. In absence of a conceptual framework based on the social model in the Indian context, no standardization for evaluating disability across methods has been achieved. In common parlance, different terms such as disabled, handicapped, crippled, physically challenged, are used interchangeably, indicating noticeably the emphasis on pathologic conditions.

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RISKS INVOLVED IN FARMING Farmers have to perform a wide range of tasks under varying conditions in the course of a typical working day, and across the seasons. It's physically tough work, often undertaken alone, with some forces not under the farmer's control like weather, or the behaviour of animals. Farm work is often undertaken at 'rush' times, where the work such as harvesting or shearing can't be delayed without loss of income. There's a high use of complex machinery with moving parts. If the family home is generally located on the farm, which may mean children and visitors are also placed at risk. Farming involves many risks like (Joanna Green, n.d); i. ii. iii. Production risk which includes weather, pests, equipment breakdowns, and anything else that directly affect the quantity and quality of production. Marketing risk results from uncertainty in the market for the product, for example uncertainty about the price or loss of a market one is expecting to sell to. Financial risk relates to ones ability to pay the farms cash obligations in a timely manner and protect or grow ones equity. It is closely tied to production and marketing risk and also includes the risk of inflation and changes in interest rates. Older equipment and facilities carry additional risks, including safety risks. If equipment is not kept in excellent repair, breakdowns are more frequent. Old wiring and overloaded circuits increases the risk of fire. The risk of collapse of a barn under heavy rain increases with age, poor design or damage from everyday operations. This also puts stored equipment or housed livestock at risk. Human resources risk involves death, disability and disagreement, wherein, a small farm is highly reliant upon the operator and family for its workforce, these incidents can have a huge impact on the viability of the business. The impact of death and divorce/separation are obvious. A disability, even short term, leaves the farm without a vital member of the team. The recovering farmer needs the security of knowing whether the business can continue while he or she fully recovers and family businesses are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of serious disagreements. The breakup of a family farm partnership can have both financial and personal consequences that are felt for a long time. Limited workforce is another risk factor where most small farms rely almost entirely on family members for labor and management. With so few people doing so much, a disability, disagreement, or death in the family can easily mean the end of the farm business. Even without such a catastrophe, fatigue and stress add to the risks. Lack of health, disability and long-term care insurance: The escalating costs of health and disability coverage means that many small farms are going without long term care, is also a concern. Nursing homes are very expensive and many farm families find they have to care for their elders at home in order to preserve the farm assets for future generations. The time required for conscientious elder care can be a real drain on the farm business.

iv.

v.

vi.

vii.

BARRIERS FACED BY THE DISABLED FARMERS Discrimination, or treating people unfairly because of prejudice, can make the lives of people with disabilities very difficult. Despite having the same hopes and ambitions as non-disabled persons, they encounter barriers that make it much harder for them to succeed. People with disabilities experience significant discrimination in areas such as education, health, gender and equality. The types of discrimination they face can be linked to attitudes, the environment, local laws, or cultural practices. Diseases and accidents caused by agricultural work are also conditioned by a range of factors such as climate, fauna, population density, living conditions, level of education, training, technological development, quality of services, etc. Agricultural farmers are dependent on the general standards of public health services in rural areas where the provision of health care, adequate water supply and sanitation systems are generally insufficient. The low standards of hygiene in living quarters affect not only smallholdings, but also the large enterprises which provide housing for temporary workers and for migrant workers. Rural communities often lack education and information on the health hazards they may face. Traditional health approaches have few effective mechanisms to reach rural communities. For many individuals disability jeopardizes their rural and agricultural futures. Although farming may be hazardous to agricultural producers with or without a disability, many people within the agricultural/farm community believe that farm hazards and injuries are a part of farming and the inherent uncertainties that are associated with it (Murphy, 1992). Barriers faced by farmers with disabilities include lack of information on

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effective worksite accommodation, economic constraints resulting from lack of wage-loss insurance, isolation from needed services, lack of professionals trained on how to help people accommodate their disabilities in an agricultural occupation, lack of financial resources to pay for needed accommodations, and negative attitudes among professionals in the medical, rehabilitation, and agriculture-related industries about the ability of agricultural workers with disabilities to continue in a high-risk physically demanding occupation. The lack of available funding for needed worksite modification often results in farmers doing without the needed modification and, therefore, places them at risk of developing a secondary injury. So, in addition to those barriers related to returning to farming despite disabilities, many farmers are also at risk of acquiring secondary injuries. More people who use manual wheelchairs experience serious secondary injuries to their shoulders, wrists, backs, and other parts of their bodies (Seeman, 2000). Disabled farmers will generally encounter the same basic problems as non-disabled farmers. The major issue is money. In order to initiate any project in agriculture, money is needed to buy raw materials or products such as seeds, fertilizer, insecticides and tools to work. Until the crop is ready to harvest, the farmer must have some kind of sustainability. Then, the products from the harvest must be sold with a reasonable profit to ensure livelihood until the next harvest. Resources are needed to operate the above agriculture and farming projects. Apart from the initial compulsory capital, required or suggested resources include: proper training, to find land suitable for the project that will depend on the selected activity, a building to operate, for example in the case of a retail shop. FREQUENT HAZARDS IN AGRICULTURE Farming involves work with biological and mechanical systems and the farmer has to work in adverse conditions of weather and poor infrastructure facilities. The work environment on a farm is distinct from the work environment in the industry. In many industrial settings learning is a formal process, whereas, on the farm, learning is mostly informal as farmers learn from their own families or by personal experience (Knapp, 1965). Since farming operations are seasonal, farmers work under constraints of weather, making injury inevitable (Huston and Smith, 1969). The farm injuries were reported to be severe, as quite a significant percentage (20 %) of them result in permanent disability (Cogbill et al., 1991). If a farmer is disabled by an agricultural injury he is doubly handicapped as he is not trained for any other activity (Knapp, 1965). If he is the main worker on the farm, the disabilities result in a greater economic loss to the family. Mohan and Patels study (1992) in India shows that children below 14 years of age were involved in 16% of all agricultural injuries. For all equipment, 30% of the injuries among 0-14 years old children were caused by fodder cutting machines, and in the 0-4 year age group, 50% of the injuries resulted from these machines. The agricultural injuries were severe in nature as described by different authors. The most frequent recorded injuries are fractures, lacerations and amputations (Knapp 1965, Howell and Smith 1973, Simpson 1984, Jannson and Jacobsson 1988). In PTO (power-take-off) related injuries, fractures were 46% and 54% and soft tissue lesions which were 33% and 30% respectively in two studies (McElfresh and Bryan 1973, and Heeg, Duis and Klasen 1986). PTO injuries included traumatic amputations, multiple fractures and large skin avulsions including denudation of genitalia. Heeg, Duis and Klasen (1986) also described PTO injuries as serious and potentially fatal. Fracture of hands and lesions caused by PTO are recorded in a study by Kumar, Mohan and Mahajan (1998). In developing countries, agricultural workers may live in extremely primitive conditions, in areas where roads are non-existent or inadequate and transportation is difficult. The majority of rural population in developing countries has an inadequate diet and is exposed to both general and occupational diseases. The high prevalence of epidemic and endemic diseases in most rural areas further aggravates rural workers' poor health and misery. Many diseases and health impairments arise from poor sanitation, inadequate housing, malnutrition and a wide variety of parasitic and bacterial infections affecting the entire rural population. Some frequently quoted hazards in agriculture which leads to partial or permanent disability among farmers are related to (ILO, 2000); Machinery such as tractors, trucks and harvesters, and cutting and piercing tools; Hazardous chemicals: pesticides, fertilizers, antibiotics and other veterinarian products; Toxic or allergenic agents: plants, flowers, dusts, animal waste, gloves (chrome), oils; Carcinogenic substances or agents: certain pesticides such as arsenicals and phenoxy-acetic herbicides, UV radiations, parasitic diseases such as bilharzias is and facioliasis;

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Transmissible animal diseases: brucellosis, bovine tuberculosis, hydatid disease, tularaemia, rabies, Lyme disease, tinea, listerioses; Other infectious and parasitic diseases: leishmaniasis, bilharziasis, facioliasis, malaria, tetanus, mycosis; Confined spaces such as silos, pits, cellars and tanks; Noise and vibration; Ergonomic hazards: use of inadequate equipment and tools, unnatural body position or prolonged static postures, carrying of heavy loads, repetitive work, excessive long hours;

Extreme temperatures due to weather conditions; Contact with wild and poisonous animals: insects, spiders, scorpions, snakes, certain wild mammals. Electricity including faulty switches or cords, or overhead power lines Heights including ladders, rooftops, silos and windmills HAZARDS OF PESTICIDES The term pesticide covers a wide range of compounds including insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, rodenticides, molluscicides, nematicides, plant growth regulators and others. Among these, organochlorine (OC) insecticides, used successfully in controlling a number of diseases, such as malaria and typhus, were banned or restricted after the 1960s in most of the technologically advanced countries. The introduction of other synthetic insecticides organophosphate (OP) insecticides in the 1960s, carbamates in 1970s and pyrethroids in 1980s and the introduction of herbicides and fungicides in the 1970s 1980s contributed greatly to pest control and agricultural output. Ideally a pesticide must be lethal to the targeted pests, but not to non-target species, including man. Unfortunately, this is not the case, so the controversy of use and abuse of pesticides has surfaced. The rampant use of these chemicals, under the adage, if little is good, a lot more will be better has played havoc with human and other life forms (Aktar et al., 2009). Direct Impact of Pesticides on Humans causing Disabilities If the credits of pesticides include enhanced economic potential in terms of increased production of food and fibre, and control of vector-borne diseases, then their other side impact has resulted in serious health implications to man and his environment. There is now overwhelming evidence that some of these chemicals do pose a potential risk to humans and other life forms and unwanted side effects to the environment (Igbedioh, 1991; Jeyaratnam, 1985). No segment of the population is completely protected against exposure to pesticides and the potentially serious health effects, though a disproportionate burden is shouldered by the people of developing countries and by high risk groups in each country (WHO, 1990). The world-wide deaths and chronic diseases due to pesticide poisoning is about 1 million per year (Environews Forum, 1999). The high risk groups exposed to pesticides include production workers, formulators, sprayers, mixers, loaders and agricultural farm workers. During manufacture and formulation, the possibility of hazards may be higher because the processes involved are not risk free. Some of the research studies revealed that, certain environmental chemicals, including pesticides termed as endocrine disruptors, are known to elicit their adverse effects by mimicking or antagonizing natural hormones in the body and it has been postulated that their long-term, low-dose exposure is increasingly linked to human health effects such as immune suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities and cancer (Brouwer et al., 1999; Crisp et al., 1998; Hurley et al., 1998). The magnitude of the toxicity risk involved in the spraying of methomyl, a carbamate insecticide, in field conditions was assessed by the National Institute of Occupational Health (NIOH). Significant changes were noticed in the ECG, the serum LDH levels, and cholinesterase (ChE) activities in the spraymen, indicating cardiotoxic effects of methomyl (Aktar et al., 2009). In India the first report of poisoning due to pesticides was from Kerala in 1958, where over 100 people died after consuming wheat flour contaminated with parathion (Karunakaran, 1958). This prompted the Special Committee on Harmful Effects of Pesticides constituted by the ICAR to focus attention on the problem (Report of the Special Committee of ICAR, 1972). In this multi-centric study to assess the pesticide residues in selected food commodities collected from different states of the country, DDT residues were found in about 82% of the 2205 samples of bovine milk collected from 12 states. About 37% of the samples contained DDT residues above the tolerance limit of 0.05 mg/kg (whole milk basis). The highest level of DDT residues found was 2.2 mg/kg. The proportion of the samples with residues above the tolerance limit was highest in Maharastra (74%), followed by Gujarat (70%), Andhra Pradesh (57%), Himachal Pradesh (56%), and Punjab (51%). In the remaining states,

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this proportion was less than 10%. Measurement of chemicals in the total diet provides the best estimates of human exposure and of the potential risk. The risk of consumers may then be evaluated by comparison with toxicologically acceptable intake levels. The average total DDT and BHC consumed by an adult were 19.24 mg/day and 77.15 mg/day respectively (Kashyap et al., 1994). In another study, the average daily intake of HCH and DDT by Indians was reported to be 115 and 48 mg per person respectively, which were higher than those observed in most of the developed countries (Kannan et al., 1992). To sum up, based on our limited knowledge of direct and/or inferential information, the domain of pesticides illustrates a certain ambiguity in situations in which people are undergoing life-long exposure. To safe guard the human health and ecological balance, farmers are motivated to adopt modern organic farming methods to use bio-fertilizers, bio-pesticides, bio control methods and modern crop production practices to ensure chemical residue free produces. There is thus every reason to develop health education packages based on knowledge, aptitude and practices and to disseminate them within the community in order to minimize human exposure to pesticides.

A physically disabled farmer spraying his cucumber farm without following the normally recommended safety procedure

Disabled due to the rampant use of Endosulfan

Impact of Endosulfan on Human Life. (Source: http://endosulfan.webs.com article.wn.com; sites.google.com)

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Official data on the incidence of occupational accidents, diseases and disabilities are imprecise and underestimated, due to inadequate and heterogeneous recording and notification systems. Furthermore, as only relatively few accidents are fatal and their notification mandatory, available information on workplace accidents does not reflect the very many nonfatal and minor injuries which fail to be reported. Even when an occupational injury is a cause of death, this fact is often missing from the death certificate. In the case of the agricultural sector under-reporting is even more evident. In many countries the reporting and compensation systems may exclude the agricultural sector or certain categories of agricultural workers. Operating machinery, working with livestock, or working around chemicals can be potentially hazardous for producers who are affected by cognitive impairments, mobility impairments, visual impairments or the aging process. The inability to quickly remove him or herself from a hazardous situation can place the farmer at risk of a secondary injury. Farmers using prosthetic devices have the added risk of their prostheses becoming entangled when working with machinery or livestock, or when performing climbing activities. The prevalence of these risks and the frequency of resulting incidents need to be documented and shared. Such information can potentially inspire others who are designing and fabricating modifications for their own agricultural operations to learn about potential secondary injuries and their causes. The result may be development of effective interventions that prevent or reduce these risks. INJURY PREVENTION METHODS To develop safer equipment and to pursue measures for minimizing accidents in agriculture, realistic data on these accidents are essential. Therefore, an agricultural accident survey was carried out during 2004-07 in collaboration with Indian Agricultural Statistics Research Institute, New Delhi, in a large sample of villages based on statistical considerations for a period of one year in seven states namely Tamil Nadu, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Arunachal Pradesh and West Bengal. Of the total accidents causing disabilities reported during a period of one year, 30.5% accidents were due to farm machines, 34.2% accidents were due to hand tools and the remaining 35.3% were due other sources (like snake bites, drowning in wells/ponds, animal bites, lighting, etc.). Under the farm machinery category about 31% of accidents were due to tractors and tractor operated equipment, 22% due to animal drawn equipment, 14% due to threshers, 12% due to electric motor/pump sets, 9% due to chaff cutters, 6% due to power tillers, 4% due to sprayers and 2% due to other machines. Therefore, the equipment which need immediate attention are tractors, threshers, electrical motors and pump sets, chaff cutters, power tillers, sprayers and animal drawn equipment. Among other sources, snake bites were observed to be one of the major sources of fatal accidents and necessary actions for educating workers and making anti-venom injections available at village level health centres are needed. Of the total accidents, 5.5% were fatal whereas 94.5% were non-fatal in nature. The overall accidents rate per year was 334 per lakh workers whereas the fatality rate was 18.3 per lakh workers. The data collected in this survey are being used to formulate accident minimization programmes in these states (ICAR, 2010). Also, farmers with disabilities can opt for the available assistive techniques. Farming with limitations or disabilities can increase risk in an already dangerous occupation and lead to secondary injuries. Assistive technologies have been developed for the farmstead to help individuals maintain productivity and independence, but can also assist in the prevention of secondary injuries. In simple terms, secondary injuries can be defined as injuries resulting from a previous injury or health condition. Often these secondary injuries occur because the farmer may attempt work tasks that exceed his or her abilities. The use of assistive technology can simplify tasks that need to be completed, create efficiency in labor-intensive work processes, and reduce fatigue.

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The fallout from farm injuries is broader than one might think. There's not just the individual's pain and suffering; there's a big economic cost to the farm. Farmers pay for injuries through: Delays in getting farm work done where the farmer or worker is affected Payment for medical treatment and rehabilitation physiotherapy, for example Wages for replacement workers High personal accident/disability insurance premiums for the farming industry High workers' compensation premiums.

DISABILITY MANAGEMENT It is a process in the workplace designed to facilitate the employment of persons with a disability through a coordinated effort addressing individual needs, work environment, enterprise needs and legal responsibilities. The following is a list of suggested priorities for the family with limited time and resources to put into risk management. Minimizing safety risks: Nothing is more important than safety. The farmers should take the time to do things right by wearing protective gear, storing hazardous chemicals like milk equipment cleaning chemicals, fuel and pesticides where children cant get into them. Equipment should be maintained regularly . A stress management plan needed to be adopted. Kids should be taught about safety and assign age appropriate tasks. Children are often anxious to show their responsibility by trying to tackle jobs that require more physical or mental abilities than they have developed. Adults should closely supervise visiting nonfarm children because they are unfamiliar with the everyday dangers associated with farm equipment and livestock. Use of good agricultural practices: Another basic risk management strategy is simply using good agricultural practices, such as nutrient management planning, rotational grazing, and careful herd health management. These practices can reduce costs and increase efficiency in the use of pesticides, fertilizer and other inputs, since materials are applied when and in the amounts necessary for optimum production. Always it is necessary to be careful to minimize spray drift, and to store and dispose of toxic materials properly. It is important to document pesticide and fertilizer applications. These practices not only limit legal risk from environmental mishaps, they can reduce costs and improve profitability, thus reducing financial risk. Support of/to the neighbors: A strong network of good neighbors is the best safety net a farm family can have. Sharing labor, equipment and knowledge can reduce ones costs and increase satisfaction with the farming lifestyle. Emergency plans with neighbors should be made in case anyone gets sick or disabled. Procedures should be noted down so that, someone else can step in and keep things going if one suddenly becomes unavailable. A study group can be considered to learn about other risk management strategies. Health and disability insurance: Health insurance is an important part of addressing human resource risks. Unfortunately, the high cost of health insurance means it is often one of the first expenses cut. However, there are ways to reduce insurance bill. Many organizations offer group insurance at reduced rates, more than offsetting the cost of membership. Social Security system offers basic disability insurance benefits to those who qualify and pay into the system. Many operators of small farms dont pay into the system because they dont generate enough farm income. However, depending on specific circumstances, the Farm Optional Method for Social Security coverage may allow to earn some disability coverage even if ones net farm income is negative. However, it's important to talk to a tax advisor to find out whether the Farm Optional Method will provide any disability coverage in a particular situation. The Agricultural Safety and Health Program assist rural residents in making their homes, work places and communities the safest and healthiest possible places to live and work. Programs include agricultural injury prevention, emergency preparedness, homeland security, and rehabilitation services to farmers impacted by disability. SUPPORTIVE SERVICES FOR DISABLED FARMERS With the modernization of agricultural practices, there is need to augment support and extension services for the farmers in general and disabled farmers in particular. To provide continuous services to these farmers, farm counseling services related to crop growing and to help in remedying them, soil and water treatment, advising on fertilizers and bio control method etc. are very essential, depending on their physical abilities. The supportive services needed for the disabled farmers include;

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Professional training and technical resources on agricultural worksite assessments Identification of solutions to overcome barriers Strategies and technologies for farming with specific limitations Prevention of secondary injuries or illnesses Alternative agriculture ventures Funding ideas for needed technologies Method, materials, and resources for providing effective services and The supportive staff should include occupational therapists, vocational rehabilitation specialists, social workers, assistive technology specialists, special educators, rehabilitation engineers, or rehabilitation technologists who should provide unique and quality services to the targeted population. Cooperation and collaboration is the key to success with all supportive services.

In order to guarantee sustainable agricultural development, rural workers and their families should have access to adequate working and living conditions, health and welfare. An adequate balance between agricultural growth and the protection of the environment is also crucial for the future of the world's food production and for its sustainability. Occupational health in agriculture must be integrated into a rural development policy with a well-defined strategy. It should place an emphasis on prevention and environmental protection to be consistent with current trends and should be addressed both at national and international levels. In order to achieve sustainable agricultural growth, the productivity of the workforce should be raised. This can be achieved by providing agricultural workers and their families with the means to meet their basic needs, with access to adequate working and living conditions, as well as protecting their health and welfare, and promoting the protection of the environment in which they work and live. People with disabilities have been excluded from most evaluations of economic reforms in India. It was found that, while increasing employment opportunities and accessibility has benefitted a few persons with disabilities, the majority, particularly the poor and rural disabled, have been left out of India's economic boom. It is questionable whether unbridled market reforms are sustainable given their human and environmental costs. Furthermore, the implications of the current economic downturn for India's urban and rural disabled populations are yet unknown. AGRICULTURE EXTENSION PROGRAMMES FOR DISABLED FARMERS Good advocacy is needed to help disseminate information and defend the rights of all disabled persons. Towards full integration into society, every disabled person should have access to proper education, training and employment. Programmes must be made readily available to the disabled within their own community so as to increase the number of participants. Because of a general lack of precise information on the number of disabled persons, the type of disabilities, where they are located and gender specifications, it is difficult to develop and implement specific programmes. Detailed studies should be made to evaluate those industries and sectors where disabled people can be readily integrated into the work force. On the other hand, agriculture extension programmes will lend a helping hand in knowing the current know-how in the field. Agricultural extension performs three major functions, which are: To get the farmers into a frame of mind and attitude conducive to acceptance or adoption of technological change. This function is achieved by educating the farmers on the newly developed technology and to convince them of the viability of the new technology in agriculture. The physically challenged children can also be educated on new improved technology. To disseminate to the farmers the results of research and to carry the farmers problem back to the research system for solution. In order to perform this function properly, effective communication must exist between the research institute, the extension agent and the farmers. This also calls for adequate knowledge in technical matters related to agriculture and be skillful in the art of communication. For the extension agent to communicate effectively with the physically challenged farmers, he will need the assistance or support of a special education teacher or receive on the job training in special education. To help farmers make wise decision in farm management. Extension is a significant tool in assisting the farmers to develop proficiency in the management of his farm. The physically challenged farmers should be assisted to operate in a modern commercial economy where prices and factors of production

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play major roles; otherwise the advantages of combining these two important factors to make wise decision will escape them. According to the most relatives, farmers with disabilities carried out farm monitoring and management, seed cleaning and disinfection, mechanical harvesting, weeding, seeding and grafting satisfactorily; while activities related to land preparation, input and product transportation, fertilization, pruning and hand-harvesting were not performed satisfactorily. They feel that the disabled farmers need more technical and financial support, more facilities for providing farming inputs and loans, special training, rehabilitation centers, more social respect and follow-up on requests. REHABILITATION PROGRAMMES Rehabilitation refers to intervention procedures that seek to restore the farmer to normal optimal functioning after injury or illness. Efforts at rehabilitation focus initially on those skills lost or impaired. In this respect, rehabilitation includes various physical, occupational and behavioral therapies that seek to restore lost functions. While the main objective in such a programme is to create income-generating activities, the overall objective remains physical rehabilitation, emotional stability, self-satisfaction and happiness to lead a normal life. The use of an already existing structure allows immediate action and readily available facilities. It also allows a greater freedom of choice for the disabled person. Community Based Rehabilitation Centers and Training Centers can also offer good insights and opportunities for income generation activities and the problems associated with their daily requirements. These centers offer special answers to special needs and may well be associated with existing cooperatives for further developments. AGRICULTURE AND ALLIED FARMING SUITABLE FOR DISABLED FARMERS FAO (1996) offers a number of areas of expertise and can contribute to the development of various projects and activities within various sectors of priorities already identified within the FAO schedule. These include poverty alleviation, rural development, sustainable development and food security, all directly related to agriculture, agro-industry and natural resources activities. Following are the various sectors that have been identified in Asia as potentially feasible markets and for which disabled persons have already been involved successfully. Agriculture: Betel leaves, Caring of plants and flowers, Crop cultivation, Cut flowers, Growing vegetables, Gardening (flowers, fruits, vegetables), Harvesting rice, Horticulture, Mushroom cultivation, Nurseries, Onion fields, Paddy cultivation, Irrigation etc. The horticulture sector covers a wide range of crops such as fruits, vegetables, root and tuber crops, flowers, aromatic and medicinal plants, spices and plantation crops, which facilitate diversification in agriculture. There is a realization that growing horticulture crops is now an option to improve livelihood security especially for disabled farmers, enhance employment generation, attain food and nutritional security and increase income through value addition. 1. 2. 3. Agriculture and Allied Farming such as; Betel leaves, Crop cultivation, Harvesting rice, Growing vegetables, Mushroom cultivation, Onion fields, Paddy cultivation, Irrigation etc; Horticulture involving Gardening (flowers, fruits, vegetables), Nurseries, Caring of plants and flowers, Cut flowers, Selling of fruits, vegetables, flowers, etc; Animal Husbandry and Related Activities like Cattle rearing or caring for cows and buffaloes, Duck and chicken rearing for eggs, Pig farming, Poultry farming, Quail raising for eggs, Silk worm raising or Sericulture etc; Fisheries including Aquaculture, Crab farming, Fishing - catfish from river, Otter raising, Mussels farming, Shrimp farming etc; Forestry and Natural Resources like Broom production, Handicraft from palm trees, Hat making from forest and natural products, Weaving etc. and; Other Activities like Basketry, Clothing production, Farm machinery repair, Handicrafts, Incense stick production, Mat weaving, Distribution of finished goods, Flower making, etc.

4. 5. 6.

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CONCLUSION Farmers need to protect against farm injuries among themselves and their families, but also among their employees. Good health and safety management is an integral part of effective farm business management and needs to be undertaken in consultation with occupational health and safety regulatory bodies in each state. These authorities can arrange for safety advisors to visit farms, carry out risk assessments and provide advice. They hold information sessions, produce publications and manage farm safety education programs. Ways to reduce injuries include: Eliminating potential risks by substituting less hazardous equipment, or a less toxic chemical Modifying equipment to make it safer (fitting roll-over protection and seatbelts to tractors, for example) Training staff in safety practices and providing them with safety equipment such as goggles or breathing apparatus Putting systems in place to deal with injury (first aid, injury management, and rehabilitation programs for instance) Monitoring the health of workers Keeping occupational health and safety records on hazardous substances, training of workers, and workplace accidents and injuries Keeping all equipment in good repair Creating a safe and contained play area for young children close to the house.

Active measures to prevent injuries involve behavioural change through education, enforcement and supervision while passive measures are those which involve automatic safety devices, design modifications and retrofitting of existing equipment. First aid measures for injuries on farms are inadequate and inappropriate. Varghese and Mohan (1990) reported that traditional methods are commonly used for agricultural injuries. Some of these prolonged the healing time of injuries well beyond the expected. They have suggested that irregular visits of city based doctors are not effective and emphasize those local medical practitioners and bone setters must be equipped with the knowledge to deal with trauma cases in a more effective manner. REFERENCES Aktar, Md. Wasim, Sengupta, Dwaipayan, and Chowdhury, Ashim. (2009). Impact of pesticides use in agriculture: their benefits and hazards, Interdisciplinary Toxicology, 2 (1), pp. 112. Annual Report (2010-11). Department of Agriculture and Cooperation, Ministry of Agriculture, Brouwer, Kgnecker, M.P., Birnbaum, L.S., Cogliano, J., Kostyniak, P., Moore, J., Schantz, S., and Winneke, G. (1999). Characterization of potential endocrine related health effects at low dose levels of exposure to PCBs, Environ Health Perspect, 107, p. 639. Census of India (2011). Instruction Manual for Updating of Abridged House-list and Filling up of the Household Schedule Cogbill, T.H. et al. (1991). Death and disability from agricultural injuries in Wisconsin: A 12 years experience with 739 patients, J Trauma, 31, pp. 1632-1637. Crisp, E.D., Cooper, R.L., Wood, W.P., Anderson, D.G., Baeteke, K.P., Hoffmann, J.L., Morrow, M.S., Rodier, D.J., Schaeffer, J.E., Touart, L.W., Zeeman, M.G., and Patel, Y.M. (1998). Environmental endocrine disruption: An effects assessment and analysis, Environ Health Perspect, 106, p. 11. Disability in India; - A Statistical Profile - March 2011 Environews Forum. (1999). Killer environment, Environ Health Perspect, 107, A62. FAO- Food and Agriculture Organization (1996) World food summit, held on 13-17 November at Rome Italy. Available from: http://www.fao.org/wfs/index_en.htm Government of India (2003b), Disabled Persons in India, National Sample Survey Organisation, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Report No. 485. Government of India. Heeg, M., Ten Duis, Klasen, H.J. (1986). Power take -off injuries, Injury, 17, pp.28-30.

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Howell, J.M., and Smith, E.O.S. (1973). An agricultural accident survey in Alberta, Canadian Journal of Public Health, 64, pp. 36-43. Hurley, P.M., Hill, R.N., and Whiting, R.J. (1998). Mode of carcinogenic action of pesticides inducing thyroid follicular cell tumours in rodents, Environ Health Perspect, 106, p. 437 Huston, A.F., and Smith, C. (1969). Farm accidents in Saskatchewan, Can Med Assoc J, 100, pp. 764-769. Igbedioh, S.O. (1991). Effects of agricultural pesticides on humans, animals and higher plants in developing countries, Arch Environ Health, 46, p. 218. ILO (2000). SafeWork: Programme on safety, health and the environment, Labour Protection Department, International Labour Organization. Available from www.ilo.org/safework. Indian Council of Agricultural Research. (2010). All India Coordinated Research Project on Ergonomics and Safety in Agriculture, Krishi Bhavan, New Delhi. Jansson, B.R., and Jacobsson, B.S. (1998). Medical consequences of work related accidents on 2454 Swedish farms, Scan J Work Environ Health, 14, pp. 21-26. Jeyaratnam, J. (1985). Health problems of pesticide usage in the third world, B M J, 42, 505. Joanna Green (n.d). General Risk Management Information, Cornell Small Farms Program, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. Kannan K, Tanabe S, Ramesh A, Subramanian AN, Tatsukawa R. (1992). Persistent organochlorine residues in foodstuffs from India and their implications on hu man dietary exposure, J AgricFood Chem, 2 (40), pp. 518524. Karunakaran, C.O. (1958). The Kerala food poisoning, J Indian Med Assoc, 31, p. 204. Kashyap, R., Iyer, L.R., and Singh, M.M. (1994). Evaluation of daily dietary intake of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethene (DDT) and benzenehexachloride (BHC) in India, Arch Environ Health, 49, p. 63. Knapp, Jr. L.W. (1965). Agricultural injury prevention, Journal of Occupational Medicine, 7, pp. 545-553. Kumar, A., Mohan, D., and Mahajan, P. (1998). Studies on tractor related injuries in Northern India, Accident Analysis and Prevention, 30, pp. 53-60. Mahendra Dev, S. (2011). Small Farmers in India: Challenges and Opportunities, Paper presented at Emerging Economies Research Dialogue Beijing , China, 14 -15 of November, organized by ICRIER. Manual on Disability Statistics (2012). Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation: Government of India, New Delhi (www.mospi.gov.in). McElfresh, E.C., Bryan, R.S. (1973). Power take -off injuries, J Trauma, 13, pp.775-782. Mitra S. and U. Sambamoorthi (2006), Employment of Persons with Disabilities: Evidence from the National Sample Survey, Economic and Political Weekly, January 21; 41(3), pp. 199-203. Murphy, D. J. (1992). Safety and Health for Production Agriculture. Penn State University: American Society of Agricultural Engineers. PWD Act, (1995). The Persons with Disabilities: Equal Opportunities, Protection Of Rights And Full Participation, Act, 1995. Report of the Special Committee of ICAR, (1972). Wadhwani, A.M., Lall, I.J., editors., Harmful Effects of Pesticides. New Delhi: Indian Council of Agricultural Research; Seeman, B.T. (2000) Long-Term Wheelchair Use Leads to Stress Injuries in People With Disabilities, Newhouse News Service (p1). Varghese, M., and Mohan, D. (1990). Occupational injuries among agricultural workers in rural India, Journal of Occupational Accidents, 12, pp.237-244. Haryana,

WHO. (1990). Public Health Impact of Pesticides Used in Agriculture; World Health Organization: Geneva, p. 88.

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Retrieved from http://nasdonline.org/document/2691/d002068/agricultural-injuries-in-central-india-nature-magnitude-and.html http://socialjustice.nic.in/nhfdcnew.php http://tripp.iitd.ernet.in/publications/paper/injury/Inj_review_ak.pdf http://web.up.ac.za/UserFiles/MitraxSambamoorthi_Village_TN_July06.pdf http://www.igidr.ac.in/pdf/publication/WP-2012-014.pdf http://www.indiamart.com/supathgramodhyog/rural-development.html http://www.indiatribune.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=5389:every-12-hours-onefarmer-commits-suicide-in-india&catid=106:magazine http://www.unapcaem.org/publication/AMSafety.pdf http://www.usda.gov/documents/FARM_SAFETY_NET.pdf www.smallfarms.edu

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DISABILITIES AND ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGIES IN AGRICULTURE FARMING


Dr. R. Vijaya Anuradha1 and Dr. G. Lokanadha Reddy2 Abstract Estimating the prevalence of disability in India has been hampered by complex and multiple factors. The World Banks (2007) study shows that the rural disabled have lower access to health care, not only due to inadequate system of disability identification and certification, but also because of poor awareness about disability issues. People with disabilities in rural areas are largely excluded from mainstream poverty alleviation programmes due to attitudinal and physical barriers. Besides, in a situation where a family is poor and dependent on farming, children with disabilities often neglected because, the family believes that it is not worth educating them. Discrimination, or treating people unfairly because of prejudice, can make the lives of people with disabilities very difficult. Despite having the same hopes and ambitions as non-disabled persons, they encounter barriers that make it much harder for them to succeed. The current paper highlights the challenges that are especially evident with those individuals with a disability involved in agriculture, with special reference to stress i.e. symptoms of stress, common stressors, ways to manage stress and problems of suicides prevailing among farmers. Further, it focuses on the ergonomics and safety in agriculture and also injuries and disabilities involved in farming. The main highlight of the paper is the assistive technologies needed for disabled farmers. In India, many research studies revealed that, threshers, sugarcane threshers, chaff cutter, tractor-trailer, sprayers etc. as the dangerous machines causing accidents in farming and some of the factors for farm injuries are - the operators attitude, outdated machinery and lack of maintenance, farm transportation vehicles, exposure to pesticides etc. Assistive technology includes any kind of device, modification, or service that will help a person with a disability work and live more independently. The use of assistive technology can simplify tasks that need to be completed, create efficiency in labor-intensive work processes, and reduce fatigue. Some of the Assistive technologies referred to in this paper for the utilization of persons with disabilities on the farm include; Aids to daily living, Environmental controls, Home or worksite modifications, Job accommodations, Seating and positioning aids, Vision and hearing aids, Personal mobility aids, Vehicle or equipment modification, Prosthetics and orthotics, Tractor alterations, etc. Finally, the authors concluded with certain suggestions in favour of the disabled farmers such as; need for change in the attitudes of people towards disabled individuals, encouraging self help-organizations and self reliance among disabled farmers, educational opportunities need to be increased to improve the quality of life, rehabilitation services should include health, education, employment and social relations, special attention and care should be given to psychological, emotional and spiritual aspects of the disabled person etc. INTRODUCTION Estimating the prevalence of disability in India has been hampered by complex and multitudinous factors. Deep-seated social stigma results in the exclusion and invisibility of individuals with disabilities. The lack of adequate definitions of disability further compounds the task of accurately assessing the prevalence of disability. There are two government sources of nationwide disability statistics in India: the Census and Surveys of the National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO). The 58 th round of the National Sample Survey (NSS) reported that there were 18.5 million persons with disabilities in 2002 (NSSO, 2003) compared with 21.9 million reported by the Census of 2001 (Registrar General of India, 2001). The Census of 2001 did not adopt any particular definition of disability, rather it included a functional limitation question that asks respondents about their type of functional limitation (e.g., in seeing, hearing, movement). In contrast, the NSS considers a person as disabled if s/he has restrictions or lacks the ability to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being. The NSS thus defines disability as an activity limitation (Hiranandani and Sonpal, 2010). DISABILITY STATISTICS The history of collection of data on disability/ infirmity dates back to the inception of modern Indian Census in 1872. The questionnaire of the 1872 Census included questions not only on physically and mentally infirm but also persons affected by leprosy. Collection of information on infirmities in each of the successive decadal censuses continued till 1931. However, in view of the serious doubts expressed by the then Census
1 2

Post Doctoral Fellow, Dept. of Education, School of Education and HRD, Dravidian University, Kuppam 517 426, A.P. State. Professor and Head, Dept. of Education, School of Education and HRD, Dravidian University, Kuppam 517 426, A.P. State.

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Commissioners about the authenticity and quality of data collected on infirm population, the enumeration of physically disabled persons was discontinued during the 1941 Census. It was felt that question on disabled population did not lend themselves to a census enquiry since these did not seem to provide accurate data due to variety of reasons particularly due to the social stigma attached with this characteristic. No attempt was made to collect information on disability through census of 1951, 1961, 1971 and 1991. After a gap of 50 years, a question on disabilities was again canvassed at the 1981 Census. Since 1981 had been proclaimed as the "International Year for the Disabled" it resulted in inclusion of a question on disability during census the world over, and India was no exception to it. However, the question on only three broad categories of physical disabilities, viz. `Totally Blind', `Totally Dumb' and `Totally Crippled', was canvassed during the house listing operations of 1981 Census. When the results of 1981 Census were finally available, it was felt that there was considerable under enumeration of physically handicapped persons. The 1981 Census results also supported the views expressed by the earlier Census Commissioners that the enumeration and determination of the physically handicapped and their characteristics were beyond the scope and capacity of Census Operations due to the complexity of the definition of disability and inherent reservations of the population to share this information with the enumerator usually a local government official. The question on disability was again incorporated in Census of India 2001 under the pressure from the various stakeholders and obligation under PWD Act, 1995, although it was generally felt that it was difficult to collect accurate information on disability during the census enumeration process. Further, the concepts and definitions spelt out in the Act were found to be difficult to canvass in the absence of expert investigator specifically trained for the purpose. However, considering its advantage of comprehensive coverage of population characteristics and scope to provide estimates at sub-state level, the decision to include the question on disability for all the members of the households was finally agreed upon. The findings of Population Census of 2001 on disability and 1981 Census were not quite comparable due to difference in coverage and definitions. Keeping in view the recommendations of the Technical Advisory Committee [TAC] on disability statistics, which was constituted by Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation [MoSPI], the question on disability, was expanded and three questions were canvassed during Census-2011 instead of one. The definitions were also aligned with the recommendations of the TAC. The results of this Census are not yet out (Manual on Disability Statistics, 2012). The definition of disability constitutes a barrier to service provision. Disability is perceived as a multidimensional concept with both objective and subjective characteristics. When interpreted as an illness or impairment, disability is seen as fixed in an individuals body or mind. When interpreted as a social construct, it is seen in terms of social, economic or cultural disadvantages resulting from discrimination or exclusion (Human Resources Development Canada, 2003). Amidst these diverse forces impacting the lives of ordinary people in the country, the situation of people with disabilities is particularly concerning given that their exclusion from government census and surveys translates into denial of their citizenship rights and entitlements to existing state programs for the poor and disabled. Rural-urban disparities persist in the accessibility of transportation services. In rural areas, people with stigmatized conditions, such as leprosy-cured, are not allowed to use public transport even if they can afford it (Mander, 2008). Although 80% of India's disabled persons live in rural areas, most government and NGO programs and rehabilitation centers are located in urban areas (D'Costa, 2008; Klasing, 2007). World Bank's (2007) study shows that the rural disabled have lower access to health care, not only due to the poorly functioning current system of disability identification and certification, but also because of poor awareness about disability issues among providers, as well as community and provider attitudes that act as constraints in the provision of health care for people with disabilities. Government schemes for the disabled, whether in education or employment, rarely reach rural people. Ninety percent of India's children with disabilities reside in rural areas where even nondisabled children find access to education difficult. The lack of services, such as accessible transportation, and the distance between home and school in rural areas further push children with disabilities to the margins (D'Costa, 2008; World Bank, 2007). Negligence of Disabled in Farming People with disabilities in rural areas are largely excluded from mainstream poverty alleviation programs due to attitudinal and physical barriers. The PWD Act requires governments to reserve not less than 3% in all poverty alleviation programs for people with disabilities. However, different poverty alleviation programs have interpreted the 3% reservation rule differently. As World Bank (2007) noted, the Sampoorna

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Grameen Rojgar Yojana -SGRY (The Complete Rural Employment Scheme) mentioned parents of children with disabilities (CWD) rather than adult workers with disabilities, assuming that disabled people are unable to work. Yet, there is no specific quota mentioned for parents of CWD, unlike other groups such as women and other minority groups. The Indira Avaz Yojana mentions people with disabilities as a priority category among other groups; however, no specific quantitative targets are mentioned. In contrast, the Swaranjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana - SGSY (The Centennial Rural Self-Employment Scheme) provides specific guidelines and requires that 3% of beneficiaries annually must be people with disabilities. However, the World Bank (2007) observes that data reported by various poverty alleviation programs do not clarify the share of beneficiaries who are persons with disabilities. Wherever clear data is available, people with disabilities are well below the 3% reservation rule in all schemes. For instance, the share of disabled beneficiaries in SGSY was below 1% between 1999 and 2004. In SGRY, a much bigger program in total spending than SGSY, data are reported for works completed for the benefit of disabled people rather than the number of days of employment generated for people with disabilities. However, the Comptroller and Auditor General Report (2004) shows the share of disabled beneficiaries in SGRY was below 1.7% during the reporting period 1998-2003 (cited in World Bank, 2007). More recent data from various states compiled by the World Bank report demonstrates even lower percentages. For instance, in the state of Orissa, people with disabilities accounted for only 0.3% of total employment days generated under SGRY during 2001-2005 (Hiranandani and Sonpal 2010). Roughly, 700 million (70%) of India's 1 billion people depend on the agricultural sector for their livelihoods (Coleman, 2003). International rules that encompass agricultural trade liberalization and the use of genetically engineered seeds have transformed agricultural practices and rural livelihoods everywhere. Recent free trade and seed patenting policies, such as the Agreement on Agriculture (AoA) and the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) instituted by the World Trade Organization (WTO), have required developing countries, such as India, to open their agricultural sector to global agribusinesses and to replace traditional farm-saved seeds with genetically engineered seeds (which are non-renewable and thus require re-purchasing for each growing season). The bulk of empirical evidence suggests that trade liberalization has led to unprecedented crisis in the agrarian sector as small-scale farmers are unable to compete in international markets (Hiranandani, 2008). Declining rural credit, rising farm input prices and decreasing prices for agricultural produce have forced small-scale and subsistence farmers, including disabled farmers, off the land. India, home to 557 million subsistence farmers, has experienced an epidemic of farmer suicides since 1997 (Sainath, 2007). FAO (2004) notes that disabled farmers with inadequate access to means of production such as land, water, inputs and improved seeds, appropriate technologies and farm credit are particularly hard-hit. Given the decline of the rural economy, nearly 40% of rural households have no land of their own and it is estimated that the rural unemployment is as high as 30% (Dalal, forthcoming). Besides, local agriculture has borne the brunt of water privatization. In Plachimada in Kerala, CocaCola extracted 1.5 million liters of deep well-water, bottling and selling them for profit. Depleting ground water levels have affected thousands of communities creating water shortages and destroying agricultural livelihoods. The poor, including disabled people, have to travel farther to fetch water. The remaining ground water has become contaminated with high chloride and bacteria levels, leading to scabies, eye problems and gastrointestinal diseases. The company also sells the plants' industrial waste to farmers as fertilizers, despite high levels of hazardous waste and cadmium (Global Exchange, 2005). Yet, comprehensive assessments of water privatization for disease, impairment and environmental degradation have been lacking. Less Importance for Education of People with Disabilities Discrimination, or treating people unfairly because of prejudice, can make the lives of people with disabilities very difficult. Despite having the same hopes and ambitions as non-disabled persons, they encounter barriers that make it much harder for them to succeed. People with disabilities experience significant discrimination in areas such as education, health, gender and equality. The types of discrimination they face can be linked to attitudes, the environment, local laws, or cultural practices. In a situation where a family is poor and dependent on farming, children with disabilities often being neglected because the family believes that it is not worth educating them. Although in most countries basic primary education is free, there are still several opportunity costs of attending school. School children often need practical things, for example uniforms and writing materials, which represent the direct cost of education. But there are many indirect costs too, some of which are greater for children with disabilities. For instance, in rural areas, going to school may involve travelling long distances and spending time away from helping out with family activities such as farming. Children with disabilities may need to be accompanied on their journey to school by an adult family member or families may need to meet the costs of transport. The family may have to

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pay for assistive devices or mobility aids (such as wheelchairs or Braille stencils) to facilitate attendance at school. Many families in farming families with children with disabilities lack an awareness of the benefits of education for children with disabilities. When these families are forced to make decisions about how they spend their resources many of them are choosing not to send their children to school. Regardless of the potential of the child, disability is often viewed as an inability resulting in lifelong dependency. These barriers are created by negative attitudes and result from a lack of understanding about the true causes of impairments and of the potential all children have. The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) recognizes people with disabilities as those who have long-term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairments, which when combined with negative attitudes or environmental barriers prevent them from taking a full and active role in society. Often, it is the interaction between the individual and his or her environment that leads to disability, not that persons physical limitations. Such an understanding of the social nature of disability helps to promote disability as a human rights issue. It is the duty of every citizen to bring the children and young people with disabilities to the main stream by following the guidelines given by CRPD (2008): Treat people with disabilities with respect as disability is not inability. Education for all means that, giving young people with disabilities a chance to reach their potential by supporting schools and families to accept the value of education for children and young people with disabilities. Supporting peoples efforts to raise awareness on the rights of people with disabilities and opening up opportunities for them to join in all activities. Helping them to lobby and advocate for the implementation of their rights and to challenge the negative attitudes which are perpetuating their exclusion. Paying attention to the environmental barriers that stop people with disabilities from participating in educational activities. Finding out what the barriers are and try to remove them. A lack of participation by people with disabilities does not mean they dont want to take part it means they cant because something is stopping them. Acknowledging that girls and young women with disabilities can be at very high risk of abuse and exploitation. Raising awareness around their vulnerability, reinforcing laws to protect them, and supporting efforts to empower them so that they can speak out for themselves. Making sure people with disabilities are brought into decision-making forums and that their ideas and suggestions are given equal consideration to those of their non-disabled peers. One should not assume that they are only interested in disability issues, but they are also able to contribute their ideas and views in all areas of debate. Creating inclusive opportunities for young people to take part in sports and other recreational activities. Sport in particular can be a powerful mechanism to challenge negative stereotypes and promote the integration of young people with disabilities into their communities. Its also fun and helps build friendships and peer groups. Supporting the development and promotion of accessible technology because its clear that it is already having an impact on the ability of young people with disabilities to participate. If the needs and capabilities of people with disabilities remain on the fringes of development policy and practice, then reaching the higher goals are highly impossible. It should be made sure that all development programmes take proactive measures to include people with disabilities. Celebrating diversity is very necessary. Recognizing the important role young people with disabilities play in creating richer, more dynamic, resourceful and respectful communities is even more essential.

People with disabilities have been excluded from most evaluations of economic reforms in India. It has been found that while increasing employment opportunities and accessibility has benefitted a few persons with disabilities, the majority, particularly the poor and rural disabled, have been left out of India's economic boom. It is questionable whether unbridled market reforms are sustainable given their human and environmental costs. Furthermore, the implications of the current economic downturn for India's urban and rural disabled populations are yet unknown. On the other hand, stress and suicides are playing havoc in the farmers life.

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Stress in Farming Farming often is listed as one of the most stressful occupations, yet most farmers say they wouldnt trade it for any other job. The love of farming, in spite of all the hassles, indicates farmers must be doing something right to manage their stress. However, stress that goes unrecognized and is not managed well can play havoc with the farm family and the farm operation. When stress levels get too high, farmers are more likely to make poor farming decisions and be involved in farm accidents which sometimes may be fatal or leave the farmer in partial or permanent disability. Relationships between spouses and between parents and children also suffer during stressful times, as can health. Symptoms of Stress People experience stress in different ways. Some people react to stressful situations physically, others have emotional responses, and some respond with changes in behavior or relationships. Most people react to stress in more than one way at the same time. High levels of stress can affect several areas of peoples lives. How farmers experience stress is influenced by factors like; age and past experience with stressful times, type of farming operation, time and energy demands from off farm jobs, availability of opportunities for supplementary income, emotional support from family members, shared goals of spouses and, flexibility and adaptability. Common stressors Farming has many ongoing situations that can cause stress, such as large debt loads, diseases and disabilities, presence of government regulations, high interest rates, and lack of control over the weather. Farmers also face daily hassles including machinery breakdowns, long working hours, weather delays, livestock problems, unexpected interruptions, crop yield uncertainty, and disagreements with other family members in the operation. Although all change can bring stress, situations considered undesirable, such as bad weather or trouble with livestock, are more likely to cause stress than situations viewed as less negative. Many situations in farming are beyond human control, such as the weather, prices, government policies and operating costs. Stress is more likely to occur when it isnt clear what the problem is or how one can cope with it. Most families can get by for a while with a difficult situation. When the stress continues to build over months and years, its harder to handle and may lead to distress and depression (Colleen and Laura, 2004). The farmers may suffer various forms of physical disabilities due to their farm work, which is visible but, at the same time they may also experience mental stress and strain because of their physical disabilities or failure of crop or financial burdens etc. So, to cope with such stress, they need some strategies to be able to with stand the mounting pressure on them. Ways to Manage Stress Some of the ways and means to cope with farm stress as identified by Colleen Jolly and Laura Miller (2004) are; First, it is necessary to recognize the symptoms of stress and decide to do something about them. Brainstorming with family members about alternatives and options that might reduce stressors in life is more essential. Just as machinery needs top quality fuel, body needs nutritious food. Breakfast is an important meal for farm operators. Breaks for mid-morning and mid-afternoon snacks are helpful, especially during field work. One should take time to talk, especially to their family. Let them know if the person is feeling pressured or stressed and find a friend who can listen to the problems. Relaxation is very essential every day. During busy times one may be able to relax for only a few minutes. During less hurried times, they should take at least a half hour every day to do something for themselves. Even though farmers get a lot of exercise, vigorous exercise is needed to get the heart pumping. It also will help lower the stress level. Making these changes may seem difficult at first, but the investment of time and energy can really pay off in feeling better and having a more productive farming operation.

Most of the time, counselors focused on the emotional stress of the farm crisis. "The most difficult group to help", according to one counselor, are farmers who are 58 years and older, whose home, life savings, identity, life work have been wrapped up in the farm. They don't really have alternatives". Farmers put their personal health second and the health of the farm first. Some studies also revealed that the stress affects an individuals mental health and physical health and farmers with high stress ar e at risk for depression and suicide.

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For farmers, unchecked stress seems to impact farmers who go from having no mental health problems to high numbers of suicide (Wang et al, 2004). Appropriate outreach to farmers is essential to not only farmers surviv al, but societys survival. Problems of Suicides in Farming In the 1990s India woke up to a spate of farmers suicides. The first state where suicides were reported was Maharashtra. Soon newspapers began to report similar occurrences from Andhra Pradesh. The government appointed a number of inquiries to look into the causes of farmers' suicide and farm-related distress in general. The despair has deepened over the past year with 18 of the 28 states reporting more suicides. The farmer suicide graph has been steadily rising (India Tribune, 2012). According to the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) data from 2009, more than 216, 000 farmers have killed themselves since 1997. Add the figures for 1995, 1996 and 2010 and the total crosses 250,000. That is, two farmers a day for the past 15 years. Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research (IGIDR) has clearly brought out that the reasons for suicide are indebtedness of the farmers and that there are grave issues of mental health due to use of pesticides. They state that the use of insecticides in cotton is excessive. The per hectare usage is nearly 13 times higher than that of Soyabean; 82 times higher than that of Tur; 442 times higher than that of sugarcane. They further state that in addition to yield uncertainty, the cost of cotton cultivation is much higher than the price received. There is poor dissemination of scientific farm techniques, farmers do not use certified seeds, seeds showing per unit land is not adhered to, fertilizers usage is not as per recommended doses, insecticides usages is excessive causing damage to crop and ecology and the farmers being increasingly exposed to price volatility (Report of Fact Finding Team on Vidharbha, 2006). The problems that plagued the farmers 15 years ago are still glaringly present today. There is little credit available. What is available is very expensive. There is no advice on how best to conduct agriculture operations. Income through farming is not enough to meet even the minimum needs of a farming family. Support systems like free health facilities from the government are virtually non-existent. Traditionally, support systems in the villages of India have been provided for by the government. However, due to a variety of reasons the government has either withdrawn itself from its supportive role or plain simple mis-governance has allowed facilities in the villages to wither away. The despair has deepened over the past year with 18 of the 28 states reporting more suicides. To know the root cause of these problems, it is essential to understand the ergonomics of the agriculture. Ergonomics and Safety in Agriculture Ergonomics is the scientific study of relationship between a person and his/her working environment. The term environment includes his/her tools and materials, his/her method of work, ambient conditions and physical environment of work, and also the organization of work. In most of the developing countries human workers constitute as one of the important sources of farm power. Besides, they also operate animal drawn equipment, tractors, power tillers and self-propelled as well as power operated machines. Therefore, in agriculture, the application of ergonomics can help in increasing the efficiency and thereby productivity of the workers without jeopardizing their health and safety. Farm mechanization along with increased application of other agricultural inputs such as tools and materials, seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides etc. has enhanced the productivity and production on farms. But on the other hand it has also led to increased casualties and injuries due to accidents while carrying out different agricultural activities. About 6.5% of the power used in crop production and related activities in the country is contributed by about 241 million workers, of which about 42% (i.e. 101 million) are female workers. At present, the agricultural machinery population in the country is estimated at about 150 million, which includes about 3.5 million tractors and other self propelled equipment. In addition, there are more than 400 million hand tools such as pickaxe, spade, hand hoe, sickle etc., which are extensively used by agricultural workers. Thus, the human worker play a major role in countrys agriculture and due attention needs to be given to their capabilities and limitations during design and operation of various farm equipment so as to get higher productivity, enhanced comfort and better safety (Indian Council of Agricultural Research, 2010). Farm Injuries and Disabilities An accident is an unplanned, unforeseen or uncontrolled event generally one which has unhappy consequences. During the operation of various agricultural machines, accidents take place resulting either in loss of life or making people physically disabled or causing injuries.

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In India, a large number of researches conducted on agricultural accidents identified the threshers, sugarcane thresher, chaff cutter, tractor-trailer, and sprayers etc. as the dangerous machines causing accidents. One study reported that about 73 % of the thresher accidents were due to human factors like in- attentiveness, unskillfulness, overwork, physical incapability, 13 % due to machine factors like improper feeding system and 14 % due to crop and other factors. Livestock Livestock handling is recognized as one of the most dangerous farming activities. The risk of secondary injuries as a result of existing injuries or disabilities is extremely high when handling livestock. Many assistive techniques have been in use to assist and protect operators with disabilities from sustaining additional injuries. These techniques help avoid or minimize direct contact with the animals. Most of these categories and assistive techniques are used for both livestock and dairy operations, though the latter also has certain specific assistive technologies. The following are selected examples of assistive techniques used in livestock operations: Livestock guards that eliminate the need for opening or closing gates. Easy-to-open spring-loaded latches. Quick gate latch for one-handed use. Cattle chutes. Crutching frame with chest belt for sheep shearing. Deck chair to hold sheep while being trimmed, examined, or medicated. Bale feeder for dispensing hay etc.

Factors Causing Farm Injuries Some of the major factors involved in agricultural machinery accidents are (Mukherjee and Chang, 2008): 1. The operators attitude: Most accidents with agricultural machinery are the result of human error/negligence which includes; taking shortcut to save time, failure to read the operators manual (lack of education), ignoring the warning, improper or lack of instructions, failure to follow the safety rules including loose fitting clothing etc. Outdated machinery and lack of maintenance: Outdated agricultural machinery often leads to accidents because of the malfunction of the some parts or not repairing/maintaining periodically. Repairs and adjustments are frequently necessary to ensure optimum machinery performance and efficiency. Farm transportation vehicle: Accidents due to farm transportation vehicle occur because of overloading or improper operation of the driver/operator, infrastructure including road quality also a factor to impose influence on normal operation of transportation vehicles. Less prevention: More focus should be given on preventing farm accidents rather than concentrating on the accidents that occurred. Operators should be alerted through extension of knowledge that accidents are extremely expensive which include hospital bills, extra hired labour, machinery repair, machinery rental, pain and suffering and sometimes permanent disability for the rest of ones life. Exposure to pesticides: Exposure to pesticides and other agrochemicals constitutes one of the major occupational risks, accounting in some countries for as much as 14 % of all occupational injuries in agricultural sector and 10 % of all fatal injuries (ILO, 1996). Truck carried pesticides equipment could greatly reduce the exposure of workers to agrochemicals. However, these improved equipment designs and better manufacturing quality are more expensive. Portable and manual operated pesticides application equipment such as back carried pesticides application equipment is still prevailing in most of the developing countries, including India. In general, farmers never wear any protection clothing including hand gloves and masks during operation.

2.

3.

4.

5.

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A young farmer who has lost a hand, spraying his tobacco farm, without taking safety measures 6. Impairment due to noise and vibration: Noise in agriculture is the result of high frequency vibrations produced by the machines. At full power the motor produces far more than 85 dB established as the limit for hearing loss prevention. Fear of legal implication: Agriculture being the rural based activity, the famer employer and workers live together in a village in the same society where there is a social bond between these people. They prefer to a traditional way that any provision for compensation to the victims of agricultural accidents should be made in such a way that the social fabric of the village system is not disturbed or gets spoiled. As a result, there is a tendency to hide agricultural machinery related accidents because, they to lead to litigations, court cases etc., and finally to bitterness and disharmony in the society (Tandon, S.K., 2008).

7.

Assistive Technologies for Disabled Farmers Agricultural machinery safety is a perpetual theme of the human society which is a complicated and challenging one. No single policy instrument is likely to be wholly effective other than national/regional systematic strategy. According to experience and lessons, education, training and sharing information play a crucial role in preventing accidents. Farming is traditionally a labor-intensive profession that involves physically demanding work. Everyone can utilize tools and technology to make life easier and perform tasks with more efficiency. However people with disabilities face even greater challenges in performing essential tasks in life. These challenges are especially evident with those individuals with a disability involved in agriculture. With the use of assistive technology, farmers with a disability can maintain their independence and productive lifestyle on the farm. Assistive Technology (AT) commonly refers to both assistive and adaptive devices, which may be either high or low technology, and various services such as evaluations, fabrication and training. Examples of high and low technology assistive devices which farmers with disabilities might find beneficial could range from mounted chair lifts to easy grip hand tools respectively. Assistive technology includes any kind of device, modification, or service that will help a person with a disability work and live more independently. It may be low tech or high tech, expensive or inexpensive, but ultimately it helps make it possible for someone to complete a job that might otherwise be difficult. While technology can make life easier on everyone, assistive technology can make farming possible for individuals with a disability (Dee Jepsen, and Kent McGuire). Assistive technology (AT) is the bridge that can help those farmers who have disabilities or primary injuries to continue to be productive while reducing opportunities for secondary injuries. In simple terms, any technology that helps an individual with a disability to carry out a functional activity is defined as assistive technology. Assistive technologies are primarily used to improve functional outcomes for persons with disabilities. Disabilities and the needs they create vary from individual to individual, so adaptation of any assistive technology must be done on an individual basis. Appropriate tools and machinery for successful activity may require for adapting or modifying according to the disability of the users and machinery for processing agriculture products should be provided or made available to the disabled farmers. A broad range of devices, services, strategies, and practices are designed to accomplish this overall goal. An AT system may involve the use of commercially available or custom-made, low- or high-tech devices. The purpose of AT intervention is neither remediation nor rehabilitation, but to enable the individual with a disability to carry out a certain activity in a safe and effective manner. Farmers with disabilities have been using Assistive Technologies to enable them to carry out different farming related activities for many years. These technologies can be grouped into two categories: some are common to all operations, whereas others are specific to the type of operation. For example, a wheelchair used by a disabled farmer for mobility is a common Assistive Technology, used irrespective of the type of operation. An Assistive Technology used on a tractor to meet the special needs of a disabled operator will also fall in the first category. On the other hand, a remotely operated gate for guiding

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animals is a good example of an AT in the second category because it is specific to animal production (Vergenia Tech, 2010). Assistive Technologies and Secondary Injuries Farmers returning to farm work after being involved in an accident risk the occurrence of a secondary injury. Primary injuries can cause weaknesses that can lead to further injury. For example, a farmer with arthritis could lose his grip and fall; the fall causes the secondary injury. Assistive technologies are designed with these risks in mind to compensate for weaknesses and reduce the potential for further injury. Farming with limitations or disabilities can increase risk in an already dangerous occupation and lead to secondary injuries. Assistive technologies have been developed for the farmstead to help individuals maintain productivity and independence, but can also assist in the prevention of secondary injuries. In simple terms, secondary injuries can be defined as injuries resulting from a previous injury or health condition. Often these secondary injuries occur because the farmer may attempt work tasks that exceed his or her abilities. The use of assistive technology can simplify tasks that need to be completed, create efficiency in labor-intensive work processes, and reduce fatigue. Several assistive technology categories can be used on the farm. Depending on the disability and the challenges being faced, some or all of the categories may be used. These assistive technologies may be designed specifically for a person with a disability to perform a task, they may be technologies that are designed for the general public but have special value to people with disabilities, or they may involve innovative work practices that change the way a task is performed. Some of the assistive technologies that are of great use for farmers with disabilities include: 1. Aids to daily living Devices and adaptations to increase participation or independence in activities such as eating and grooming, as well as routine tasks such as getting out of bed and cooking dinner - Grab bars, objects with extended handles, anti-vibration gloves, shoes with shock-absorbing soles, remote controls etc.

Source: toolking.com 2. Environmental controls

Source: mobilitysmart.cc

Source: stihlusa.com

These units make regulating the living or work environment easier to meet specific needs - programmable thermostats for heating /cooling, pre-programmed lighting systems, motion or pressure sensitive controls for lighting and opening doors, automated humidity and ventilation systems. 3. Home or worksite modifications These include products that make a home or worksite environment more accessible. Included devices to make it easier to enter a building, to use the spaces inside (including lighting), or to move between floors Accessible entrances and Universal Design concepts such as lever handles for doors, flat rocker panel light switches, or slip-resistant working surfaces. 4. Vision and hearing aids This is a broad category that includes all types of sensory aids to help people who are blind, low vision, deaf, or hard of hearing. Devices are also available to help those with multiple sensory disabilities, such as the deaf-blind. 5. Personal mobility aids These help people with mobility limitations move more freely indoors and outdoors - Devices such as canes, wheelchairs, walkers, mobility scooters, etc.

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Source: disability.about.com 6. Work accommodations These include environmental changes, assistive technologies, and techniques or work practices that improve the ability of persons with disabilities to access their work environment and/or complete their work Ergonomic work stations, pneumatic or battery operated tools and equipment, ergonomic hand controls, hydraulic or electric hoisting equipment, livestock handling equipment, automated feed equipment, antifatigue matting etc.

Source: agrability.cedwvu.org 7. Seating and positioning aids

Source: aliexpress.com (Poultry)

Source: alibaba.com (piggery)s

These products help people with disabilities sit comfortably and safely - Air ride tractor seats, swivel seating, transfer devices to assist in transferring from wheelchair to seat, garden assistance carts with seat, anti-vibration padding etc.

Source: maic.jmu.edu 8. Vehicle or equipment modification Products in this category help people with disabilities drive or ride in cars, vans, trucks, or equipment Additional or modified steps, motorized lifts, hand or foot controls, hydraulic or electronic controls, hitching assist devices etc.

Source: bse.wisc.edu 9. Prosthetics and orthotics Prosthetics are generally devices to help amputees, and orthotics are braces or other products to support joints or limbs - Electric hand, prosthetic leg, back brace, knee brace, foot pads, shoe inserts etc.

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Source: theawesomemom.com 10. Tractor Alterations Tractors are the workhorses on farms, and they are widely used for a variety of applications in the vast majority of farming operations. Numerous examples of AT applications and associated tractor alterations exist to accommodate the needs of disabled farmers. One such straightforward example is retrofitting tractors with additional steps (fig.1) and handholds for individuals with difficulty in balancing, an irregular gait, a weak lower body, and/or arthritis. One of the most-used tractor controls during farming operations is the clutch. In order to assist amputees and others who have restricted use of their legs, tractors are often retrofitted with hand-operated clutches. A hand operated mechanical linkage system for controlling the clutch is shown in figure 2. A simple spinner knob on a steering wheel (fig. 3) can be very effective in providing better steering control for individuals with low grip strength or prosthetic devices. Even though modern tractors require only minimum steering effort, a variety of disabilities make it difficult to grip the typical steering wheel. The addition of a spinner knob can enable individuals with a disability to control the tractor effectively. Custom-made seats have also been in use to assist individuals with spinal cord injuries, especially those who are quadriplegic. These seats, as shown in figure 4, are designed to deal with issues such as pressure relief for ulcers. Lumbar support, seat angle, footrests, and knee and ankle positioning isolate operators from low-frequency vibration and other possible sources of discomfort.

Fig. 1, Tractor retrofitted with additional steps;

Fig. 2, Tractor equipped with mechanical lift.

Fig. 3, Hand-control linkage for operating the clutch; Fig. 4, Steering wheel with a spinner knob for ease of mo1ving the steering wheel.

Fig. 5, Retrofitted tractor seat for protecting operators with certain disabilities. (Source: http://fyi.uwex.edu/assistivetech.org)

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Needs of the Farmers with Disabilities The overall needs of the disabled farmers can be summarized as follows: a) Information needs to be disseminated to change the attitudes of people towards disabled individuals

b) Self help-organizations and self reliance must be encouraged c) Educational opportunities need to be increased to improve the quality of life

d) Public transportation must be facilitated to make them accessible for those with disabilities e) f) Autonomous life must be made accessible All Governments should have master plans with a clear agenda for future development and actions

g) More vocational training and employment programmes should be developed and those in place should be enhanced h) Rehabilitation services should include health, education, employment and social relations. i) j) Work towards individualization of disabled persons rather than general population oriented activities. Special attention and care should be given to psychological, emotional and spiritual aspects of the disabled person.

k) Increase opportunities to participate in social and economic development REFERENCES AgrAbility Quarterly. (Fall 2001). Assistive Technology NotesFarming and Ranching Made Easier. National AgrAbility Project, University of Wisconsin. Available from http://ohioline. osu.edu Coleman, W. D. (2003). Globality and transnational policy-making in agriculture: Complexity, contradictions, and conflict. Hamilton, ON: McMaster University Institute on Globalization and the Human Condition. Colleen Jolly and Laura Miller (2004). Manage stress to increase farm safety, Safe Farm: Promoting Agricultural Safety and Health, IOWA State University, IOWA. D'Costa, L. (2008). Combat Law, The Human Rights and Law Bimonthly, 7(1), 77-79. FAO - Food and Agricultural Organization. (2004). FAO's input to the proposal of the UN Ad Hoc Committee on a 'Comprehensive and Integral International Convention on Protection and Promotion of the Rights and Dignity of Persons with Disabilities.' Retrieved May 4, 2008, from http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/enable/ rights/uncontrib-fao.htm Global Exchange. (2005). 'Most wanted' corporate human rights violators of 2005. Retrieved December 8, 2012, from http://www.globalexchange.org/getInvolved/ corporate HRviolators.html Government of India (1996). The Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act 1995. New Delhi: Government of India. Hiranandani, V. and Sonpal, D. (2010). Disability, Economic Globalization and Privatization: A Case Study of India, Disability Studies Quarterly, 30 (3/4) Hiranandani, V. S. (2008). Food security as a social movement in neo-liberal times: Envisaging a role for social sciences. The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences, 2 (5), 39-48. Human Resources Development, Canada (2003): Defining Disability A complex issue. Report prepared by Office for Disability Issues, HRDC, Quebec, Retrieved from: http://www.sdc. gc.ca /asp/ gateway.asp?hr=en/hip/odidocuments/Definitions/Definitions000.shtml &hs= hye Indian Council of Agricultural Research. (2010). All India Coordinated Research Project on Ergonomics and Safety in Agriculture, Krishi Bhavan, New Delhi. Klasing, I. (2007). Disability and social exclusion in rural India. New Delhi: Rawat Publications. Mander, H. (2008, April 26). Living with hunger: deprivation among the aged, single women and people with disability, Economic and Political Weekly, 87-98.

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Manual on Disability Statistics, (2012). Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India, New Delhi. Available from www.mospi.gov.in Mukherjee, Amitav and Ping, Chang (2008). Agricultrual machinery safety- A perpetual theme of human society, Paper Presented in the Global Agricultural safety (GAS) Forum held at Rome, Italy on 25 th September. NSSO - National Sample Survey Organization. (2003). Disabled Persons in India, NSS 58th Round (JulyDecember 2002). Delhi: NSSO. Oklahoma AgrAbility (1991-2011). Assistive Technology edu/FactSheets. Retrieved December 14, 2012. Registrar General of India. (2001). http://www.censusindia.net Census of India. in Agriculture. www.agrability.okstate. 12, 2012, from

Retrieved

December

Report of Fact Finding Team on Vidharbha (2006). Regional Disparities and Rural Distress in Maharashtra with particular reference to Vidarbha, Planning Commission, Government of India, New .Delhi Sainath, P. (2007, February 25). 1400 suicides in one region alone last year. Two million in 'maximum distress.' Counterpunch. Retrieved December 12, 2012, from http://www.counterpunch.org /sainath02242007.html Tandon, S.K. (2008). Agricultural machinery safety in India, Indian Council for Agricultural Research (ICAR). Vergenia Tech, (2010). Assistive Technologies in Agriculture, Communications and Marketing, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Wang, P.S., Beck, A.L., Berglund, P., McKenas, D.K., Pronk, N.P., Simon, G.E., and Kessler , R.C. (2004). Effects of Major Depression on Moment-in-Time Work Performance, American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, pp.1885-1891. World Bank. (2007). People with disabilities in India: From commitments to outcomes . New Delhi: Human Development Unit, South Asia Region, The World Bank.

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EFFECT OF ROLE PLAY ON DEVELOPING COMMUNICATION SKILLS OF CHILDREN WITH MODERATE MENTAL RETARDATION
Dr. T. V. Sunish1 Abstract Role play is an opportunity to act and interact with peers. It lightens up the atmospheres and brings liveliness in the classes. Students learn to use the language in a more realistic and practical way. Thus they can become more aware of the usefulness and practicality of language. Role play is indeed a useful teaching technique which should be experimented and applied by teachers more often in the classroom. Many children with mental retardation experience difficulties in language and communication development. Since there is a apparent problem in communication as well as in the development of language skills due to limited cognitive capacity of children with mental retardation (MR), it seems that in many cases, valuable opportunities for developing language and communication skills of children with mental retardation are missed. The present study is titled as Effect of Role Play on Developing Communication Skills of Children with Moderate Mental Retardation. In order to find out the effectiveness of role play on developing communication skills of children with moderate MR, ten children with moderate mental retardation were selected from DCMR special school, Trivandrum using purposive sampling technique. Pre-test, post-test single group design was used. Investigator developed a communication skill checklist for pre-test and post-test, it includes verbal and non-verbal skills. Experimental group received 30 days intervention on role play, developed by the researcher based on the skills selected for the assessment. The data obtained was analysed by applying mean, standard deviation and ttest. The result showed that the role play practice method has a significant effect (p<0.001 level) on developing communication skills of children with moderate mental retardation. INTRODUCTION Human beings are social beings. One of the most important skills that make individuals socially fit is the communication skill. Communicating effectively or not can spell the difference between success and failure in human relationships. Thus, human communication becomes a remarkable process. Through the use of words, signs, and symbols we share meanings, perceive, evaluate and respond to the world around us. In that sense communication is an effective form of social networking. Communication helps us to build up individual pattern of beliefs, attitudes and values which in turn help us to evaluate ourselves and others in meaningful ways. Communication is the basis of human thought. It is the heart of human existence. It is the ability of man to think, reason and communicate in complex ways that has enabled him to advance extensively in the past years. Communication involves verbal, non-verbal and para-verbal components. The verbal component refers to the content of our message, the choice and arrangement of our words. The non verbal component refers to the message we send through our body language. The para-verbal component refers to how we say the tone, pacing and volume of our voices. Speech is the most efficient and frequently used mode of language expression. Communication involving speech is called verbal communication. Speech is a set of verbal codes; the commonest code is spoken words. Communication is mainly an active and intentional two way process of exchange of messages. Language makes communication easier. It is the main vehicle for communication. Speech is the most efficient and frequently used mode of language expression. For most children, the process of language and communication skill development enfolds more or less automatically. Many children with intellectual disability experience difficulties in communiction development (Kaiser, Hester and McDuffie, 2001). And although language and literacy skills are considered to be important for a childs success in school and for being able to become independent in todays society, limited attention is given to the development of these skills in children with intellectual disabilities. This is quite worrisome, because much of the problem behaviours these children show, stem from difficulties in the acquisition of language and communication skills (Sigafoos, Arthur, and OReilly, 2003). It seems that in many cases, valuable opportunities for developing language and communication skills of children with mental retardation are missed (Elman et al., 1996). Role play can be fundamental in establishing better communication, because it shows many aspects of life and includes elements related to creativity and fantasy. Thus, in school, we can use role play, although until
Lecturer, Inter University Centre for Disability Studies, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam

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recent times it has not had got enough recognition. At the same time, by using role play, we can help people to develop oral skills. If we treat role play as a resource we will use oral expression in a dynamic way in different contexts and situations. (Bailin,1998). Furness ((1976) suggested that a child can enjoy and profit from a role play experiences in terms of improved communication skills, creativity, increased social awareness, independent thinking, verbalization of opinion. Ladousse (2004) indicated that role play is one of a whole gamut of communicative techniques which develops fluency in language, promote interaction in the classroom, and increase motivation. In addition he pointed out that role play encourages peer learning and sharing the responsibility for learning between teacher and student. NEED AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Effective communication is considered as one of the most important skills that an individual should have. Receptive and expressive language abilities constitute a significant aspect of effective communication in terms of language skills. Speaking is the most common and important means of communication among human beings. Speech, language and communication problems occur more frequently in children with mental retardation (MR). Generally children acquire the essential components of language and communication skills by the age of 3-4 years. However, this may not be true for children with MR. There are various problems compared to normal children. Language and communication disorders are now believed to be the underlying problem in the academic, social and emotional difficulties of many adolescents and young adults with MR. The present study is to explore the benefits of role play in developing communication skills (verbal and non-verbal) for children with moderate mental retardation. The significance and scope of creative role play can be explained through the following learning principles: -Learning occurs as a result of students interaction with his environment -Student learns best by doing and experiencing -Effective participation is important in learning emotional conduct Schnapp and Olsen (2003), Peter (2003), Slade (1998) and Hampshire (1996) suggest that different contexts within role play offer a range of communication possibilities and enabling participants to develop a greater self awareness. However, the dearth of evidence about the effectiveness of role play raises the question whether it is ethical to engage people in interventions that are lacking an evidence base. Therefore it becomes vital to look closely at these claims and the evidence behind them when using role play in children with special needs. With this aim the present topic has been selected to prove the effect of role play on the enhancement of communication skills of children with moderate mental retardation. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1. 2. 3. To study the effects of role play on developing communication skills (verbal and non-verbal) among children with moderate mental retardation. To compare the effect of role play between verbal and non-verbal communication skills among children with moderate mental retardation To analyse the case wise performance in communication skills development through the role play method

HYPOTHESES 1. 2. There will be no significant effect of role play on developing communication skills (verbal and non-verbal) among children with moderate mental retardation. There will be no significant difference between verbal and non- verbal communication skills learnt through role play practice among children with moderate mental retardation.

METHODOLOGY Single group pre-test post-test experimental design was used to measure the effect of role play on developing communication skills among children with mental retardation. Ten children with moderate mental retardation both male and female, age 10-14 studying in secondary level attending DCMR special school, Trivandrum were selected for the study by using the purposive sampling technique.

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DEVELOPMENT OF THE TOOL The primary objective of the study was to find out the effect of role play on developing communication skills among children with moderate mental retardation. Communication skills checklist for pre-test and post-test and a role play to teach communication skills were developed exclusively for this study. COMMUNICATION SKILL CHECKLIST The main checklists, which were in use in special schools, were Madras Developmental Programming System, BASIC MR and Functional Assessment Checklist for Programming. These checklists have a domain on language. The researcher went through all these checklists and items included in the language skills domain. Though, the receptive and expressive language skills are arranged from dependence to independence level, the basic verbal and non-verbal communication skills are missing in these checklists. A communication skills checklist exclusively for this purpose was not found in use in India. Therefore a communication skills checklist has been developed. In order to develop the check list, initially thirty five items were listed related to communication skills in the categories of verbal and non-verbal and having use in daily life. The items have been randomly arranged. The thirty five items list was circulated to eight professionals working in the field of special education. The items with 80% consensus were selected and rests of the items were excluded. The revised version kept as the final checklist. The total of 20 items grouped into two categories. They are: verbal (8 items) and non-verbal (12 items). The selected twenty items of communication skills categorized under two subheadings has been used as the final tool for pre-test and post-test of the study. The responses were scored by assigning a value of 0 for Never, 1 for Rarely, 2 for Sometimes, 3 for Often, and a score of 4 for Always. Role- play Criteria for selection: The play must include the communication skills which are necessary to be taught the children with moderate mental retardation and the skills should match the level of the sample selected for the study. The selected role play (duration 10-15 minutes) should focus on the frequently occurring communication situations of common life and have a message suitable for the group selected for the study. Script writing: After identifying the situations and characters from the common communication situations the script has been prepared in simple words and sentences, which can be followed by the target group. Validation: The script of the role play has been circulated among three special educators and a professional drama script writer along with communication skills checklist for suggestions. Accordingly it has been rewritten. PROCEDURE The base line of the selected sample on communication skills was collected before beginning the intervention and recorded in the performance data sheet. The ten students selected for the study were taught the role play during a period of thirty days. The following strategies were used while providing practice: The students were explained the situation selected for the role play The students were asked to watch when a group was acting Modelling, verbal prompt and cues were used during the practice session. The promptings were reduced as they started to follow instructions and act independently. The researcher was always keen to inculcate the selected communication skills as they were improved in learning the role play, for example, to look at the face when someone talks, greet others in meetings, speak politely, listen carefully when others talk to you etc. These observations were promptly recorded on every 5 th day of the practice. As per the research design and plan, the selected sample was taught the role play specially prepared for the study for a period of thirty days. After the 30 sessions the post test has been conducted by using the same checklist used for the pre test to see the effectiveness of role play on developing communication skills. The collected data has been analyzed based on the objectives set for the study using the appropriate statistical techniques.

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Results and discussion: Table 1. Mean values, SDs, and t-value of pre-test and post -test communication skill scores Test Pre-test Post-test ***-Significant at 0.001 level Mean values, SDs, and t-value of pre-test and post-test communication skill scores are depicted in the Table 1. The pre-test mean is 25.50 and the SD is 4.10, the post-test mean and SD is 69.00 and 4,32 respectively. As the obtained t-value (42.81) is more than that of the table value at 0.001 levels of significance, it can be inferred that there is statistically significant difference between pre-test and post-test scores. A close observation of the mean values reveals that there is significant increase in the post-test scores than the pre-test scores. Hence it can be concluded that role play was highly effective in enhancing the communication skills of students with moderate mental retardation, therefore the null hypothesis set for the objective has been rejected. Table 2. Mean values, SDs, and t-value of pre- test and post -test verbal communication skill scores Test Pre-test Post-test Mean 10.70 28.20 N 10 10 Std. Deviation 2.06 1.75 t-value 40.87*** Mean 25.50 69.00 N 10 10 Std. Deviation 4.10 4.32 t-value 47.81***

***-Significant at 0.001 level Table 2 shows the mean value, SDs and t-value in the area of verbal communication skills. The pre-test mean is 10.70 and the post-test mean is 28.20 and SDs is 2.06 and 1.75 respectively. The calculated t-value (40.87) is more than that of the table value at 0.001 level of significance. It can be found that there is statistically significant difference between pre-test and post-test scores. Hence it can be inferred that role play was highly effective in increasing the verbal communication skills of children with moderate mental retardation, therefore the null hypothesis set for the objective has been rejected. Table 3. Mean Values, SDs, and t-Value of Pre-test and Post-test Non-verbal Communication Skill Scores Test Pre-test Post-test Mean 14.60 41.30 N 10 10 Std. Deviation 2.35 2.05 t-value 39.04***

***Significant at 0.001 level Table 3 shows the mean value, SDs and t-value in the area of non-verbal communication skills. The pre-test and post-test mean scores in non-verbal communication skills area is 14.60 and 41.30, SDs are 2.35 and 2.05 respectively. The obtained t- value is 16.19; it is more than that of the table value at 0.001 level of significance. From the result of the study it can be inferred that, there is statistically significant difference between pre-test and post-test scores. Hence it can be concluded that role play method was effective in increasing non-verbal communication skills of children with moderate mental retardation, therefore the null hypothesis set for the objective has been rejected. Table 4. Comparison of verbal and non-verbal communication skills of children with moderate mental retardation at post-test Group Verbal Non-verbal ***Significant at 0.001 level Table 4 compare the post- test scores of verbal and non-verbal communication skills. The mean value and SD of verbal scores at post-test is 28.20 and 1.75 respectively. The mean ad SD of non-verbal scores at posttest is 41.30 and 2.05. The obtained t-value is 22.35; it is more than the table value. The result of the study Mean 28.20 41.30 N 10 10 Std. Deviation 1.75 2.05 t-value 22.35***

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shows that there is significant difference between the verbal and non-verbal communication scores of children with moderate mental retardation at post-test. It can be concluded that role play is more effective to enhance nonverbal communication skills than the verbal communication skills. Therefore the null hypothesis set for the objective has been rejected. Table 5. Case Wise Performance in Communication Skills (Verbal and Non-verbal) Student 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Verbal Pre 11 12 08 11 12 08 14 11 12 08 Post 30 28 28 27 29 25 30 29 30 26 Gain 19 16 20 16 17 17 16 20 18 18 Pre 19 13 12 15 15 13 18 14 15 12 Non-verbal Post 45 44 42 41 41 39 42 39 41 39 Gain 26 31 30 26 26 26 24 25 26 26 Pre 30 27 20 26 27 21 32 25 27 20 Post 75 72 70 68 70 64 72 68 71 60 Total Gain 45 45 50 42 43 43 40 43 44 40 % of change 37.5-93.7 33.7-90.0 25.0-87.5 32.5-85.0 33.7-87.5 26.3-80.0 40.0-90.0 31.2-85.0 33.7-88.7 25.0-75.0

Case wise performance in communication skills, both verbal and non-verbal areas is given in the table 5. The improvement of student 1 in verbal skills area is from11 to 30, in non-verbal area 19 to 45 and in total the improvement is from 30 to 75(37.5% to 93.7%). The score of student 2 at pre-test and post-test in verbal and non-verbal area is 12- 28 and 13-44 respectively. The improvement in total skills is from 27 to 72, that is 33.7% to 90%. The improvement of student 3 in verbal area is from 8 to 28, in non-verbal area 12 to 42, in total skills it is 20 to 70 (25% to 87.5%). The improvement of student 4 in verbal skills area is from 11 to 27, in non-verbal area it is from 15-41, in total skills it is from 26-68 (32.5% to 85%). The scores of student 5 at pre-test and posttest in verbal and non-verbal area are 12- 29 and 15-41 respectively. The improvement in total skills is fro 27 to 70, that is 33.7% to 87.5%. The improvement of student 6 in verbal area is from 8 to 25, in non-verbal area 13 to 39, in total skills it is from 21 to 64 (26.3% to 80%). The improvement of student 7 in verbal skills area is from 14 to 30, in nonverbal area it is from 18-42, in total skills it is from 32-72 (32.5% to 85%). The improvement of student 8 in verbal area is from 11to 29, in non-verbal area 14 to 39, in total skills it is from 25 to 68 (31.2% to 85%). The improvement of student 9 in verbal skills area is from 12 to 30, in non-verbal area it is from 15-41, in total skills it is from 27-71 (33.7% to 88.7%). The scores of student 10 at pre-test and post-test in verbal and non-verbal area are 8- 26 and 12-39 respectively. The improvement in total skills is from 20 to 60, that is 25% to 75%. From the above case wise analysis it can be found that the improvement was gradual from entry level to post-test level. In the all the areas; verbal and non-verbal there is significant difference between pre-test and the post-test scores. The student 1 achieved the highest percentage (93.7%) at the post-test. FINDINGS The result of the analysis revealed that the role play was highly effective in the development of communication skills of children with moderate mental retardation. Significant mean difference exists between pre and post-test scores at 0.001 level. From the result of analysis it can be found that the role play was highly effective in developing the verbal communication skills of children with moderate mental retardation. Significant mean difference exists between pre and post-test scores at 0.001 level. The result of the analysis showed that the role play method was highly effective in developing nonverbal communication skills of children with moderate mental retardation. Significant mean difference exists between pre and post-test scores at 0.001 level.

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From the analysis of the data it can be found that the role play is more effective to enhance non-verbal communication skills than the verbal communication skills. Significant mean difference exists between verbal and non-verbal scores at 0.001 level. From the case wise analysis it can be found that the improvement of each student was gradual from entry level to post-test level. In all areas; verbal and non-verbal there is a significant difference between pre-test and the post-test scores. The interest, motivation and involvement of all the ten subjects taken for the study were observable. It was also found that the attention, concentration and self esteem of the students were improved. The researcher was also able to see that the students were correcting the inappropriate social behaviours among themselves. The study confirms that the communication skills can be improved through the role play. Analysis of data rejected the entire null hypothesis and accepted the alternative hypothesis, that is the role play has significant effect on enhancing communication skills of children with moderate mental retardation. CONCLUSION The study shows that the role play is an effective method to teach communication skills as same as other methods of teaching. However this method has not gained momentum in the special schools for teaching the children with mental retardation. The review of literature revealed that role play was effective in improving communication skills in the children with mental retardation. Regarding research in the field of special education in India, a very few studies were found focused on the effectiveness of role play on enhancing communication skills of children with mental retardation. The results of the study inspire the special educators to use the role play as a teaching method to teach language and communication skills where most of the children with mental retardation face problems. Role-play is also found effective to teach various concepts and skills which they find difficult to learn due to their low intelligence level. Based on this result it is suggested that skills which can be taught through role play can be listed out and appropriate role play script can be developed. This study can be conducted for different groups of children belong to various levels of intelligence, socio economic status and educational background. REFERENCES Bailin, S. (1998). Critical thinking and drama education. Research in Drama Education, 3, (2), 145-155 Elman, J. L., Bates, E. A., Johnson, M. H., Karmiloff-Smith, A., Parisi, D., and Plunkett, K. (1996). Rethinking innateness. Boston: MIT Press. Furness, P. (1976). Role play in the elementary school. A handbook for teachers. New York: Heart Publishng company. Inc. Hampshire, A. (1996) The development of socio-linguistic strategies: Implications for children with speech and language impairments, Current Issues in language & society, 3, 91-94. Kaiser, A.P., Hester, P. P., & McDuffie, A. S. (2001). Supporting communication in young children with developmental disabilities. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 7, 143-150. Ladousee, G.P. (1996). Role Play. A resource book for language teachers. Maley, Alan Oxford university Press. Peters, M. (2003). Drama, narrative and early learning, Brit ish journal of special Education, 30, 21-27.

Schnapp, L, & Oslen, C. (2003). Teaching self-advocating strategies through drama, Intervention in school and clinic, 38, 110-112. Sigafoos, J., Arthur. M., & O'Reilly, M. (2003). Challenging behaviour and developmental disability. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. Slade, P. (1998) The importance of dramatic play in education and therapy, Child psychology and psychiatry review, 3, 110-112

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AWARENESS OF SPECIAL EDUCATORS REGARDING PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES ACT 1995


Dr. Sreeja S1 and Sinimol P.S2 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY India is the largest democratic country with a population of over a billion people and with one of the highest densities of population in the world. It is geographically and ethnically heterogeneous with numerous languages, religions and customs. The people with disabilities have been the largest minority group. The disabled persons are those who suffer some kind of bodily impairment that interfere with their normal functioning. Indian heritage has viewed persons with disabilities as contributing members of the larger society. Services for persons with disabilities have grown gradually in India. In pre independent India there were few special schools for children who were blind or deaf established by voluntary organization. When the constitution of India was framed in 1950, articles under the directive principle of State Policy emphasized the Right to Education, employment (Article 41) and Free and Compulsory Education for all children under 14 years old (Article 45). With the literacy rate generally improving, (16% in 1951 to 36% in 1981; Narasimhan and Mukharjee, 1986, 65.4% census, 2011), focus on education of children with disabilities gained importance. A major turning point in the rehabilitation of persons with disability was the paradigm shift from charity to rights; sympathy to equality, as indicated by the Persons with Disabilities Act 1995, which promotes equal opportunity, protection of rights, and full participation of persons with disabilities (Kundu,2000). According to 2001 census, 21.9 million people or 2.13% of the countrys population are persons with disabilities. In this, 74% of persons with physical disabilities and 94% of persons with mental retardation are unemployed. The disability division in the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment facilitates empowerment of the persons with disabilities, who as per Census 2001 are 2.19 crore and are 2.13% of the total population of the country. These include persons with Visual, Hearing, Speech, Locomotors and Mental disabilities. The disabled persons can positively contribute to Nations development if society provides them with the right opportunities. It would be possible only when we educate them. Education enables them to be self reliant and self sufficient individuals, contributing in their own way to the progress of the society. People with disabilities have the right to live and take part in the same settings and programmes in schools, at home, in the work place and in the community as do people without disabilities. The efforts of special educators are most effective when they incorporate the inputs and services of all the disciplines in the helping profession. In order to help the parents of disabled students, special educators should be trained in such a way that they should identify the nature and degree of their students disabilities and must take appropriate steps to minimize the degree of impairment or make them recover completely if possible. It is the right of each disabled to get his or her disability detected as early as possible. For that each and every educator should get special training as part of, Persons with Disabilities Act 1995. Everyone is equal before law. So disabled children should get equal consideration and privilege as that of the general students. Only when special educators should be aware of all the rights of the children, they can fight for the rights of their children to get permitted. The more the specia l educators acknowledged with Persons with Disabilities Act easier the disabled will get their needs fulfilled. Different attitudes of society towards disabled can be changed only by the interference of special educators who are bothered about the rights, needs and skills of disabled. It is an important factor that disabled are contributing members of the larger society. For a good, able and active society, our disabled one should come to the forefront of the society and timely assistance should be given from special educators who are aware of the rights of Persons with Disabilities Act. Hence the present study analyses the awareness of special educators regarding persons with disabilities act 1995. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1. 2. To assess the awareness of special educators regarding persons with disabilities act, 1995 in the total sample. To compare the awareness regarding persons with disabilities act,1995, among special educators on the basis of Locality, and Teaching experience

1 2

Assistant Professor, Avila College of Education , Edacochin. Cochin-10. Lecturer in English, SUM College of teacher Education, Kannur

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METHODOLOGY The present investigation is meant to assess the awareness of special educators about persons with disabilities act, 1995. Normative Survey Method was adopted for the study. The sample consisted of 149 Special Educators from four Districts of Kerala viz- Alappuzha, Calicut, Ernakulum and Kottayam. The sample was selected using stratified sampling technique. To collect data required for the study, an awareness questionnaire on persons with disabilities act, 1995 was prepared by the investigators were used. The analysis of the data was carried out by employing appropriate statistical techniques such as Mean, Standard Deviation, Percentage Critical ratio, ANOVA and Scheffes test. ANALYSIS The details of the analysis of the objective 1 are given in the table no.1 & 2 and the details of the analysis of objective 2 are given in the table numbers 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 & 8.

Table 1. Mean Standard Deviation and Percentage Score of Special Educators about Persons with Disabilities Act, 1995 Group Special Educators N 149 Total No of items 55 Mean 22.12 Standard Deviation 7.036 Percentage score 40.2 Level of awareness Low

From the above table, it can be interpreted that special educators have low awareness about Persons with Disabilities Act, 1995, since the maximum score being 55. Table 2. Mean, Standard Deviation and Percentage Score of Special Educators Regarding Different Sections of Persons with Disabilities Act, 1995 Dimension Preliminary aspects Administration Education Employment Non discrimination Prevention & early detection Recognition of institution for persons with disabilities Social security N 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 Number of Mean items 8 13 6 8 6 4 5 5 4.01 3.05 2.52 3.24 2.50 2.72 1.97 2.11 Standard Deviation 1.607 2.770 1.094 1.403 1.195 1.096 1.378 0.781 Percentage score 50.1 23.5 42.0 40.5 41.7 68.0 39.4 42.2 Level of awareness Moderate Low Low Low Low Moderate Low Low

From the above table, it can be interpreted that special educators have low awareness about administration, education, employment, non-discrimination, recognition of institution and social security in Persons with Disabilities Act, 1995. Table 3. Data and Results of the Test of Significance of the Difference between Mean Scores of Awareness of Special Educators Regarding PWD Act 1995 with Respect to Locality Group Urban Rural ** P<01 N 75 74 Mean 24.15 20.07 Standard Deviation 7.721 5.607 Degrees of freedom 147 t-value 3.686** Table value at 0.01 levels 2.58

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The critical ratio calculated (3.686) is greater than the table value (2.58) at 0.01 level. There is significant difference in the awareness level of special educators belonging to rural and urban area regarding Persons with Disabilities Act, 1995. Special educators belonging to urban area has more awareness compared to those of rural area. Table 4.Mean and Standard Deviation of the Scores of the Awareness of Special Educators based on Experience Experience Below 7 years 7-13 years Above 13 years N 70 42 37 Mean 21.14 22.07 24.03 Standard Deviation 6.804 7.031 7.271

As there are three groups on the basis of experience, one way analysis of variance was used for comparing the awareness of special educators belonging to the sub sample based on experience. The result of ANOVA is given in Table 8. Table 5. Summary of ANOVA Scores of Awareness of PWD Act, 1995 among Special Educators Based on Experience Source Between Groups Within Groups Total p>0.05 Table above table shows that computed F-value (2.065) is less than the table value (3.07) at 0.05 levels. Therefore, it is inferred that there is no significant differences exist between and among the three groups compared with respect to their level of awareness regarding PWD Act 1995 based on experience. CONCLUSIONS 1. 2. Special educators possess low level of awareness in Persons with Disabilities Act. Special educators possess low awareness in Administration, Recognition of institution for persons with disabilities sections, moderate awareness in Social security, Non discrimination, Employment, Education, Preliminary aspects and Prevention and early detection sections, of PWD Act, 1995. There is significant difference in the awareness level of special educators belonging to rural and urban area There is no significant difference between and among the three group compared with respect to their level of awareness regarding PWD act, 1995 based on experience. Degrees of freedom 2 146 148 Sum of Squares 201.495 7124.330 7325.826 Mean Square 100.748 48.797 F-value 2.065ns

3. 4.

IMPLICATIONS The syllabi and curriculum for the Special education programme and training should be revised by giving more significance to various acts of disabilities like PWD act, 1995 and IDEA etc. 1. 2. Policy makers should conduct new awareness programmes and workshops for Special educators. Refreshment courses should be given to Special educators, in regular intervals to Government, aided and unaided sector, at free of cost. More focus should be given to special educators belonging to rural areas.

REFERENCES Advani, L. (2002). Education: A fundamental right of every child regardless of his/her special needs. Journal of Indian Education, 27(4), 16-20. Agarwal, K. G., & Pachal, T. K. (1993). Inner world of the handicapped. New Delhi: Khama Publishers.

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Baker, H. J. (1994). Introduction to exceptional children. New York: Macmillan co. Cohen, L., & Manion, L. & Morrison, K. (2007). Research methods in education (6th ed.). London: Routledge. Eide, A. H., & Roysamb, E. (2002). The relationship between level of disability, psychological problems, social activity, and social networks. Rehabilitation Psychology, 47,165-183. Hallahan, D., & Kauffman, J. M. (1997). Exceptional children. London: Prentice Hall, Inc. Jain, N. & Kureshi, A. (1992). Picture frustration study of the normal and handicapped children. Journal of community Guidance and Research, 9, 291-294. Kundu, C. L., et al. (Eds.). (2000). Status of disability 2000. New Delhi: Rehabilitation Council of India. Kurian, G. T. (Ed.). (1993). World education encyclopedia (Vol.2). Bombay: Jaico Publishing House.

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ROLE OF EDUCATION IN DETERMINING THE AWARENESS LEVEL ABOUT WELFARE SCHEMES AMONG BACKWARD CLASSES: A STUDY OF RURAL HARYANA
Dr. Prem Kumar1, Dr. Sunil Kumar2 and Suresh Kumar3 Abstract The present study was carried out to know the awareness level regarding welfare schemes among Backward Classes in rural Haryana. On the basis of literacy rate six villages namely, Ramgarh, Kardhan, Bharawas were selected from the high literacy rate category and Talwara Khurd, Bhuna, Ahrawan from the low literacy rate. Stratified Random sampling was used in the present study and 305 respondents were selected from universe. It was concluded that those respondents who acquired Sr. Sec. and above educational standard of education were more aware about reservation policy, scholarships, Fee exemption in jobs & education, Agerelaxation in jobs, provisions of imparting free coaching for competitive examinations, loan schemes and subsidy on it and knowledge about Backward Classes & Economically Weaker Section Kalyan Nigam etc. than their counterparts. Key words: Education, Welfare Schemes, Backward Classes, Awareness, BCKWN. INTRODUCTION India is regarded as a model of pluralistic society, its pluralism reflected through various castes, languages and regions. About 82% population follows Hinduism and 15% lslam and its plurality is visible in the fourfold Varnasystem (Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudra) and about 5000 castes and sub castes. The four fold Varna system includes Scheduled Castes (SCs: 16. 73%), the Scheduled Tribes (STs: 7. 95%), Other Backward Classes (OBCs: 52%) and the upper castes or forward castes (estimated 23%). The SCs, STs and OBCs (broadly known as Backward Classes) represent the social groups, which suffered through the ages due to caste prejudices, economic inequality, educational backwardness and lagging behind in the field of education and economic development in comparison to certain advanced, or the forward castes (Singh, 1996). Indian society and especially among the Hindus, the social inequality generated by caste system. Addressing the Constituent Assembly, Dr. Ambedkar stated, on the social plane, we have in India a social based on privilege of graded inequality which means elevation (high place) for some and degradation (to reduce in rank) of others. On the economic plane, we have a society in which there are some who have immense wealth as against the many who are living in abject (miserable) poverty. On the 26 th January 1950, we will have equality into a life of contradictions. In politics, we have equality and in social and economic life, we will have inequality. We must remove this contradiction at the possible moment (Mehta and Patel, 1985).Constitutional assurance of three type of Justice viz. Social justice quests equality with liberty, economic justice means non discrimination on the basis of economic value and Political justice ensures equal participation of all the people in the political life. (Tomta, 1990). Presently, the term backward classes refers three diverse types of castes i .e. Scheduled Castes, The Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Castes/Socially and Educationally Backward Classes. The SCs, known as Dalits (Ambedkar) or Harijans (Gandhi); STs known as Adivasis, Animists, Rani Paraja, Girijan, Kaliparajas. Their means of livelihood are primitive (Kuppuswamy, B. 1993). All the OBCs, recognized by the different states, do not have same status in caste hierarchy. Their economic position also varies vastly (Shah, Ghanshyam, Oct 1990). Andre Beteille defines OBCs are residual category, there is highly ambiguous; and it is impossible to give an exact statement of their number (Beteille, Andre 1992). The OBCs are those, which are not as backward as the SCs and STs; comprises the nonuntouchable and intermediate castes that were traditionally engaged in agriculture, animal husbandry and functional services. The position of OBCs is far better than the SCs & STs. (K. L. Sharma, 1997). This category is, however, the most controversial due to its extraordinary heterogeneity, large size, and ambiguity of identity; the conflict of interests and confrontation between castes declared as backward and those not; and the increasing animosity between castes competing for compensatory benefits. It is also crucial to Indias vote bank politics. ( Radhakrishna, P. 2003).

1 2 3

Associate Professor, Dept. of Sociology, K.U.K. Assistant Professor, Dept. of Sociology, K.U.K. Research Scholar, Dept. of Sociology, K.U.K.

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Veena Monga (1967) found that there were no differences in the life style of the Jats, Rajputs and Potters. But the Jats are regarded superior in terms of economic and political power by the Potters. Education is given the higher priority. All India Prajapat Sangthan, which formed in 1947, played an important part in the discussion on the avenues of their social mobility. Thus, the education was considered as an avenue of social mobility. Anindita Chakrabarti (2009) examined the role of economic, social and demographic characteristics in determining the likelihood of participation in higher education for both rural and urban youth in India by using data from the NSS data. While tracing out the significance of the factors in explaining choice in Arts, Commerce, Science and Technical Education streams, it was found that youth belonging to Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Schedule Tribes (STs) had significantly less odds of going to a higher educational institution as compared to other social groups in rural area. Shah (1960) witnessed predominance of students from high caste background such as Brahmins, Banias and Patidars covered 88 percent of total seats in higher education including engineering and medicine. The ratio of intermediate and lower castes was found to be 5 and 6 percent respectively. The condition of scheduled castes was worse. In some student centric empirical studies correlating between their socio-economic background and their academic performance, it was analysed that the students from higher social classes and castes have been found achieving higher levels of education success. (Shah, 1960; Rao, 1967; Gore et al, 1970; King, 1970; Karlekar, 1983; Ruhela, 1969). The findings of some studies have concentrated specifically on the SCs, STs and OBCs revealed that these pupils remained educationally disadvantaged despite policy of protective discrimination (Chauhan, 1967; Chitins, 1972; Karlekar, 1975; Ramaswamy; 1985 among others). The review of literature pertaining to the above research, clearly reveals the relevance of socio economic status in the access of higher education, so the present study empirically endeavors to examine the Role of Education in Determining the Awareness Level about Welfare Schemes among Backward Classes in Rural Haryana . OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY Present study tries to assess the role of Education in determining awareness level regarding welfare schemes among the Backward Classes in rural Haryana through the following research questions. A) What kind of information is perceived by the Backward Classes regarding welfare schemes? B) Are there any differences on the basis of Education and their knowledge regarding welfare schemes? SELECTION OF THE VILLAGES AND ITS PROFILE On the basis of literacy rate , six villages namely Ramgarh village in Panchkula district, Kardhan village in Ambala district and Bharawas village in Rewari district were selected from the high literacy rate category; and Talwara Khurd village in Sirsa district, Bhuna village in Kaithal district and Ahrawan village in Fatehahabad district were selected from the category of low literacy rate . The profile of the selected villages and their castes composition is given below in the tables 1 &2. Table 1. Villages Profile Name of the village. Talwara Khurd Ahrawan Bhuna Kardhan Ramgarh Bharawas Total Tehsil Ellanabad Ratia Guhla Ambala Panchkula Rewari District Sirsa Fatehabad Kaithal Ambala Panchkula Rewari Nearest town with distance. (in KMs.) Ellanabad (9) Ratia (9) Kaithal (9) Ambala Cantt. (1) Panchkula (10) Rewari (6) Total geo. Area (In Hect.) 3337.00 2392.00 1874.00 236.00 609.86 1184.89 9563.75 Total population 6266 5089 5640 4165 3913 3607 28680

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Table 2. Caste Composition of Selected Villages (Households)


Castes Ahrawan Talwara Khurd Bharawas Kardhan Bhuna Ramgarh Total

Jat / jatsikh Khatri General castes Bania Brahmins Rajput Masih Gosai Chamar Odd Sahnsi Bajigar Majbi sikh Dhanak Schedule Castes Nayak (heri) Babri Bhichar Khatik Mahasya Aryamegh Kuchbane Ahir Gujjar Saini Sunar Backward Castes Varagi Darzi Teli Pal-gadria Labana Zimer

197 19 9 1 30 29 53 4 126 102 5 58 24 (3)

204 223 7 16 24 105 13 80 7 4 12 140 4 11 (1)

1 2 27 108 59 18 427 (56) 37 (5) 12 (2) 21 (3) 9 (1) -

70 50 80 100 10 100 90 40 29 (4) 61 (8) 55 (7) 31 (4) 24 (3) 7 (1) 10 (1) 9 (1) 44 (6)

40 30 5 135 65 70 140 50 12 10 76 (10) 11 (1) 28 (4) 8 (1) 7 (1) 102(13) 121 (16)

2 10 40 25 10 35 27 68(9) 199(26) 9 (1) 9 (1) 34 (4) 25 (3) 11 (1)

513 333 143 304 85 30 24 447 66 4 346 335 22 17 140 4 40 12 10 58 456 (60) 144 (19) 297 (39) 87 (11) 80 (11) 42 (5) 49 (6) 42 (5) 111 (14) 211 (27)

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Lohar Khati Kamboj Kumhar Rai-sikh Nai Garhwali Total -

11 (1) 8 (1) 134 (17) 11 (1) 18 (2) 839

17 (2) 37 (5) 36 (5) 91 (12) 27 (4) 1058

31 (4) 37 (5) 23 (3) 31 (4) 843

9 (1) 24 (3) 11 (1) 12 (2) 34 (5) 71 (9) 971

22 (3) 7 (1) 14 (2) 22 (3) 19 (2) 994

14 (2) 16 (2) 8 (1) 29 (4) 4 (1) 575

56 (7) 103 (13) 196 (25) 126 (17) 109 (14) 132 (18) 106 (14) 5280

(Figure given in brackets represents sample size) METHODOLOGY, SAMPLE PROCEDURE AND TECHNIQUES OF DATA COLLECTION In the present study 305 respondents were selected by employing multistage stratified random sampling and got information through interview schedule regarding reservation policy, scholarships, fee exemption and age relaxation in job & education fields, free coaching facilities, loan schemes and knowledge about BCEWSKN etc. In the secondary sources-Village Panchayat record, village health worker survey register, report of Backward Classes Commissions, census report and other concerned literature have been used in the present study. The present study is descriptive and exploratory in nature and data was analyzed by applying Chisquare(x2). AWARENESS REGARDING WELFARE SCHEMES AMONG BACKWARD CLASSES The list of questions asked is not comprehensive but researchers try to include the most of relevant questions regarding the welfare schemes. The education, occupation and income are some important determinants of the social status of a person in society. Among these education has accounted the most important variable in the modern times which is directly associated with the levels of awareness. An educated person is assumed to have better access to the different channels of knowledge. Table 3. Education and Knowledge of Reservation Policy Knowledge of reservation policy. Education Yes Illiterate up to middle up to Sr. Sec. Graduate & others Total Calculated value 81.002 df 3 39 (E65) (48.8%) 89(E83.8) (86.4%) 85(E70.7) (97.7%) 35(E28.5) (100%) 248(E248) (81.3%) Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) .0001 No 41(E15) (51.3%) 14(E19.2) (13.6%) 2(E16.3) (2.3%) 0(E6.5) (.0%) 57(E57) (18.7%) At 0.05 7.82 80 (100%) 103(100%) 87(100%) 35(100%) 305(100%) Null hypo. Rejected Total

It is to be expected that the higher the education the greater the awareness, as awareness and education, in the present context, seem to be positively correlated. The chi-square value (2 = 81.002, df=3, p<. 05) is

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significant, so different educational categories differ significantly in terms of awareness regarding the welfare schemes. The data showed that as the educational qualifications of the respondents increased, their awareness regarding the welfare schemes also increased. Therefore, it was noted that except illiterate respondents, the rest were significant for having awareness of reservation policy in govt. jobs and in the field of education for Backward Classes. Table 4. Education and Knowledge about Scholarships Knowledge about Scholarships Education Yes Illiterate up to middle up to Sr. Sec. Graduate & others Total Calculated value 39.029 df 3 4(E14.2) (5%) 13(E18.2) (12.6%) 19(E15.4) (21.8%) 18(E6.2) (51.4%) 54(E54) (17.7%) Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) .0001 No 76(E65.8) (95%) 90(E84.8) (87.4%) 68(E71.6) (78.2%) 17(E28.8) (48.6%) 251(E251) (82.3%) At 0.05 7.82 80 (100%) 103(100%) 87(100%) 35(100%) 305(100%) Null hypo. Rejected Total

Again, in relation with the knowledge about scholarships, the calculated value, i.e. 39.029 is greater than the table value, i.e. 7.82 for df-3, at .05 levels. Thus, our null hypothesis rejected. It means there is significant difference in relation with the knowledge about scholarships and their educational attainments. Therefore, it can be concluded that those respondents who possessed up to Sr. Sec. and above standard of education, were more aware about scholarships. Table 5. Education and Knowledge about Fee-Exemption Knowledge about Fee-exemption Education Yes Illiterate up to middle up to Sr. Sec. Graduate & others Total Calculated value 96.964 O O O O O df 3 6(E32.5) (7.5%) 31(E41.9) (30.1%) 55(E35.4) (63.2%) 32(E14.2) (91.4%) 124(E124) (40.7%) Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) .0001 No 74(E47.5) (92.5%) 72(E61.1) (69.9%) 32(E51.6) (36.8%) 3(E20.8) (8.6%) 181(E181) (59.3%) At 0.05 7.82 80 (100%) 103(100%) 87(100%) 35(100%) 305(100%) Null hypo. Rejected Total

Again, in relation with the knowledge about Fee-exemption in jobs & education for Backward Castes, the calculated value, i.e. 96.964 is greater than the table value, i.e. 7.82 for df 3, at .05 level. It means there is significant difference in relation with the knowledge about Fee-exemption in jobs & education and their educational attainments. Therefore, it can be summarized that those have educated up to Sr. Sec. and above, are more aware of the knowledge about Fee-exemption in jobs & educational field.

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Table 6. Education and Knowledge about Age-relaxation in jobs Knowledge about Age-relaxation in jobs. Education Yes Illiterate up to middle up to Sr. Sec. Graduate & others Total Calculated value 101.350 O O O O O df 3 20(E52.5) (25%) 66(E67.5) (64.1%) 79(E57) (90.8%) 35(E23) (100%) 200(E200) (65.6%) Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) .0001 No 60(E27.5) (75%) 37(E35.5) (35.9%) 8(E30) (9.2%) 0(E12) (0%) 105(E105) (34.4%) At 0.05 7.82 80 (100%) 103(100%) 87(100%) 35(100%) 305(100%) Null hypo. Rejected Total

The result of various values shown in the above table rejects our null hypothesis and upon which basis it can be summarized that those have educated up to Sr. Sec. and above, are more aware of the knowledge about age-relaxation in jobs. Table 7: Education and Knowledge about free coaching Knowledge about free coaching Education Yes Illiterate up to middle up to Sr. Sec. Graduate & others Total Calculated value 59.342 O O O O O df 3 5(E13.6) (6.3%) 8(E17.6) (7.8%) 18(E14.8) (20.7%) 21(E6) (60%) 52(E52) (17%) Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) .0001 No 75(E66.4) (93.8%) 95(E85.4) (92.2%) 69(E72.2) (79.3%) 14(E29) (40%) 253(E253) (83%) At 0.05 7.82 80 (100%) 103(100%) 87(100%) 35(100%) 305(100%) Null hypo. Rejected Total

Since the chi-square value (x2 = 59.342, df-3, P<. 05) is significant, our null hypothesis is rejected. It means there is significant difference in relation with the knowledge about the provision of imparting free coaching for competitive examinations for Backward Castes and their educational attainments. Therefore, it can be summarized that higher the level of education, higher will be the level of awareness regarding the provisions of imparting free coaching for competitive examinations for Backward Castes.

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Table 8. Education and Awareness of Loan Scheme for BCs Awareness of loan scheme for BCs. Education Yes Illiterate up to middle up to Sr. Sec. Graduate & others Total Calculated value 17.225 O O O O O df 3 5(E6.6) (6.3%) 4(E8.4) (3.9%) 7(E7.1) (8%) 9(E2.9) (25.7%) 25(E25) (8.2%) Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) .001 No 75(E73.4) (93.8%) 99(E94.6) (96.1%) 80(E79.9) (92%) 26(E32.1) (74.3%) 280(E280) (91.8%) At 0.05 7.82 80 (100%) 103(100%) 87(100%) 35(100%) 305(100%) Null hypo. Rejected Total

An examination of chi square statistics shows that the table value of chi-square for df 3, at 0.05 level of significance is 7.82. The calculated value of chi-square, i.e. 17.225, is greater than the table value. Thus, it rejected the null hypothesis and difference between education of the respondents and their knowledge about loan schemes in which a loan on low interest is provided by the government is significant. Thus, only graduate and others qualified respondents are significant for having knowledge of loan schemes on low interest rate provided by the govt. for Backward Castes. Table 9. Education and Awareness about Subsidy Facilities for OBCs Awareness about subsidy facilities for OBCs Education Yes Illiterate up to middle up to Sr. Sec. Graduate & others Total Calculated value 10.455 O O O O O df 3 25(E17.6) (31.3%) 14(E22.6) (13.6%) 23(E19.1) (26.4%) 5(E7.7) (14.3%) 67(E67) (22%) Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) .015 No 55(E62.4) (68.8%) 89(E80.4) (86.4%) 64(E67.9) (73.6%) 30(E27.3) (85.7%) 238(E238) (78%) At 0.05 7.82 80 (100%) 103(100%) 87(100%) 35(100%) 305(100%) Null hypo. Rejected Total

The chi-square table shows that the table value of chi-square for df 3, at 0.05 level of significance is 7.82. The calculated value of chi-square, i.e. 10.455, is greater than the table value. Hence, there is significant variation in relation with the knowledge of subsidy facility, which is provided by the government for Backward Classes and the educational attainments of the respondents. Thus, only illiterates and Sr. Sec. qualified respondents are significant for having knowledge of such facilities.

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Table 10. Education and Knowledge about the Limitation of Reservation Knowledge about the limitation of reservation. Education Yes Illiterate up to middle up to Sr. Sec. Graduate & others Total Calculated value 104.375 O O O O O df 3 6(E28.1) (7.5%) 19(E36.1) (18.4%) 51(E30.5) (58.6%) 31(E12.3) (88.6%) 107(E107) (35.1%) Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) .0001 No 74(E51.9) (92.5%) 84(E66.9) (81.6%) 36(E56.5) (41.4%) 4(E22.7) (11.4%) 198(E198) (64.9%) At 0.05 7.82 80 (100%) 103(100%) 87(100%) 35(100%) 305(100%) Null hypo. Rejected Total

The chi-square table shows that the table value of chi-square for df 3 at .05 level of significance is 7.82. The calculated value of chi-square, i.e., 104.375 is greater than the table value. Therefore, the null hypothesis rejected and difference between education of the respondents and their knowledge about the reservation quota limit is significant. Thus, only Sr. Sec and above qualified respondents are significant for having knowledge about reservation quota limit, i.e. 50 %. Therefore, it can be concluded that those have educated up to Sr. Sec and above, are aware of the knowledge about reservation quota limit, i.e. 50 %. Table 11. Education and Creamy Layer's persons are not eligible for reservation benefit Creamy Layer's persons are not eligible for reservation benefit. Education Yes Illiterate up to middle up to Sr. Sec. Graduate & others Total Calculated value 98.296 O O O O O df 3 1(E17.8) (1.3%) 12(E23) (11.7%) 27(E19.4) (31%) 28(E7.8) (80%) 68(E68) (22.3%) Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) .0001 No 79(E62.2) (98.8%) 91(E80) (88.3%) 60(E67.6) (69%) 7(E27.2) (20%) 237(E237) (77.7%) At 0.05 7.82 80 (100%) 103(100%) 87(100%) 35(100%) 305(100%) Null hypo. Rejected Total

Again, chi-square table shows that the obtained chi-square value, i.e. 98.296 is greater than the table value for df 3, i.e. 7.82 at .05 level. It means there is significant difference about the knowledge of the respondents about the fact that the peoples, who fall in the creamy layer, are not eligible for reservation benefit. Thus, our null hypothesis is rejected. Thus, only Sr. Sec and above qualified respondents are significant for having knowledge about above statements.

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Table 12. Education and Knowledge about BCEWSKN Knowledge about BCEWSKN. Education Yes Illiterate up to middle up to Sr. Sec. Graduate & others Total Calculated value 54.417 O O O O O df 3 2(E15.5) (2.5%) 15(E19.9) (14.6%) 21(E16.8) (24.1%) 21(E6.8) (60%) 59(E59) (19.3%) Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) .0001 No 78(E64.5) (97.5%) 88(E83.1) (85.4%) 66(E70.2) (75.9%) 14(E28.2) (40%) 246(E246) (80.7%) At 0.05 7.82 80 (100%) 103(100%) 87(100%) 35(100%) 305(100%) Null hypo. Rejected Total

Again, chi-square table shows that the obtained chi-square value, i.e. 54.417 is greater than the table value for df 3, i.e. 7.82 at .05 level of significance. Thus the null hypothesis is rejected and difference between education of the respondents and their knowledge about the Backward Classes & Economically Weaker Section Kalyan Nigam is significant. Therefore, it can be concluded that those have educated up to Sr. Sec and above, are aware of the Backward Classes & Economically Weaker Section Kalyan Nigam. CONCLUSION Conceptually education is a process of imparting knowledge i.e. knowing the unknown. It can be divided into three types- Social Education, Spiritual Education and Vocational Education. When it teaches concerns of a society then it is called social education. The education which facilitates the development of personality and self inside the individual is called Spiritual Education. Vocational education imparts the specialized information which unable a person to develop expert and specialized capacities and skills to render services in the specialized field to the humanity. ( tmss.bd.org). It was originated in study that all graduate and other qualified respondents were aware of the reservation policy in govt. jobs and in the field of education. It was concluded that those who acquired Sr. Sec. and above educational standard of education were more aware of the scholarships, Fee exemption in jobs and educational field, Age-relaxation in jobs and provision of imparting free coaching for competitive examinations than their counterparts. It is noted in the study that graduate and others qualified persons are aware of the loan schemes. It was concluded that those who acquired Sr. Sec. and above educational standard of education were more aware of the subsidy facility, knowledge about the Backward Classes & Economically Weaker Section Kalyan Nigam than their counterparts. Thus, it is concluded that Sr. Sec. and above level of educational standard acquainted with statutory privileges significantly. REFERENCES Anindita Chakrabarti, Determinates of participation in Higher Education and Choice of Discipline Evidence from Urban and Rural Indian Youth, South Asia Economic Journal July/December 2009 vol 10 no. 2371-402. Beteille, Andre. The backward classes in contemporary India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1992. Chauhan, B R (1967), Special problems of Education of the Scheduled Castes in Gore, Desai and Chitnis (eds), Paper in sociology of Education in India, New Delhi, NCERT. Chitins, Suma (1972), Education for Equality: The Case of Scheduled Castes in Higher Education Economic and Political Weekly, 7(31-33), pp 675-91.

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Gore, Desai and Chitins (eds), (1970), Field Studies in the sociology in Education, New Delhi, NCERT. Karlekar, Malavika (1975), Higher Education and the Scheduled Castes, Journal of Higher Education, 1(2), pp 179-87. King A D, (1970), The IIT Graduate; Aspirations and Ambitions, Economic and Political Weekly, September, 1970, pp 1479-1510. Kuppuswamy, B. Social Change in India (5th revised edition). New Delhi: Konark Pub., 1986, 1993. Mehta, Haroo Bhai and Hansmukh Patel (ed.). Dynamics of reservation policy. New Delhi: Patriot Publishers, 1985. Radhakrishnan P. Backward Castes/Classes as Legal and Political Entities in Veena Das (ed.), The Oxford India Companion to Sociology and Social Anthropology (Vols-2). New Delhi: Oxford, 2003. Ramaswamy, Uma (1985), Education and Inequality, Economic and Political Weekly, September 7, pp 1523-28. Rao, M S A, (1967), Educational Social Stratification and Mobility in Gore, Desai and Chitins (eds), Papers in sociology of Education in India, New Delhi, NCERT, pp 426-42. Ruhela, S P (ed), (1969), Social Determinants of Educability in India, New Delhi, Jain Brothers. Shah, B V, (1960), Inequality of Educational Opportunities; A case study, The Economic Weekly, 12(34) August 20, pp 1283-86. Shah, Ghanshyam. Social Movements in India, New Delhi: Sage, 1990. Sharma, K.L. Social stratification and weaker section of society in Social strati fication in India: issues and theme. New Delhi: Sage, 1997. Singh, S. N. Reservation Policy for Backward Classes, New Delhi & Jaipur: Rawat Publication, 1996. Tomta, B. R. A Silver Lining among dark clouds, Kurukshetra, Oct. 1990. Veena Monga. Social Mobility among the Potters, EPW, 10 June 1967.

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REVIEW OF THE ARTICLE THE IDEA OF INTEGRATED EDUCATION: FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF WHITEHEADS PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION
Beena Indrani1 The article focuses on the idea of integrated education. The goal is not about how to find a good job or make big money, but about how to develop a complete human being. Every part of the individual- mind, body, emotion and spirit should be developed at the same time and be integrated into the whole person. The concept of integrated education emphasizes methods which concentrate on viewing the student as a whole person. This idea comes from the Whiteheads philosophy of education. Whiteheads philosophy of education was built on the concepts of the organism and proc ess thought. Whitehead always believed that appreciation of the relation of the whole to the part was central to understanding reality. Whitehead believed nothing is in isolation. All things depend upon each other. In this world everything is connected to everything. Everything is a part of the whole. Whitehead emphasizes the importance of wholeness and relationship. Whitehead applied this thought to education. He used the term nature alive, which enabled him to look at both of physical and biological science from a unique perspective. According to this, the students are alive. The body contains both the mental and physical attributes of unified experience. In his philosophy no separation of mind and body. The body includes the mental state (the mind, perception and reasoning). Students do not present to us isolated mind or bodies but themselves as integrated human beings whose relations in the world are experience that Whiteheads philosophy of organism explains. From a process perspective student viewed holistically. Teachers do not confront a mind, or a body or cognition, or affect, but a totality: learners bring their whole being to the situation. According to above discussion, the idea of integrated education is based on Whiteheads philosophy of organism. Western schools were built on the needs of western civilization; Chinese schools were built on Chinese civilization. But now we are a world civilization. The whole earth is becoming a small global village, where our schools are obsolete by any standards for todays technological world. Our school systems should teach our children to know, understand and appreciate other cultures and each other. Teachers must become the translators of cultural differences. We need to teach our children to celebrate diversity and the creative human spirit. Every country and culture has its own educational system. These individual systems met the needs of the single culture but are not enough for todays global society. This is one of reasons why some American educators said, we are the richest nation in the world, but yet we have a failing school system. So the global society of today needs an educational system, which is based on an integrated education. This article discusses few reasons as why we need an educational system, which is based on an integrated education. These reasons are as follows: In the modern education system, students are passive receivers of knowledge. Modern education emphasizes on specialization. Under the specialization, students are not treated as a whole person. They are not alive but become machines that merely receive knowledge from students. Modern education emphasizes separation and difference much more than integration and harmony. Because of alienation and separation, people understand the meaning of life, nor do understand each other. There is a big gap between learning and life, knowledge and wisdom. This type of education system is the virtually complete stifling of creativity. Due to examination pressure, the students are the learning machines, teachers are the machine operators and parents are the keeper of learning machine. Students dont have time to think about what they are learning, how to learn more wisely or why they should be learning what they are learning. They just receive information from their teachers every day. Moral or spiritual education is ignored in the modern education system. An education system that will be based on integration is very different from the modern education system. Integrated education would be planned to integrate the different parts of a human being for making a

Senior Research Fellow, Research Scholar, Department of Education, University of Allahabad, Allahabad

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whole person; to integrate the different cultures for creating a culture with global view; to develop the students creativity so that they can translate their knowledge into real wisdom. This article shows that the aesthetics will play one of the important roles in an integrated education. Art and aesthetic appreciation is the bridge between subjects and objects, the abstract and the concrete, an individual and others or society. Aesthetic appreciation is the way for human beings to open themselves to a new and bigger world and it is also a way for individuals to transcend themselves. This is a tragedy of human beings in modern society that pays too much attention on reason and ignores other parts of a human being as feelings, emotions and spirit. A whole person can be made only in aesthetic appreciation plays a very important role in Whiteheads three rhythmic cycles (romance -precisiongeneralization). Education should be based on these cycles. The modern education system ignores these cycles; due to which the child fails to understand the relationship between everyday life and what he/she is taught in the school. Aesthetic appreciation plays a very important role in these three cycles. In other words, children obtain wisdom without appreciation. Modern education ignores the moral education. For moral education, the aesthetic way is also necessary. Our aesthetic emotion provides us vivid apprehensions of value. Whitehead emphasized sciences as well as literature and arts. These subjects are very important in the education system. The modern education paid attention to only one part of the educational process and left out other parts (arts and aesthetic) of it. The art and aesthetic are very important in human life. Finally this article concludes that aesthetic will must play a very important role in it because of its character of integration. But the present educational system ignores the aesthetics. This article mentions that only aesthetics can save the world. We should keep balance between aesthetics and education of science and technology. We need to right mix of necessary specialization and equally important generalization. We can avoid a narrow groove as in modern educational way. This article is very significant in present time educational system. Because in todays education moral, ethical, aesthetic values and creativity etc. are ignored. This ignorance leads to indiscipline in students, memorization, job-oriented education, and narrow knowledge of subject, dissatisfaction, wars and many other problems related to human beings, society and country. This type of education develops a human machine not a complete human being. The present education system only develops one part of human being, and does not develop whole human being. Todays believe is technology and science can solve all problems. But this is not right thing. Technology and science cannot develop moral and aesthetic value in the human being. So this article is very useful to live a healthy and fruitful life. If education is based on integration, then suicidal attempts, corruption and all bad habits will never come in the society and country. This article is very useful for teachers and educators. The article is well connected to our life it is well written and has a clear concept.

ARTICLE REVIEW Author: Meijun Fan Title: The idea of integrated education: From the point of view of Whiteheads philosophy of education Year: 2004 Presented at: Paper presented at the Forum Integrated Education and Educational Reform sponsored by the Council for Global Integrative Education Place: Santa Cruz, CA Date: October 28-30 Retrieved date: November 26, 2009 Web link: http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/CGIE/fan.pdf Reviewed by: Beena Indrani ******

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THE ROLE OF OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING IN QUALITY EDUCATION


Preety Agarwal1 Abstract Education in modern times is changing rapidly due to rapid changes in the society. India is a democratic society where every citizen has the right to get education from the primary to the university level. The state must fulfill the needs and aspirations of the people for acquiring education. In the early 1990s, only 5% of the total eligible population enrolled in higher education institutions of India. A developing country like India cannot afford that a large segment of its population be deprived of higher education only because its colleges and universities have no place for them. The introduction of education through correspondence helped to some extent to reach the students who could not attend regular classes. However, the demand for higher education could not be fulfilled through Correspondence Courses Institutions (CCIs). It needed a long-term and effective strategy. Thus, it was at the right juncture of time that the open learning system entered The open and distance learning system because of its inbuilt learner friendly features and flexibilities has the potential to enable the learners to deal with the challenging and difficult situations and thus help them in reducing the stress as compare to their counterpart in the conventional system. Besides highlighting the basic principles and dimensions of stress management, the proposed paper will focus on the features of the ODL system which help in reducing the stress among the learners and also to prepare them to handle the adverse situations in life. It will also highlight the different areas of the ODL system that need to be redesigned so that the teaching-learning and life skill development takes place simultaneously. The related issues and challenges in doing so will also be discussed in this paper. INTRODUCTION The term open learning is now being used as a banner to describe systems which are anything but open. This is a monstrous misuse of language which needs to be stopped now. Access is about individual learners, not about corporate providers; openness is about structure and dialogue, not about instrumental training.... Few systems are open in the sense that they comply with all the characteristics of openness mentioned in this article, but we should ensure that individual systems exhibit at least some of the characteristics of openness before we accord them the accolade of being open. The world still needs more and better teachers. Despite progress made since the Dakar conference on education for all in 2000, some 57 million children may still be out of school in 2015. And denying children an opportunity to put even a first step on the education ladder puts them on a course for a lifetime of disadvantage (UNESCO 2010: 54-5). Governments have responded by adopting a variety of strategies of which open and distance learning is one.1 It is relevant to four problems confronting schools, the teaching profession, and ministries of education. First, there remain shortages of teachers. Teacher numbers barely kept pace with rising pupil numbers in the 1990s. Second, in many but not all countries female teachers are in a minority which, in some cultures, holds back the enrolment of girls. While progress has been made since 1990, women made up only 45 per cent of primary school teachers in south and west Asia and only 44 per cent in sub-Saharan Africa in 2007. Third, even where there are enough teachers too many of them are untrained or undertrained. In 2001 it was reported that About half of the teachers in developing countries are unqualified in terms of their own countrys formal standards for teachers education. Many teachers have little more than secondary education them selves. Teaching methods are often old fashioned, with too much focus on rote learning (DfID 2001: 9). Fourth, many countries want to change teachers jobs as their host societies are changing: inclusive education, education for democracy, education for the information age, political transformation, all make new demands on the teaching force. Open and distance learning has been used to support teachers career development both through structured Programmes, designed for specific groups of teachers, and by providing opportunities for individual teachers to raise the level of their own qualifications. Highly targeted programmes have been used for teachers who have gained, or are seeking, a new role. In India, a number of targeted programmes have been run by open universities. The Indira Gandhi National Open University, for example, offered a programme in child guidance, for teachers wanting to specialize in guidance and counseling (Mehrota 2007). Larger numbers of teachers,
1

Assistant Professor, Department of Teacher Education, Pt.J.N.PG. College. Banda.U.P.

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seeking higher qualifications in their own career interest, have been enrolled by open universities on B.Ed and M.Ed courses. Universities have increasingly made online courses available internationally with the result that some teachers are now pursuing a cross border degree. WHY QUALITY IS REQUIRED IN OPEN LEARNING SYSTEM A content-based curriculum delivered by an informed teacher will guarantee students effective, successful and productive education. A good teacher possesses a system of profound theoretical knowledge about instruction. Learning is the hard, responsible work of a student. An educator should maintain distance and be strict with students. A highly qualified instructor does not have learning conflicts. Education of teachers and students should be mono cultural. MAJOR ISSUES IN OPEN LEARNING SYSTEM Problematic delivery and pedagogy models that relied heavily on an expensive technology platform and became labor intensive and therefore costly and difficult to implement, necessitating pedagogical and programmatic changes midstream which affected the quality of programmes and had a deleterious impact on learners. Inadequate student-support systems, especially in terms of learning-management systems, that did not adequately take into account the institutional, national, educational and technological contexts of the learning environments in Africa Insufficient financial resources and cumbersome procurement procedures that made it difficult to scale the programmes. Weak ICT infrastructure and costly equipment and inadequate bandwidth and connectivity in remote areas. Lack of local ownership and incorporation of the visions and the strategic objectives of Indian universities into the documentation and the processes of higher education and training. Understaffing and lack of expertise in distance education. Lack of institutional and professional status. Lack of relevant learning materials Inability to respond promptly to learners needs. Access and equity, given the prevailing imbalances between regions and genders in terms of access to educational opportunity. Cost-effective financing of education with emphasis on cost sharing. Lack of resources personnel, space, budget, etc.

QUALITY OF THE OPEN LEARNING SYSTEM LIES IN HOW THEY ADDRESS THE FOLLOWING ISSUES Sustainability of the programme. Needs analysis contributes to the quality of a programme as it helps in identifying the content relevant to the programme and in choosing an effective mode for delivering it. Focused attention should be given to the learning abilities and styles of the target group. This helps in deciding what the various structural components of the training package should be. Assigning realistic weights to the various media components in the package, incorporating workable learning experiences in materials, and deciding the kind of evaluation strategy that may suit the programme best.

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For the quality of the delivery mechanism, especially if it is labour intensive with meagre technological inputs, staff-development programmes and their effective implementation constitute a prerequisite. Building the capacity of staff (trainers, course writers, counselors and other support personnel) plays a very crucial role and has to be systematically planned and implemented. Training at grass roots level is not a one-shot exercise. It needs effective follow-up through regular reinforcement of the necessary knowledge and skills inputs if long- term success is to be ensured. Development of self-instructional modules of high quality. High quality of its self-instructional modules. Facilitate effective achievement of educational objectives. Monitoring Capacity-building. Use of external examiners and moderators. Use of a decentralized programme management and delivery. Distance education courses should be learner-centered. Reflect the highest levels of scholarship in discipline and subject areas. Utilize and provide access to current content, materials, and resources. Exhibit well thought-out aims, goals and objectives. Have pedagogically sound learning outcomes. Have a clear and logical structure and sequence of learning activities (learning plan). Disseminate current research findings and promote various forms of enquiry. Set realistic yet challenging expectations of learners. Promote active learning, independence of thought and, where appropriate, problem solving. Exhibit a clearly definable educational philosophy and teaching/learning strategies; Accommodate a variety of learning styles (visual, auditory, kinesthetic); Utilize a variety of appropriate learning resource. Link to University Library, and to the Counseling and Student Resource Centre. Foster learner-instructor and learner-learner communication and interaction. Integrate appropriate technology into the course learning framework. Allow for frequent and meaningful feedback on learner progress. Provide for suitable assessment methods measuring success in accomplishment of course goals and outcomes. Exhibit sensitivity to learners of varying ages, backgrounds, and experience. Be appropriate for an international audience (awareness of and sensitivity to cultural differences). Exhibit proper standards in the use of the language of instruction and the rules of grammar.

PARTICULAR ELEMENTS OF OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING QUALITY In assessing how far open and distance learning can raise educational quality, the evidence on effectiveness is thinner than we would like, but so it is for many conventional programmes of teaching education. The evidence is particularly thin on the use of the newer information and communication technologies where, despite grand claims, we have little hard evidence. To sum up, the evidence confirms that open and distance learning can reach large audiences, and can do so quickly. It has been used by governments to meet the

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needs of significant proportions of their teaching force. High satisfactory completion rates have been reported for programmes of initial training where teachers were motivated by the prospect of improved status and more pay. There is a much more mixed record for programmes that amounted to secondary-school equivalence and for programmes of continuing professional development. Anecdotal and qualitative evidence, and a small number of research studies, show that it has played a role in raising the quality of school systems and of classroom performance. Looking at the evidence more broadly, it is reasonable to assume that strengthening teachers education should improve their performance. In a classic study, based in part on experience in the Pacific, Beeby warned that the teacher with a minimal education was always teaching to the limits of his knowledge. He clings desperately to the official syllabus, and the tighter it is the safer he feels. Beyond the pasteboard covers of the official textbook lies the dark where unknown questions lurk. E ducational change and advance depend on having an education that goes beyond this (Beeby 1966:61). More recently the expectation that teachers should become reflective practitioners, able to examine and improve their own practice, makes increased demands on their education. Rich-country study evidence reinforces the conviction that better education should produce better teachers. By comparing policies within the United States, for example, researchers found that the states leading the nation in student achievement and those that have made the most significant gains in achievement are the states that have the most highly qualified teachers and that have made consistent investments in teachers professional development (Russell and McPherson 2001: 8). Theory and practice confirm that where open and distance learning for teachers is successful, we can expect it to raise the quality of education. GIVING MORE EMPHASIS ON KNOWLEDGE RATHER THAN EXAMINATION In the formal system, examination is considered as a phobia. Learners become afraid of examination and instead of learning for life making them learner for examination. Majority of the cases of suicide and stress related problems among the learners are reported to be due to the examination. Because of such incidents the government as well as all the educationists is in favour of eliminating the examination completely. But practically it is not possible to do away with examination and evaluation. Therefore, now there is emphasis on examination reforms in the entire education system so that the evaluation becomes a continuous process and the students can appear in the examination as per their preparation. Fortunately the ODL system has already been providing the facility to appear in the examination as per the preparation and need of the learners. Particularly the NIOS and IGNOU besides six monthly term end examination, offers examination on demand also. Which ensures no stress and pressure on the students? NIOS has designed a flexible scheme of examination where a learner could take the examination at a time in one or more subjects ( up to six). Their credits are accumulated and as soon as a students attains requisite number of credit, he/she becomes eligible for certificate. Not only this the credit of the subjects passed from other recognized boards are also transferred to NIOS and given equal weight age. This also proves to a factor for reducing the chances of stress among the learners. PROVIDING EDUCATION AS PER NEED AND CHOICE OF THE LEARNER Education is not merely getting information and acquiring bookish knowledge but it is now a lifelong process for self development and at a large scale development of the country. Unlike conventional system, the NIOS focuses on learner centric education by providing life oriented education as per the need and choice of the learners. The curriculum is designed in such a way that it helps in all-round growth and development of the learners. There is no rigidity of choosing a particular combination of subjects as in case of formal system of education. Learners can choose any subject combination for their studies as per their interest and needs. This feature of NIOS not only helps in reducing the stress among the learner but encourages them to complete their studies. Besides it there are several life enrichment courses which are specially meant for individual as well as society progress. For example, courses of Jan Swasthya, yoga, Community health etc. Thus through ODL system, a learner is free to select one or more subjects as per their choice and need. PROVIDING LEARNING ENVIRONMENT 21st century has drastically changed the learning environment and consequentially the educationists of India are trying to transform the existing methodology of teaching-learning accordingly. The main focus is to provide education of that kind which can reduce the prevailing stress among the especially school going learners. The open Schooling system offer an open entry to all the interested and motivated without restrictions of upper age limit and entry qualification for admission to various vocational and academic programmes up to secondary level. Besides, availability of variety of subjects and much greater flexibility in the

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choice of subjects to suit personal needs and requirements provide a stress free learning environment for the learners. Multimode instructional system including the self instructional study material, audio-video programmes and face to face contact programmes at the study centers also help in learning effectiveness. Modular approach to learning and six monthly term end examination and continuous assessment through tutor marked assignment are some of the factors which help in providing better learning environment. DEVELOPING LEARNING SKILLS AMONG THE LEARNERS In the present scenario it is a fact that whatever change we bring in the teaching-learning system and provide any type of flexibility, may not be sufficient unless we develop life skills among the learners. Besides curricular instructions, the life skills need to be integrated in the education system of India. Life skills are abilities for adaptive and positive behavior that enable individuals to deal effectively with the demands and challenges that facilitate the physical, mental and emotional well-being of a child. The government of India has taken a decision to implement the adolescence education programme in all secondary and higher schools. Global and Indian experiences have shown that educational interventions that focus on life skills development have proven very effective in empowering adolescents to manage their AHI and concerns. It is fact that when student acquires knowledge about life skills his attitude changes positively, he starts thinking critically and creatively, communicate effectively, build healthy relationships, empathize with others and develop ability to cope up with the adverse situations. It helps them to manage their lives in a healthy and productive manner. Such knowledge and skills can lead to positive behavioral changes and enable young people to play leadership roles. Moreover, the knowledge and life skills education imparted to the students are likely to be passed on their own children, thus influencing future generations. It is therefore necessary that like open and distance education system, our formal education system should also effectively addresses the issues related to growing aged students in an integrated way so that they are able to handle the difficult situations. NIOS in collaboration with the UNFPA is contributing towards empowering the adolescents enabling them to make informed choices in their personal and public lives. This is achieved by providing learners information, life oriented education and services in a supportive environment, so that they can learn through their experiences and build their skills for facing the challenges of growing up. In order to enhance the life skills different types of interactive methods are used that make learning a meaningful, relevant and interesting. Some common methods are group discussions, brainstorming sessions and role-playing, quiz and case studies etc. CONCLUSION International experience has demonstrated that open and distance learning can be effectively deployed for teacher education. While it has often been regarded as a temporary expedient, adopted, dropped, and sometimes readopted, the evidence on its effectiveness is in fact robust enough for it to be developed and treated instead as a regular part of national systems of education. Successful programmes have in common that students were motivated, that they benefited from good tutorial support, and that the logistics worked well. Logistics caused particular problems in relation to the supervision of teaching practice, and this has been a persistent theme from the earliest projects on. Conditions for success, and appropriate organizational structures, beyond the scope of this paper, are explored in more detail in UNESCOs Teacher education guidelines: Using open and distance learning (Perraton, Creed and Robinson 2002). The record shows that distance-learning methods can be used for all four components of teacher education: for general education, to strengthen teachers knowledge of the subjects they will teach, in teaching pedagogy and child development, and as a guide towards good classroom practice. While the evidence is limited it is generally positive: teachers can learn through these methods, and high success rates have been widely reported. The evidence on costs shows that open and distance learning can be at an economic advantage as compared with conventional education, although it will not always do so. In their planning, administrators need to strike an appropriate balance between the educational arguments for using sophisticated technology and providing ample, individual, face-to-face support to learners and the economic arguments for containing costs, even for elements that are educationally attractive. REFERENCES Allama Iqbal Open University 1999 25 Years of AIOU 1974-1999, Islamabad. Anderson, T. et al. 2006 Cross border cooperation and scholarship policy: collaboration through Commonwealth Scholarships, paper presented at the 4th Pan-Commonwealth Forum on Open Learning Achieving development goals, Ocho Rios, 30 October to 3 November.

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Asian Development Bank 1997 Distance education for primary school teachers, Manila. Beeby, C. E. 1966 the quality of education in developing countries, Cambridge Mass: Harvard University Press. Boitshwarelo, B. (2009). Exploring Blended Learning for Science Teacher Professional Development in an African Context. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning 10(4). Carter, D.J. (2009). The Global Internet Pandemic. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning 10(4). McMaugh, A., Saltmarsh, D., White, S., Reid, J-A., Santoro, N. and Bahr, N. (2009). Re flecting on the Work of Preparing Teachers. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education 37(1): 14. Mehrota, R. N. 2007 India: Developing primary teachers knowledge and skills in child guidance in Perraton, Robinson and Creed 2007. Rossi, D.M. (2010). Learning Relationships in Online Contexts: A Substantive Theory Constructed from the Integrated Analyses of LearnerLearner Interaction and Knowledge Construction in an Undergraduate Communication Course. PhD thesis, University of Southern Queensland, Facu lty of Education, Toowoomba. Rumble, G. (1989). Open Learning, Distance Learning, and the Misuse of Language. Open Learning 4(2): 2836. Rumble, G. 2004 The costs and costing of networked learning in G. Rumble (ed.) Papers and debates on the economics and costs of distance and online learning, Oldenburg: BIS-Verlag Rumble, G. and Koul, B.N. (2007). Open Schooling for Secondary and Higher Education: Costs and Effectiveness in India and Namibia. Commonwealth of Learning: Vancouver. UNESCO (2009). Overcoming Inequality: Why Governance Matters. Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2009. Retrieved March 17, 2009, from: UNESCO 2010 EFA global monitoring report: Reaching the marginalized , Oxford: Oxford University Press Walker, R. 2007 United Kingdom: Using ICT to support school-based initial teacher training in Perraton, Robinson and Creed 2007. Welch, A.R. 2000 Quality and equality in third world education in A.R. Welch (ed.) Third world education, New York: Garland. Wolfenden, F. et al. 2010 Using OERs to improve teacher quality: Emerging findings from TESSA draft paper to be presented at the 6th Pan-Commonwealth Forum on Open Learning. Wrightson, T. 1997 Northern Integrated Teacher Education Project: a case study, paper presented at the World Bank colloquium Distance education for teacher development Toronto: 22-5 June. www.unesco.org/en/education/efarepo Young, M., et al. 1980 Distance teaching for the third world: The lion and the clockwork mouse, London: Routledge Zhang, W. and Niu, J. 2007 China: Reaching teachers through television in Perraton, Robinson and Creed 2007 A summary version of this case study appears in UNESCOs Teacher education through distance learning (Perraton, Robinson and Creed 2001)

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VALUE EDUCATION AND NATIONAL RECONSTRUCTION


Dr. Uday Singh1 Abstract The goal of national reconstruction can be achieved only if the citizens of the nation are furnished with human values like mercy, compassion, mutual cooperation patriotism, commitment, sense of duty and forward look etc. Promotion and inculcation of values among new generations is need of the time in present scenario of social violence, violence against women, terrorism and threat of various man made hazards. These values, generally lacking in youths now can successfully be inculcated through a strong system of value education. Inculcation of values and their practice in day to day behavior is supremely essential for a socially, morally and prosperous nation. But in our Indian scenario, not only the lack of political will and forward look is a problem rather social violence, violence against women, terrorism and threat of various manmade hazards and immoral behavior of policy makers, bureaucrats and common man are devastating the common social life of the nation. Education, in its process of making discipline between mans inner nature and outer behavior, emphasizes values and virtues for preparing good human being for tomorrow. Value based education can help the nation to fight against all kinds of fanaticism, ill will, violence, corruption, prejudices and exploitation. This can be accomplished only when we instill in the children a deep feeling of commitment of values by living example as a role model that would reconstruct our nation.Values are required not to be taught and caught only but to be practiced in our daily personal and social life at school, community, larger society, office and in vocational affaires, also. Its is the duty of school and society, both that they must provide the younger generation with proper role models from all the walks of life. Teachers, leaders, parents and school administrators are expected to play their crucial role in value restoration and national reconstruction . Key words: Value Education, National Reconstruction, Role of teachers and parents, Practice of values in day to day life. INTRODUCTION Promotion of Value Education and inculcation of values among new generations is need of the time in present scenario of social violence, violence against women, terrorism and threat of various man made hazards. Inculcation of values and their practice in day to day behavior is supremely essential for a socially, morally and prosperous nation. But in our Indian scenario, not only the lack of political will and forward look is a problem rather social violence, violence against women, terrorism and threat of various manmade hazardsand immoral behavior of policy makers, bureaucrats and common man are devastating the common social life of the nation. Education, in its process of making discipline between mans inner nature and outer behavior, emphasizes values and virtues for preparing good human being for tomorrow. Value based education can help the nation to fight against all kinds of fanaticism, ill will, violence, corruption, prejudices and exploitation. This can be accomplished only when we instill in the children a deep feeling of commitment of values by living example as a role model that would reconstruct our nation. Any activity, thought, idea, belief, feeling, sentiment or emotion which could promote self development of the individual in all its dimensions besides contribute to the welfare of the larger social units like family, community and the nation of which the individual is a member is said to constitute a value. Infact, human culture and civilization is the result of values of education (Pandey, 1990). Actually, values are likes the rails that keep a train on the track and help it smoothly,quickly and with direction.The first step in the direction ofnational reconstruction is to take needfulstep through imparting value oriented education. This will help children to behave themselves in the desirable way and direction, and to shape properly their life patterns by strengthening their beliefs and by integrating facts, ideas, attitudes and actions. This will help them in setting goals for their life and in achieving the goals through proper means. ORIENTING EDUCATION TO THE VALUES 1. One of the very basic purposes of value oriented education is to develop the moral autonomy among the learners and to sensitize them to value content of school and classroom activities, so, capacities for value judgment initialization are to be achieved by exposing students to variety of experiences and activities. This will include reading, listening and discussing, narrating and direct presentation of ideas

Senior Lecturer, Department of Education, Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur, 273009, UP, INDIA.

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by the teachers. A number of other strategies may also be applied for the purpose.These strategies should be used with any or all of the sources of value education given below; 2. Biographies Stories/ moral stories Extracts from essays, articles, classes and newspapers Parables, proverbs, quotations and poems Value/mind dilemma Classroom incidents/ anecdotes/conflicts.

Children should engage themselves in life related practical activities in schools like organizing campaigns on community sanitation, AIDS prevention awareness etc. which willpromote the application of principles and values in daily life. Under the rubric of practical activities a wide range of activities may be organized practically. All subjects of school curriculum need projects or practical work, so designed as to make learning relevant value oriented. A number of group oriented techniques of value based education like role playing and modeling can involve learners in activities and experience andmay best represent functions and problems of agents of socialization. Hammer the iron while it is hot, that is to identify the wrong or the right actions inside and outside the class room or in the group, either in a preplanned way or to observe by accident. The education system attempts to develop the capacities and skills of the pupils for valuing and setting value priorities. In the entire system of education, value oriented education will have to be an integral component of the emerging models of education. In the entire system, intellect and intuition, creativity, science and spirituality living and learning have to be promoted in a balanced manner. Value education will be effective onlyif there is a common objective of developing an integrated personality as a complete man and not only the objective of development of skills for building a career or of making best vocational choices.

3.

4. 5.

6.

INCULCATION OF VALUES Education is necessarily a process of valueinculcation among the learners so as to help them to lead a good, productive, self satisfying and cooperative community life in accordance with the cherished values of humanity and ideals of the society. Here the role of parents, teacher and role of political, religious leaders is of crucial importance. ROLE OF PARENTS Family is the first and the most important school where good habits and values are nurtured in a child. Therefore parents must ensure that desired and right values should be developed among children. School, being first formal agency of education, also has equally important role to play in inculcating desired values among children. Foundation laid in the formative years of childhood plays a significant role in determining the development of organized personality of child and in developing him as a good citizen. It is the family, where a child learns different human values such as loving, sharing, living together, discipline, faithfulness, sincerity, kindness etc. Parents and guardians should do following to inculcate values in children; Love and care the child to inculcate the feeling of love. Promote the feeling of love through toys. Promote the value of living together through sharedgames and other activities. Respect your elders to teach the value of respecting elders. Ask child to share things with others. Develop the feelings of kindness in a child through your kind actions. Tell your children the stories that promote different social and moral values among them.

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Promote tolerance through games and your tolerant behavior towards kids. To develop discipline and obedience among your children be obedient and disciplined in your family life. Promote honesty, sincerity and faithfulness through your actions. Create congenial environment at home for promotion of values.

ROLE OF TEACHERS A teacher can easily develop students into compassionate and useful citizen by inculcating values that our society has cherished. Therefore a teacher must have a commitment to the nation, society and students. It must be ensured that the least restrictive and right kind of environment is created in schools for inculcating values. Following steps ought to be taken to inculcate and strengthen values among students; Apply the strategies of learner centered and group activities like games, community work, and team work to develop discipline among students. Teach students the importance of unity through biographies, stories, moral stories, extracts from essays, articles, classes and newspapers, parables, proverbs, quotations and poems, classroom incidents, anecdotes and conflicts of individuals and groups. Deliver talk during the assembly on common fundamentals of all religions. Deliver talk on a selected value during the assembly on exemplary personalities from world history and different religions of the world. Each student should be given chance and encouraged at the same time to speak about himself or herself, about his or her liking and disliking, his or her friends, their strengths and weaknesses and on selected topics depicting particular value or values. Values such as compassion, helping at the time of need, mercy, forgiveness, tolerance, love, sharing, patriotism, responsibility, telling the truth, regularity and punctuality, dedication to commitments, faithfulness, cleanness etc. can be inculcated in students through self reporting, participating and cooperative within classroom and outside the class room group activities. Students must be encouraged to tell what good work did they do outside the school and such work must reflect values that are intended to be developed in students.

ROLE OF LEADERS FROM DIFFERENT WALKS OF LIFE Leaders and school administrators must adhere to inculcate and practice the values in their daily activities of life. They must feel responsibility as role models of society. They should honestly perform the assigned duties. Political leader always keep in mind the sacrifices done by our national leaders and freedom fighters for this nation. They must emulate the ideals of great nationalists like Gandhiji, Nehru, Sri Aurobido and Bose etc. Religious leader must emphasize on spiritualism and mental peace. They should use religion as a means of strengthening spirituality, social order, harmony and secular structure of the nationand religions must not be politicized. Policy makers and educational administrators shouldplay their role with honesty and forward look. They are expected to set good example so that desired emulation may take place among the children and youths. PRACTICE OFVALUES Non adherence to the morality and non practice of values in our day to day life are the root causes of all the evils of value deterioration and failure of our education in value orientation and value inculcation among the learners and common society. It is claimed that values can not be taught as chemistry and physics rather these are to be imbibed through its practice in all the spheres of daily life. Parents and teacher as well, need to be role models and to set examples, so that they can directly and indirectly transmit the values to the students just as a lightening lamp lights another lamps. Only an illuminated teacher can illumine the students because students learn values mainly from actual behavior of parents and teacher who live the values themselves. Good examples of morality and good deeds should be provided by social, religious and political role models to guide and inspire others to emulate and to follow the same for national reconstruction. The secret is to inspire and kindly the quest among the students by means of ones own example of c haracter and mastery of knowledge. It is embodying the values within ourselves so that we can radiate the values to our students. Values are to be loved, like any other discipline or course. We have to practice values in our daily life at home and society just like a scientist who

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practices his hypotheses in his laboratory. Swimming can not be taught merely through lectures and theoretical orientations. As a good swimming couch has to swim to teach swimming to his or her learners, similarly, a teacher of value should himself be apracticener, seeker and aspirant of human values. The imposition of moral values can not change the attitude of present generation until and unless these are intellectually accepted by them. Erosion of desirable values have taken place due to non- practice, emphasis on theoretical orientation, shifting and non clarification of values by role model. Models like parents, teachers and leaders are responsible to inculcate values in children and youth so they must practice these values first then inculcate the same in children and like this with value oriented education, their inculcation and practice, we can reconstruct the nation in new global era. Now we are more and more theory oriented and are lacking in desirable role models. There is a gap been and among our statements, thoughts and actions. This is action part of our social and personal life which is automatically emulated by the child. Numerous and veritable example of our dubious social and family life might be quoted here to prove that how much theory oriented we have become in adherence to values and unable to give desirable role models to follow. EFFECT OF SHIFTING OF VALUES Due to impact of westernization and multiculturism, western culture has become more emulative and our role models have become less emulative particularly due their non practice of values and so they are no more able to provide expected vale education on one hand and technological development and its excessive in daily life has resulted in some negative effects enlisted below; Excessive encouragement of individualism and increase in greed above and over the needs. Human life has become highly self-centered against social group life. Strong belief in following any means to reach the desired goals. Materialism has sidelined ethics and morality. No more importance to character. Competent professionals are selling their services to the highest bidder. Role models are unable to regulate the behavior of the youth. Higher education is now being viewed as a non material good and customer service. Privatization and liberalization have intensified inequality among masses in society. Valueless cut throat competition to gain accomplishment at any cost. Personal life is subordinated to professional obligations. None is supposed to have time for own family, children and social commitments. The most dangerous is the propagation of the belief that those who are not joining this cut throat competition and race for material accomplishments will technologically, economically and culturally be left behind.

NON CLEARIFICATION OF VALUES Due to non-clarification of values people are unable to process their beliefs, unable to behave according to their beliefs and are unable to make to select for them the more valuable alternate behaviour patterns whenever they are confronted with a value dilemma. Non-clarification of values is common not only among children and adults but also in role models like parents, teacher, leader and administrators due to lack of first hand practice of values in daily life and over theoretical orientation of value. Models that are elders need to introspect seriously over the issue of non-practicing the desired values because social system has become faulty due to their emulation by the followers and faulty learning taking place. When a system has become faulty, then it can only be corrected from top that is by role models. CAUSES OF NON CLEARIFICATION Following are the causes behind this non clarification of values; Prevalent identity confusion among masses regarding who I am or concept of self is not clear.

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Lack of adherence and practices of values in daily life. Default model presentations due to lack of sacrifice and immediate gratification. More belief in materialism and less emphasis on spiritualism and sacrifice.

Following is the way out to non clarification; Impart the knowledge of self so that self concept of can be clear and to enablethe learners to differentiate between God, soul and body and to understand their functions and linkage to each other. Modern as well as traditional values have to be examined, redefined, clarified and modified so that a desired change can take place. Accept and feel responsible for providing role models to follow. All this can be done bybuilding strong national character to follow and by inculcating the readinessfor sacrifice anything and everything for character and desired roles, orienting and inculcating values among youths and by practice practice and practice of values in daily life.

CONCLUSION With rapid technological development, prevailing terrorism, everlasting war between nations, hatred based on casts, creed, region, religion and colour of skin are the factors that indicate that erosion of ethical values has taken place. Western cultures are forcefully attracting our attention. Huge wealth but no peace, fast means of transpiration but no time to meet to the neighbouring sick fellow across the road, broader lanes and big houses but narrower view points, more logic but still full of prejudices is our national scenario of values. That is because there is urgent need of value education. Inculcation of moral values and their practices has become the prime need for reconstruction of the nation in the Global era so that peace of mind can be maintain, happiness can be fed and self-fulfillment can be achieved. Without inculcation of the moral values among the youths, the goal of national reconstruction in global era can not be achieved. REFERENCES Bhardwaj, I. (2003): Value Oriented Education, Journal of Value Education, New Delhi: NCERT, Vol. 3(1), pp.87-92. Pandey, R.S. (1990): SHIKSHA KE VIBHINNA AAYAM, Agra, VinodPustakMandir, p. 20. Singh, Balmiki Prasad. (2013): Ethics and Science: What Should One Learn? Souvenir- 87th AIU Annual General Body Meet of Vice-Chancellors, May 3-5, 2013, Gorakhpur; DDU Gorakhpur University, pp. 2328. Singh, Uday&SushmaTiwari, (2001): Value Restoration: Vision and Action, Indian Journal of Edul. Research, Lucknow; Indian Institute OfEducational Research, 20 (01), pp.101-106. Swati, SV. (2003): Enhancing Positive Mental Health through Value Inculcation, Journal of Value Education, New Delhi; NCERT, Vol. 3(1).

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SELF CONCEPT AND PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT OF THE LEARNING DISABLED STUDENTS OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS
Aseel Abdul Wahid1 and Dr. Mohamedunni Alias Musthafa 2 Abstract The parents play a critical role in the socialization and shaping of the personality of children. A number of studies have documented that children and adolescents who enjoy emotionally close relations with their parents better psychological health in adulthood. The investigator in his study has adopted and made use of a psychological variable, self-concept and parental involvement as independent variable which affect students academic performance. Parental involvement is a combination of commitment and active participation on the part of the parent to the school and to the student. Self-concept is a determinant of behavior and concise measure in personality. Psychologically, self-concept is the individuals way of looking himself. The above psychological variables is assumed as correlated in the study to measure the academic achievements of learning disabled secondary school students in integrated system of education INTRODUCTION For decades, parents interaction with children has been the major trust of investigation. Families are the critical agents in care, management and rehabilitation of individuals with learning disabilities. Parents, siblings, teachers and other significant members are increasingly being involved in training and rehabilitation of children with learning disabilities. Learning disability is a diverse, heterogeneous disorder that can affect different aspects of an individuals life like academic performance, motor perceptual functioning, so cial adaptation and so on. These problems are further compounded by the associate disorders like deficit in holding attention and hyperactivity. So parents play a critical role in the socialization and shaping of the personality of children. A number of studies have documented that children and adolescents who maintain emotionally close relationship with their parents will enjoy better mental health in adulthood. Thus parental involvement is an important factor which influences academic achievement. Therefore, every teacher should teach his lesson in consonant with the intellectual abilities of all type of children in the classroom. Similarly, to achieve better, the learner should know about himself- that is the self concept. Unless he knows himself, and understands his own strengths and weaknesses, he may not perform well. But in most of the schools it is observed that the children are compelled to take up certain tasks beyond their capacity to do them. Learners strengths and weaknesses are not being considered while assigning a task. Therefore, there is a need to bring about awareness among the learners about their lives. In order to realize this, teachers are advised to plan their instructional process with a sound background of the learners growth and development. Hence there exist a need to know the influence of parental involvement and self concept of learning disabled secondary school students on their academic achievement. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1. To assess the levels of self concept and parental involvement of learning disabled secondary schools. students of

2. To find out the significant difference of self concept based on gender, locale and management category. 3. To examine the significant difference of parental involvement based on gender, locale and management category. HYPOTHESES OF THE STUDY 1. The level of Self concept and parental involvement of learning disabled students is high. 2. There exists a significant difference in self concept of the learning disabled secondary school students based on gender, locale and management category. 3. There exists a significant difference in parental involvement of the learning disabled students of secondary schools based on gender, locale and management category.

1 2

Research Scholar, Karpagam University, Coimbatore Director, School of Distance Education, University of Calicut, Kerala.

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METHOD OF STUDY The methodology followed for the study is briefly described below: (i) Sample The sample for the study constitutes 210 learning disabled students selected from 73 secondary schools in various districts of the state of Kerala. The samples were selected under purposive random sampling technique giving due representation to sex, locale and type of management of the school. (ii) Tools Used The investigator used the following tools for measuring the variables under study. 1. The Self Concept Questionnaire prepared and standardized by Saraswath (1997). This scale is a five point Likert type scale containing 48 statements, which constitute six different dimensions; social, emotional, temperamental, educational, moral and intellectual. The questionnaire processes content validity and the reliability coefficient are found to be 0.91. Parental involvement scale is constructed and standardized by the investigator. The questionnaire consists of 80 statements which constitute nine different dimensions; parental acceptance, parental aspiration, parental attention, parental encouragement, parental guidance, parental influence, parental decision making, parental provision of physical facilities and parental care to physical fitness of child . The questionnaire processes face validity and the reliability coefficient are found to be 0.82.

2.

(iii) Statistical techniques used for the study To compare the mean scores with test value, one sample t-test is used and to compare mean scores between the groups independent sample t-test is used. Analysis and interpretation The average self concept and parental involvement score is calculated and it is compared with the standard score to assess the level of self concept and parental involvement of the learning disabled students, and it is presented in Table 1 and 2. Comparison of self concept and parental involvement score of the learning disabled students based on gender, locale and management category of the school has been done by using t-test. The details of the results are listed in Tables 3, 4 and 5. Table 1. Self Concept of the Learning Disabled Students for the Total Sample and Relevant Sub Samples Sample Total Boys Girls Rural Urban Government Private N 210 139 71 141 69 103 107 Mean 173.25 172.88 173.96 176.81 165.97 173.69 172.82 Standard Deviation 21.56 19.07 25.89 20.75 21.51 24.08 18.94 Test Value 144 144 144 144 144 144 144 t-value 19.655 17.857 9.748 18.772 8.487 12.515 15.742

The average self concept score of learning disabled students for the total sample is 173.25 with standard deviation 21.56. One sample t-test reveals that there exists significant difference in the mean self concept score of the learning disabled students, since the t-value (19.65)is greater than the table value 2.58 at 0.01 level of significance. Self concept of the learning disabled students is higher than the test value of the total sample and relevant sub samples, since the mean scores for the total sample and all the relevant sub samples is higher than the test value (144).

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Table 2. Parental Involvement of the Learning Disabled Students for the Total Sample and Relevant Sub Samples Sample Total Male Female Rural Urban Government Aided N 210 139 71 141 69 103 107 Mean 296.24 296.58 295.58 300.11 288.33 299.97 292.65 Standard Deviation 41.36 39.12 45.71 40.59 42.09 40.19 42.34 Test Value 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 t-value 19.71 17.53 10.24 17.59 9.54 15.15 12.86

The average parental involvement score of learning disabled students for the total sample is 296.24 with standard deviation 41.36. One sample t-test reveals that there exists significant difference in the mean parental involvement score of the learning disabled students, since the t-value (19.71) is greater than the table value 2.58 at 0.01 level of significance. Parental involvement of the learning disabled students is higher than the test value for the total sample and relevant subsamples, since the mean scores for the total sample and all the relevant sub samples are higher than the test value (240). Sex Difference The test of significance difference between mean scores of boys and girls for the variable self concept and parental involvement are conducted and the details are presented in Table 3. Table 3. Results of the Test of Significance of Difference between Mean Scores of Self Concept and Parental Involvement for Boys and Girls Components Self Concept Girls Boys Parental Involvement girls 71 295.58 45.71 71 139 173.96 296.58 25.89 39.12 0.158 Gender Boys N 139 Mean 172.88 Standard Deviation 19.07 0.303 t-value

Analysis reveals that the mean self-concept score of the boys is 172.88 and that of girls is 173.96 with standard deviations 19.07 and 25.89 respectively. The result reveals that there is no significant difference between boys and girls in their self concept; since the calculated t-value (0.303) is less than the table value (1.96) at 0.05 level of significance. The table also reveals that the mean parental involvement score of the boys is 296.58 and that of girls is 295.58 with standard deviations 39.12 and 45.71 respectively. The result reveals that there is no significant difference between boys and girls in their parental involvement; since the calculated t-value (0.158) is less than the table value (1.96) at 0.05 level of significance. Locale Difference The test of significance difference between mean scores of rural and urban students for the variable self concept and parental involvement are conducted and the details shown in Table 4.

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Table 4. Results of the Test of Significance of Difference between Mean Scores of Parental Involvement and Self Concept for Rural and Urban Components Locale Rural Self Concept Urban Rural Parental Involvement Urban 69 288.33 42.09 69 141 165.97 300.11 21.51 40.59 1.927 N 141 Mean 176.81 Standard Deviation 20.75 3.470 t-value

Analysis reveals that the mean self concept score of the rural students is 176.81 with standard deviation 20.75 and the mean self concept score of urban students is 165.97 with standard deviation 21.51. There exists a significant difference in self concept score between rural and urban students as the calculated t-value (3.47) is greater than table value 2.58 at 0.01 level of significance. Self concept score of the rural students is higher than that of urban students. The table also discloses that the mean parental involvement score of the rural students is 300.11 and that of urban students is 288.33 with standard deviations 40.59 and 42.09 respectively. The result reveals that there is no significant difference between rural and urban students in their parental involvement; since the calculated t-value (1.927) is less than the table value (1.96) at 0.05 level of significance. Management Difference The test of significance difference between mean scores of government and privately managed students for the variable self concept and parental involvement are conducted and the details are drawn up in Table 5. Table 5. Results of the Test of Significance of Difference between Mean Scores of Self Concept and Parental Involvement for Government and Private Components Management Government Self Concept Private Government Parental Involvement Private 107 292.65 42.34 107 103 172.82 299.97 18.94 40.19 1.285 N 103 Mean 173.69 Standard Deviation 24.08 0.289 t-value

Analysis reveals that the mean self concept score of the government students is 173.69 and that of private students is 172.82 with standard deviations 24.08 and 18.94 respectively. The result reveals that there is no significant difference between government and private students in their self concept; since the calculated tvalue (0.289) is less than the table value (1.96) at 0.05 level of significance. The table also reveals that the mean parental involvement score of the government students is 299.97 and that of private students is 292.65 with standard deviations 40.19 and 42.34 respectively. The result reveals that there is no significant difference between government and private students in their parental involvement; since the calculated t-value (1.285) is less than the table value (1.96) at 0.05 level of significance.

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MAJOR FINDINGS The level of the self concept score of the learning disabled students is high when compared to the test value. The level of the parental involvement score of the learning disabled students is high when compared to the test value. There is no significant difference between boys and girls of learning disabled students in their self concept. There is no significant difference between boys and girls of learning disabled students in their parental involvement. There exists a significant difference between rural and urban students of learning disabled in their selfconcept. The self concept of the students of rural areas is higher than that of students of urban areas. There is no significant difference between rural and urban students of learning disabled in their parental involvement. There is no significant difference between government and privately managed learning disabled students in their self concept. There is no significant difference between government and privately managed learning disabled students in their parental involvement CONCLUSION It is concluded that the students with better self concept and parental involvement will definitely achieve the top. The outcome of learning; ie, the overall achievement of students is certainly influenced by psychological factors like self concept and parental involvement. REFERENCES Agarwal, R. (1994). The relationship between sex and general self concept in grade IX students, Bharatiya Shiksha Shodh Patrika, 13920, 17-22. Aggarwal, J.C. (1996). Educational Research: An Introduction New Delhi: Agra Book Depot. Deslandes & Rolland (2000). Direction of influence between parenting style and parental involvement in schooling practices and students autonomy. (ERIC Document Reproductive Service, No.ED.441586) Fisher, R.A (1950). Statistical methods for research workers New York: Oliver and Boyd. Nielsen, M. Elizabeth and Susan Mortorff Albert (1989). The effects of special education serv ice on the self concept and school attitude of learning disabled/gifted students. Roeper Review, XII (1). 29-36. Shivakumar (2006). A study on self concept among institutionalized and normal school children. EdutrackJanuary 2006, Vol5, No.5.

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EXPLORING PERSPECTIVES OF SCIENTIFIC LITERACY: AN OVERVIEW


Dr. Animesh K. Mohapatra1 Abstract The late 20th century and beginning of 21st century have witnessed unprecedented rapid economic development due to advances in technology and globalization. In response to this development, educationists and political leaders worldwide are increasingly placing emphasis on developing scientific literacy. This also is the case in India with science education influenced by educational reform, in which the goals of science education are shaped by the notion of scientific literacy. Indian science education emphasizes scientific knowledge, the nature of science, and relationship between science, technology and society. This paper sets out to provide an overview of the meaning of scientific literacy and the trend towards relating scientific literacy to skills and values appropriate for responsible citizen. The emphasis on enhancing scientific literacy is placed through the development of personal attributes and the acquisition of socio-scientific skills and values. Furthermore perspective of components like relevance, teaching approach and rationales for improving scientific literacy is presented. Scientific literacy is best achieved by see ing science education as education through science as opposed to science through education. Key words: scientific literacy, conceptualization, relevance, rationales, socio-scientific issues, multidimensional. INTRODUCTION Since the first use of the term scientific literacy in the late 1950s, science educationists and policy makers have gradually reconceptualised the term to such an extent that one author remarked relatively recently that scientific literacy is an ill-defined and diffuse concept (Laugksch, 2000). Despite this perceived imprecision, scientific literacy appears to underpin the curriculum standards of many countries. Many authors world wide argue that a key goal of science education is scientific literacy (Laugksch, 2000; Coll and Taylor, 2009). The usual reason proffered is the increasing impact of science and technology on everyday life. Science now impacts on virtually every citizen in some way and many scientific issues are now highly political in nature (Gauld, 2005). The term scientific literacy has been used in the literature for more than four decades (Gallgher and Harsch, 1997), although not always with the same meaning (Baybee, 1997). It consists of the knowledge and understanding of the scientific concepts and processes required for personal decision making, participation in civic and cultural affairs and economic productivity. Baybee (2008) stated that the spirit of the reforms has transcended national and geographical boundaries, promoting scientific literacy as a major goal and outcome of science education in various countries around the world, one that is essential to full participation of citizens. Current definitions of scientific literacy place individuals on a continuum that ranges from less developed to more developed scientific literacy (Baybee, 1997; Koballa, Kemp and Evans, 1997). These definitions propose four dimensions of scientific literacy: nominal, functional, conceptual, procedural and multidimensional (Dani, 2009). So, for example, an individual with a less developed scientific literacy is able to recall scientific information and classify knowledge as scientific. An individual with the higher level of scientific literacy understands the history and nature of science, the relationship of science to other disciplines and the interrelationship of science, technology and society (Dani, 2009). What Do We Mean By Scientific Literacy? Many definitions have been put forward for scientific literacy since Paul deHard Hurd used the term in 1958 (Hurd, 1958; American Association for the Advancement of Science [AAAS],1989; Bybee, 1997; Holbrook and Rannikmae, 1997; Laugksch, 2000; Graber etal. 2001; Organization for Economic Corporation and Development [OECD], 2003; 2007). There is confusion as to its exact meaning; Norris and Philips (2003) contend that the term scientific literacy has been used to include various components from the following: (a) (b) (c) Knowledge of the substantive content of science and the ability to distinguish from non-science; Understanding science and its applications; Knowledge of what counts as science;

Department of Life Science, Regional Institute of Education, Bhubaneswar-751022, Odisha.

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(d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k)

Independence in learning science; Ability to think scientifically; Ability to use scientific knowledge in problem solving; Knowledge needed for intelligent participation in science based issues; Understanding the nature of science, including its relationship with culture; Appreciation of and comfort with science, including its wonder and curiosity; Knowledge of the risks and benefits of science, and Ability to think critically about science and to deal with scientific expertise.

The confusion as to a precise meaning has led to a call to remove such a term as a goal for school science education (Fensham, 2008). Holbrook and Rannikmae (2009) suggested that retaining the use of scientific literacy is still appropriate, but it is necessary to relate scientific literacy to an appreciation of the nature of science, personal learning attributes including attitudes and also to the development of social values (Holbrook and Rannikmae, 2007). For this, relevance of the learning plays a role and teaching material, striving towards students enhancement of science literacy, need to consider a societal frame, introduction of conceptual science on a need to know basic and embrace the socio-scientific situation that provides the relevance for responsible citizenship (Holbrook, 2008). It is extremely difficult to give clarity of meaning to either the term scientific literacy or scientific and technological literacy (a term used in recognition of the relationship between science and technology in everyday life). A forum on scientific and technological literacy for all (UNESCO, 1993) suggested the French term as la culture scientifique et tecnologique, a translation that clearly reflects the cultural intention and paints the way towards recognizing that a person who is scientifically and technologically literate is a person who can function within society as a whole, rather than simply as a scientist in the workplace. A scientifically and technologically literate person needs intellectual capability along with other important attributes (NSTA, 1991). The components are (Holbrook and Rannikmae, 2009): Intellectual (Higher Order Thinking Skills- HOTS) 1. uses concept of science and technology, as well as an informed reflection of ethical values, in solving everyday problems and making responsible decision in everyday life; 2. locates, collects, analyses and evaluates sources of scientific and technological information and uses these sources in solving problems, making decision and taking actions; 3. distinguishes between scientific and technological evidence and personal opinion and between reliable and unreliable information; 4. offers explanation of natural phenomenon testable for its validity; 5. applies skepticism, careful methods, logical reasoning and creativity in investigating the observable universe; 6. defends decisions and actions using rational arguments based on evidence; and 7. analyses interactions among science, technology and society. Attitudinal 8. displays curiosity about the natural and human made world; 9. values scientific research and technological problem solving; 10. remains open to new evidence and the tentativeness of scientific/technological knowledge; and 11. engages in science/technology for excitement and possible explanation. Societal 12. recognizes that science and technology are human endeavors; 13. weighs the benefits/burdens of scientific and technological developments; 14. recognizes the strengths and limitations of science and technology for advancing human welfare; and 15. engages in responsible personal and civic actions after weighing the possible consequences of attractive options. Interdisciplinary 16. connects science and technology to other human endeavors e.g. history, mathematics, the arts and the humanities; and 17. considers the political, economic, moral and ethical aspects of science and technology as they relate to personal and global issues. However, there are many who see scientific literacy aligned with knowing science, limited to the intellectual component expressed above. Miller (1997), in suggesting that civic scientific literacy considered as the level of understanding of science and technology needed to function as a citizen is important, put forward

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data to suggest that the amount of basic school science is the strongest predictor of civic scientific literacy in adults. VIEWS ABOUT SCIENTIFIC LITERACY There are two major views or camps regarding the meaning of scientific literacy: (a) (b) Those that advocate a central role for the knowledge of science; and Those who see scientific literacy referring to a society usefulness.

The first view seems to be very prevalent among science teachers today. It builds on the notion that there are fundamental ideas in science that are essential that is there is content of science which is a crucial component of scientific literacy. Maienshein (1998) described it as a short term view of knowing science and labeled it as science literacy. The second view encompasses the longer term view and sees scientific literacy as a requirement to be able to adapt to the challenges of a rapidly changing world. This focus sees scientific literacy align with the development of life skills (Rychen and Salganic, 2003). It recognizes the need for reasoning skills in a social context, and above all, this view recognizes that scientific literacy is for all, having little to do with science teaching solely focusing on a career in science, or providing only an academic science background for specialization in science. Between these two views, Graber et al (2001) see a continuum of view that stretch between the two extremes of subject competence and meta-competence. Whereas Bybee (1997) proposed a comprehensive hierarchical model still very much driven by the discipline of science, a more central position can be taken in which subject competence is important, but is propagated by general competence within education. A further intermediary view of scientific literacy sees the general aim as being oriented towards societal requirements, to learn how to deal with social issues and to make rationally founded decisions (Holbrook and Rannikmae, 2009).

What do people know?


-Subject competence -Epistemological competence
Scientific literacy

What do people value?

-Ethical competence

-Learning competence -Social competence -Procedural competence - Communicative competence

What can people do?


Figure 1.The Graber Model for Scientific Literacy The Graber model for scientific literacy (2001) is put competency based (Figure 1). The model reconsiders the balance between the various competencies and reflects on the specific contribution science education can make to the education of adults. This view upholds the need for scientific literacy to be far more than knowledge and integrates the components of value education as an essential component of science education (and although only an ethical component is mentioned, it can be seen to interrelate with human rights, tolerance, education for peace, gender equity and the place of indigenous technologies). But it contrasts, perhaps, with ideas that point to a need for education and especially science education to play a strong role in the development of responsible citizens. In this area, scientific literacy would need to encompass socio-scientific

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decision making skills (UNESCO, 1993; Holbrook, 1998; Holbrook and Rannikmae, 2007) as an area above and beyond scientific problem solving. Roberts (2007) identified two visions for generating conceptions of scientific literacy: vision I and vision II. Vision I, according to Roberts, looks inward at science itself - its products such as laws and theories, and its processes such as hypothesizing and experimenting. Whereas vision II looks outward at situations in which science has a role, such as decision making about socio-scientific issues. TRENDS AND DIMENSIONS OF SCIENTIFIC LITERACY Holbrook and Rannikmae (2009) in their paper opined that the trend in defining scientific literacy is suggested as away from the short term product approach, in which the facts and skills are paramount towards the inclusion of the issue-based teaching, the need to go beyond scientific problem solving to encompass socioscientific decision making and the recognition that scientific literacy relates to enabling citizens to effectively participate in the real world. The trend indicates a movement that gives less attention to scientific literacy being viewed as the possession of conceptual understanding of pure science (abstract) ideas and emphasizes more the ability to make decision related to the technological applications of scientific ideas or socio-scientific issues facing society, these being recognized as crucial learning components. The shift towards the long term view of scientific literacy does not mean that it is a single entity. At the school level, Bybee (1997) has suggested scientific literacy can be considered at four functional levels: Nominal (can recognize scientific terms, but does not have a clear understanding of meaning); Functional (can use scientific and technological vocabulary, but usually this is only out of context as is the case for example in a school test of examination); Conceptual and procedural (demonstrates understanding and a relationship between concepts and can use process with meaning ); and Multidimensional (not only has understanding, but has developed perspective of science and technology that include the nature of science, the role of science and technology in personal life and society). It is clear that only the multidimensional level is the goal for the long term view of scientific literacy, and this is recognized by Bybee. While this breakdown of scientific literacy is perhaps meaningful for school purposes, it may be less applicable to adult life. Shamos (1995) suggests scientific literacy can be subdivided as cultural, functional and true, where the 3 levels are seen as increasing in sophistication. (a) Cultural literacy refers to the factual information needed to read news papers or magazines and involves rote recall rather than an understanding of scientific items. It has the unfortunate connotation that adults operating at this level often assume they are literate in science. (b) Functional literacy relates to some understanding of science ideas and adults at this level can engage in meaningful conversation about scientific issues, although the discussion tends to largely draw on recall with some understanding; and (c) True science literacy involves knowing about the theories of science. At this level, adults are aware of some major conceptual schemes that form the foundation of science, the role of experimentation in science, element of investigation and the logical thought processes, plus the importance of relevance on objective evidence. Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) determined three dimensions of scientific literacy (OECD, 2007). First, scientific concepts, which are needed to understand certain phenomenon of the natural world and the changes made to it through human activity. The main content of the assessment is selected from within three broad areas of applications : science in life and health; science of the earth and the environment and science in technology. Second, scientific processes, which are centered on the ability to acquire, interpret and act upon evidence. Five such processes that are present in PISA relate to : the recognition of scientific question the identification of evidence the drawing of conclusions the communication of these conclusions the demonstration of understanding of science concepts. Third, scientific situation, selected mainly from peoples everyday lives rather than from the practice of science in a school classroom or laboratory, or work of professional scientists.

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CONCEPTUALIZATION OF SCIENTIFIC LITERACY Laohaphaibool (1992) argues that science teaching should not only provide pure science concepts, but also consider the relationship between science, technology and society. This way of science teaching could enhance students scientific literacy, he suggests. To provide science teachers with ideas for teaching of scientific literacy, he produced a pyramid analog (Figure 2). Here an individuals intellectual development is a triangle that forms the base of a pyramid. In order to form the pyramid, a triangle is placed at the base of pyramid, and requires three other triangles to make up scientific literacy. These three triangles include: 1. 2. 3. understanding of the environment, thinking processes and reasoning to investigate knowledge about those environment, and scientific habit of mind

Scientific Literacy Thinking process and reasoning to investigate knowledge


Habits of mind

Understanding of the environment

Intellectual development
Figure 2. Analogy of Scientific Literacy According to Laohaphaibool (1992) Kositchaiwat (1992) defined scientific literacy as desirable characteristics people held about basic scientific knowledge and skills, and this consisted of 5 factors. These factors are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. understanding of nature of scientific knowledge ; understanding of scientific concepts, laws and principles; skills for investigating knowledge; scientific knowledge; awareness of the relationship between science and technology that influences society.

Verawaiteeya (1996) argued that scientific literacy would be the new standard of science learning in the 21 st century. Scientific literacy she sees as scientific knowledge and process skill at the level of application for surviving within the influence of society, economy and culture. People, who hold scientific knowledge and process skills, are able to explain phenomena and find reasonable solution to various problems. According to Sawatmul (2002), the application of the scientific knowledge has to be in accordance with the respective social, economic, and cultural surrounding. The vision and goal of science education not only conceptualizes scientific literacy, but also consider the impact this should have on school science teaching. The Institute for the Promotion of the Teaching science and Technology (IPST) (2002) stipulates the goals of science education for scientific literacy to be the following: understand the principles and theories of scientific knowledge; understand the scope, limitation and the nature of science; engage in science process skills, scientific inquiry and investigation in science and technology; develop thinking skills and the capability for problem solving, communication skill and decision making; be aware of interrelationship between science, technology, society, humans and the environment; apply science and technology for the survival of the society; and be aware of the habits and mind, ethics, moral and values in science and technology.

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Relevance The relevance of school science is important for the enhancement of scientific literacy (Holbrook and Rannikmae, 2009). Relevance has been interpreted as importance, usefulness or meaningfulness to the need of the student (Levit, 2001). A more personal interpretation of relevance put forward by Keller (1983) defines relevance as a student perception of whether the content or instruction satisfied his/her personal needs, personal goals and career goals. These visions suggest that relevance influences motivation and in particular intrinsic motivation. Furthermore, a number of science educational literature studies have also equated relevance with students interest (Mathews, 2004; Ramsden, 1998). Relevance is seen as the key to raising students int erest by making it more useful in the eyes of students (Zarour, 2001). The relevance of science education in the eyes of students is multidimensional and depends on several components (Teppo and Rannikmae, 2008). Van Aalsvoort (2004), in reviewing the literature, concludes that there are four aspects of relevance related to the study of science in school: 1. 2. 3. 4. Personal relevance science lessons needs to be relevant from a students perspective Professional relevance science lessons need to give insights into possible professions. Social relevance provide insights into role of science in human and social issues. Personal/social - science lessons need to help students develop into responsible citizens.

Holbrook and Rannikmae (2009) expressed that from a teaching perspective; however, these components of relevance can be divided into two major areas. From one perspective, relevance can be associated with the initial impact of the learning on the students, that is, trying to justify the answer o f the question why study this? (Personal relevance). In this way relevance is a perception by the student. It is the perception of usefulness, meaningfulness, being helpful, needfulness and importance of area of learning. And it is a perception before the learning start to take place. It is thus viewed very much from the perspective of whether the learning will meet the need perceived by the student. This perspective suggests relevance cant avoid interest (individual interest and situational interest - Krapp, 2002) and leads towards emphasizing the relevance in an appropriate and an appropriately addressed, topic for teaching. The second meaning of relevance leads to satisfying a need. It is sufficiently motivationally promoted that the student participates in the learning and if other factors promoting motivation also function well, the students want to, and do learn. Here motivation drives relevance by the science teaching satisfying student learning needs. Such relevance may be dependent on the classroom situation, the comprehensibility of the science and how the learning might help with a career or further studies. This relevance might be called the relevance of the projected subject matter (Holbrook and Rannikmae, 2009). TEACHING APPROACH FOR DEVELOPING SCIENTIFIC LITERACY The science curriculum for primary, elementary, secondary and senior secondary in India outlines what students have to know and be able to do in science, and provides teaching programs and assessment policies. One implication to arise from the examination of these documents is that science education must aim to enhance students capability and interest in science, and a desire to search for knowledge so that they can learn continually at any time and any place throughout their lives (NCF, 2005). National curriculum Frame works (2000, 2005) have mentioned that the 21 st century citizens will have to acquire the basics of scientific and technological literacy. The learners have to understand how basic scientific principles are applied in finding solutions to problems in the field of agriculture, weather, energy, health and nutrition, industry, defense, information processing and other areas of human concern. It would help them to discover the relationship between science and technology, between science and technology in these areas besides acquiring problem solving and decision making skills. We can regard good science education as one that is true to the child, true to life and true to science. This observation naturally leads to some basic criteria for validating science curriculum, as suggested in NCF, 2005 below: (a) Cognitive validity requires that the content process, language and pedagogical practices of the curriculum are age appropriate, and within the cognitive reach of child. (b) Content validity requires that curriculum must convey significant and scientifically correct content. (c) Process validity requires that the curriculum engage the learner in acquiring the methods and processes that lead to generation and validation of scientific knowledge, and nature and natural curiosity and creativity of the child. (d) Historical validity requires that science curriculum be informed by a historical perspective, enabling the learner to appreciate how the concepts of science evolve with time.

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(e) Environmental validity requires that science be placed in the wider context of the learners environment, local and global, enabling him/her to appreciate the issues at the interface of science, technology and society and preparing him/her with the requisite knowledge and skills to enter the world of work. (f) Ethical validity requires that the curriculum promote the values of honesty, objectivity, co-operation, freedom from fear and prejudice and develop in the learner a concern for life and preservation of environment. Science operates through its processes, consequently, teaching and learning of science needs to be characterized by focused emphasis on processes, i.e. experimentation, taking observations, collection of data, classification, analysis, making hypothesis, drawing inferences and arriving at conclusions for the objective truth. The process skills so acquired would help in developing attributes and values that constitute the spirit of scientific temper. Holbrook and Rannikmae (2007) stated that if it is appropriate to suggest that knowledge is not fundamental to the idea of scientific literacy, then the basic of scientific literacy can be considered, in general, as the nature of science, personal attributes and social development (Figure 3).

Nature of science

Personal development attribute Nature of science education

Social development attribute

Figure 3. The Three Domains which Comprise the Nature of Science Education This is proposed as a major change of focus of classroom implementation and also for the assessment of the students achievements in the discipline of science education. It suggests the teaching of science subjects through this educational structure, not simply through science content. Furthermore such a structure forms the focus for the enrichment of scientific literacy through formal schooling. As such science content, as a specific identify rather than giving meaning to the context, has little direct relationship with scientific literacy. The teaching trust for this form scientific literacy has been described as education through science and contrasted with science through education (Holbrook and Rannikmae, 2007) (Table 1). Table 1. A Comparison of Similarities and Difference in Emphases between Science through Education and the Alternative Education through Science (Holbrook & Rannikmae, 2007) Science through education Learn fundamental science knowledge, concepts, theories and laws. Undertake the processes of science through inquiry learning as part of the development of learning to be a scientist. Gain an appreciation of the nature of science from a scientists point of view. Undertake practical work and appreciates the work of scientists. Education through science Learn the science knowledge and concepts important for understanding and handling socio-scientific issues within society. Undertake investigatory scientific problem solving to better understand the science background related to socio-scientific issues within society. Gain an appreciation of the nature of science from a societal point of view. Develop personal skills related to creativity, initiative, safe working etc.

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Develop positive attitude towards science and scientists. Acquire communication skills related to oral, written and symbolic/tabular/graphical formats as part of systematic science learning.

Develop positive attitude towards science as a major factor in the development of society and scientific endeavor. Acquire communication skills related to oral, written and symbolic/tabular/graphical formats to better express scientific ideas in a social context. Undertake social-scientific decision making related to issues arising from the society.

Apply the use of science to society and appreciate ethical issues faced by scientists. Rationales for Promoting Scientific Literacy

Develop social values related to becoming a responsible citizen and undertaking science related careers.

There are several rationales for moving towards scientific literacy as a fundamental goal of science education. Laugksch (2000) groups the common arguments into two categories in which he labels macro and micro. One macro-argument is that national wealth depends upon competing successfully in international markets and that to compete, a nation must have a strong research and development base. Taking the assumption one step further, a steady stream of home-grown scientists is therefore essential to keep the research and development base strong. Laugksch also identifies another macro level argument for scientific literacy which is that the more the public understand how science works and what it can do for them, the more likely they are to support scientific and technological endeavors. On the other hand, micro level arguments focus on the benefits of scientific literacy to the individuals. To some extent the micro-level benefits are consequences of the macro-level benefits. The micro-level benefits might include increased economic prosperity and job opportunities, wiser health decisions, increased confidence in science and technology and reduce personal risk. REFERENCES American Association for the Advancement of Science, (1989).science for all Americans: A project 2061 report on literacy goals in science, mathematics and technology, Washington, DC: AAAS. Bybee, R. (1997). Achieving scientific literacy. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Bybee, R. (2008). Scientific literacy, environmental issues, and PISA2006: F-Brandwein Lecture. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 17, 566-585. The Paul

Coll, R. K., and Taylor, N. (2009). Exploring international perspectives of scientific literacy: An overview of the special issue. International Journal of Environment and Science Education. 4 (3), 197-200. Dani, D. (2009). Special issue on scientific literacy. International Journal of Environment and Science Education. 4(3), 289-299. Fensham, P. (2008). Science education policy-making. Paris: UNESCO. Gallagher, P., & Harsch, G. (1997). Scientific literacy: Science education and secondary school students. In W.Graeber & C.Bolte. (Eds.). Scientific literacy: An international symposium (p. 13-34).Institute fur dies Padagogik der Naturwissenschaften (IPN): Kiel, Germany. Gauld, C.F. (2005). Habits of mind, scholarship and decision making in science and religion. Science and Education, 14, 291-308. Grabber, W., Erdmann, T., & Schlieker, V. (2001). parCIS: Partnership between Chemical Industry and Schools. Accessed November 2008 from http://www.ipn.unikiel.de/_chik_symposium/sites/pdf/graeber.pdf. Holbrook, J. (1998). Operationalising scientific and technological literacy: Anew approach to science teaching. Science Education International, 9(2), 15-19. Holbrook, J. (2008). Introduction to the special issue of Science Education International Devoted to PARSEL, Science Education International, 19(3), 257-266.

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Holbrook, J., & Rannikmae, M. (1997). Supplementary teaching materials promoting scientific and technological literacy. Tartu, Estonia: ICASE (International Council of Association for Science Education). Holbrook, J., & Rannikmae, M. (2007). Nature of science education for enhancing scientificliteracy. Science Education International, 29(11), 1347-1362. Holbrook, J. & Rannikmae, M. (2009). The Meaning of Environment and Science Education. 4(3), 275-288. Scientific Literacy. . International Journal of

Hurd, P.D. (1958). Science literacy: Its meaning for American schools. Educational Leadership, 16(1), 13-16. Institute for the Promotion of Teaching Science and Technology, (2002). The manual of content of science learning. Bangkok: Curusaphaladphoa. Keller, J.M. (1983). Motivational design of instruction. In C.M Reigeluth (Ed.). Instructional design theories: An overview of their current status. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Koballa, Kemp & Evans, (1997). The spectrum of scientific literacy: An in-depth look at what it means to be scientifically literate. The Science Teacher, 64(7), 27-31. Kositchaiwat, S. (1992). Scientific literacy of students in lower secondary schools, group of school under the auspices of General education Department, Bangkok Metropolis, Group 2.Unpublished masters of education thesis, Kasetsart University. Krapp, A. (2002). Structural and dynamic aspects of interest development: theoreticalconsiderations from an ontogenetic perspective. Learning and Instruction, 12, 383-409. Laohaphaibool, P. (1992). Science teaching in secondary science classroom.Bangkok: Thaiwattanapanit. Laugksch, R.C. (2000). Scientific literacy: A conceptual overview. Science Education, 84(10), 71-94. Levitt, K.E. (2001). An analysis of elementary teacher s beliefs regarding the teaching and learning of science. Science Education, 86(1), 1-22. Maienschein, J. (1998). Scientific literacy. Science, 281, 917. Mathew, B. (2004). Promoting emotional literacy, equity and interest in science lesions for 11-14 years olds; the Improving Science and emotional Development project. International journal of science Education, 26(3), 281-308. Millar, J.D. (1997). Civic scientific literacy in the United States: A developmental analysis from middle school through adulthood. In: W. Graeber & C. Bolte (Eds.), Scientific literacy: Aninternational symposium (p. 121-142). Institute fur Padagogik der Naturwissenschaften (IPN): Kiel, Germany. Norris, S.P., & Phillips, L.M. (2003). How literacy in its fundamental sense is central to scientific literacy. science Education, 87,224-240. National Curriculum Framework for School Education (2000). Science and Technology, NCERT, New Delhi, 58-59. National Curriculum Framework (2005). Position paper. National Focus Group on Teaching of Science, NCERT, New Delhi, 2-3. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, (2003). The PISA 2003 assessmentframework. Retrieved November 2008 from: http://www.pisa.oecd.org/dataoecd/46/14/33694881.pdf. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, (2007). Assessing scientific, readingand mathematical literacy: A framework for PISA 2006. Retrieved November 2008 from http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/63/35/37464175.pdf. Ramsden, J.M. (1998). Mission impossible? Can anything be done about attitudes to science? International journal of Science Education, 20(2), 125-137. Roberts, D.A. (2007). Scientific literacy/Science literacy. In S.K.Abell & N.G. Lederman (Eds.), Handbook of research in science education (p. 729-780). Mathwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

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Rychen D.S. & Salganik, L.H. (2003). Key competencies for a successful life and a well functioning society. Cambridge, MA: Hogrefe & Huber. Sawatmul, S. (2002). A study of the characteristics of scientific literacy. Unpublished masters of education thesis, Khon Kaen University. Shamos, M.H. (1995). The myth of scientific literacy. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UniversityPress. Teppo, M., & Rannikmae, M. (2008). Paradigm shift for teachers: More relevant scienceteaching. In J.Holbrook, M. Rannikmae, P. Reiska & P. Isley (Eds.), The need forparadigm shift in science education for postsoviet societies (pp. 25-46). Germany: Peter Lang. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, (1993). Final Report: International forum on scientific and technological literacy for all. Paris: UNESCO. Van Alsovoort, J. (2004). Logical positivism as a tool to analyze the problem of chemistrys lack of relevance in secondary school chemical education. International journal of Science Education, 26 (9), 1151-1168. Verawaiteeya, Y. (1996). Standard of Science learning in the 21 st century. Journal of Education, Kasetsart University, 11(3), 51-23. Zarour, G.I. (2001). Relevant Teaching: Incorporating Curriculum, Teaching Approaches andAssessment Aspects. In N. Valanides (Ed.), Science and technology Education: Preparing Future Citizens. Proceeding of the IOSTE symposium in southern Europe (p. 3-12). Paralimni, Cyprus: International Organization of Technology Educators(IOSTE).

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EFFECT OF ARGUMENT MAPPING TECHNIQUE ON ACHIEVEMENT IN PHYSICS OF STUDENTS AT SECONDARY LEVEL


Mrs. Rajasree S.1 and Mrs. Rakhy Radhakrishnan2 Abstract Learning is an internal process which takes place in the mind of a child. Argument mapping (AM) is a method of visually diagramming arguments using a 'box and arrow' format with the aim of simplifying the reading of an argument structure and facilitating the assimilation of core statements and relations. The overall aim of the current programme of research was to evaluate the use of AM as a learning tool. The main objective of the present study was to find out the effectiveness of Argument mapping technique on achievement in Physics of secondary school students. Another objective was to compare the effect of Argument Mapping technique and Activity Oriented Method on the level of Reasoning Ability. A sample of 90 Standard IX students from the schools of Pathanamthitta district was selected for the study. It was found that Argument Mapping technique is more effective than Activity Oriented Method on the total achievement in Physics of secondary school students. Also, the study revealed that the level of Reasoning Ability of secondary school students taught through Argument Mapping technique was significantly higher than that of the students taught through Activity Oriented Method after intervention. Thus it can be concluded that teachers should provide instructions to take students through a sequence of learning experiences that takes account of students pre existing notions and gradually expands and hones those ideas until they are useful for analyzing situations and thus develop a deeper understanding of Physics concepts and principles. Key words: Physics, Argument Mapping, Activity Oriented Method, Experimental Group, Control Group, Achievement, Reasoning. INTRODUCTION It had always been necessary to read a mountain of books, take folders of notes and try to form a mental picture of the matter. The latter is what, at the end of the day, we try to do with any argument we enter into. This is why argument mapping is a breakthrough. - Monk (2001, p.3) Psychology has long influenced our thinking about teaching and learning. Both cognitive and educational psychology are at the forefront of this influence given that the relationship between the success of teaching and learning is dependent upon students cognitive processing in educational settings (Rom iszowski, 1981; Sweller, 1999; 2010). In order for students in school or university to achieve their academic requirements, it is both important and often necessary for them to use different cognitive processes to acquire knowledge from a range of sources, including textbooks, didactic instruction, class notes, and websites. An important goal for teachers, therefore, must be to aid students in their acquisition of knowledge. Such aid, for example, the use of teaching strategies that help to improve students memory (Sweller, 1999) and comprehension (Meyer, Brandt & Bluth, 1980) can be supplied through. At the same time, it is often argued that higher-order forms of thought, including critical thinking and metacognitive self-regulation of thinking and learning processes, need to be cultivated in the classroom to facilitate both the acquisition and application of knowledge (Folsom-Kovarik et al., 2010; Huffaker & Calvert, 2003; U.S. National Research Council, 2002). Bloom (1956) describes a hierarchy of learning objectives in this context, where teachers and students seek to develop their memory, comprehension, analysis, synthesis and evaluation skills. Designing and evaluating educational tools and strategies that facilitate the teaching and learning of skills that map onto this hierarchy of learning objectives is an area of research and development where educational and cognitive psychologists can continue to work together with teachers and students to advance our collective knowledge. The research presented in the current study seeks to advance our understanding of the utility of one increasingly popular educational tool - argument mapping. Argumentation is a verbal and social activity of reason aimed at increasing (or decreasing) the acceptability of a controversial standpointby putting forward a constellation of propositions intended to justify
1 2

Research Scholar, School of Pedagogical Sciences, M.G. University, Kottayam. Research Scholar, School of Pedagogical Sciences, M.G. University, Kottayam.

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(or refute) the standpoint (van Eemeren et al., 1996, p. 5). In argumentation, one must work with some form of representation of the argument, in order to identify, analyse and evaluate the logical relationships amongst propositions within the argument (Walton, 2006). This idea of representing the logical relationships amongst propositions within argumentation was presented by Stephen Toulmin in his influential book, The Uses of Argument (1958). What is an Argument Map? All arguments share the characteristics of being composed of a network of propositions, prose-based or otherwise, that are structured via logical, inferential relationships. An argument map is a visual representation of that logically structured network of reasoning, in which the argument (often extracted from text) is made unambiguous and explicit (i.e. with no need for attention switching from paragraph to paragraph or from page to page in a linear text, in search for reasons and objections to the central claim around which the argument map is constructed). The argument map uses a box and arrow design in which the boxes represent propositions (i.e. the central claim, reasons, objections and rebuttals) and the arrows among propositions indicate the inferential relationships linking the propositions together. Thus, the provision of an arrow between two propositions indicates that one is evidence for or against another. Similarly, colour can be used in an argument map to distinguish evidence for a claim from evidence against a claim. More generally, a good argument map is designed in such a way that if one proposition is evidence for another, the two will be appropriately juxtaposed and the link explained via a relational cue, such as because, but and however. Modern argument mapping software, such as Rationale (van Gelder, 2007), allows for the creation of ones own argument map, by means of typing text into blank boxes and dragging these newly created propositions to their appropriate locations on the map. Single propositions, or entire branches of the argument, can be removed or dragged to another location, and edited in the process, in order to facilitate the reconstruction and easy manipulation of an argument map. This aspect of argument mapping is also useful when analysing and evaluating arguments. For example, if an individual observes an error in reasoning within an argument map, they can edit or delete propositions, add propositions, and edit or remove an entire chain of reasoning. Similarly, they can relocate propositions or chains of propositions to a new location on the map, and thus deepen their analysis and evaluation of propositions and argument structures in the process. In this sense, the manner in which propositions and chains of reasoning can be manipulated within an argument map may encourage deeper analysis and evaluation of the argument, as well as further refinements of its inferential structure. NEED AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Change is more often endogenous, that is to say, it happens from within. Each human being is unique and has infinite potential for life enhancement for him and others. To make education an effective one, it must be ensured that every child is nurtured to the maximum possible levels of attainment where the role of teacher is pivotal. The changed scenario of technological advancement has increased the importance of Physics significantly. Therefore, Physics education at all stages of life has assumed increased importance. Teaching and learning can be made efficient and economic if suitable teaching-learning methods are used. Physics is not a tough subject but the approach makes it tough. Teachers should provide instructions to take students through a sequence of learning experiences that takes account of students pre existing notions and gradually expands and hones those ideas until they are useful for analyzing situations and thus develop a deeper understanding of Physics concepts and principles. Therefore more innovative methods are used. On reviewing the research literature in teaching of science extensively, it is observed that this method in particular has not attracted the researchers so far to investigate its effectiveness, usefulness and validity in enhancing the academic achievement, cognitive development and rate of learning of students. Since the subject of Physics occupies an important place in school curriculum there is need to probe the effect of Argument Mapping technique. Hence the investigators selected this topic for the present study. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The objectives of the study were, 1. To determine the effect of Argument Mapping technique on achievement in Physics of students at secondary level. 2. To compare the effect of Argument Mapping technique on achievement in Physics of students at secondary level with that of Activity Oriented Method.

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3. To compare the level of Reasoning Ability of students taught by Argument Mapping technique and Activity Oriented Method. HYPOTHESES FORMULATED FOR THE STUDY The hypotheses formulated for the study were: 1. There will be significant difference in achievement in Physics among secondary school through Argument Mapping technique and Activity Oriented Method. students taught

2. There will be significant difference in the level of Reasoning Ability of students taught by Argument Mapping technique and Activity Oriented Method. METHOD The main objective of the study was to determine the effect of Argument Mapping technique on achievement in Physics at secondary level. Hence experimental method was used to conduct the present study. The design selected was pre-test post-test parallel group design (Best, 1995). Participants The study was conducted on a sample of 90 students of two divisions of standard IX in Pathanamthitta district. One division was considered as experimental group and the other group as control group. The experimental group was taught through Argument Mapping technique and the control group through Activity Oriented method. The period of experimentation was about 15 days. Measures used The tools used for the study were, 1. 2. 3. 4. Lesson Transcripts based on Argument Mapping technique Lesson Transcripts based on Activity Oriented Method Achievement test in Physics (Prepared by the investigators) Test of Reasoning Ability in Science (By Dr. Anuradha Joshi & Bhuban Chandra Mahapatra)

PROCEDURE ADOPTED FOR THE STUDY The experimental and control groups are initially compared about present knowledge about the subject area to be learnt and the initial level of Reasoning Ability. Then the experimental group was taught by using Argument Mapping technique and the control group was taught by using Activity Oriented Method. When all the classes were over, the same achievement test and Test of Reasoning Ability was administered to both the groups as post-test and the scores obtained were taken for statistical analysis. STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES USED The pre-test and post-test scores corresponding to achievement test were subjected to statistical analysis by applying t-test. The pre-test and post-test scores corresponding to Reasoning Ability were subjected to statistical analysis by applying t-test. ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA Analysis and interpretation of data is the most skilled task of all stages of research. The analysis and interpretation of data involves the objective materials in the possession of the researcher and his subjective reaction and desires to drive from the data. The data collected were analyzed to throw light on the objectives of the study. Analysis and Interpretation of results have been presented under the following heads. 1. 2. Comparison of Experimental and Control groups on Achievement in Physics as a whole based on pre-test and post-test scores Comparison of Experimental and Control groups with respect to post - test scores on Reasoning Ability. The analysis is under following subsections.

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1. Comparison of Experimental and Control groups on Achievement in Physics as a whole based on pretest and post-test scores. To understand the performance of students in the Experimental and Control groups, an Achievement Test based on Argument Mapping technique was given. The total scores obtained after administering the Achievement Test based on Argument Mapping technique to the Experimental and Control groups were compared. The analysis done regarding this subsection is given below 1.1 Analysis of comparison of pre-test and post-test on Achievement in Physics (based on Argument Mapping technique) of Experimental and Control groups using' t' test.

The effect of Argument Mapping technique on Achievement in Physics was found out by comparing the mean pre-test and post-test scores on Achievement in Physics of Experimental and Control groups using 't' test. The Data and Result of Test of significance of difference are given in the table below. Table 1. Data and Result of Test of Significance of Difference between the Mean Pre-Test and Post-Test on Achievement in Physics of Experimental and Control Groups. Scores Pre-test Control Experimental Post-test Control 45 15.46 2.52 45 45 2.76 18.55 0.99 1.82 6.98 P<0.01 Groups Experimental N 45 Mean 2.47 SD 0.91 0.17 P>0.01 CR Level of significance

The analysis of the pre-test scores on Achievement in Physics based on Argument Mapping technique shows that the critical ratio obtained is 0.17 which is not significant at 0.01 and 0.05 levels. After comparing the post - test scores (CR=6.98) of the Experimental and Control groups with respect to Achievement in Physics, it is revealed that the Experimental and Control groups differ significantly at 0.01 level. The value of critical ratio and the mean score reveals that students in the Experimental group achieved better than the Control group. Thus it can be inferred that the teaching through Argument Mapping technique helped the Experimental group to achieve better than the Control group. 2. Comparison of Experimental and Control groups with respect to pre-test and post - test scores on Reasoning Ability In this section, the analysis was done to compare Reasoning Ability of Experimental and Control groups after the treatment and is given below. 2.1 Analysis of comparison of pre-test and post-test scores on Reasoning Ability of Experimental and Control group using t-test. To know whether the used teaching method have any influence on the Reasoning Ability of the students in the Experimental and Control groups, the Reasoning Ability test was administered as post-test. The mean pretest and post-test scores on Reasoning Ability of the Experimental and Control groups were compared using ttest. The Data and Results of Test of significance are given in the table below. Table 2. Data and Result of Test of Significance of Difference between the Mean Pre-Test and Post-Test Scores on Reasoning Ability of Experimental and Control Groups. Scores Pre-test Groups Experimental Control Post-test Experimental Control N 45 45 45 45 Mean 7.01 5.25 19.75 16.04 SD 2.38 2.04 2.31 8.01 2.84 P<0.01 CR 0.75 Level of significance P>0.05

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After comparing the pre - test scores of the Experimental and Control groups with respect to Reasoning Ability, the critical ratio obtained is 0.75 which shows that there is no significant difference between Experimental and Control group at 0.01 level and 0.05level. The critical ratio obtained after comparing the post - test scores (CR=8.01) of the Experimental and Control groups with respect to Reasoning Ability shows that the Experimental and Control group differ significantly at 0.01 level. The value of critical ratio and the mean scores reveal that the Experimental group taught using Argument Mapping technique showed more Reasoning Ability than the Control group . FINDINGS The major findings of the study are noted below, 1. 2. Argument Mapping technique is more effective than Activity Oriented Method on the total achievement in Physics of secondary school students. Argument Mapping technique is more effective than Activity Oriented Method in raising the level of Reasoning Ability of secondary school students.

DISCUSSION A more global perspective on the findings from this research suggests that AM can potentially supplement traditional methods of presenting arguments that are the focus of learning in educational settings. For example, based on the findings of the current study, it appears that AM can be successfully used: (1) to support didactic instruction or to potentially replace text-based learning strategies in certain situations; (2) as a study guide provided by the teacher to be used by the student, (3) as a partially completed study guide provided by the teacher to be completed by students when reading text, (4) as a means of supporting text-based study through passive reading or active construction; and/or (5) as a means of providing students with a method of constructing arguments from scratch using specific, class-based material as the basis for AM construction work. Overall, the current research suggests that argument mapping can enhance many of the thinking processes, above and beyond some more traditional, text-based methods. However, future research is necessary to further evaluate argument mappings potential benefits, for example, by examining argument mappings effects on learning outcomes in computer-supported collaborative learning environments. At the same time, the research conducted in this study recommends argument mapping as an efficacious educational tool that is worthy of future application and investigation. REFERENCES Best, J. W. & Khan, J. V. (1995). Research in Education .New Delhi: Prentice-Hall of India. Butchart, S., Bigelow, J., Oppy, G., Korb, K., & Gold, I. (2009). Improving critical thinking using web-based argument mapping exercises with automated feedback. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 25, 2, 268-291. Buzan, T., & Buzan, B. (1997). The mind map book. London: BBC Books. Driver, R. & Easley, J. (1978). Pupils and paradigms: A review of literature related to concept development in adolescent science students. Studies in Science Education, 5, 61-84. Folsom-Kovarik, J.T., Schatz, S., Sukthankar, G., & Nicholson, D. (2010). What information does this question convey?: Leveraging help-seeking behavior for improved modeling in a simulation-based intelligent tutor. Proceedings of the 2010 Spring Simulation Multiconference, Orlando, FL, April 11-15. Garrett, H. E. (2005). Statistics in psychology and education. New Delhi: Paragon International. Gay, L.R. (1996). Educational Research Competencies for Analysis and Application . New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Good, C. V. (1945). Dictionary of Education. New York: McGraw Hill . Howe, A. (1996). Developments of science concepts within a Vygotskian framework. Science Education. 80(1), 35-51. Sweller, J., & Chandler, P. (1991). Evidence for cognitive load theory. Cognition &Instruction, 8, 4, 351-362. ******

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EFFECTIVENESS OF AN INSTRUCTIONAL PACKAGE IN PHYSICAL SCIENCES BASED ON EXPLICIT INSTRUCTION STRATEGY FOR ENHANCING CREATIVITY AMONG HIGHER SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
Prakash Alex1 Abstract The present study enlightens the importance of innovative strategies adopted for teaching and learning and for the enhancement of certain psychological variables such as personality, interest, creativity and attitude. This study revealed that Explicit Instruction strategy group performed slightly better than Conventional Issue Based Method on the attainment in Creativity. And also when comparing the categories of Creativity; Fluency, Flexibility, Originality and Elaboration, it is seen that Explicit Instruction strategy enhances Fluency, Flexibility, Originality and Elaboration objectives of Creativity shows marked growth than the Conventional Issue Based method. Hence it is recommended that this Explicit Instruction strategy is more effective than Conventional Issue based Method for enhancing the Creativity among the Higher Secondary school students. INTRODUCTION Learning is acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behavior, skill, Creativity, values or preferences and may involve synthesizing different type of information. Learning is not compulsory, it is contextual. It does not happen all at once, but builds upon and is shaped by what we already know. To that end, learning may be viewed as a process rather than a collection of factual and procedural knowledge. Cognitivists argued that the way people think creatively impacts their behavior and therefore cannot be a behavior in and of it. Cognitivists later argued that thinking is so essential to psychology that the study of thinking should become its own field. Constructivist approaches to human learning have led to the development of an Explicit Instruction strategy. The implicit process involved in carrying out complex skills when they are teaching novices. To combat these tendencies, Explicit Instruction strategy are designed, among other things, to bring these tacit processes into the open, where students can observe enact and practice them with the help from the teacher. NEED AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Creativity is universal. Every one possesses creative capacity to some degree. It can be viewed as a very complex dimension covering all aspects of behavior, which will include all the abilities involved in reinterpreting ideas as well as the abilities required in innovating new ideas. Guilfords (1961) view on creativity is it has been the distinction between abilities for divergent thinking and abilities for convergent thinking. Convergent thinking implies single already ascertained right responses, whereas divergent thinking results in a variety of responses involving fluency, flexibility, originality and elaboration. Creativity is a multi-splendored thing. It is the ability to encode and decode something new. An individuals potential for being creative is his readiness to produce novel ideas. The characteristics of creativeness are not unique in different subject areas. Whatever may be area, it is accepted that schools should give due importance for the enhancement of creativity from early stages of development. Explicit instruction is systematic, direct, engaging, and success oriented and has been shown to promote achievement for all students. This highly practical and accessible resource gives special and general education teachers the tools to implement explicit instruction in any grade level or content area. Adams & Engelmann (1996) are leading experts who provide clear guidelines for identifying key concepts, strategies, skills, and routines to teach; designing and delivering effective lessons; and giving students opportunities to practice and master new material. Sample lesson plans, lively examples, and reproducible checklists and teacher worksheets enhance the utility of the volume. Explicit instruction is a systematic instructional approach that includes set of delivery and design procedures derived from effective schools research merged with behavior analysis. There are two essential components to well designed explicit instruction: (a) visible delivery features are group instruction with a high level of teacher and student interactions, and (b) the less observable, instructional design principles and assumptions that make up the content and strategies to be taught. Explicit instruction consists of Essential Instructional Design Components and Primed Background Knowledge.
Research Scholar, School of Pedagogical Sciences, MG University, Kottayam

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Essential Instructional Design Components: Big Ideas, Conspicuous Strategies, Mediated Scaffolding, Strategic Integration and Judicious Review. 1) Big Ideas: Big ideas function as the keys that unlock content for the range of diverse learners.

2) Conspicuous Strategies: People accomplished at complex tasks apply strategies to solve problems. 3) Mediated Scaffolding: This temporary support/guidance is provided to students in the form of steps, tasks, materials, and personal support during initial learning that reduces the task complexity by structuring it into manageable chunks to increase successful task completion. 4) Strategic Integration: An instructional design component, strategic integration, combines essential information in ways that result in new and more complex knowledge. Characteristics of strategic instruction include: a) curriculum design that offers the learner an opportunity to successfully integrate several big ideas, b) content learned must be applicable to multiple contexts, and c) potentially confusing concepts and facts should be integrated once mastered. The strategic integration of content in the curriculum can help students learn when to use specific knowledge beyond classroom application. 5) Judicious Review: Effective review promotes transfer of learning by requiring application of content at different times and in different contexts. Primed Background Knowledge: Acquisition of new skills and knowledge depends largely upon a) the knowledge the learner brings to the task, b) the accuracy of that information, and c) the degree to which the learner can access and use that information. A meta-analysis conducted by Adams & Engelmann (1996) found that the mean effect size per study using Explicit instruction is more than 0.75. The authors find the consistent attainment of research with substantial effect sizes is further evidence that Explicit instruction is an effective instructional practice for all students. Deshler & Schumaker (1989) describes how Explicit instruction most effectively occurs for all students when teaching strategies. Kameenui, E. J. & Carnine, D. W. (1998) and Pearson, P.D., & Dole, J. A. (1987). The authors conclude that we can teach comprehension more effectively when using explicit instructional approaches by following the traditional basal reading paradigm of mentioning, practicing and assessing. The present study examines the how the Explicit instruction strategy and Creativity are related and how Creativity of Higher Secondary school students get enhances by using an instructional package in Physical Sciences based on Explicit instruction strategy. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The study mainly focused on attaining the following set of objectives. 1. 2. To compare the attainment in the Creativity at higher secondary students taught through Explicit instruction strategy and that of Conventional Issue based method. To study the effectiveness of an instructional package in Physical Sciences based on Explicit instruction strategy for fostering the Creativity of higher secondary students with respect to the total test scores and for the component tests through fluency, flexibility, originality and Elaboration. To give some possible suggestion for fostering the Creativity among higher secondary school students.

3.

HYPOTHESES OF THE STUDY The hypothesis formulated in the study were 1. The attainment in the Creativity of Higher Secondary school students taught through Explicit instruction strategy is significantly higher than that of students taught through Conventional Issue based method. The attainment in the Creativity of the Higher Secondary school students taught through Explicit instruction strategy is significantly higher than that of students taught through Conventional Issue based method with respect to following component of tests such as fluency, flexibility, originality and Elaboration.

2.

METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY Quasi-Experimental method was adopted for the present study. The design followed was pre-test posttest nonequivalent group design. Two divisions of XII standard of the same school (40 students each) were taken

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as the experimental group and control group. The two groups were tested by using same tests of Creativity (Word Production Test, Use of Things Test, Analogy Test, Sentence Construction Test, Titles Test and Elaboration Test). Conventional issue based method of teaching was adopted for the control group and an instructional package in Physical Sciences based on Explicit instruction strategy was adopted for the experimental group. For the preparation of lesson transcript based on Explicit instruction strategy the investigator followed five phases of activity that is included in the syntax of the model based on Essential Instructional Design Components and Primed Background Knowledge. The tool used in the study was the test of Creativity prepared by the investigator. Before starting the experimental treatment the investigator gave a pretest (Creativity) to both the control group and experimental group. The same test was also given to both groups after the experimental treatment. The scores obtained were statistically analyzed using ANCOVA. ANALYSIS OF DATA AND INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS 1. Effectiveness of Explicit Instructional strategy and Conventional Issue based method on attainment in Creativity of Higher Secondary school students. Table 1. Data and Results for Adjusted Means of Post-Test Scores (Creativity) of Pupils in Experimental and Control Groups Groups Experimental Control General Means N 40 40 80 Mx 5.75 5.21 5.48 My 19.675 17.575 18.625 Mxy 19.625 17.355 -

SEM between adjusted means is 0.65; t = 2.47; From the table t-value for df 79; t- value at 0.05 level = 1.99; t- value at 0.01 level = 2.64 The obtained t = 2.47, which is significant that only at 0.05 level (t= 2.47, p<0.05), which indicates that the difference between the performance of the two groups differ significantly for a smaller extent. By examining the mean values of Experimental (19.625) and Control (17.355) groups, it is seen that the Experimental group excels Control group in the attainment in Creativity. Therefore, it is inferred that Explicit Instructional strategy is slightly dominant than the Conventional Issue based method. Thus Hypothesis H 1 is substantiated. 2. Effectiveness of Explicit Instructional strategy and Conventional Issue based method on attainment in Creativity of Higher Secondary school students under the category of Creativity - Fluency Table 2. Data and Result for Adjusted Means of Post-Test Scores (Creativity) Of Pupils in Experimental and Control Groups Under the Category of Creativity - Fluency Groups Experimental Control General Means N 40 40 80 Mx 1.15 0.81 0.98 My 3.4 2.6 3.0 Mxy 3.5 2.8 -

SEM between adjusted means is 0.19; t = 2.318; From the table t-value for df 79; t- value at 0.05 level = 1.99; t- value at 0.01 level = 2.64 The obtained t =2.3814 which is significant only at 0.05 level (t=2.3814, p<0.05), which indicates that the difference between the performance of the two groups in Creativity differ significantly at 0.05 level. By examining the mean values of Experimental (3.5) and Control (2.8) groups, it is seen that the Experimental group show excellence than Control group in attainment in Creativity with respect to category of Creativity Fluency. Therefore, it is inferred that Explicit Instructional strategy contributes a great role on the category of Creativity- Fluency than Conventional Issue Based method. Thus Hypothesis H 2 (a) is substantiated.

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3.

Effectiveness of Explicit Instructional strategy and Conventional Issue based method on attainment in Creativity of Higher Secondary school students under the category of Creativity Flexibility Table 3. Data for Adjusted Means of Post-Test Scores (Creativity) Of Pupils in Experimental and Control Groups Under the Category of Creativity - Flexibility Groups N 40 40 80 Mx 1.24 1.25 1.245 My 4.9 3.2 4.05 Mxy 4.90 3.30 -

Experimental Control General Means

SEM between adjusted means is 0.27; t = 2.652; From the table t-value for df 79, t- value at 0.05 level = 1.99; t- value at 0.01 level = 2.64 The obtained t = 2.652, which is significant only at 0.05 level (t= 2.652, p<0.01), which indicates that the difference between the performance of the two groups in Creativity differ significantly at both 0.05 and 0.01levels. By examining the mean values of Experimental (4.9) and Control (3.3) groups, it is seen that the Experimental group show excellence than Control group in attainment in Creativity with respect to category of Creativity - Flexibility. Therefore, it is inferred that Explicit Instructional strategy contributes a great role on the category of Creativity- Flexibility than Conventional Issue Based method. Thus Hypothesis H2 (b) is substantiated. 4. Effectiveness of Explicit Instructional strategy and Conventional Issue based method on attainment in Creativity of Higher Secondary school students under the category of Creativity - Originality Table 4. Data for Adjusted Means of Post-Test Scores (Creativity) of Pupils in Experimental and Control Groups Under the Category of Creativity - Originality Groups Experimental Control General Means N 40 40 80 Mx 3.07 2.98 3.02 My 6.9 5.6 4.62 Mxy 6.85 5.85 -

SEM between adjusted means is 0.30; t= 2.373; From the table t-value for df 79; t- value at 0.05 level = 1.99; t- value at 0.01 level = 2.64 The obtained t = 2.373, which is significant only at 0.05 level (t= 2.373, p<0.05), which indicates that the difference between the performance of the two groups in Creativity differ significantly at 0.05 level. By examining the mean values of Experimental (6.85) and Control (5.85) groups, it is seen that the Experimental group show excellence than Control group in attainment in Creativity with respect to category of Creativity Originality. Therefore, it is inferred that Explicit Instructional strategy contributes a great role on the category of Creativity- Originality than Conventional Issue Based method. Thus Hypothesis H 2 (c) is substantiated. 5. Effectiveness of Explicit Instructional strategy and Conventional Issue based method on attainment in Creativity of Higher Secondary school students under the category of Creativity - Elaboration

Table 5. Data for Adjusted Means of Post-Test Scores (Creativity) of Pupils in Experimental and Control Groups under the Category of Creativity Elaboration Groups Experimental Control General Means N 40 40 80 Mx 2.15 0.98 3.13 My 2.5 2.6 5.1 Mxy 2.95 2.25 -

SEM between adjusted means is 0.17; t = 2.086; From the table t-value for df 79; t- value at 0.05 level = 1.99; t- value at 0.01 level = 2.64

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The obtained t = 2.086 which is significant only at 0.05 level (t= 2.086, p<0.05), which indicate that the difference between the performance of the two groups differ significantly at 0.05 levels. By examining the mean values of Experimental (2.95) and Control (2.25) groups, it is seen that the Experimental group show excellence than Control group in attainment in Creativity with respect to category of Creativity - Elaboration. Therefore, it is inferred that Explicit Instructional strategy contributes a great role on the category of CreativityElaboration than Conventional Issue Based method. Thus Hypothesis H 2 (d) is substantiated. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS It connotes that Explicit Instructional strategy group performed better than Conventional Issue Based Method on the attainment in Creativity. Probability, it is due to the classroom climate during instruction which increased the classroom interaction where students interact and can conduct experiments freely. They do experiments very easily; do not hesitate in putting their queries to their own classmates and teachers. That is why students grasped more learning materials which increased their attainment in Creativity. When comparing the categories of Creativity; Fluency, Flexibility, Originality and Elaboration, it is seen that Explicit Instructional strategy enhances Fluency, Flexibility, Originality and Elaboration objectives of Creativity shows marked growth than the Conventional Issue Based method. Hence it can be concluded that the Explicit Instructional strategy is more effective than Conventional Issue based Method for enhancing the Creativity among the Higher Secondary school students. We are living a high-tech modern era where our life and Creativity closely related. Hence a few suggestions for improvement of Creativity can be made as follows: 1. Intelligence tests and Creativity tests are very helpful in detecting gifted children, backward children and average children. Hence, from the primary school level, these tests are to be made use of to get a clear picture of the abilities of each pupil. Teachers should create suitable classroom climate for learning and developing better conditions for Creativity. Teachers must develop appropriate teaching styles with sufficient experiences in the classroom to change the perceptions on Creativity. This can be provided in the form of assignments, projects, supplementary educational experiences, co-curricular activities etc. Teachers should prompt the students to use all available resources such as library books, journals; periodicals etc. and encourage the pupil to enhance the embedded Creativity in students. Classroom activities should be organized systematically and learning by doing should be the basic principle of Creativity and teaching and learning. Teachers should accept the childs natural tendency to take a different look at things, respect of unusual questions, imagination, unusual ideas, and praise and encourage their ideas, love them and let them know self worth of students.

2. 3.

4. 5. 6.

REFERENCES Adams, G. L., & Engelmann, S. (1996). Research in Direct Instruction: 25 Years Beyond DISTAR. Seattle,WA: Educational Achievement Systems. Agarwal, K. A (1992). Development of Creativity in Indian schools. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company. Chatterjee, B. B. (1985). Trend in Creativity and study habits of teachers under training. Journal of Education and Psychology, 2, 26-29. Deshler, D. D., & Schumaker, J. B., (1989). Alternative Educational Delivery Systems: Enhancing Instructional outcomes for all students. Pp. 391-411. Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists. Guilford, J.P. et al. (1952). A Factor Analysis Study of Creative Thinking II: Administration of Tests and Analysis of Results. Reports from the Psychological Laboratory, No. 8, Los Angeles: University of South California. Hall, T. (2002). Explicit instruction. Wakefield, MA: National Center on Accessing the GeneralCurriculum. http://aim.cast.org/learn/historyarchive/backgroundpapers/explicit_instruction. Kameenui, E. J. & Carnine, D. W. (1998). Effective teaching strategies that accommodate diverse learners. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

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Nair, A.S. and Sanandaraj, H.S. (1976). Intelligence in Relation to Fluency, Flexibility and Originality Components of Creativity. Studies in Education, 9,1-7. National Advisory Committee on Creative and Cultural Education (1999). Chapter 1. Pearson, P.D., & Dole, J. A. (1987). Explicit comprehension instruction: A review of research and new conceptualization of instruction. Elementary School Journal, 88 (2) Reddy, Bhasker (2008). Creativity of student teachers of College of Education. Edutrack, 7, 13. Seezink, H. (2009). A study on teachers individual action theories the induction of competence based prevocational secondary education. Psychological Abstracts, 22, 34. Stalmeijer, I. and Wolfhagen, N. (2009). A study on cognitive apprenticeship model in clinical practice. Dissertation Abstracts International, 63, 213-A. Tarver, S. G., (1996). Direct Instruction. In (W. Stainback and S. Stainback (Eds.) Controversial Issues Confronting Special Education: Divergent Perspectives (Second Ed.) Pp. 143-165. Boston: Allyn Bacon. Van velzen. (2009). Cognitive Apprenticeship model: A frame work to describe the activity of school-based teacher educators. TESOL (Sept, 2008), 23(3),21 40.

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A DIAGNOSTIC STUDY OF ERRORS IN SOLVING PROBLEMS IN GEOMETRY BY STUDENTS OF 7th GRADE


Dr. Shruti Anand1 and Dr. Avinash Pandey2 INTRODUCTION I Plato advocated the inclusion of mathematics in school curriculum because mathematics reasoning disciplined the mind. It is only subject that encourage and develops logical thinking, it enables the student to discriminate between essential and non essential, it helps them to understand the facts, to draw necessary conclusion etc. Except mother tongue there is no other subject which is more closely related to our daily life as mathematics. Geometry is an important branch of mathematics which dominates the learning of the mathematics in high school classes, whereas arithmetic and algebra both are science of numbers, geometry is science of lines and figures. It is concerned with concept of size, shape, relative position of figure and properties of space. Geometry is recognized as a study important for cultural development. It is the key to mathematical thinking. Its importance arises partly from its value in demonstrating the nature and power of pure reason. On the basis of a few axioms or assumptions, the student is able to erect a logical structure of established truth that can be used to discover and prove new facts. It provides content that range from simple to complex. The results are verifiable as correct or incorrect. Technical advancement have placed an increasing importance on geometry not only in engineering, machine shop and construction industries, but also in landscape, architecture, interior decoration etc. Further for a sound foundation in teaching geormetry a teacher has to be well versed with all possible errors which can be committed by students in learning geometry. Hence it is necessary that teacher must have the prior knowledge of errors and their remedies. Moreover, many researchers focused their attempts to study the impact of remedial teaching programmes for the common errors committed by students in calculus (Ram ang, J., 1989); Childs concept of fundamental Euclidean Geometry (Gupta and Debjani, 1989); conceptual errors made by secondary school pupils in learning selected areas in modern mathematics (Sarla, 1989). But the studies related to Errors Committed by 7th Grade Students in Solving Problems in Geometry are limited; hence the present study has been taken up. OBJECTIVES 1. 2. 3. To identify the learning difficulties in geometry faced by 7 th grade students. To find out the errors committed by students in translating statement in mathematical form by using appropriate diagram. To suggest remedial programme for 8th grade student in learning of geometry.

METHODOLOGY SAMPLE 100 students were taken from five Hindi medium schools of Allahabad District by using random sampling method. TOOL USED A self made diagonostic test was used as a tool to gather the required data. STATISTICAL TECHNIQUE USED The data obtained from the diagnostic test was analyzed properly by making use of simple percentage method by finding maximum error and mean. FINDINGS 1. In the test given on angle to girls the mean error committed by girls is 5.05 which shows that girls committed 48.5% error.

1 2

Lecturer, S.S.Khanna Girls' Degree College, Allahabad (U.P.) Assistant Professor, Nehru Gram Bharati University., Allahabad (U.P.)

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2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

In the test given on triangle to girls the mean error committed by girls is 4.5 which shows that girls committed 27.5% error. In the test given on quadrilateral to girls the mean error committed by girls on quadrilateral is 6.4 which shows that girls committed 68. % error. In the test given on angles to boys the mean error committed by boys on angles is 6.7 which shows that boys committed 67.5% error. In the test given on triangle to boys the mean error committed by boys is 3.7 which shows that boys committed 50.4% error. In the test given on quadrilateral to boys the mean error committed by boys on quadrilateral is 7.5 which show that boys committed 78% error. Diagnostic test can helps the teachers to evaluate the level of understanding of students of 7 th standard. Teachers can easily identify the areas of problem & can use more effective methods. Teacher can identify the system of creative thinking of students. Once the error is detected, teacher can easily find out in which area they need more help. The study can help the teacher to plan some remedial programs for the improvement. The findings of the present study have direct implication for student and teacher, teacher educators, for curriculum development & designing of instructional material.

EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

BIBLIOGRAHPHY Ahlawat, M & Bist, P. (2012), A diagnostic study of errors committed by 8 th grade students in solving problems in Geometry, Educational Research, Vol. X. Arora S.K. (1988). Mathematics Meaning, Scope, value or importance, How to teach Mathematics, Santa Publishers, Bhiwani. Chauhan, S.S. (2004). Innovations in teaching-learning process (5th reprint), Dehli. Hindustan offset printers. Kaul. L (1997). Methodology of educational research, Noida Vikas Publication. Sachdeva, S.S. (1986). Geometry, Foundation of Modern Geometry, Arya book Depot, Jalandhar. Sidhu, K.S. (1985). Teaching of Geometry, the Teaching of Mathematics, Publishers Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi

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MARKETING PROBLEMS AND SUICIDES OF THE HANDLOOM WEAVERS-A STUDY IN KADAPA DISTRICT OF ANDHRA PRADESH
Dr. S.Babu Praveen Kumar 1 Abstract Weaving is an ancient art of making cloth and other fabrics and the Indians have been expert of weaving since the ancient period.Apart from weaving, people in the Indian villages are also involved in other occupations like dying, designing, etc. Weaving in Indian villages is one of those rare assets for which India can feel proud of. Handloom industry, the largest segment in the unorganized sector, plays a vital role in Indias socio economic development. The struggle of the community was symbolised through the charkha. But today, despite being a 5000- year old vocation and receiving great political importance, weavers continue to suffer a life of despair, poverty and agony. INTRODUCTION Weaving is an ancient art of making cloth and other fabrics and the Indians have been expert of weaving since the ancient period. Weaving is the process of making cloth, rugs, blankets and other products by crossing two sets of threads over and under each other. Weaving in Indian villages has been a hobby for several centuries now. Weaving has also become a major industry in the contemporary period. Weaving in Indian villages is done using threads spun from natural fibers like cotton, silk and wool and also using the synthetic fibers like nylon and Orlon. The Indian hand woven fabrics have been famous all over the world since times immemorial. The ancient Indian cotton-fabric Muslin was considered one of the most unique creations of Indian weavers. India was also one of the major exporters of textiles to most parts of the civilised world in the ancient period. However, in contemporary India, weaving is not limited to cloth and textile products. It plays an important part in manufacture of screens, metal fences and rubber tire cord. Handloom industry, the largest segment in the unorganized sector, plays a vital role in Indias socioeconomic development. Being an important traditional craft, it occupies an important place in the decentralized sector of the Indian economy. The industry has a long tradition of excellence, forming a part of ancient culture heritage. Weaving in Indian villages is considered one of the largest cottage industries. Several people are engaged in weaving cotton, silk and other natural fibres and not a single village can be found in India, where the weavers do not live. Various types of weaving are done in the villages of India. Some of the most popular types of weaving in Indian villages include cotton fabrics, patola weaving, ikat fabrics, phulkari, carpet weaving, embroidery, sanganeri prints, chindi dhurries, batik sarees, himroo, hand block printing, etc. Clothing is fiber and textile material worn on body. The wearing of clothing is mostly restricted to human beings and is a feature of nearly all human societies. The amount and type of clothing worn depends on physical, social and geographic considerations. Physically, clothing serves many purposes: it can serve as protection from the elements, and can enhance safety during hazardous activities such as hiking and cooking. It protects the wearer from rough surfaces, rash-causing plants, insect bites, splinters, thorns and prickles by providing a barrier between the skin and the environment. Clothes can insulate against cold or hot conditions. Further, they can provide a hygienic barrier, keeping infectious and toxic materials away from the body. Clothing also provides protection from harmful UV radiation as well. Different cultures have evolved various ways of creating clothes out of cloth. One approach simply involves draping the cloth. Many people wore, and still wear, garments consisting of rectangles of cloth wrapped to fit-for example, the dhoti for men and the sari for women in the Indian subcontinent, the Scottish kilt or the Javanese sarong. The clothes may simply be tied up, as is the case of the first two garments; or pins or belts hold the garments in place, as in the case of the latter two. The precious cloth remains uncut, and people of various sizes or the same person at different sizes can wear the garment.

Assistant Professor, Dept of Education, Sree Rama College of Education

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Weaving is an art of making cloth and a textile is a woven fabric. Every day of human lives, people are surrounded by textiles and textiles are so much a part of our daily world that it is hard to imagine life without them. The handloom sector provides employment for an estimated 12.5 million people and is the largest rural employment provider next to agriculture. The sector represents the continuity of the age-old Indian heritage of hand weaving and reflects the socio-cultural tradition of the weaving communities. The Government of India has been following a policy of promoting and encouraging the handloom sector through a number of policies and programmes. The present study concentrates on the marketing problems and suicides of handloom weavers in Kadapa district of Andhra Pradesh. The handloom industry is facing several problems such as non-availability of adequate quantity of quality raw material, shortage of working capital, non-availability of marketing facilities, credit needs to handloom weavers in co-operative field, low capacity utilization due to not utilizing of new technology, failure of co-operative movement, facing stiff competition from organized mill and power loom sector in the area of marketing the handloom products and central and state govern ments low budget allocations and non utilized budgeted funds in a proper way. In total Andhra Pradesh 613 weavers suicide cases have been registered and 1500 weavers have attempted to commit suicide due to lack of reimbursement of their personal loans taken from micro financial institutions and money lenders during 1997 to 2010. Majority of the weavers in the state are not financially sound because of the inadequate earnings from their profession. Many Primary Weavers Cooperative Societies are defunct, Very few societies are earning profits and the other societies are eagerly waiting for a savior to lift them from the disastrous conditions.Andhra Pradesh weavers are facing severe livelihood crises because of adverse government policies, globalization and changing socio economic conditions. Weavers suicides occurred in Kadapa District during 2007 to October 2012. However, the rate of suicides is for from compared to the rest of Andhra Pradesh, only 7 cases took which a recorded officially but it is not known how many took unofficially. Andhra Pradesh state has witnessed 500 deaths of weavers out of which some were due to starvation and the remaining were suicides. Majority of weavers ended their lives due to various problems they come across in their profession. Weavers Suicides From the pre -independence period, the handloom weavers community and their profession have received special attention. Even the Mahatma end-horsed handloom as a vital instrument of Indian politics. The struggle of the community was symbolised through the charkha. But today, despite being a 5000- year old vocation and receiving great political importance, weavers continue to suffer a life of despair, poverty and agony. The charkha, which emerged as a symbol of the nation, which went to take on the mighty British Raj through its novel ways of Satyagraha, now seems to be a symbol of poverty for millions of weaving professionals. Places like Sircilla and Dubakka in Andhra Pradesh are well-known not only for the quality of their handloom products, which are sold the world over, but also for the alarming rate at which weavers have committed suicides. Government reports identify scant wages, exorbitant debts, high cost of production, and competition from other textile products as well as powerlooms as the fundamental reasons behind these deaths. Before choosing the option of ending their lives, these weavers live a life of starvation, ill-health, agony and prolonged stress. A close look at the issue reveals that the entire problem is primarily economical. Being an economic issue, the scope of solving it, theoretically, is also high. But the reality is different. Andhra Pradesh state has witnessed 500 deaths of weavers out of which some were due to starvation and the remaining were suicides. Majority of weavers ended their lives due to various problems they come across in their profession. Constrains of the Handloom Sector Major Constrains of the handloom sector have been the unorganized nature of weavers, vulnerability to market fluctuations, lack of market information, lack of accessibility and control over financial resources and increasing distance between the consumer and producer. The traditional handloom weavers are wage earners and are not artisans in any way as they were completely depend on the master weavers. Loans for maintenance tide sales and buy back arrangements along with input supply from master weavers, has insured that the weaver are main as wage earners. Many weavers due to their natural flair have always innovated on designs however they dont get compensated for the design innovation. All this along with growth in competition from the mill made clothes offering vider designs, low cast and durable substituted have only compounded the problems of weavers. This resulted in low wages, high level of indebtedness, under employment and even starvation among weavers.

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Competition with powerlooms First, the loss of market for powerloom products that began in 1997 continued unabated until there was practically no work for anyone in Andhra Pradesh. When powerlooms began to be encouraged by the government. The situation worsened in 1991 after the Centre began to push the liberalisation policies vigorously and launched a frenzied export drive, which covered cotton and yarn. The weavers' condition reached its nadir in 1996 when the Andhra Pradesh State Handloom Cooperative Society (APCO) stopped the Janata cloth scheme. The last straw was the virtual collapse of APCO in 1998. Secondly, there has been a systematic deterioration of living conditions: the weavers of Andhra Pradesh subsist on painfully low levels of nutrition intake and with almost no access to healthcare facilities. Poor nutrition seems to have made them susceptible to opportunistic infections. Desperate to provide food and medical attention to the family, the weavers would take loans. As the debts and the pressure to repay them amount, they go into depression. Some of them resort to suicide. Thirdly, survival options are limited for them as farm work is scarce in these drought-prone areas. With the powerloom centres of Bhiwandi and Mumbai (in Maharashtra) as also Surat and Ahmedabad (in Gujarat) upgrading to jetlooms (one jetloom displaces 40 powerlooms), the weavers could no longer find jobs there during the lean periods in Andhra Pradesh. Thus the option of migration was also sealed. Most important, recent government policies seem to have pushed the weavers over the edge. In Sircilla, the crisis was precipitated by a sharp increase in yarn prices, a steep rise in the power tariff, concessions provided for technology upgradation which bypassed the small and traditional powerlooms and dumping by countries such as China and Thailand which led to a fall in the market for their textiles. Handlooms were affected additionally by competition from powerlooms, the government's failure to enforce the reservation of some varieties of cloth for production and the hank yarn obligation of mills, the stoppage of the Janata cloth scheme and the virtual collapse of APCO which owed large sums to the primary handloom cooperative societies. The weavers are not new to crises. They overcame each one of them with remarkable resilience. But the latest crisis has gone on for far too long for them to reinvent themselves. The policies of the government in the 1990s, which essentially amounted to taxing the poor and pampering the rich, have spelt doom for an industry, once the hope for the drought-prone area. METHODOLOGY Multi stage Random sampling method was used to select the respondents for the preset study. In the first stage, five Mandals where the weavers are concentrated were selected from among the 51 Mandals in Kadapa district. The Mandals thus selected are Mylavaram, Proddatur, Siddavatam, Muddunur and Jammalamadugu. In the second stage, 6 villages were selected at random from each of these five Mandals. In the third stage, 10 respondents were selected at random from each of these villages. Table 1. Sex Composition of the Respondents Sex Male Female Total No. of respondents 163 137 300 Percentage 54.30 45.70 100.00

The table interprets the Sex composition of the respondents. Majority (54.30%) of the respondents were percent of the respondents are males and remaining 45.70 percent of the respondents are females, It shows no different between the male and female for weaving, Its a family occupation.

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Table 2. Process of Selling of the Production Marketing Selling through Master Weaver Mediators Independent selling Marketing agencies Handloom expos Total No. of the Respondents 179 38 49 24 10 300 Percentage 59.70 12.70 16.30 8.00 3.30 100.00

The table describes the type of the marketing among the respondents. Majority (59.70%) of the respondents are doing the marketing through the master weaver, followed by 16.30 percent of the respondents doing the marketing independent selling like in side in home and selling directly in the shop, followed by 12.70 percent of the respondents are doing the marketing through the mediators, and followed by 8 percent of the respondents through the marketing agency and only 3.30 percent of the respondents are selling in handloom expos. Table 3. Marketing Problems among the Respondents Marketing problems Transportation Prices fluctuations Long distance Low price Insufficient selling platform Low Quality of product Total No. of the Respondents 89 64 69 35 20 23 300 Percentage 29.70 21.30 23.00 11.60 6.70 7.70 100.00

The table explains the marketing problems among the respondents. Majority (29.70%) of the respondents are having transport problem to do the marketing, followed by 21.30 percent of the respondents are having a prices fluctuations in the market, followed by 23 percent of the respondents are having a due to long distance, 11.60 percent of the respondents problem is low prices for the product, low quality of the product marketing is difficulty of the sellers, 7.70 percent of the respondent problem is low quality of the product and remaining 6.70 percent of the respondents not having a insufficient selling platform. Table 4. Causes for the Suicide of Weavers Reasons for suicides Debts High Interest rates Health issues Personal problems Total No. of the Respondents 161 100 25 14 300 Percentage 53.70 33.30 8.30 4.70 100.00

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The table explains various causes for the suicide of the weavers. Majority (53.70%) of the respondents reason is debts, Most of the weavers having a high debts for their economy status, who are given debt, they are pressuring a lot for repaying, then they decided to suicide, followed by 33.30 percent of the respondent cause is high interest rate for the debt, money lenders and pawn brokers they given the debt for high interest rate. Majority of the weavers health condition is not good above 45 years, they have a spinal, joint knees and eye sight problem etc., 8.30 percent of the respondents having a health issues for suicide an i.e Governmental institutional loans, Micro finance and debt with the others (money lenders, pawn brokers and financers), and only 4.70 percent of the respondents reason is personal problem (Family problems, Children education and marriages etc.,) Table 5. Opinion of the Respondents to Avoid Commits Suicide Government Steps Government should provide raw material with low prices Government should sanction loan at low interest rates Government should make marketing facilities in local areas Government should provide new technologies and techniques Government should scansion the loan without security and old loans write off Total No of the Respondents 86 98 76 28 12 300 Percentage 28.70 32.70 25.30 9.30 4.00 100.00

The table presents the measures taken by the Government steps to avoid suicides among weavers. Above the one third (32.70%) of the respondents opinion is Govt. should supply low interest rate, followed by 28.70 percent of the respondents are Govt. should provide raw material, next 25.30 percent of the respondents are Govt. should make marketing facilities and followed by 9.30 percent of the respondents are Govt. should provide new technologies and techniques and finally only 4 percent of the respondents Govt. should sanction loan without security and write off old loans. CONCLUSION In the handloom sectors majority of the weavers facing so many problems such as particularly for marketing for the handloom problems facing problems with Master weavers, Prices fluctuations, Long distance, Low price, Insufficient selling platform, Low Quality of product and finally Transportation. Government or NGO should provide the direct marketing facility for weavers it may be very useful for the weavers. Now a days weavers suicides also increased the ratio same as the agricultural farmers. If Government provides the raw material with low prices, sanction loan at low interest rates, make marketing facilities in local areas, new technologies and techniques, scansion the loan without security and old loans write off. Like some of these facilities may be facilitated Weavers suicides may be reduced. REFERENCES Annual Report, Ministry of Textiles, Govt. of India, 2009-10. DSouza, E (2004): The WTO and the Politics of Indias Textile Sector: From Inefficient Redistribution to Industrial Upgradation, Indian Institute of Management. Dr. R. Emmaniel, A Profile of Handloom industry in India, journal of exclusive management science - july 2012-vol 1 issue 7 -ISSN 2277 5684. Kanakadurga, "A Study of Marketing of Handloom in Andhra Pradesh", Indian Journal of Marketing, Vol.XXXIII, No.12, December 2003. Misra, S (1994): Indias Textile Policy and the Informal Sector in S S Nagel, Asian Development and Public Policy (London, England: The MacMillan Press), 44.

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Niranjana, S and S Vinayan (2001): Growth and Prospects of the Handloom Industry, Planning Commission, Government of India (GOI), New Delhi. Sreenivasulu, K., (1996), "1985 Textile Policy and Handlooms Industry.Poicy, Promises and Performances", Economic and Political Weakly, Vol.31, No.49, pp.3198-3206. Srinivasan Kasturi (1984), "India's Textile Industry", The South India, Textile Research Association, p.10. Express News Service (2012), Power cuts, costly yarn driving weavers to suicide article published on August 21, 2012

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NUTRITIONAL WELL-BEING OF PERSONS WITH DEMENTIASOME GOOD PRACTICES IN DEMENTIA FAMILY CARE IN KERALA
Robin Jose1 and Dr Mahajan P Mani2 Abstract Purpose: We conducted this study to explore the practical knowledge base identified and developed by families for caring persons with dementia which will have wider application in families, institutional settings, developing training modules and practice guidelines in the field of quality dementia care. Design and Methods: It is a qualitative study using case study design. The universe of this study is the whole families in Kottayam district of Kerala having persons with Dementia, who are cared in families itself. We employed purposive sampling and have selected six families with good care practices as samples for detailed case study. These families were selected by consulting doctors and social workers working in association with ARDSI, Kottayam Chapter. Primary data for the study was collected from the family members (primary care givers) of the dementia patients and interview schedule was used as the tool of data collection. Data analysis and interpretation has done using the techniques and methods of qualitative researches like acoustic recording and transcription. Results: Even though the family care givers are not trained for providing care; they have developed their own strategies and techniques to provide maximum comfort to the patient through nutritional well-being by adequate food and fluid consumption. Implications: All the good practices identified are already proved effective by the families through years of practice, so it have wider application in different settings and in developing training modules and practice guidelines for quality dementia care. Key words: Dementia, Quality Care, Person with Dementia (PwD), Family Care, Good practices. INTRODUCTION Dementia is primarily (but not solely) an affliction of the elderly, and the prevalence increases dramatically with age to include almost a third of the population over 85 (Mahandra, 1984). The term dementia was probably coined in the first century A.D., but for the next millennium or so was generally quite ill-defined and often used (along with delirium) to refer to insanity in general (Lipowski, 1981; Mahandra,1984). It is also likely that no real distinction was made between dementia and the changes in cognitive function associated with normal aging (Mahandra, 1984). It is well recognized that the number of older adults who suffer from dementia has been increasing and will continue to do so over the coming years. In fact, nothing short of a three-fold rise in the number of people with Alzheimers disease is expected to occur between 200 0 and 2050 (Zimmerman et al. 2005). Alzheimers disease and related dementias (ADRD) are progressive, degenerative illnesses affecting mental abilities, emotions, behaviour, and physical functioning (Patterson et al., 1999). They can create an overwhelming burden for family caregivers, negatively affecting their physical and mental health (Burton, Zdaniuk, Schultz, Jackson, & Hirsch, 2003; Peacock & Forbes, 2003; Schulz & Martire, 2004). The numbers of persons with dementia double every 5 years of age and so India will have one of the largest numbers of elders with this problem. It is estimated that over 3.7 million people are affected by dementia in our country. This is expected to double by 2030. It is estimated that the cost of taking care of a person with dementia is about 43,000 annually; much of which is met by the families. The financial burden will only increase in the coming years. The challenge posed by dementia as a health and social issue is of a scale we can no longer ignore. Despite the magnitude, there is gross ignorance, neglect and scarce services for people with dementia and their families (The Dementia India Report, 2010). Early in this century, the term organic psycho syndrome was used by Bleuler to refer to a set of behavioural manifestations of chronic diffuse cortical damage. The behavioural manifestations involved decrements in memory, judgment, perceptual discrimination and attention, emotional liability, and defective impulse control (Lipowski, 1981). This was essentially the classification adopted by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in the early editions of its Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-I and DSM-II; APA, 1952, 1968). Specifically, the DSM-II defined organic brain syndrome as a basi c mental condition characteristically resulting from diffuse impairment of brain tissue function from whatever cause,
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CBA, GFATM, School of Behavioural Science, MG University, Kottayam, Kerala Professor, Social Work, SGTDS, Mahatma Gandhi University Kottayam, Kerala.

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and manifested behaviourally as an impairment in orientation, memory, intellectual functions, judgment, and affect (Lipowski, 1981). In this classification, brain dysfunction resulted in a single behavioural syndrome, regardless of the etiology and site of neuropathology (Lipowski, 1981). The diagnostic criteria for dementia also require that a specific organic factor (or factors) can be either demonstrated or presumed (through the exclusion of all functional mental disorders) to be etiologically related to the disturbance. Dementing disorders that share a common symptom presentation but differ in etiology are distinguished in the DSM-IV. For example, the DSM-IV includes, among others, disorders such as Dementia of the Alzheimer Type, Vascular Dementia, Dementia Due to HIV Disease, Dementia Due to Head Trauma, Dementia Due to Parkinsons Disease, and Dementia Due to Huntingtons Disease . Adequate Food and Fluid Consumption Declining capacity to eat and drink independently, and subsequent malnutrition and dehydration, have long been recognized as serious problems for institutionalized elderly, particularly for those with impaired mobility and cognition (Van Ort & Phillips, 1995). Malnutrition, or undernourishment resulting from insufficient food intake, is reported in up to 85% of nursing home residents (Simmons & Reuben, 2000), and dehydration has been documented in as many as 60% of residents (Fries et al., 1997; Holben, Hassell, Williams, & Helle, 1999). Consequences of malnutrition include weight loss, infection, impaired wound healing, immune deficiency, development of pressure sores, and even mortality (Volicer, Warden, & Morris, 1999). Dehydration can result in constipation, urinary tract infections, renal disease, pneumonia, hypotension, and delirium (Spangler & Chidester, 1998; Volicer et al.). Insufficient consumption or inappropriate food and fluid choices can contribute directly to a decline in a residents health and well-being. Adequate assistance, preventive screening and intervention for nutritional problems will help to assure the overall health of residents suffering from dementia and will prevent unnecessary complications. Dementia may lead to reduced food and fluid intake, due in part to decreased recognition of hunger and thirst, declining perceptions of smell and taste, dysphagia (swallowing difficulty), inability to recognize dining utensils, loss of physical control, such as the ability to feed oneself, apraxia (impairment of ability to move) and depression. Residents with dementia may lose the ability to communicate hunger and thirst. Residents may refuse to eat because of physiological or behavioral conditions, or they may do so because they are at the end of life. Addressing dementia-associated problems and helping to ensure adequate intake of food and fluid requires a concerted staff effort. As found by others (Kayser-Jones, Schell, Porter, Barbaccia, & Shaw, 1999; Keller, 1993), the study conducted in USA in 2005, shows that prevalence of low food intake (54%) and low fluid intake (51%) is high among residents of long term care, specifically among those with cognitive impairment. While these figures are lower in RC/ AL facilities than in nursing homes, they still average approximately 50% overall. There are, however, noticeable differences between this observed prevalence and facility staff-reported prevalence of eating difficulties (13.7%) and drinking difficulties (6.9%). There are three care goals in this area according to Alzheimers Association, USA. They are: 1) To have good screening and preventive systems for nutritional care to avoid problems such as weight loss, malnutrition, pressure ulcers, infection and poor wound healing. 2) To assure proper nutrition and hydration so that residents maintain their nutritional health and avoid unnecessary health complications, given resident preferences and life circumstances. 3) To promote mealtimes as pleasant and enjoyable activities. (Jane & Peter, 2006). DESIGN AND METHODS Study Overview The major objective of this study was to identify good techniques and strategies developed by each family for caring persons with dementia according to different conditions of the family such as age of person with dementia, behavioural patterns, nature of the disease, other age related physical problems, environmental factors, economic conditions, educational and vocational status of other members, number of family members etc. One of the specific objective of this study was to explore the good practices in the care practice area nutritional well-being through adequate food and fluid consumption. Each family has a unique system of caring persons with dementia. So case study method is employed for this study. The objectives of this study demand an in-depth study of each family and very minute things, data which generally appears irrelevant and ignored are the most important, and this is the knowledge which is explored in this study. This is a qualitative study, regarding the good care giving techniques and strategies developed by families themselves which no longer be scientifically studied and recorded properly. The universe

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of this study is the whole families in Kottayam district having persons with Dementia, who are cared in families itself. The researcher employed purposive sampling. He has identified six families with good care practices as samples for detailed case study by consulting doctors and social workers working in association with ARDSI, Kottayam Chapter. Primary data for the study was collected from the family members (primary care givers) of the dementia patients and interview schedule was used as the tool of data collection. Data analysis and interpretation has done using the techniques and methods of qualitative researches like acoustic recording and transcription. The full interview was recorded using the audio recorder. Based on the transcription, case history of each patient was formulated and interpretations were made from it. RESULTS Major findings of the study can be summarised as follows: The place where the patient is having food can play an important role in nutritional well being. In most of the families, the patient is serving food in the public dining area with other members. In one family, patient is serving food in the veranda (sit out) of the house. The family noticed the place most comfortable to the patient. We cannot blindly recommend the family to take a particular place for the patient to have food. What we need is to promote mealtime as pleasant and enjoyable activity. So it is the interest of the patient is important and the family should identify the most comfortable place for the patient. The person with whom the patient is having food is relevant in the context of adequate food intake. In most of the families the person with dementia is having food with the other members of the family. The presence of close relatives provides a comfort zone for the patient who sometimes can be disturbed due to cognitive impairments. It was noticed in a family that the verbal encouragement provided by the husband while the wife (the person with Dementia) is having food has a good impact. The presence of grand children while having food is an encouragement for a person with dementia to have food. Families follow no separate time schedule and menu for the patient, every item is served to them. Fluid intake is a serious concern and a family developed a strategy to ensure adequate fluid intake. Rice, being an item served two or three times in a day is never served as rough and dry, it is served as kanji (a mix of rice and rice soup). Importance of special menu and time schedule for the person with dementia is a serious concern in two dimensions. First, the nutritional content of the item served and second, the likes of the person. In case of patients who never ask for food, every item is served in mouth using hands or spoon at regular time. When food reaches near the mouth, the patient will open the mouth and will receive the food. The quantity of food consumed by the patient at a time may be less. So a special time schedule is need, and it is identified by a family and introduced a schedule. The patient is served coffee and a snack (Rusk) at 5.30 am and breakfast at 8.30 am, lunch at 1o clock and tea at 2.30pm, snacks at 5pm and dinner at 8.30pm. DISCUSSION Even though the family care givers are not trained for providing care; they have developed their own strategies and techniques to provide maximum comfort to the patient. The findings of this study have a peculiarity that, all the good practices identified are already proved effective by the families through years of practice. A trial and error mechanism is already applied by the families in each practice. So the good and something found to be very relevant in specific situations and have universal application is specially noted in this study. They have wider application in different settings and in developing training modules and practice guidelines for quality dementia care. REFERENCES Alzheimers and Related Disorders Society of India, (2010), The Dementia India Report. Prevalence, impact, costs and services for dementia, New Delhi, India : Author. Bourret, E. M., Bernick, L. G., Cott, C. A., & Kontos, P. (2002). The meaning of mobility for residents and staff in long-term care facilities. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 37, 338 345. Burton, L.C., Zdaniuk,B., Schultz,R., Jackson, S. , & Hirsch , C. (2003). Transitions in spousal care giving . The Gerontologist , 43 , 230 241 . Filley, C. M., Kelly, J., & Heaton, R. K. (1986). Neuropsychologic features of early- and late-onset Alzheimers disease. Archives of Neurology, 43, 574576. Kayser-Jones, J., Schell, E., Porter, C., Barbaccia, J. C., & Shaw, H. (1999). Factors contributing to dehydration in nursing homes: Inadequate staffing and lack of professional supervision. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 47, 11871194.

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Horgas, A. L., & Tsai, P. F. (1998). Analgesic drug prescription and use in cognitively impaired nursing home residents. Nursing Research, 47, 235242. Lipowski, Z. J. (1981). Organic mental disorders: Their history and classification with special reference to DSM-III. In N. E. Miller & G. D. Cohen (Eds.), Clinical aspects of Alzheimers disease and senile dementia. Aging, Vol. 15 (pp. 3745). New York: Raven Press. Mahandra, B. (1984). Dementia: A survey of the syndrome of dementia. Lancaster, England: MTP Press. Patterson, C.J., Gauthier,S. , Bergman , H., Cohen, C.A., Feightner , J.W., Feldman , H.et al. (1999). The recognition, assessment, and management of demanding disorders: Conclusions from the Canadian Consensus Conference on Dementia. Canadian Medical Association Journal , 160 , S1 S15. Van Ort, S., & Phillips, L. R. (1995). Nursing interventions to promote functional feeding. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 21(10), 614. Weiner, D. K., & Rudy, T. E. (2002). Attitudinal barriers to effective treatment of persistent pain in nursing home residents. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 50, 20352040. Zimmerman, S., Sloane, P. D., Heck, E., Maslow, K., & Schulz, R. (2005). Introduction: Dementia care and quality of life in assisted living and nursing homes. The Gerontologist, 45(Special Issue I), 5 7.

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SOCIO ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF PACHAMALAI TRIBES


Dr. R. Shankar1 and S. Manimaran2 Abstract The purpose of this paper is to examine the concept of socio-economic conditions of Pachamalai tribes. The tribal population is identified as the aboriginal inhabitants of our country. For centuries, they have been living a simple life based on the natural environment and have developed cultural patterns congenial to their physical and social environment. The economic, health, nutrition and medico-genetic problems of diverse tribal groups have been found to be unique and present a formidable challenge for which appropriate solutions have to be found out by planning and evolving relevant research studies. The purpose of this quantitative, descriptive study was to explore socio-economic conditions of the tribes. Self prepared questionnaire was used to assess the socio-economic conditions of the tribal people. The major objectives of this study are to know the economic condition of the tribes and to understand the health status of the Pachamalai tribes. Key words: Tribes, Socio-economic and Health INTRODUCTION The tribal population is identified as the aboriginal inhabitants of our country. For centuries, they have been living a simple life based on the natural environment and have developed cultural patterns congenial to their physical and social environment. References of such tribal groups are found even in the literature on the ancient period, right from the Ramayana and the Mahabharatha periods (Mehta, 2000). According to L.P. Vidyarthi tribe is a social group with definite territory, common name, common descent, common culture, behaviour of an endogamous group, common taboos, existence of distinctive social and political system, full faith in leaders and self-sufficiency in their distinct economy (Vidyarthi, 1981). There are approximately two hundred million tribal people in the entire globe, which means, about 4% of the global population. They are found in many regions of the world and majority of them are the poorest amongst poor. According to Indias most recent census in 2011 Schedule tribes comprise 8.6% of the population. The distribution of ST populations varies widely across Indias states and territories. In Mizoram and Lakshadweep, STs represent close to 95% of the population whereas in Kerala and Tamil Nadu STs represent only 1% of the population. Among the total ST population in India, the highest proportions are found in Madhya Pradesh (14.5%), Maharashtra (10.2%), and Orissa (9.7%). There are around 700 different tribes living across India, predominantly in remote areas: forests, hills, and rough terrain in plateau areas. There is great heterogeneity across different tribal groups, including a sub-category of particularly vulnerable STs Known as primitive tribes (Indian Ministry of Tribal Affairs, 2004). After Indian independence, number of policies and programmes were initiated in the tribal areas, which had far reaching consequences. As a result of the national forest policy of 1952 the government began to discourage shifting cultivation. The government on the other hand introduced the special Multi Purpose Project (MPP) in 1956 for developing tribal economy on a special footing. The activities of various other government departments forest, soil and water conservation, roads and buildings have greatly increased employment potential in the tribal areas (Rao & Rao, 2010). ABOUT INDIAN TRIBES The word tribe has not been defined anywhere in the constitution in India. But it states in Article 324 that the scheduled tribes are tribes or the tribal communities or parts of or groups within tribes or tribal communities which the president may specify from time to time by public notification. As these communities are presumed to constitute the oldest ethnological segment of the Indian society, the term Adivasi (Adi means oldest and vasi means inhabitation) is commonly used to designate them.

1 2

Director, Centre for Career Development and Counselling, Professor in Sociology, Bharathidasan University, Tiuchirappalli 620024 ICSSR Doctoral Scholar Dept. of Sociology Bharathidasan University Tiruchirappalli -620 024

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State wise Tribal Population percentage in India (Source: Government of India, 2001) The International Labour Organization Convention 107 held at Genava on 5 June 1957, classified these people as indigenous (Behura, 1996). In 1953, National Extension Service Blocks were set up to provide the essential basic staff and a small amount of funds to the people so that they could start the development work essentially on the basis of self-help. The NSE Blocks were subsequently converted into CDP Block. The CDP activities were comprehensive which included programmes for the development of (a) agriculture and related matters, (b) communications, (c) health and sanitation, (d) education, (e) social welfare activities, (f) housing, and (g) employment and training (Behura, 1996). The tribal population of the country, as per the 2001 census, is 8.43 crore, constituting 8.2% of the total population with 91.7% of them living in rural areas and 8.3% in urban areas. The population of tribes had grown at the growth rate of 24.45% during 1991-2001. More than half of the Scheduled Tribe population is concentrated in the States of Madhya Pradesh (14.51), Maharashtra (10.17), Orissa (9.66), Gujarat (8.87), Rajasthan (8.42) and Jharkhand (8.4). For the Scheduled Tribe Population in India, the Literacy Rate increased from 8.53 percent in 1961 to 47.10 percent in 2001 for STs while the corresponding increase for total population was from 28.30 percent in 1961 to 64.84 percent in 2001. States Having ST Literacy Rates Less Than Countries Average for STs S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Bihar Uttar Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Orissa Jammu & Kashmir State/UT Literacy Rate 28.17 35.13 37.04 37.37 37.46

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6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Jharkhand Madhya Pradesh Dadra & Nagar Haveli Tamil Nadu West Bengal Rajasthan

40.67 41.16 41.24 41.53 43.40 44.66

Source : 2001 Census 2011 Census data not updated in the website The present study is conducted in the Tiruchirappalli District of Tamil Nadu in India. Tamil Nadu is one of the major states of southern India, consists of a few important scheduled Tribes. According to the census of 2001, the scheduled Tribe population in Tamil Nadu is 651,321, constituting 1.0 percent of the total population. There are thirty six (36) scheduled tribes of varying numerical strengths in the state. The details about the scheduled tribes of Tamil Nadu, population group-wise are given in the source: census 2001. These 36 scheduled Tribes are distributed in 29 districts of the state. 90.31 percent of the tribal live in hilly areas and 9.69 percent of them live in urban areas. The literacy rate among the tribal is about 41.53 percent as per 2001 census as against the literacy rate of 27.89 percent during 1991 census. The literacy rate among women is 20.23 percent, which is much less than that of tribal men viz., 35.24 percent. All these scheduled Tribes depict different ethnic cultures. Among them, though a few tribal communities are well versed in exposing their cultural identity, but a few tribal groups among them remained non-identified socially, culturally and even economically. Mostly culture of each tribe differs from the culture of other tribal groups. Elwin has shown a great interest in tribal health and medicine and made a number of studies on tribal communities where some information about tribal health and medicine are available. In the ethnographic studies made on tribal communities by S.C. Roy, D.N. Majumdar and others, most of the studies made on tribal communities have indicated the importance of understanding the sociocultural dimensions of health and disease. A number of deities are often associated with diseases or disease is connected with the interference of supernatural agency and naturally the nature of treatment such in cases are also made accordingly. In fact, there is a great need to understand and identify the case of illness and the nature of treatment is intimately connected with the cause identified. Health status of Tribes in India The health problems need special attention in the context of tribal communities of India. Available research studies point out that the tribal population has distinctive health problems which are mainly governed by their habitat, difficult terrains and ecologically variable niches. The health, nutrition and medico-genetic problems of diverse tribal groups have been found to be unique and present a formidable challenge for which appropriate solutions have to be found out by planning and evolving relevant research studies. Primitive tribal groups of India have special health problems and genetic abnormalities like sickle cell anaemia, G-6-PD red cell enzyme deficiency and' sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Insanitary conditions, ignorance, lack of personal hygiene and health education are the main factors responsible for their ill health (Basu, 2000). ST populations continue to carry high burdens of diseases of the poor, namely undernutrition and infectious diseases. High levels of chronic undernutrition have been observed among child and adult populations (Bose et al., 2006). Micronutrient malnutrition is also a major problem among STs, including anemia and iodine deficiency disorders (Ghosh & Bharati, 2003; Arlappa, et. al, 2009). Malaria persists, particularly among tribal populations living in forested areas and the prevalence has been found to be rising in some areas (Singh, et. al, 2003; Singh & Dash, 2009). Prevalence of tuberculosis varies across tribal populations. A number of studies have found that the prevalence and patterns of TB does not differ significantly from non ST communities, but that TB control programs for STs require special attention due to difficult terrain and limited drug supplies in many tribal areas. Geographical isolation and limited interactions with other communities has limited exposure of HIV/AIDS among ST communities and among some tribal groups prevalence rates remain low; however in some areas, STs are emerging as a high-risk group for HIV/AIDS as they migrate driven by displacement or for employment opportunities (Naik, et al, 2009).

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METHODOLOGY This study tries to understand the socio-economic conditions of tribes in Pachamalai hills. Descriptive research design was used. The investigator has attempted to describe the socio-economic variables of the tribal men. In the study area are 401 houses belong to tribals. Among these houses 30% of houses were selected through systematic random sampling method i.e., houses were selected. Self prepared interview schedule was prepared to collect data from the respondents. The interview schedule consists of information regarding age, gender, educational qualification, religious orientation, domical, economic status, health status, life style, family size, nature of occupation and staying. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1. 2. 3. To study the socio-demographic condition of the respondents. To study economic status of the respondents. To understand the health status of the tribes. Table 1. Socio-Demographic Status of the Respondents Variables Age Below 25 25-35 35-45 45 and Above Family Type Nuclear Family Joint Family Edu Educational Status Yes No Type of House Hut Tiled Concrete Roofs No. of Respondents 6 20 27 22 43 32 Percentage 08 27 36 29 57 43

23 52

31 69

13 17 13 32

17 23 17 43

The table1 depicts that 36 percent of the respondents were in the age group of 35 -45 years. More than one fourth of the respondents are belong to the age group of 25 35 years. It was also inferred that more than one fourth (29%) of the respondents were in the age group of 45 and above. With respect to the respondents family type, more than half percent (57%) of them were from nuclear family and less than half percent (43%) of the respondents are from joint family. With regard to the educational status of the respondents, majority (69%) of them had got educated and less than one forth (31%) respondents were found to be uneducated. The findings indicate that less than half i.e.,42% percent of the respondents reside under roofs, less than one forth (23%) reside in tiled house and 17 percent of the respondents reside in hut and concrete house respectively.

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Table 2. Distribution of the Respondents Based on their Economic Status Variables Nature of Work Agriculture Forest work Hunting Cottage Industry Monthly Income Rs. 1000 - 2000 Rs. 2001- 3000 Rs. 3001- 4000 Rs. 4001- 5000 Assistance from the Government Always Never Occasionally Have Debt Yes No 24 51 32 68 07 40 28 09 54 37 32 28 08 07 43 37 11 09 37 19 10 09 50 25 13 12 No. of Respondents Percentage

Table 2 indicates the occupational status of the respondents. It was found that half i.e., 50% percent of the tribes do agriculture work. One fourth of the respondents are working in forest on daily wages. 13 percent of the respondents occupation was hunting which was considered to be as one of the tradition for tribes and small i.e., 12% percent of the respondents were employed in cottage industry. As far as the respondents monthly income is concerned, less than half i.e., 43% percent of them earn Rs. 1000-2000, more than one forth respondents i.e., 35% monthly income is between Rs. 2001 3000 and very small proportion of the respondents. The findings of this study shows that more than half (54%) of the respondents do not receive any assistance from the government and more than one third (37%) of them receive assistance from the government occasionally. It is interesting to know that very small percentage (9%) of the respondents get government assistance very frequently. It was also inferred from the above table that nearly one third (32%) of the respondents were having debt. Table 3. Distribution of the Respondents Based on Their Health Status Variables Health Problems Typhoid Chicken Pox Malaria Whooping cough 45 12 10 08 60 16 13 11 No. of Respondents Percentage

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Bad Habits (smoking & Drug Addiction) Yes No Treatment Private hospital Government hospital Traditional Treatment 17 40 18 23 53 24 50 25 67 33

As far as health problem is concerned, majority (60%) of the respondents were affected with typhoid, 16 percent of the respondents had chicken pox, 13 percent of the respondents were infected with malaria and 11 percent of the respondents had whopping cough. The finding shows that majority (67%) of the respondents have bad habits like smoking and drug addiction. Results shows that more than half (53%) of the respondents take treatment from government hospitals, less than one forth (23%) of them take treatment form private hospital and nearly one forth (24%) of the respondents go for traditional treatment. DISCUSSION This present paper attempts to explore the socio-economic conditions of Pachamalai tribes. In the present study, it was observed that more than one third of the respondents were in the age group of 35 -45 years. The tribal family a fundamental institution performs a variety of functions such as economic function, religious functions, civil functions and functions relating to health. Accordingly, in this study it was found that majority of the respondents belong to nuclear family and majority of the tribes were uneducated. The economic conditions of tribes primarily depended on agriculture, forests and laboring. Similarly, it was found that majority (50%) of the respondents do agriculture and 25 percent of them were engaged in forest work. It was found that majority of the respondents monthly income ranges between Rs. 1000 2000. The findings show that very small percentage of the respondents get assistance from the government and it is due to the fact that most of the tribes were not aware about the government assistance. The health, nutrition and medico-genetic problems of diverse tribal groups have been found to be unique and present a formidable challenge for which appropriate solutions have to be found out. Further, the results indicate that significant percent of the respondents had typhoid and small percent of the respondents had other health complaints like chicken pox, malaria and whooping cough. It was disheartening to know that majority of the respondents had the habit of smoking. As far as the tribes treatment is concern, more than fifty percent (53%) of them take treatment form government hospital and one forth of them take traditional treatment. Mohindra & Labonte (2010) argues that Indians economy continues to grow and the health of the population improves, there is a need for greater attention and resources to be allotted to tribal populations who have not benefitted from the countrys economic growth and who continue to in fact have high levels of health needs. CONCLUSION The Tamil Nadu Tribal communities are at present engaged in economic pursuits ranging from hunting to settled agriculture and urban or industrial callings. However, agriculture dominates the tribal economic scene in Tamilnadu and hardly 2 percent of tribal workers are involved in non-agricultural pursuits. Forest land is the main asset possessed by the tribal is very low when compared to the total all Tamilnadu literacy level. Tribal isolation remains the main cause of social, economic and moral exploitation of tribal by non-tribal, poverty, widespread indebtedness, bondage, illiteracy, exploitation by middlemen and traders, land alleviation, discriminatory and forest policies etc. are a few problems experience by the scheduled tribes in different parts of our country. Their miseries are compounded by a low level of infrastructural and social services and the existence of a greater inequality among the tribes themselves. Regarding educations, the respondents are aware of their educational status. Though the respondents are illiterates, they dont want their children to be in the same educational status. They want their children to avail the education provided by the government. Transportation facilities provided with bus facility. This shows that government has shown much interest in the development of the tribal peoples transport facility. Regarding the

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transportation facility, education and government measures for the developments of the tribal have made their significance and it had reached the tribal people is really appreciable. Banking institutions were generous in granting loans to tribals they are not aware of the banking and they are availing only through the money lenders. In view of these facts, an attempt was made to study the socio-economic characteristics of tribes in Tamil Nadu with a special reference to the tribal belonging to the malayalee community living in Pachamalai hills in Tiruchirappalli district. To sum up the study finds that there is only a partial development in the socioeconomic conditions of the tribes people in the Pachamalai hills. REFERENCES Arlappa, N. et.al., (2009). Prealence of anaemia among rural pre-school children of West Bengal, India. Ann HumBiol, Pp. 1-12. Bose, K. et.al., (2006). High prevalence of undernutrition among adult Kora Mudi tribals of Bankura District, West Bengal, India. Anthropological Science, 114, Pp. 65-68. Behura, N.K. (1996). Planned Development and Quality of Life among Indian Tribes. Tribes of India on going challenges, NewDelhi: M D Publications. Ghosh, R., & Bharati, P. (2003). Haemoglobin status of adult women of two ethnic groups living in a peri-urban area of a Kolkata city, India: a micro-level study. Asia Pacific J Clin Nutr, 12, Pp.451-59. Kulamani Padhi, (2005). Tribal Development in India -A Study in Human Development. Orissa Review, Pp. 7278. Ministry of Tribal Affair, (2010). Statistical Profile of Schedule Tribes in India. Ministry of Tribal Affairs Statistical Division Government of India. Retrieved from www. Tibal.nic . in on 2/3/2013. Singh N, et.al., (2003).Forest malaria in Chhindwara, Madhya Pradesh, Central India: A case study in a tribal community. Am J Trop Med Hyg, Vol. 68, Pp.602-607. Books: Salil Basu, (2000). Dimensions of Tribal Health in India. Health and Population- Perspectives, 23(2), Pp. 61-70. Vidyarthi, L.P, (1981).Tribal Development and its Administration, Concept Publishing Company, New Delhi, Pp 12-14. Journals: India Ministry of Tribal Affairs, (2004). The National Tribal Policy: A Policy for the Scheduled Tribes of India New Delhi: Ministry of Tribal Affair. Naik E, et.al., (2009). Rural Indian tribal communities: an emerging high-risk group for HIV/AIDS. BMC Int Health Hum Rights, Vol.5, Pp. 1. Prakash Chandra Mehta, (2000). Tribal Development in 20th Century, Durga Taldar Shiva Publishers,Udaipur, Pp.7. Sundara Rao, M., & Lakshmana Rao, B. (2010). Factors Influencing Socio-Economic Status of the Primitive Tribal Groups (PTGs) and Plain Tribes in Andhra Pradesh (A Logistic Regression Analysis). World Applied Sciences Journal 11 (2): 235-244, 2010 Singh, N., & Dash, A.P. (2009). Fighting malaria in Madhya Pradesh (Central India): Are we losing the battle? Malaria Journal, Vol.8, Pp.93.

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SELF-ACCEPTANCE OF STREET CHILDREN


Dr. A. Kusuma1 Abstract The present study has been focused to assess the self-acceptance of street children and to study it according to their age, gender and education. Self- acceptance is accompanied by personal security and acceptance of others. Seventy five street children (50 boys and 25 girls) of 10-19 years age group are selected purposively from Bus station, Railway station and Koneru katta areas of Tirupati, Chittoor (district), A.P. General Information about the subjects is gathered by an Interview Schedule developed by the Investigator. To assess self- acceptance, Kakkar Self- acceptance Inventory (1984) is administered individually. Appropriate statistical techniques ore employed and the results are presented. INTRODUCTION Self acceptance is the degree to which an individual having considered his personal characteristics is able to and willing to live with them. Self acceptance and understanding of self are closely associated to accept him, the growing person must be aware of him. Self-acceptance is defined as affirmation or acceptance of self in spite of weaknesses or deficiencies. Although this term has been often understood in common sense way, researchers have defined it formally in terms of positive and negative self-concepts. According to Shepard (1979), self- acceptance refers to an individuals satisfaction or happiness with himself, and is thought to be necessary for good mental health. Self-acceptance involves self-understanding, a realistic, albeit subjective, awareness of ones strengths and weaknesses. It results in an individuals feeling about himself that he is of unique worth. In clinical psychology and positive psychology, self- acceptance is considered the prerequisite for change to occur. It can be achieved by stopping criticizing and solvin g the defects of ones self, and then accepting them to be existing within ones self. That is, tolerating oneself to be imperfect in some parts. Self- acceptance, in other words, requires awareness and perception. Jersild (1971) explained that the self- accepted person has a realistic appraisal of his resources combined with the appreciation of his own worth; assurance about standards and convictions of his own without being a slave to the opinion of others; and realistic assessment of limitations without irrational self approach. Self- accepting people recognize their assets and are free to draw upon them even if they are not all that could be desired. They also recognize their shortcomings without needlessly blaming themselves. The conditions favorable to self- acceptance are given below Self understanding Realistic expectations Absence of environmental obstacles Favorable social attitudes Absence of severe emotional stress Identification with well- adjusted people Self perspective Good childhood training Stable self- concept

Self acceptance and self-confidence, feelings of adequacy tend to be associated with personality integration and effective adjustment, whereas self- rejection and feelings of inadequacy are commonly associated with maladaptive behavior.

Professor, Human Development and Family Studies, Department of Home Science, Sri Padmavati Mahila Visvavidyalayam, Tirupati,Chittoor (dt),A.P.

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Every child has the right to opportunity and facilities that enable education, play, recreation to be protected against all forms of neglect, cruelty and by parents and society and subject themselves to exploitation due to economic distress. One among such children are street children. UNICEF (1992) defined street child as any minor for whom the street has become his or her habitual abode and who who is without adequate protection, supervision or direction from responsible adults.. Street children in the developing world is growing social problem which has a tremendous impact on the development and prosperity of the nation. UNICEF (1992) defined a street child as any minor for whom the street has become his/her habitual abode and who is without adequate protection, supervision or direction from responsible adults. Broadly street children are categorized into children on the streets with family contacts of more or less regular nature, children off the streets with occasional family contacts and abandoned children who have severed all family ties or had no family at all. UNICEF (2003) estimates 30 million street children in the world, of which 11 million are in India (Gopinath,1998). In six major cities of India Mumbai, Chennai, Calcutta, Hyderabad, Bangalore and Kanpur, (Maran, 1997) accounted the number of street children to be 4,14,700. The causes that compel children on to the streets are both social and psychological. Social- structural causes includes industrialization, urbanization, migration, economic compulsions, the quality of education, lack of schooling, lack of useful occupations, natural calamities and traditional compulsions. Psychological causes include poor parenting and negligence of children, intolerable situations at home, cruelty on children, sexual abuse and peer group influence. (Agarwal, 1999). Studies of Pandey (1991), Rao and Mallick (1992) reported that the street children are submissive and suffered from inferiority complex to a large extent. Street children also had feelings of inadequacy, insecurity, poor social adjustment which made them to be unhappy and unsuccessful in life. Apparently, the street children may have tendency to be neglected by the society which leads them to be socially maladjusted. Self- acceptance is accompanied by personal security and acceptance of others, which may be low in street children. Hence the present study is an attempt in this direction. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1. To study the general information of street children 2. To assess the self-acceptance levels of street children 3. To study the self- acceptance of street children according to their age, gender and education METHODOLOGY For the purpose of present study the total sample of 75 street children (50 boys, 25 girls) of 10-16 years age group are selected purposively from Bus station, Railway station and Koneru katta areas of Tirupati, Chittoor district, A.P. An Interview Schedule prepared by the investigator was used to gather general information about the sample. To assess self-acceptance of street children Kakkar Self-acceptence Inventory (1984) was administered. It is a self administering inventory initially adapted from the California Psychological Inventory and later simplified by Kakkar (1984). A large test covering a self-acceptance and providing wide survey of an individual from social interaction point of view, was pre-tested, redesigned and standardized on children. Self- acceptance as measured though this inventory is an assessment of factors such as sense of personal worth and satisfaction with self. The inventory consists of 34 statements with space to record the responses (true/false) along side of each statement. The total score for each sample was obtained by adding up the score obtained for individual statements. The total score can range from 0-34. The scores obtained were categorized into four groups as given below. Scores indicating very low self- acceptance Scores indicating low self-acceptance Score indicating high self- acceptance Scores indicating very high self-acceptance 0-10 11-16 17-22 23-34

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The suitable statistical techniques were employed like Percentages, Mean, SD and t -test to analyze and interpret the data. MAJOR FINDINGS General Information of Street Children Majority (60 %) of the street children are in the age group of 10-13 years than 14-16 years (40%) Out of 75 street children, 66.6 per cent are males and 33.4 per cent are females. Higher number of street children are middle born (48%) firstborn (45.33%) and last born (6.67%) Street children belonged to Hindu families (68.3%) are higher than those from Muslims (20%) and Christians (11.7%). More than half of the percentage (54.67%) of street children is found to be Scheduled Caste, 24 per cent Scheduled Tribe, 13.33 per cent Backward Caste and 8 per cent from Other Categories. Eight percent of street children speak Tamil indicating that they are migrants from Tamil Nadu and rest of the childrens mother tongue is Telugu A higher Percentage (70.67%) street child is from nuclear families with family size ranging from 4-7 members. A majority (62.67%) of the parents of street children are illiterates and rests of them have education up to secondary level. A higher percentage (61%) of the parents of street children are employed as servants and sweepers. A majority (45.4%) of street children is rag pickers and remaining percentage of them are helpers in varied occupations and self- employed. More than half of the percentage (53.33%) of street children has average working surroundings, 26.67 per cent of them have unhygienic working surroundings and only 20 percent are working in good surroundings. Nearly half of the percent (53.37 %) of them work to supplement family income and the rest of them to fulfill their own needs and wishes. Street children are from low income families and earn a meager income of Rs 10-20 per day. A higher percentage (82%) of them has very poor personal hygiene A majority (60%) of street children have suffered from fever, 24 percent from cold and headache, 16 per cent from minor skin diseases. A higher percentage of boys (73.4%) and girls (60.6%) are immunized and the rest of them are not immunized. Only 70 per cent of street children have attended school up to 5 th standard and remaining 30 per cent of them are illiterates. Self-acceptance of Street Children When the Self-acceptance is positive, children develop such traits as self-confidence, self-esteem and the ability to see themselves realistically. On the other hand when the self - acceptance is negative, children develop feelings of inadequacy and inferiority. Table 1. Distribution of Street Children by their Self- Acceptance Levels Score 0-10 11-16 17-22 23-34 Self- acceptance levels Very low self-acceptance Low self-acceptance High self-acceptance Very high self-acceptance Total No. 3 33 32 7 % 4.00 44.00 42.67 9.33

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The table 1 show that 4 percent of street children obtained the self- acceptance scores between 0-10 indicates very low self acceptance level. This level of self-acceptance group are characterized as highly conventional, quiet, self-abasing, given to feelings of guilt and self-blame and as being passive in action and limited in interests. The majority (44%) of the street children scored 11-16 which reveals low self-acceptance level. The characteristics of this group are methodical, conservative, dependable, easy going, quiet, self-abasing, passive in action and narrow in interests. Self-acceptance scores between 17-22 are categorized as high self- acceptance level. In this group 42.67 percent of the street children are found. They possess characteristics like intelligence, out-spoken, short- wild, persuasive, very badly fluent, having self confidence and self- assurance. The Self-acceptance scores between 23-24 are categorized as very high self- acceptance level. In this group 9.33 percent of the street children are included. This group may tend to be seen as very sharp, strongly demanding, strongly aggressive and self centered nature and over- confidence. On the whole, it is clear that majority of street children have low (44%) and high (42.67%) selfacceptance Table 2. Distribution of Street Children by their Self- Acceptance Levels According to their Age 10-13 years Score Self- acceptance levels No. 0-10 11-16 17-22 23-34 Very low self-acceptance Low self-acceptance High self-acceptance Very high self-acceptance 1 18 22 4 % 2.22 40.00 48.89 8.89 No. 2 15 10 3 % 6.67 50.00 33.33 10.00 14-16 years

It is observed from the table 2 that 2.22 per cent of 10-13 years age and 6.67 per cent of 14-16 years age street children have very low self acceptance level. Forty per cent of 10-13 years age group and 50 per cent of 14-16years age group fall under low self- acceptance level. Nearly half of the percentage (48.89%) of 10-13 years and 33.33 percent of 14-16 years are categorized as high self-acceptance level. Under very high selfacceptance level 8.89 per cent of 10-13 years and 10 per cent of 14-16 years street children are included. On the whole, a higher percentage of 14-16 years age group street children have low self- acceptance level than 10-13 years age group. This may be due to faulty parenting practices and negative attitudes by employers at the work environment made the children feel inferior.

Table 3. Distribution of Street Children by their Self- acceptance Levels According to their Gender Boys Score Self- acceptance levels No. 0-10 11-16 17-22 23-34 Very low self-acceptance Low self-acceptance High self-acceptance Very high self-acceptance 2 20 24 4 % 4.00 40.00 48.00 8.00 No. 1 13 8 2 % 4.00 52.00 32.00 12.00 Girls

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From table 3 it is examined that boys and girls have equal percentage (4%) in very low self- acceptance level. Forty per cent of boys and more than half of the percentage (52%) of girls are included in low selfacceptance level. Forty eight per cent of boys and 32 per cent of girls are categorized as high self-acceptance level. Eight per cent of boys and 12 per cent of girls fall under very high self-acceptance level. Girls with a higher percentage are seen in low self-acceptance level may be due to discrimination in the family, child rearing practices, parental attitudes, cultural practices and environmental influences. Table 4. Distribution of Street Children by their Self- acceptance Levels According to their Education Literates Score Self- acceptance levels No. 0-10 11-16 17-22 23-34 Very low self-acceptance Low self-acceptance High self-acceptance Very high self-acceptance 1 12 13 2 % 3.57 42.85 46.42 7.14 No. 2 20 19 5 % 4.25 44.68 40.42 10.62 Illiterates

It is indicated from table 4 that 3.57 per cent literate and 4.25 per cent illiterate street children have very low self-acceptance level. In low self-acceptance level 42.85 per cent literates and 44.68 per cent illiterates are included. With regard to high self-acceptance level literates are 46.42 per cent and illiterates are 40.42 per cent. Literates of 7.14 per cent and illiterates of 10.62 fall under very high self-acceptance level. Illiterate street children have low self-acceptance level where as literate street children have high selfacceptance level. The lack of schooling and awareness about importance of education may be attributed to the above finding. Chandra and Devi (1979) also supported the same. Table 5. Mean, SD and t- values of Self- acceptance of Street Children According to Their Age, Gender and Education. Variables Age (in years) 10-13 14-16 Gender Boys Girls Education Literates Illiterates 1.071 0.361 5.37 2.45 0.66 NS 0.62 0.72 4.361 3.527 0.99 NS 0.42 1.067 2.80 5.74 0.454 NS Mean S.D. t - value

NS : Not significant at 5% level of significance. t table value = 1.96

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From table 5 it is evident that there is no significant deference in self-acceptance of street children with regard to their age (t=0.454), gender (t=0.99) and education (t=0.66). CONCLUSIONS Government and non-government agencies should plan and implement the policies and programmes to rehabilitate the street children and integrate them into society. Welfare measures for street children should be strengthened so that they can improve their living and economic conditions. To develop the harmonious personality of the street children, their parents need family life education and family counseling. To improve the self-acceptance of street children there should be awareness and sensitization programmes to the parents, teachers and community on the development of positive and stable self-concept, selfinsight and realistic aspirations..

REFERENCES Agarwal, R. Street Children A Socio- psychological Study, Shipra Publications, Delhi, 1999. Chandra, S. and Devi, L. Child Labour in Harayana, Journal of Social Work, 26 (7), 34-36,1979. Gopinath, C.Y. If Only we were Children too from a Street Childs Dairy. Cry in Action, 4(1),2 -7,1998. Jersild( 1971). In Elizabeth B. Hurlock. Personality Development, TMH edition, New Delhi,434-437,1976. Kakkar, S.B Manual for Kakkar Self-acceptence Inventory, National Psychological Corporation, Agra, 1984. Maran, A. The Unheard Cry (1st Ed.) Coimbatore DONBOSCO Anbu Illam. 7-12,1997. Pandey, R. Situational Analysis of Street Children in Kanpur City, Street Children of India, Chugh Publication, 1991. Rao, B.V.R and Mallick, B. Street Children of Hyderabad A Situvational Analysis, National Labour Institute, Noida, U.P, 1992. Shepard, L.A Self-acceptance: The Evaluative Component of the Self-concept Construct, Educational Research Journal, 16(2), 139-160,1979. United Nations Childrens Fund, Children in Especially Difficult Circumstances, Report on A Lost Childhood the Situation in A.P Mahila Dakshsts Samiti, Govt. of A.P., 4 -5, 1992. UNICEF The State of Worlds children A Report, New Delhi, 2003

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INCIDENTS OF SUICIDE AMONG YOUTH IN KERALA: AN ANALYTICAL AND RETROSPECTIVE STUDY INTO PSYCHOSOCIAL DETERMINANTS AND CONSEQUENCES
Sudheer K.V1 and Dr. A.Sethurama Subbiah2 Abstract Recently suicide among youth poses a conundrum to socio biologists. As a sociological research, the study endeavor to find the causes and solutions of this social problem. This retrospective study is based on data drawn from the District and State Crime Record bureaus and newspaper reports in Kerala, assesses various psychosocial correlates of youth suicide in Kerala since 2001. The study focuses mainly on the factors of age and gender. The data reveals the degree and reasons of youth suicide in Kerala over the last eight years. Key words: Personality deviation, Suicide ideation, Depressive disorders, Suicidal syndrome. INTRODUCTION Self harm is the human act of self inflicting, self intentioned distroyal committed out of constricted thinking, severe anguish and acute depression and disorder. The tendency derives from mental illness. Depression, bi-polar disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety disorders and adverse environment caused by sexual abuse, domestic abuse, social isolation, discrimination etc are said to be the reasons of this crime.(4). Suicidal tendency and incidence among youth are being an ubiquitous phenomenon in the country in recent ages (5, 6, 7). It is increasing among youth in an alarming rate than old age groups. A report from The Hindu (16th March 2008) states that a third year student in Kerala ended his life before a web cam while chatting with his girl friend. Many adolescents in Kerala are in the grip of a death wish. The latest blot on Kerala's social landscape is the disturbing trend of teenagers seeking to end their lives. It came into focus when three girls in Ambalapuzha of Alapuzha district committed suicide by consuming pesticide. All of them were studying in class Eleventh. They jumped over the wall of their school compound at night, entered the classroom and consumed poison. The suicide notes they left behind indicated that unrequited love was the reason. (12). Another report from The Hindu reveals that two teenage girls with low assets allegedly committed suicide by jumping before a running train. They were found close to a track near the Kannur railway station around 4.30 am on 7th December 2008. The Hindu reports cumulative suicides in 2009. A higher secondary school girl child aged 17, jumped into a well and sacrificed her life and the reason was unknown. News report from Kasaragod district reiterates that a 16 year old secondary school male student consumed poison on 8 th June 2009 and deceased after two weeks in a private hospital at Mangalore. The reason is said to be the mental shock due to the failure in examinations. The single window system adopted by the Government of Kerala for providing admissions to the higher secondary classes creates some adverse effects to the students according to news reports. A report on 3 rd July 2009 show that at Mavelikkara in Alapuzha district a female student aged 16, killed herself. Mental agony due to the non availability of admission to class Eleventh is said to be the reason according to the reports. Several such deaths occurred in Kerala in the last year. Mathrubhuni daily (16 May 2012) reports that Sruthi, 16, a class XII female student of Pattuvam Govt Higher Secondary School, Taliparamba, Kannur District committed suicide by hanging inside her house. Mathrubhumi daily (30 November 2012) reports that Dineshdeenu, 16, a class XI male student committed suicide by hanging near his house at Kundara, Kollam District. Mathrubhumi daily (19 November 2012) reports that Soniya, 18, a female student in a parallel college at Kattappana, Idukki District set ablaze herself with kerosene. Malayala Manorama daily (15 February 2012) reports that Reshma, 16, a Class XI female student in Kamballur Govt. Higher Secondary School, Chittarikal, Kasaragod District found committed suicide inside her house. Malayala Manorama daily (24 September 2012) reports that Athira, 17, a Class XI female student committed suicide by hanging in her hostel at Periye in Kasaragod District.Mathrubhumi daily (6 December 2012) reports that Sunil, 17, a Class XI male student in Kallyotu Govt Higher Secondary School, Periye, Kasaragod District found committed suicide by hanging.
1 2

Research Associate, Dept. of social work, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu. Professor and Head, Dept. of social work, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu.

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Malayala Manorama (11 February 2013) reports, K. Sumitha aged 22, a female youth in Kasaragod district, found hanging in her bedroom. Deepika daily (9 February 2013) reports that Sumayya, 18, a class XII female student committed suicide by hanging at her home in Malappuram District. Deepika daily (11 March 2013) reports that Vinayapriya, a 12 year old female student in class VII, deceased at Medical College hospital in Kottayam. She set ablaze herself with kerosene the previous day. Malayala Manorama (06 February 2013) reports the suicidal attempt of a first semester BBA (female) student, jumping from the second floor of the educational institution, making her parents and the Principal as onlookers. Malayala Manorama (18 February 2013) reports that Susmitha, Age 20, a second year degree student(female) in Vivekananda college at Cherkala in Kasaragod District found dead in a pond near her house. The same daily reports the suicide of a male youth aged 22 by consuming poison. FINDINGS Study on a sample data of suicides from Kannur district illustrates that as many as 149 suicides (19.35%) are youth in 2001; of which 10. 9% male and 8.4% female. In 2008, the percentage of youth suicide has increased by 2.58%. Table 1. Suicides in Kannur District 2001-2008
NO. OF SUICIDES IN KANNUR DISTRICT 2001-2008 MALE YEAR 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 5 5 1 2 14 3 014 15 29 84 96 74 69 63 58 68 77 30 44 146 211 148 127 129 110 108 110 45 59 182 150 154 150 147 158 157 124 60 & ABOVE 130 129 145 103 107 87 76 105 TOTAL 542 586 526 454 447 415 423 419 014 1 2 8 5 1 1 3 4 15 29 65 53 60 57 46 47 32 55 30 44 60 56 48 43 41 39 45 37 FEMALE 45 59 47 39 31 49 47 41 45 35 60 & ABOVE 55 47 48 60 43 43 31 52 TOTAL 228 167 195 214 138 171 156 183 GRAND TOTAL

770 783 721 668 625 586 579 602

For some reasons, in 2007 suicide among male children below 14 years emerged a two digit figure 14 that is 3.3% of the total number of suicides while it was zero in 2001.While focusing the data of suicide among the female youth, it is found that the percentage has been comparatively in the increase. In 2001 percentage of suicide in the 15-29 age group was 28.5 % (i.e. 65 out of 225) and it has increased to30.05 % (i.e. 55out of 183) in 2008.

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Figure 1. Percentage of Suicide (15-29 Yrs) In Kannur District-2001-2008 Source: District Crime Record Bureau, Kannur According to National Crime Record Bureaus (SCRB) report on the suicides in Kerala, the female youth suicide registers all time high in the age group of 15-29; while in all other age groups the female ratio is less than the male (Table No.2). Kerala has witnessed a great number of suicide deaths among school and college girl students in this year. Furthermore, according to the reports of State Crime Record Bureau, suicide among the youth is rapidly increasing in the State. The finding of SCRB is that maximum suicide occurs in the female youth between 15-25 age groups and the main reasons are sexual abuse and examination stress.

SUICIDE RATE IN 2007 IN KERALA


34.5

35

31.41 28.69 27.25 25.7

30
25

Percentage of Suicide

20 15 10 5
1 1.81

16.65

16.7 16.55

MALE FEMALE

0
UP TO 14 15 TO 29 30 TO 44 45 TO 59

Age Group

60 & ABOVE

Figure 2. Suicide Rate in Kerala, 2007 Source: National Crime Record Bureau, New Delhi

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The Changes in the educational system, influence of media, lack of proper parenting, inadequate guidance to establish emotional stability, family problems, peer pressure, adjustment disorder, academic responsibilities, sexual exploitation, financial stringencies were found to be major reasons for suicide among the youth in Kerala State. Media persons all over the State reiterating that sexual abuse and unrequited love are the major reasons of suicide among the young girls in the State apart from adverse environment and mental illness. No one to confide in appears to be the reason for the sexually exploited girls to commit suicide in Kerala. Parents in nuclear families have no time to spare for their children and they try to compensate this giving money and materials such a mobile phone which fan up the vulnerability. Uninformed parents justify handing over mobile phones to their schoolchildren saying that it would help them to keep track of their children however, it goes counter to their good intention. When a girl finds herself being exploited sexually, she has no option other than suicide if she has no body to share her agony. MATERIALS AND METHODS Newspaper reports from January 2009 to July 20013 and data collected from both the District and State Crime Record Bureau are the main sources of information for this study. The website of the National Crime Record Bureau and various study reports in suicide also contributed to the study. CONCLUSIONS This explorative study based on the above statistics drawn from the District, State and National Crime Record Bureau, media reports, and forensic records reports that the rate of youth suicide in Kerala is in the increase. . Despite the advances in the medical and educational fields, the mental health of our society is worsening. Young females have registered higher incidence of suicide as per the samples considered. Media reports indicate that 80% of the youth committed suicide .are school and college going students and the incidence is very low in the moths of vacation. This unearths the seasonal element in youth suicide. The examination and publication of results related stress and accompanying depression and disorders and insensitivity of the educational authorities seems to be the reasons. This study evaluates that the measures of psychological guidance and counseling adopted in educational institutions in Kerala to prevent suicide neither could attain the goal nor gain required momentum. The declaration of HRD Minister Kapil Sibal to revamp and de traumatize school education is an absolute evidence to prove that the problem mentioned in this study exists all over the country. I have seen children committing suicide due to poor marks. I dont think children in our country should study under pressure. Education should not be traumatic. This is unacceptable. The Minister says. (The New Indian Express, 26 th June 2009) IMPLICATIONS OF PREVENTION An explorative study it has its limitations still it could highlight some implications of preventing the aggravating youth suicide in Kerala especially among girls. Our finding is that measures should be taken to avoid break down of the traditional framework of the society which gives a stable family pattern and the consequent depressive anxiety of the youth. Adequate measures to build confidence to live and to get ride of predicaments of life in the schooling level to be adopted. Sex education and pro- life messages should be given to the adolescent children. Behavioural disorders are to be detected in the initial stage itself and to be treated. Suicide is an act which derives from the adverse psychosocial environment and this is a very vulnerable sphere of both the adolescents and the youth. Unless sufficient stability is maintained in this environment, disorders may occur. A comprehensive study based on psycho- social aspects of youth suicide will be followed to suggest means to prevent the youth suicidal phenomenon in the State. REFERENCES Case studies on suicide by P.O.George, Social scientist associated with Maithri, Cochin. Emile Durkheim, (1956) Theory of suicide (p 86)University paperbacks, London, Kenneth.D.Craig. (1995) Anxiety and depression in adults and children Sage publications, New Delhi, Part III. Lovers or Traffickers? (April 14,2009) Kerala Girls Find out the Hard Way. Leela Menon, Womens Feature Service Maris.R.W. Suicide (Lancet, 2003)p 306-319

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Michael Eddleston, et al, Deliberate self harm in Srilanka, An overlooked tragedy in the developing world(British medical journal,1998)p 133-135 Philip.C.Kendall. Childhood disorders(Temple University press, Philadelphia, USA)p 11,83,85. Reports of Dr C.J. John, chief psychiatrist, Medical trust hospital, Cochin. Statistics from district and State Crime Record Bureau, Kerala. Statistics from National Crime Record Bureau, New Delhi. WHO Suicide and the young, WHO Chronicle,1979. WHO The World Health Report,1999. ******

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SOCIAL DETERMINANTS CONTRIBUTING FOR PERSISTENT MANUAL SCAVENGING PRACTICES A CASE STUDY
M. Ponnuchamy1, A. Thomas William2, V. Davis Raja3 and B. Alex Pandi4 Abstract Arunthathiyars are forced to engage in menial jobs such as scavenging works like removal of human excreta, removal of animal carcass, etc., mending of shoes, slippers, leathers, drums, etc, burning of deceased human bodies, playing bands for funerals and other practices. This study aimed at unveiling the types of manual scavenging practices the manual scavengers engaged on and to observe the social determinants that prevent them to relieve from such scavenging practices. Case study method was adopted by considering the Edayapottalpatti village in Srivilliputhur block in Virudhunagar district. Qualitative techniques such as nonparticipant observations and focus group discussion with the manual scavengers were conducted for primary data collection. Less education, controlled occupation mobility and restricted association of the focused manual scavengers and the poor inertia of law have pushed them to continue in the manual scavenging practices. Key words: Arunthathiyars, Manual scavenging practice INTRODUCTION In Tamil Nadu, Arunthathiyar communities are socially divided in the lowest strata. They can be termed as oppressed of the oppressed. Conventionally they are forced to engage in menial jobs such as scavenging works like removal of human excreta, removal of animal carcass, etc., mending of shoes, slippers, leathers, drums, etc, burning of deceased human bodies, playing bands for funerals and other practices (Srivastava, 1997). There is a pathetic situation that even educated Arunthathiyars are forced to enter into manual scavenging practices. The existing legislations have provisioned for closure of dry latrines but there are various forms of manual scavenging practices that are not exposed in the Acts as occupationally hazardous and for putting an end to such practices. Manual scavenging is defined as the removal of excreta manually from dry toilets (Singh, 2009). In many villages, the practice of manual scavenging, the removal of human excrement, is only undertaken by Dalits (Artis, Doobay, & Lyons, 2003). Since 1993, cleaning of dry latrines and transporting of human excreta has been banned. Under the Employment of Manual Scavengers and Construction of Dry Latrines (Prohibition) Act, 1993, the employment of scavengers or the construction of dry latrines (which are not connected to a drainage system) might lead to imprisonment up to one year and or a fine of Rs 2,000. Offenders are also liable to prosecution under the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989. Nevertheless the manual scavenging practices are not completely abolished from the soil. The manual scavenging practices have taken different forms that hammer the life and dignity of those engaged in it. There are reports that have showcased the prevailing manual scavenging practices in various parts of India. The International Dalit Solidarity Network (2002) investigation showed that in the absence of an adequate economic alternative, it is often seen that manual scavengers are not able to quit their degrading work. In Madhya Pradesh on an average, each family makes about Rs.500 per month by manual scavenging. Besides, they get old clothes and sweets during the festival season or during special occasions in the village. People's Union for Civil Liberties- Karnataka (2011) revealed the gruesome death of two scavengers when engaged in scavenging occupation. Fourteen-year-old Ravi used to be a beneficiary under the Self-Employment Scheme for Rehabilitation of Manual Scavengers (SRMS) 2007 as his mother cleaned toilets in the village. One day, when she gathered enough courage to quit the job, Ravi's scholarship funds were stopped and she faced hostility from the villagers who said, If you don't clean our shit, then who will? Belonging to a family of six siblings, dai ly life has become difficult for Ravi. His mother is not getting any other job due to the stigma attached to her past one. (The Hindu, March 30, 2011). A study by the Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad has found that the citys sanitation workers continue to work without safety equipment, spend a quarter of their income on medical treatment and remain, except for a handful, unaware of schemes tailored for them or the fact that physically carrying human excreta or night soil and entering manholes is prohibited. Most of these families were staying without toilets and
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Scholar, Manonmaniam Sundranar University, Tirunelveli Associate Professor & Post Doctoral Awardee, Dept. of Applied Research, Gandhigram Rural Institute Deemed University Scholar, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore Scholar, Manonmaniam Sundranar University, Tirunelveli

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running water facilities at their houses made of mud, wood and bamboo (The Indian Express, February 21, 2012). According to Safai Karmachari Andolan's (SKA) study report showed that the manual scavenging practices in town panchayats of Madurai, Theni, Dindigul and Devarappanpatti village panchayat. The permanent sanitary workers have been harassed by the sanitary officials and also have been threatened not to reveal their profession. The SKA has urged the Secretary of State Water Supply department, the Municipal Administration and the State to take immediate action against such officers. The demolition of dry latrines would end the practice and conversion of these toilets into water flush ones is the solution to the issue. (Ravichandran, 2008). Agricultural Finance Corporation Ltd (2007) studied the integrated low cost sanitation scheme. Though 96.0 percent of the sample sanitation workers belonged to depressed segment among scheduled castes, there are a few scheduled tribes and persons from general caste who are engaged currently as sanitation workers. The latter of course is the extremely poor or migrant who could get no other jobs. However, non- SC sanitation workers do not remove night soil. About 26.0 percent do not have dwelt with full ownership title. About 65.0 percent of the sanitation workers are illiterate and only 30.0 percent are educated upto primary level. The low level of literacy is the reason that they are not aware of any development programmes for their well being. The average income of 80.0 percent of sanitation workers is Rs 3300/- per month. 11.0 percent of sanitation workers are still continuing with removal of night soil in Tumkur, Udgir, Lucknow, Jalpaiguri and Gorakhpur towns. Thirty percent of the sanitation workers know about the rehabilitation package. It is interesting to know that in Gorakhpur and Dasna towns where many dry latrines still exist have knowledge about the assistance. About 52.0 percent of the sanitation workers felt that their status in the society has increased as compared to earlier days. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY This study aimed at unveiling the types of manual scavenging practices the manual scavengers engaged on and to observe the social determinants that prevent them to relieve from such scavenging practices. MATERIALS AND METHODS Case study method was adopted by considering the Edayapottalpatti village in Srivilliputhur block in Virudhunagar district. The Edayalpottalpatti village is located 4 kms away from Srivilliputhur town and 7 kms away from Rajapalayam town. In this village, around 200 Arunthathiyar families, about 800 Nadar families and a few other communities are living. Qualitative techniques such as non-participant observations and focus group discussion with the manual scavengers were conducted for collecting the primary data. Around 12 manual scavengers from the focus village participated in the focus group discussion. One of the research team members stayed in the village and observed the social factors influencing in sustaining the manual scavenging practices among the Arunthathiyar communities. The actual data collection was conducted during January and February 2013. The major outcomes of the study are: Around 52 Arunthathiyars are engaged in manual scavenging practices. Of whom about 26 of them are females. These manual scavengers have not crossed middle school level education. They became as manual scavengers through transfer of the occupation from their familial lineage. The manual scavengers are engaged in cleaning the drainage, cleaning the public toilets, removing the human excreta in the streets, removing the human bodies and animal carcass and cleaning the septic tanks. Most of them are engaged in more than one scavenging practice. They are engaged in the scavenging occupation through contractors, who are assigned by the government. The manual scavengers receive a wage of Rs.100 to Rs.150 per day. The family members at times engage as substitute workers in the scavenging occupation. The manual scavengers of the Edayalpottalpatti village live in a poor housing, which has constrained space to accommodate an average 4 to 5 members in a house. They are landless and have no savings. They are trapped in debts, which are borrowed for delivery, ear piercing, festival for the girl attaining puberty, pilgrimage, rituals, village festivals and death rituals. Most of their earnings go to repay the interests. The Arunthathiyars are often engaged in the manual scavenging practices. Particularly the Arunthathiyars from Edayalpottalpatti cover many areas of Srivilliputhur and Rajapalayam blocks. They wake up early in the morning and go for employment. Since in most families both the husband and wife are engaged in the occupation, the young children are left out of care. Even they are not in a state to send their children regularly to school.

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Arunthathiyars are discriminated by the dominant communities based on caste but the manual scavengers belong to Arunthathiyar communities are further discriminated, which is based on the scavenging occupations they are engaged on. When the manual scavengers are on their kakee uniform, the other communities do not associate with them. They feel that they are not respected in the society and believed that it is their destiny. As the manual scavengers are engaged in an unhealthy and sluggish working condition, they are conditioned to consume alcohol. Without consuming alcohol they are not able to work. Even the women engaged in manual scavenging also habituated to drink alcohol. The employers compensate the wages by supplying liquors to them. The manual scavengers of the Edayalpottalpatti are not associated with any of the social movements working for the empowerment of the manual scavengers. The Arunthathiyars in some of the nearby villages have left the manual scavenging occupation after the interventions of the Arunthamizhar Viduthalai Iyyakkam, a movement working for Arunthathiyars empowerment. But this movement struggles to associate the manual scavengers of the Edayalpottalpatti village. So, the employers have cornered the Arunthathiyars of the Edayalpottalpatti to engage in the scavenging occupation. The manual scavengers are submissive and obliged to the dominant communities, who have a social mindset that the Arunthathiyars are born to do such practices. They tie-up their hands while talking to persons belonging to upper castes. In the village tea shops, they normally do not drink tea along with other customers. They often stand behind the shop and drink tea. They have not actualized that such practices are dehumanizing them. They have realized it but considering as their fate they are not able to explore way to emancipate them from dehumanizing practices. CONCLUSION Manual scavenging practices exist in many forms and the people belonging to scheduled caste communities are engaged in such practices. The Arunthathiyars who are engaged in manual scavenging, do not have alternative employment to renounce the scavenging practices. Though in the modern times, the occupational mobility has increased for the rural caste suppressed masses to find out alternative employment to have dignified life. But less education, controlled occupation mobility and restricted association of the focused manual scavengers and the poor inertia of law to abolish the manual scavenging have pushed them to continue in the manual scavenging practices. REFERENCES Agricultural Finance Corporation Ltd. (2007). Evaluation and Impact of ILCS. Retrieved January 14, 2013, from Mhupa: http://mhupa.gov.in/w_new/ilcsRpt/ Artis, E., Doobay, C., & Lyons, K. (2003). Economic, Social and Cultural Rights for Dalits in India: Case Study on Primary Education in Gujarat. Princeton: The Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs . Express News Service. (2012, 02 21). Safety awareness still eludes sanitation workers: Study. International Dalit Solidarity Network: Report, 2002 (International Dalit Solidarity Network, 2002) "http://www.indiatogether.org/2006/dec/hrt-scavenge.htm"http://www.indiatogether.org/2006/dec/hrtscavenge.htm People's Union for Civil Liberties- Karnataka. (2011). Death of two persons engaged in the cleaning of a soak pit in Kenchammana Hoskote, Alur Taluk, Hassan District. Bengaluru: People's Union for Civil LibertiesKarnataka. Singh, R. K. (2009). Manual Scavenging as Social Exclusion: A Case Study. Economic and Political Weekly , 44 (26/27), 521-523. Srivastava, B. N. (1997). Manual Scavenging in India - A Disgrace to the Country. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company. The Hindu. (2011, March 30). A blot upon nation. The Indian Express News. (2012, 02 21). Safety awareness still eludes sanitation workers: Study. ******

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TREATMENT SEEKING BEHAVIOUR AMONG THE RURAL WIDOWS LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS
B. Alex Pandi1, A. Thomas William2, V. Davis Raja3 and M. Ponnuchamy4 Abstract Health is a core value, which is cherished by the organised behaviour of human beings. It is one of the socio-cultural factors that determine the status of any individual. The stigma attached HIV infection has created panic among the persons living with HIV (PLHIV). This study analysed the socio-economic contour of the widows living with HIV to understand their condition and their treatment seeking behaviour with specific reference to adherence of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Descriptive design was employed to study the treatment seeking behaviour of the widows living with HIV. Qualitative technique such as focus group discussion was conducted. The WLHIV have easy accessibility to health care from the health institutions but the economic burden on the take off their time and responsibility to drift away from regular maintenance of their health. The NGOs working with the WLHIV have not initiated sustainable livelihood programme for them. Though they are in self-help groups, they are not given privilege in promoting viable income generation programmes. The NGOs need to concentrate to enable the WLHIV to enhance their economic status, which would ultimately increase their treatment seeking behaviour. Key words: HIV/AIDS, WLHIV, NGO, ART, Treatment seeking behaviour INTRODUCTION India is one of the largest and thickly populated countries and the home for approximately 2.5 million (2-3.1 million with 0.36% prevalence) HIV infected population in 2007 compared to 5.2 million in 2006 (NACO 2007). In a country where poverty, illiteracy and poor health are the crucial social problems, the spread of HIV/AIDS has initiated a great challenge to the nation. Even though India has made significant progress in the past several decades in improving the health and well-being of the people, the country continues to bear the heavy burden of both communicable and non-communicable diseases. Health is a core value, which is cherished by the organised behaviour of human beings. It is one of the socio-cultural factors that determine the status of any individual. The stigma attached HIV infection has created panic among the persons living with HIV (PLHIV). They are conditioned to a state of health maintenance to have a better quality of life. If they fail to do so then they have severe health repercussion that eventually deteriorates their life. This further have rippling consequences on the families, the worst affected are the women and children. In rural cultural context, the women are treated as secondary citizens in the society, but the case even worse for the widows living with HIV (WLHIV). In many families, they become the heads of the family, who are in the compelling state to nurture the children and other family members. Those who belong to poor socio-economic status, are trapped in the vicious circle of poverty, violence, exploitation and abuses (Amita Chudgar, 2010, cited in William, et al., 2013). Samet, et al., (2003) conducted a cross-sectional study on HIV-positive men and women with a history of alcohol consumption. The result showed that the individuals, who drink alcohol at the time of receiving highly active anti-retro viral therapy (HAART), have lower CD4 counts and higher viral load than those, who did not consume alcohol. They observed no association between heavy alcohol consumption and CD4 counts or viral load among patients receiving anti-retro-viral therapy. However, alcohol consumption was connected with lower CD4 counts among patients not receiving antiretroviral therapies. Parsons, et al., (2005) pointed out that a positive relationship between the amount of alcohol consumption and viral load. Greater alcohol consumption was associated with higher viral load among HIV positive men. Sivaram, et al., (2008) in their study on behaviours of male patrons of wine shops found that Over 85% reported using alcohol at least 10 days a month i.e. 17% reported drinking everyday. During a typical drinking day, 49% reported consuming five or more drinks. Alcohol use before sex was reported by 89% of respondents. Unprotected sex with non-regular partners was significantly higher among unmarried men, those who reported

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Scholar, Manonmaniam Sundranar University, Tirunelveli Associate Professor & Post Doctoral Awardee, Dept. of Applied Research, Gandhigram Rural Institute Deemed University Scholar, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore Scholar, Manonmaniam Sundranar University, Tirunelveli

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irregular income, who used alcohol before sex and who have higher numbers of sexual partners. Solomon, et al., (2008) observed that women scored significantly lower than men in psychosocial well-being from the period prior to care, at enrollment, and at 6 months; women reported significantly higher levels of partner satisfaction at 6 months. Jintana, Anna and Vinod (2000) have found that the people who attributed persons losing weight, having fever and cough as AIDS rather than TB. This caused delay in seeking care and non-adherence to TB treatment in some patients who suspected they have AIDS and feared AIDS detection. Most HIV-negative TB patients were also suspected by their relatives and neighbours of having AIDS. Most participants, except HIVpositive females, believed TB to be curable. Kalichman (1999) investigated the continued sexual risk behaviour among 203 HIV-positive men and 129 HIV-positive women recruited from infectious disease clinics and AIDS service agencies. The outcomes showed that 42% of men and 42% of women reported at least one occasion of unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse in the preceding six months. Unprotected intercourse frequently occurred outside of long-term relationships and with partners who were not known to be HIVinfected. Sexual behaviors among heterosexual persons living with HIV (PLHIV) in India, was investigated. The results showed that one third of men and one fourth of women reported inconsistent condom use with regular sexual partners. Facilitators of condom use with regular partners included a feeling of personal responsibility to protect the health of the partner, desire to prevent acquisition and/or transmission of sexually transmitted infections, and the belief that condoms are needed for antiretroviral therapy to be effective (Chakrapani, Newman, Shunmugam, & Dubrow, 2010). Raj, et al., (2011) described sex risk behaviors of HIV-infected female sex workers (FSWs) and HIV-infected male clients of FSWs. Among males, a greater number of transactional sex partners was associated with more unprotected transactional sex episodes, and any unprotected transactional sex was associated with higher odds of self-reported STI in the past year. For women, risky transactional sex behaviors were not associated with condom non-use, and unprotected sex was negatively associated with STI. Pronyk, Makhhubele, Hargreaves and et al., (2001) examined the health seeking behaviour among hospitalised tuberculosis patients. Patients more often presented initially to public hospitals (41%) or clinics (31%) than to spiritual/traditional healers (15%) or private general practitioners (13%). Total delay was shorter amongst those presenting to hospitals than those presenting to clinics, with a significantly smaller proportion of the total delay attributable to the health service providers. Lwin (2011) explored that the increase in highest education level and wealth was found to be significantly associated with the high HIV related knowledge, have comprehensive knowledge, have HIV related positive attitudes, have accepting attitudes towards PLHA and HIV related less risky behaviors. Ahmed, Tomson, Petzold, & Kabir (2005) there was no major differences in health-seeking behaviour between elderly people and younger adults. On an average about 35% (405/1169) of those who reported having been ill during the previous 15 days in both age groups chose self-care/self-treatment. A household's poverty status emerged as a major determinant of health-seeking behaviour. Traditional healers (THs) were sometimes preferred over health facilities (HFs) because of familiarity, trust, accessibility, expense, payment plans, and the perceived cause, nature and severity of the illness, e.g. only THs were believed to successfully treat bewitchment. Some people, particularly young girls, delayed or avoided seeking treatment for STIs for fear of stigma. Most STIs were attributed to natural causes, but AIDS was sometimes attributed to witchcraft. Locally available biomedical care of people with AIDS-like symptoms consisted of basic treatment of opportunistic infections. (Plummer, et al., 2006). Wig, Lekshmi, Hemraj and et al., (2006) in their study observed that there was a significant difference of quality of life in the physical domain between asymptomatic patients (14.6) and patients with AIDS (10.43) defining illnesses and asymptomatic and early symptomatic (12) patients. Ramachandani, et al., (2007) revealed that major barriers to taking ART were cost (33%), lack of knowledge of ART (41%), and deferral by physician (30%). More than half of all public and private patients have not heard of CD4 (57%) or viral load testing (80%), and even fewer have received these tests (32% and 11%, respectively). Increasingly older adults are being diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. In 2002, UNAIDS indicated that 13 aspects of quality of life (QoL) were poorer for older adults, but only sparse, inconsistent cross-cultural evidence is available. Moreover, older people reported greater dependency on medication. However, older HIV adults have better QoL than expected on 11 dimensions; negative feelings, social inclusion, and several environmental and spiritual facets. This highlights the extent of poor QoL in younger adults. (Skevington, 2012).

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OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY This study was conducted to observe the socio-economic contour of the widows living with HIV to understand their condition in general and more specific to know their treatment seeking behaviour with specific reference to adherence of antiretroviral therapy (ART). MATERIALS AND METHODS Descriptive design was employed to study the treatment seeking behaviour of the widows living with HIV. Qualitative technique such as focus group discussion was conducted. Two focus group discussions were conducted in two packets of Madurai district. In each focus group discussion, minimum 11 women were present. The NGOs working with the PLHIV helped in conducting the focus group discussions in the month of January 2013. The participant widows were from rural areas and in the productive age group of 19 to 45 years and who had shown no inhibition in disclosing their HIV identity. MAJOR OBSERVATIONS All the widows participated in the discussion are engaged as agricultural labourers and having income below Rs.3000 per month. Some of the women feel satisfying to some extent about HIV post-test counseling. Some of the women were silent and unrevealing about the post-test counseling. The WLHIV make frequent visit to ART centre but at times lack of family support prevent some of the WLHIV to make frequent visit to ART centre. Those who failed to go to ART centre regularly feel that they are disinclined to go to ART centre due to fear of HIV disclosure to others. But they continued to go to ART centre after the counseling provided by the programme staff, which removed their self-stigma. The WLHIV who are registered under On-ART healthy state after ART consumption. Earlier some WLHIV in On-ART didnt adhere to ART suspecting that it has side effects but after the visits of the health programme personnel, they have understood about the ART course and its health effects, which resulted in continuation of their ART medication. The WLHIV in Pre-ART test CD4 count once in 3 months, but those failed to do so due to lack of family support. The Community Care Centre (CCC) is the chief health care institution for the WLHIV to avail treatment for OI. But they have satisfaction on treatment to a moderate level. They suggested the State should provide the CCC with adequate infrastructure and medical equipments to render quality health care services for PLHIV. The WLHIV are burdened with economic pressure to maintain their family, especially their children, after the demise of their spouse. They are not respected in the in-laws house. The driving force to care their health is their children because they feel that after their death the children would be left out without proper care and support, so till their maturity the survival is must. The neighbours and relatives have questioned the WLHIV why they are taking medicines, which is ART medicine, so sometimes they avoid consuming the medicine, particularly during festivals and rituals. The grown up children suspect the consumption of ART drugs, this also create a fear among the WLHIV, who at times discontinue the ART medication. The programme staff in HIV/AIDS care and prevention is the external force that motivates them to maintain their health for having better quality of life. Irregular income sources from the work, is the threatening factor that at times retards them accessing to better health care. The WLHIV are able to disclose their HIV identity in their HIV infected community but they still have problem in mingling with others who dont know their HIV status.

CONCLUSION The WLHIV have easy accessibility to health care from the health institutions but the economic burden on the take off their time and responsibility to drift away from regular maintenance of their health. The NGOs working with the WLHIV have not initiated sustainable livelihood programme for them. Though they are in self-

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help groups, they are not given privilege in promoting viable income generation programmes. The NGOs need to concentrate to enable the WLHIV to enhance their economic status, which would ultimately increase their treatment seeking behaviour. More over Professional social workers along with health personnel functioning with PLHIV; have to upkeep the Pre-ART patients in the Pre- ART status itself in such a way that they need to be given effective counseling. REFERENCES Ahmed, S. M., Tomson, G., Petzold, M., & Kabir, Z. N. (2005). Socioeconomic status overrides age and gender in determining health-seeking behaviour in rural Bangladesh. Bulletin of World Health Organization , 83 (2), 109-117 Chakrapani, V., Newman, P. A., Shunmugam, M., & Dubrow, R. (2010). Prevalence and Contexts of Inconsistent Condom Use Among Heterosexual Men and Women Living with HIV in India: Implications for Prevention. AIDS Patient Care and STDs , 24 (1) Jintana, N., Anna, W., & Vinod, D. (2000). High AIDS awareness may cause tuberculosis patient delay: results from an HIV epidemic area, Thailand. AIDS , 14 (10), 1413-1419. Kalichman, S. C. (1999). Psychological and social correlates of high-risk sexual behaviour among men and women living with HIV/AIDS. AIDS Care , 11 (4), 415-427. Lwin, T. Z. (2011). An Examination of the Association between HIV Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors and HIV Infection Status in Five High HIV Prevalence States in India. Retrieved April 10, 2013, from Public Health Theses. Paper 168: http://digitalarchive.gsu.edu/iph_theses/168 National AIDS Control Organisation. (2007). Prioritisation of districts for programme implementation. Retrieved January 18, 2013, from NACO website Pronyk, P. M., Makhhubele, M. B., Hargreaves, J. R., Tollman, S. M., & Hausler, H. P. (2001). Assessing health seeking behaviour among tuberculosis patients in rural South Africa. The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease , 5 (7), 619-627. Parsons, J. T., Rosof, E., & Mustanski, B. (2009). The Temporal Relationship Between Alcohol Consumption and HIV-Medication Adherence: A Multilevel Model of Direct and Moderating Effects. Health Psychology , 27 (5), 628-637. Raj, A., Saggurti, N., Cheng, D. M., Dasgupta, A., Bridden, C., Pradeshi, M., et al. (2011). Transactional sex risk and STI among HIV-infected female sex workers and HIV-infected male clients of FSWs in India. AIDS Care: Psychological and Socio-medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV , 23 (11), 1374-1381. Samet, J., Horton, N., Traphagen, E., Lyon, S., & Freedberg, K. (2003). Alcohol consumption and HIV disease progression: Are they related?.Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 27, 862867. Sivaram, S., Srikrishnan, A. K., Latkin, C., Iriondo-Perez, J., Go, V. F., Solomon, S., et al. (2008). Male alcohol use and unprotected sex with non-regular partners: Evidence from wine shops in Chennai, India. Drug and Alcohol Dependence , 94 (1-3), 133-141 Skevington, S. M. (2012). Is quality of life poorer for older adults with HIV/AIDS? International evidence using the WHOQOL-HIV. AIDS Care , 24 (10), 1219-1225. Solomon, S., Venkatesh, K. K., Brown, L., Verma, P., Cecelia, A., Daly, C., et al. (2008). Gender-Related Differences in Quality of Life Domains of Persons Living with HIV/AIDS in South India in the Era Prior to Greater Access to Antiretroviral Therapy. AIDS Patient Care and STDs , 22 (12), 999-1005. Wig, N., Lekshmi, R., Hemraj, P., Ahuja, V., Mittal, C. M., & Agarwal, S. K. (2006). He impact of HIV/AIDS on the quality of life: A cross sectional study in north India. Indian Journal of Medical Sciences , 60 (1), 3-12. William,Thomas, Davis Raja and Maria Rajendran, (2013). SHG & WHH Overcoming Susceptibility. Indian Streams Research Journal , 3 (4), 1-5.

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A STUDY ON EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE BASED ON HEMISPHERIC SPECIALIZATION


Boban Eranimos1 Abstract Present study assessed with hemisphere specialization, emotional intelligence was found to differ. The influence of hemisphere specialization on emotional intelligence is the central research issue in discussion .In the present investigation, higher emotional intelligence is found in individuals with ambidextrous hemisphere specialization than individuals with right or left hemisphere specialization. Descriptive survey method was used for the present study. This study also explored the impact of hemisphere specialization on emotional intelligence based on gender. The findings have been discussed in the light of available theoretical and empirical literature. INTRODUCTION Interest in hemispherical lateralization has been increasing among psychologists (Lindzay and Norman 1977), brain researchers (Wittrock 1977), and Psychiatrists (Wexler 1980).The right and left cerebral hemispheres of the brain are highly developed centers for processing sensory information. To the naked eye the two halves of the human brain look like mirror image of each other. But closer examination reveals asymmetries .The left hemisphere is almost always larger than the right hemisphere. Studies have shown that the two hemispheres are asymmetrical differing in anatomical, electrical, and chemical properties (Woods,1986). For example autopsies reveals that one hemisphere, usually the left ,is larger than the other about 95 % of the time(Geshwind & Levitsky,1976).Although each hemisphere is specialized to handle different functions ,they are not entirely separate systems .Rather ,our brains function mostly as an integrated whole. The two hemispheres consistently communicate with each other through a broad band of millions of connecting nerve fibers called the corpus callosum (Cook, 1986; Gazzaniga, 1987; Gazzaniga et al; 1989). Surprisingly the two halves control opposite sides of the body. The right hemisphere controls the left sides of the body and left one controls the right side of the body. Although functions are usually handled exclusively by one hemisphere the two hemispheres always work together. (Bradshaw, 1989, Efron, 1990). It has been found that humans specialize in the use of the right and left hemispheres of their brain. Important insights into the relation between the right and left hemispheres have been provided by studies on the effects of split brain surgery. It is clear from experiments that right and left hemispheres of the brain specialize in handling different sorts of information. Differences in functioning between the right and left hemispheres have been reported by the famous brain researchers like Gazzaniga, Sperry, and Bogan. In 95% of right handers and in about 62 % left handers, the left hemisphere handles most of the language functions, including speaking, writing, reading and understanding the spoken word (Hellige, 1990). Even American Sign Language (ASL) used by deaf persons is clearly a left hemispheric function (Corina et al,1992).From birth ,in children of both sexes, The left hemisphere appears to be more attuned to language (Hahn,1987).The left hemisphere is also specialized for mathematical abilities, particularly calculation and it processes information in an analytical and sequential ,or step-by step, manner. Logic is primarily a left hemisphere specialty (Levy,1985).The right hemisphere is generally considered to be the hemisphere which is more adapted for visual spatial functions .Artists ,sculptors, architects, have strong visual spatial skills. The right hemisphere processes information holistically rather than part by part or piece-by piece as the left hemisphere does. (Corballis,1989).Auditory visual and touch stimuli is registered in both hemispheres, but the right hemisphere appears to be more specialized than the left for complex perceptual tasks. Consequently, the right hemisphere is better at pattern recognition, whether of familiar voices, melodies or visual patterns. The right hemisphere is also active in the recognition and expression of emotions (Borod1992).It even responds to the emotional message conveyed by others through their tone of voice (Heilman et al 1975).Reading and interpreting non verbal behavior, such as gestures and facial expression, is primarily a right hemisphere task (Hauser, 1993). The right hemisphere is involves in our expression of emotion through our tone of voice and also our facial expressions. The left side of the face, controlled by the right hemisphere, usually conveys stronger emotion than the right side of the face. Emotion is the prime factor as far as the right hemisphere is concerned (Harrington, 1995). Human beings are psychologically very complex. Human mind is able to reason, learn and form concepts or ideas as well as direct actions towards specific goals. In other words, human beings are not only motivated by reason and intelligence but also are subject to passions, desires and a range of other feelings which

Research Scholar in psychology, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala, India.

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can strongly motivate them. These feelings are called emotions .The latest research shows that human beings operate from two minds - rational mind and emotional mind. The harmony between the emotional and rational mind is what constitute emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence (EI) is a recent development, in the area of intelligence as well as affective science, both of which have given birth to overlapping perspective on human nature. The concept of emotional intelligence implies that humans are both rational and emotional beings. They are predominantly neither rational beings nor emotional beings. Hence, adaptation and coping abilities in life are dependent on the integrative functioning of both rational and emotional capacities. Psychologists all over the World have come to the conclusion that only 20% of a persons success can be attrib uted to his intelligence, the other 80% can be credited to the persons emotional intelligence. People with greater emotional intelligence generally have better control over the target of their lives .The positive feelings of confidence, happiness, and enthusiasm are harnessed to help the individual achieve greater heights. The present study was intended to find out whether emotional intelligence is concentrated in left, ambidextrous or right hemisphere. Each hemisphere has its own specializations and functions. There are various parameters such as verbal, logical, analytical thinking, emotional maturity, language, etcthat determine emotional intelligence. Language is a prime factor among them, and is seated in the left hemisphere. 95 % of all adults use the left side of the brain for speaking, writing and understanding language. From birth, in children of both sexes, the left hemisphere appears to be more attuned to language. There arise the doubts that whether the left hemisphere has any influence on emotional intelligence when the emotion is seated in the right hemisphere .Here the question is whether emotional intelligence is concerned with any one of the hemispheres or found scattered in both hemispheres. It is hypothesized that there exist no significant difference in the emotional intelligence among individuals with left hemispheric specialization, right hemispheric specialization and ambidextrous hemispheric specialization. Another hypothesis formulated for the study was that the level of emotional intelligence of individuals with Left hemispheric specialization, Right hemispheric specialization and ambidextrous hemispheric specialization will not differ with respect to gender. The study on emotional intelligence based on hemispheric specialization is significant for various reasons. Many studies have been conducted in the field of hemispheric specialization, but this is the first study focusing on the relationship between hemispheric specialization and emotional intelligence. The modern concept of emotional intelligence is in itself a youthful one. Work has yet to be done to discover exactly what emotional intelligence encompasses and how it could be most effectively applied. The present study is more concerned with the neuropsychological aspects of emotional intelligence. Today great importance is given to the concept of emotional intelligence all over the world, because if its influence in determining the success of an individual. So if researchers are able to find out the hemispheric pecialization in emotional intelligence they would be able to plan training programmes giving emphasis to the enhancement of the concerned hemisphere. Various training programmes can be designed in a useful manner to foster the emotional intelligence of people working especially in the areas concerning Business, Management experts etc. The information would help to identify the elements of emotional intelligence and its relation with individual hemispheres. When stimulated appropriately, it would help to improve ones psychological well being. MATERIALS AND METHODS The descriptive survey method was used for the present study. The investigator used random sampling for the purpose of the sample selection. The sample was drawn from a population of adult individuals living within the geographical area of Athirampuzha Grama Panchayath Kottayam District, Kerala State in India .The sample consisted of 120 subjects 60 males and 60 females. The subjects were of the age group 20 years to 60.Individuals with mental retardation, physical disability, psychiatric disorders and other neurological disorders were excluded for convenience of the study. Emotional Intelligence Inventory (2003) constructed and standardized by Thomas and Sushama and Left /Middle/Right Brain Preference test by Loren Crane (1989) adopted for this study. Emotional Intelligence Inventory (Thomas and Sushama, 2003).This is a 50 item self -rating scale, which gives a measure of overall Emotional Intelligence .The tool has high internal consistency (Chronbach alpha =0.88;N=432)and factorial validity of the tool has also been estimated using a sociometric rating method (r = 0.58;N = 192). Left /Middle/Right Brain Preference test was estimated using the method of internal consistency reliability analysis. Reliability Coefficient obtained for the scale using a sample of 120 adults is 0.85 .The researcher explained the instructions about filling up of questionnaires and doubts were clarified .The questionnaires that were completely filled were selected for the study. The personal data sheets were used for collecting the details of the respondents like name, age, sex, and religion.

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Table1. Means and Standard Deviations of Emotional Intelligence Scores of theTotal Sample with Respect to the Type of Hemispheric Specialization Hemispheres Left hemispheric specialization Ambidextrous hemispheric specialization Right hemispheric specialization Total N 54 31 35 120 Mean 163.24 171.39 158.46 163.95 SD 16.46 22.49 19.32 19.45

Table 1 indicates the Arithmetic mean and Standard deviations scores of Emotional intelligence of the individuals with respect to their hemispheric specialization. The highest mean value 171.39 is obtained by the individuals with Ambidextrous specialization, followed by the mean value163.24 which is obtained by the individuals with left hemispheric specialization .The lowest mean value obtained by the individuals of right hemispheric specialization 158.46. Table 2. Summary of ANOVA of Emotional Intelligence Scores of the Total Sample with Respect to Type of Hemispheres Source of Variation Between groups Within groups Total
*

Sum of Squares 2797.79 42221.91 45019.70

df 2 117 119

Mean Square 1398.90 360.87

F- ratio

3.88*

Significant at 0.05 level

From table 2, it is seen that the obtained F-ratio is 3.88.The value is significant at 0.05 level .Hence the null hypothesis, that there would be no significant difference in the level of emotional intelligence among individuals with right hemispheric specialization, left hemispheric specialization and ambidextrous specialization is rejected. A persons emotional intelligence is determined by various factors .Biological, environmental and social factors are important among them. This study is more concerned with biological evidences of emotional intelligence, it is found that emotional intelligence varies with respect to hemispheric specialization, i.e.; each hemisphere is specialized for some particular functions, therefore the emotional intelligence may vary with respect to hemispheric specialization. Since a statistically significant F-ratio was observed; test of least significant difference was used for post-hoc comparison. Table 3. Test of Least Significant Difference (LSD) for Pair Wise Comparison of Emotional Intelligence Scores of Total Sample with Respect to Type of Hemispheres Pairs Left Ambidextrous Left Right Ambidextrous right ** Significant at 0.01 level Mean value 163.24 171.39 163.24 158.46 171.39 158.46 Mean difference -8.15

4.78

12.93**

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From table 3 it is seen that, there is no significant difference between the individuals with left hemispheric specialization and individuals with ambidextrous. Specialization with respect to emotional intelligence i.e.; emotional intelligence of the individuals does not differ in accordance with left and ambidextrous specialization. There is no significant difference between the individuals with left hemispheric specialization and individual with right hemispheric specialization with respect to emotional intelligence .i.e.; emotional intelligence of the individuals does not differ in accordance with left and right hemispheric specialization. Specialization with respect to emotional intelligence i.e.; emotional intelligence of the individuals does not differ in accordance with left and ambidextrous specialization. There is no significant difference between the individuals with left hemispheric specialization and individual with right hemispheric specialization with respect to emotional intelligence .i.e.; emotional intelligence of the individuals does not differ in accordance with left and right hemispheric specialization. There is significant difference between individuals with ambidextrous specialization and individuals with right hemispheric specialization with respect to the emotional intelligence. It is significant at 0.01 level .From the mean values it can be seen that individuals with ambidextrous specialization have scored high in emotional intelligence than those with right hemispheric specialization. This means that individuals with ambidextrous specialization have high emotional intelligence. There are various parameters such as verbal, logical, and analytical thinking, emotional maturity, language etcthat determine emotional intelligence. Language is the prime factor among them and is seated in the left hemisphere, but emotion is seated in the right hemisphere. Right and left hemispheres work together for the functioning of emotional intelligence. This may be the reason why individuals with ambidextrous hemisphere score high in emotional intelligence. The hypothesis that there would be significant difference in emotional intelligence among individuals with right hemispheric specialization, left hemispheric specialization and ambidextrous specialization is partially accepted. Table 4. Means, Standard Deviations and t Values of Emotional Intelligence Scores of the Persons Based on Hemispheric Specialization with Respect to Gender. Hemispheric specialization Right Gender Male Female Male Female Male Female N 12 23 30 24 18 13 Mean 163.25 155.96 161.07 165.96 172.33 170.08 SD 25.72 15.06 15.46 17.59 18.82 27.55 0.27 -1.09 0.91 t

Left

Ambidextrous Significant at 0.05 level

From the above table it is clear that the obtained t values are 0.91, -1.09 and 0.27 based on their hemispheric specializations with respect to gender were not statistically significant at 0.05 level. Therefore it can be clearly that gender is not a significant factor influencing emotional intelligence based on hemispheric specialization. Springer and Deutshs (1998) commentary on the sex differences in certain human abilities like verbal and spatial skills, point out that males tend to be more lateralized for verbal and spatial functions whereas females show greater bilateral representation for both types of functions. Extending the relationship of lateralization and ability, they postulate that men only the left hemispheres is involved in language, learning, visuo-spatial functions intact in the right ,whereas in the women, language is established in both the hemispheres ,crowding visuo-spatial ability. This is believed to explain the superiority of females in language functions. (Halpern,1992) and males in visuo -spatial functions (Schaie,1994) However ,it may also be possible to explain the gender differences observed in terms of differences in education and socialization. Competing evidence exists surrounding whether or not males and females differ significantly in general level of emotional intelligence. Daniel Golman (1998) asserts that that no gender difference in emotional intelligence exist, admitting that while men and women may have different profiles of strengths and weaknesses in different areas of emotional intelligence. Their over all level of emotional intelligence are equivalent. Social factors like home, environment, personal background and peer group are important for the development of

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emotional intelligence. In the modern civilized world, these factors are equally applicable to male and female individuals .Equal opportunities, availability and utilization of resources are more or less similar for both the sexes This as the one of the reasons for both males and females to show no difference in emotional intelligence. REFERENCES Badshaw, J. L. (1989). Hemispheric specialization and psychological function. New York: Wiley. (2). Borod, J. C. (1992). Interhemispheric and intra hemispheric control of emotion: A focus on unilateral rain damage. Journal of Counsulting and Clinical Psychology, 60,339-348.(2). Comprehension of affective speech .Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 38, 69-72. (2). Cook, N. (1986). The Brain Code: Mechanisms of Information transfer and the Role of the Corpus Callosum. New York: Methuen. Corballis, M. C. (1989). Laterality and human evalution .Psychological Review, 96,492-509. (2).

Corina, D. P., Vaild, J., & Bellugi, V. (1992).the linguistic basis of left hemisphere specialization. Science, 225, 1058-1060.(2). Efron, R.(1990).The decline and fall of hemispheric specialization.Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum.(2). Gazzaniga, M. (1987). Perceptual and attentional processes following callosual section in humans. Neuropsychologia. 25,119-133. Gazzaniga, M., Kutas, M., Van Petten, C., & Fendrich, R. (1989) Human callosal function: MRI-verified neuropsychological functions: Neurology, 39,942-946. Geschwind, N., & Levitsky, W. (1976) .Left -right asymmetries in temporal speech region. Science, 161,186187. Golman Daniel (1998).Working with emotional intelligence .New York: Bantam Books. Hahn, W.K. (1987). Cerebral lateralization of function: From infancy through childhood. Psychologial Bulletin, 101,376-392. (2). Halpern, D.F. (1992). Sex differences in cognitive abilities, New York, Erlbaum. Harrington A. (1995).Unfinished business: models of laterality in the nineteenth century. Brain asymmetry, R.J Davidson and K. Hugdahl, ed. MIT press: Cambridge, MA. Hauser, M.D. (1993).Right hemisphere dominance for the production of facial expression in monkeys. Science, 26s1, 475-477.(2). Heilman, K. M., Scholer, R., &Watson, R.T.(1975).Auditory affective agnosia :Disturbed. Helliage,J.B. (1990).Hemispheric asymmetry: Whats right and whats left. Cambridge, University Press.(2). Levy, J.(1985).Right brain ,left brain :Fact and function .Psychology Today,PP.38-44.(2). Lindzay, Peter. H, and Norman, Donald A.( 1977), Human Information Processing, New York: Academic Press. Schaie; K.W. (1994).The course of adult intellectual development, American Psychologist,49,304-313. Springer, S.P. & Deutsch, G. (1998).Left Brain-Right Brain :Perspectives from cognitive neuroscience, 5 th Ed., New York: Freeman& Company. Wexler, Bruce E. (1980)Cerebral Laterality and Psychiatry: A review of the Literature, The A merican Journal of Psychiatry,137,279-89. Wittrock, Merlin C. (1977), The Human Brain, Englemood Cliffs, NY: Prentice -Hall, Inc. Woods, R. (1986). Brain asymmetries in situs in versus -Archives of Neurology, 43,1083-1084. MA:Harvard

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IS SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES A CATALYST TO SOCIALIZATION?


Dr. Reni Francis1 Abstract Social media plays a vital role in transforming the way people communicate with each other. In a world dominated by technology and many individuals possessing an innate need for continuous streams of information, social networking effectively fulfills the desire for both the ability to send and receive responses instantly. This study is an attempt to find the users of Social Networking Sites, the common Social Networking Sites used by people, the numbers of hours spend on these Social Networking Sites, the reasons for the use of Social Networking Sites and the risks involved in using Social Networking Sites. The sample for the study involved 200 people of different age groups. It involved students from junior college, young working adults, people working in corporate, housewives, and retired people. INTRODUCTION Social media plays a vital role in transforming the way people communicate with each other. In a world dominated by technology and many individuals possessing an innate need for continuous streams of information, social networking effectively fulfills the desire for both the ability to send and receive responses instantly. While people may still interact with one another in more 'traditional ways' such as visiting homes or phone calls, many people today are updated to learn or receive the latest news about one another through FaceBook rather than from a personal inform. How many people learn about the happenings of family and friends online? Even of those who live nearby? Is this a negative evolution? Perhaps, but in some ways the ability to globally socialize can be a positive. Socialization is the process of inheriting norms, customs, and ideologies. Social networking is a way to use computer networks to achieve the objectives of socialization. Social networking can be viewed in two senses: in the sense of interacting socially and undergoing socialization at sites throughout the Internet, or interacting socially, and undergoing socialization in the real world. Social networking has an impact on socialization, for better or worse: Less Phone Calls: While many people are becoming attached and dependent upon their cell phones, this has more increasingly evolved from calling to communicating through text messaging. Today much communication takes place via electronic text and a high percentage likely occurs through social networks. Decreased Face to Face Interaction: People spend an unreasonable amount of time on social network sites. However in an age where time often feels to be at a premium, many people are likely to connect with friends and family on social networks rather than spend time socializing in person. Less One on One Interaction: Social networks are rooted in the philosophy of shared information. A message sent by a person can be disseminated to a number of people in a fraction of a second. Face Book and Twitter are two of the most current popular networks that offers a way of sending out a singular message where it can be streamed to all connections. Can Social networking be the silver lining for the cloud of socialization: Social networking sites offer people new and varied ways to communicate via the internet either through their PC or their mobile phone. The great strength of social networking is the multiple ways the users can interact. Below is a list of the main communication resources used to build social networks: chat; messaging; wiki; email; video; voice; chat; file sharing; blogging; discussion groups. Few highlights linking social networking towards socialization: More Information Shared: Expanding on familiar knowledge and learning new information becomes predominant. The larger the network, more the information being spread. In this respect people are exposed to many different lives and obtain a keen insight as to how others live and what they are thinking, both near and far. Diversity: Through social networks people who never would have had the opportunity to interact can share thoughts, knowledge and ideas. The diversity of people and their perspectives to socialize locally in a global network becomes easier.

Asst. Professor, Pillai College of Education and Research, Chembur, Mumbai.

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PC at home: Home internet penetration has increased and also the connection speed, this helps in an increasing access to home internet facilitates for the use of social networking sites. Increasing ICT confidence: There are an increasing number of people who have basic computer and internet skills and the confidence to use them. These people are much more likely to take to new online communication technology such as social networking sites. User-friendly programmes: In the past, setting up ones own blog or webpage involved a relatively sophisticated knowledge of computer programming. While this has changed over the years, social networking sites have developed a system that, at its most basic, simply involves filling in the gaps or using drop-down boxes. SCOPE OF THE STUDY In view of these aspects the researcher probed into the finer arenas of Social Networking Sites (SNS) in daily use. The sample for the study involved 200 people of different age groups. It involved students from junior college, young working adults, people working in Corporate, housewives, and retired people. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. To find the users of Social Networking Sites. To find out the common Social Networking Sites used by people. To find the numbers of hours spend on these Social Networking Sites. To find out the reasons for the use of Social Networking Sites. To find out the risks involved in using Social Networking Sites.

It was indeed necessary to know the spectrum of users of these SNS to understand at length the finer aspects of social networking sites towards socialization. Hence the age group and number of users in each sector were analyzed. Age Limit 15 25 25 - 35 35 45 45 60 Above 60 Total No. of Users 48 44 43 37 28 200

2.

It was observed that adolescents and young working community had made SNS as a hub for their interpersonal relationships and this formed their means of socialization. The middle age group focused on SNS mainly for their professional socialization and build networking. It was more on status promotion and value addition that they emphasized on. For the retired group of people, it was more on being in the social group, being updated and to be at par with the techno- Gen group. Connecting with old friends and also updating themselves with their kids who were a part of these SNS. The most common SNS used were Face Book, Twitter, Linked In, Yahoo, Skype, Orkut. At this stage it was necessary to find out the numbers of hours people spend on the SNS, this would give us an idea to what extent SNS has pepped into our lives and also will be able to highlight the addictive nature of people towards SNS.

3.

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No. of hours spend on SNS in a week 0 5 hours 6- 15 16 25 26 35 36 45 More than 45 hours

No. of people 43 122 18 11 4 2

The prime aspect that caught in the eyes of the researcher was the hours spend on these SNS. Though SNS has become daily routine, but it has yet to become an addiction. It was seen that maximum number of hours spend by most of the people were between 6 15 hours which ranges approx around 2 hrs a day. This was felt quite acceptable considering the boom of SNS in our country. Any individual would spend around 3-4 hrs in a day for recreation, but the alarm would be if this number increased. 4. People visiting the SNS may have various reasons behind it, it was imperative to find out the reasons for the same to understand their intentions in spending time on the SNS. No. of people 200 186 189 89 21 56 121 89 52 12

Reasons on SNS Stay in touch with friends Share photo, video other work Find more about people you know or you do not know Communicate with classmates about content related topics Plan or invite people to events Participate in special interest groups Make new friends with people whom we have never met As a forum to express opinions and views For professional activities Response to advertisement

This finding was indeed of prime importance for the researcher with respect to SNS, it peeped into the fact of using SNS. The purposes were many but the most striking was that SNS were mainly to stay in touch with friends and to know more about people whom we know and do not know. 5. With every positive opinions there possess likely threats and fear towards SNS. Few risks factors that evolved from the people were No. of people 79 114 67 42 52

Risks faced by people Security problems (virus affected files) Misuse of information Leaving a history that could cause problems in future Cyber bullying Restricting access to SNS

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With surety there is no guarantee for security, we may become slaves of these SNS, but there is also a fear of the same with respect to the enormous amount of new virus arrivals affecting our hardware and software. Quite often the profile put up may not match to reality, undisclosed facts or distorted information affects the credentials of the individuals, personal bias and hatred are often reflected in several posts and comments, poking and un-friending also becomes very obvious, cyber bullying also is witnessed. Such information leaves a history which affects personally in future at marriage alliances, jobs and family relationships. Restricting the access to SNS has also become a common aspect in many firms. CONCLUSION The research analysis gives a base for further research in each of its areas towards SNS. Social networking could really help to discover new ways to communicate knowledge by moving the focus toward a more and more ubiquitous learning developed by community interactions. Building ones social network is an ongoing process. The value of social networking sites is clear, both as an entertainment tool and also as a way of creating and giving oneself identity which is very vital in socialization. REFERENCES Boyd, D. M., & Ellison, N. (2007) One history of social networking sites. Retrieved from http://yasns.pbwiki.com/ Boyd, D. M., & Ellison, N. (2007). Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 13(1), article 11. Retrieved fromhttp://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol13/issue1/boyd.ellison.html Williamson, D. A. (2006, July 25). Hooking Up With Social Networks. Retrieved from http://www.emarketer.com/Article.aspxid=1004079

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PREVALENCE AND DETERMINANTS OF DEPRESSION AMONG RURAL ELDERLY


Dr. S. Gunesekaran1 and Dr. A. Thomas William2 Abstract The present study based on a sample of 900 elderly selected from the rural areas of three different districts of Tamil Nadu indicates a high prevalence of depression among elderly. The depression status of elderly is measured using Geriatric Depression Scale consisting of 30 items in which the respondents are asked to respond in reference to how they felt over the past one week. The results of the study show that more than half of the elderly (51 percent) aged 60 years and above are severely depressed 23.2 percent are having mild depression and just 25.8 percent are normal. The major causes of depression are poor intake of food resulting in poor nutritional status, and poor life style behaviour mostly with sedentary type of activities. The study findings suggest the need for day care centres in villages with entertainment facilities and nutrition supplementation. Counselling through village health nurse would be of more help to elderly in reducing depression and improving their mental status. Key words: Geriatric Depression, Rural Elderly, Life Style, Physical Mobility, Nutritional Status Acknowledgement The Authors would like to acknowledge that this paper is based on a major study conducted by the department of applied research of the Gandhigram Rural Instituten with funding from the Indian council of Medical Research (ICMR), New Delhi. The authors are very much thankful to ICMR for making the data available for this paper. INTRODUCTION Depression in simple sense could either be a common experience and a common illness. As an experience; the individual sometimes feel miserable and found it hard to enjoy life. As an illness, it is distressing and could be named as the common cold of psychiatry (Seligman, 1975). But Gilbert (1992a) has strongly contended that This comparison is unfortunate, for it conveys the impression of a frequent but mild complaint. On the contrary; the level of severe depression could cause tearfulness, irritability, feelings of guilt, emotional numbness, loss of enjoyment, lack of energy, poor concentration, disruption of sleep/appetite/sexual functioning, negative rumination, hopelessness and, in some cases, suicidal tendencies (Fennell, 1989). When elderly is diagnosed; dementia is often noticed as a major contributory factor for depressive disorders among the older population. It is an established reality that the prevalence of depressive disorders is often identified as high among individuals suffering from other mental disorders, especially dementia and cognitive impairment. Hence it is therefore considered to be a potentially fatal illness and if the individual is elderly; the damage is doubled as they are in their verge of life. When an individual is considered as important in family and community; it would make the individual to feel more motivated, understood, increase the esteem and eventually promote the psycho-social wellbeing. It has been profound by Blazer II, D.G and C.F. Hybels (2005) that elderly with personality disorder were four times more susceptible to depressive symptoms compared to those without. High neuroticism and presence of continuous life challenges and more miseries increased the chances for developing depressive symptoms. It has been reported by Ankur, et al., (2011) that prevalence of depressive disorders in the elderly population of the world ranges between 10 per cent and 20 per cent taking into consideration various socio, economic and cultural factors. There were also studies conducted earlier in India on mental health revealed that the range of prevalence of depressive disorders in elderly Indian population varies between 13% and 25% (Nandi D.N., 1976; Ramachandran V., 1982). As the statistics indicate that India is the second-most populated country in the world in terms of elderly population of 60 years and above (Rangaswamy SM 2001, Wig NN 2001); the problem of depression among elderly is not yet gaining importance as a public health problem. Unfortunately very few community-based studies have been conducted in India so far to address this issue (Ankur, et.al, 2011).

1 2

Prof. & Head, Dept. of Applied Research, Gandhigram University Associate Professor & UGC Post Doctoral Awardee, Dept. of Applied Research Gandhigram University

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Lack of support from family and community led to problems like loneliness, isolation and depression among the elderly (Regina M. McDonald and Peter J. Brown 2008); as lack of social support prepares a breeding ground for depressive symptoms. Social support networks for the elderly provide a sustainable power to lead a better life. Moreover it provides a means of hold and a means to identify new ways of finding friendships with people who have a similar age, experiences, background and even losses. Hence social support and network of relationship for the elderly in the community are very essential in promoting the Quality of Life among old age people. Emotional and psychological support helps to strengthen areas where loss has been encountered both in physical and mental. In other words the social support networks helps the elderly to disclose to each other their inner feelings and problems, share time together, adjust to the stages of their lives as they try to establish meaningful relationship with each other. Kay et al. (1985) had accounted that a significant risk of mortality due to depression among individuals concomitantly suffering from epilepsy or Parkinson disease as there is a significantly high prevalence of cognitive impairment among depressed individuals. It has been observed by Moore, M. et. al., (2005) that the depressive elders will have a disturbed temporal focus in the sense that they are less focused to future life and more directed towards the past and wanted to live in the past than the present. It is to be understood that normally the timeline of an individual is continuous; it is discontinuous for the elderly suffering from depression. People with depression (reversible dementia) can be hypophonic and have a forgetful memory pattern, but able to learn new information. (Blackmun, 1998; Kay DW, et.al., 1985). Relating with peer group in a social support network is a tactic that is more secured and reduces risk factors associated with poor mental and physical health of the elderly. World wide it has been observed that there is a decreasing trend of prevalence of depression among elderly population but the sorry state of affairs is that the Indian old age population showed a significantly higher rate of depression in recent years, than the rest of the world (Ankur, et.al, 2011). As the family and social relations are essential; if the elderly lack close and intimate relations they are at the risk of developing major depression during the stressful life events like illness, divorce, death, bereavement, chronic stress & pain and adverse impact in their socio-economic life (D.G. Blazer II and C.F. Hybels 2005). When social network challenged abruptly, impaired social support may be the most important contributor to late-life depression (D.G. Blazer II and C.F. Hybels 2005). It has been estimated by Paykel, 1989 (quoted in Gilbert, 1992a; Fennell, 1989) that the severe depression would lead to risk for life which could vary from 5 per cent to over 12 per cent. According to Fennell (1989) depression has been estimated to account for 75% of psychiatric hospitalisations. Gilbert (1992b) also projected that various disorders such as anxiety, eating disorders, addictions, schizophrenia etc., are the offshoot of depression as in many cases it frequently a contributing factor. It was Beck (1987) who advocated that depressed individuals often tend to show over-action and exaggerate, misrepresent adverse life events and they tend to use disastrous ways and means than the healthy alternatives. Higher levels of self -mastery have shown to have a direct association with fewer depressive symptoms in older adults and to buffer the adverse impact of disability and depression (Jang et al. 2010). The consequence of depression among the elderly is an another area which requires greater attention as Depressions often lead to emotional and physical suffering and ultimately deteriorate the quality of life and augment the risk for death among elderly. More over the body functioning and biological composition is also deteriorating when the depression increases among the older persons (Dan G. Blazer II and Celia F. Hybels 2005). Self-efficacy is an important approach blended with social support reduces depressive symptoms (Bandura Albert, 1977). Social support in the form of economic security, health security, moral support, physical presence, active listening, help and assistance would promote healthy and productive older people. Apart from the above; social support can mediate between risk factors and development of depression. In number of longitudinal studies it has been proved that reduced social support is directly proportional to the developing of depressive symptoms among elderly. In this context the present paper focuses on the prevalence and determinants of depression among elderly in rural areas.

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OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1. 2. To assess the prevalence and determinants of depression among elderly in rural areas. To suggest suitable measures to reduce depression among elderly.

METHODOLOGY The data for the present study is taken from a larger study conducted by the Department of Applied Research, Gandhigram Rural Institute, Gandhigram, TamilNadu, India, with funding from the Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi. The data were collected during the period from March 2008- September 2009. The study was carried out in three districts of Tamil Nadu viz. Madurai, Karur and Villupuram representing high, medium and low level of development districts as per the Tamil Nadu Human Development Report (2003). In each of the selected districts, three Primary Health Centres (PHCs) were selected based on their distance from the district Head Quarters such as nearer(within 5KMs), away(5-10KMs ) and far away(More than 10KMs). In the next stage, one sub-centre was selected at random from each of the selected PHCs and 100 elderly aged 60 years and above were selected using systematic random sampling procedure from each of the sub-centre area. Thus a total of 300 elderly were selected from each of the selected districts. Thus the total sample comprised of 900 elderly from the rural areas of the three selected districts of Tamil Nadu. Information on the depression status of the elderly was collected using Geriatric Depression Scale (Yesavage et.al, 1983) which consists of 30 questions; in which the respondents are asked to respond with YES or NO answers in reference to how they felt in the past one week. In order to assess the overall depression status of elderly, each of the 30 depression items is scored as 1 for presence and 0 for absence. Based on the total score attained by each elderly, Score of 0-9 are considered normal, 10-19 are considered mild depression and scores of 20-30 are considered severe depression status. (Depression scoring details given in Annexure 1) RESULTS Geriatric depression by selected background characteristics The geriatric depression status by selected background characteristics of elderly is presented in Table 1. It is observed that overall only 25.8 per cent of elderly were normal, 23.2 per cent had mild depression and 51 per cent had severe depression. Education, earlier occupation, marital status, religion, caste and family income were observed to have significant association with the depression status of elderly. Proportion of elderly with severe depression is significantly more among illiterates (54.4 per cent) than literates (46.5 per cent).The proportion of elderly who had severe depression is observed to be high among those who had involved in business (58.5 per cent) in their earlier life which is followed by those who involved in coolie work (55.6 per cent), agriculture (46 per cent), no work (39.7 per cent) and salaried (35.5 per cent). Significantly higher proportion of single elderly had severe depression than married elderly. Proportion of elderly who had severe depression is more among Hindu (51.8 per cent) and Christian (50 per cent) than Muslim (41.4 per cent). Significantly higher proportion of elderly among the most backward community (61.7 per cent) is having severe depression compared to SC/ST (54.2 per cent) and Backward Caste (48 per cent). Overall, the results indicate that the proportion of elderly with severe depression is observed to be significantly low among literates, salaried, muslim and backward caste elderely in rural areas. Table 1. Percent Distribution of Elderly by their Depression Status and Selected Background Characteristics Background characteristics All Age (years) 60 69 70 79 80+ 160 553 187 24.4 24.6 30.5 25.6 24.1 18.7 50.0 51.4 50.8 4.271 4 0.371 N 900 Depression status Normal 25.8 Mild 23.2 Severe 51.0 DF P- value

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Sex Male Female Education Illiterate literate Earlier occupation No work Coolie Business Agriculture Salaried Marital status Married Single Religion Hindu Muslim Christian Caste SC / ST MBC BC 203 107 590 21.2 19.6 28.5 24.6 18.7 23.6 54.2 61.7 48.0 9.910 4 0.042 796 58 46 26.5 25.9 13.0 21.7 32.8 37.0 51.8 41.4 50.0 10.977 4 0.027 398 502 29.6 22.7 21.9 24.3 48.5 53.0 5.597 2 0.061 121 509 82 126 62 29.8 20.2 20.7 38.1 45.2 30.6 24.2 20.7 15.9 19.4 39.7 55.6 58.5 46.0 35.5 40.239 8 0.000 515 385 21.9 30.9 23.7 22.6 54.4 46.5 9.665 2 0.008 414 486 29.0 23.0 22.2 24.1 48.8 52.9 4.123 2 0.127

Geriatric depression status and living arrangement The percent distribution of elderly by their depression status and living arrangements is presented in table 2. It is found that the proportion of elderly who had severe depression is highest at 70.8 per cent among those who are living alone and lowest at 44.6 per cent among those who are living with spouse and unmarried children. The results indicate that loneliness is the major cause for depression among elderly. Table 2. Percent Distribution of Elderly by their Depression Status and Living Arrangements Living arrangement Depression status N=900 Living alone N=24 20.8 8.3 70.8 Living with spouse N=203 29.1 21.7 49.3 spouse and unmarried children N=83 28.9 26.5 44.6 married son N=400 27.8 25.0 47.3 married daughter N=148 16.2 23.0 60.8 Grand children N=42 21.4 16.7 61.9

Normal Mild depression Severe depression

25.8 23.2 51.0

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Geriatric depression and nutritional status The percent distribution of elderly by their depression status and nutritional status is presented in table 3. It is observed that the depression status of elderly is significantly associated with their nutritional status assessed based on the mini nutritional assessment schedule. Table 3. Percent diSTRibution of Elderly by Their Depression Status and Nutritional Status Nutritional status Depression Status N=900 Mal nutrition N=275 Normal Mild depression Severe depression 25.8 23.2 51.0 16.0 16.0 68.0 At risk of mal nutrition N=530 26.0 26.0 47.9 Normal N=95 52.6 28.4 18.9 81.585 4 0.000 DF P- value

Proportion of elderly with severe depression is found to be significantly more among malnourished elderly (68 per cent) compared to those who are at risk of malnutrition (47.9 per cent) and among those who are with normal nutritional status (18.9 per cent). Thus the results indicate the importance of improving the nutritional status to reduce depression among elderly. Geriatric depression and weekly food intake The depression status of elderly by their weekly food intake pattern is presented in table 4. It is observed that the depression status of elderly significantly associated with the weekly food intake pattern. The weekly food intake pattern is assessed based on the type of food taken by the elderly in the past one week. A list of food items were read out and a score of 1 is given for each food only once if consumed over a 7 days period. Based on the total score, the diet pattern of elderly is grouped in to poor, moderate and good. The proportion of elderly with severe depression decreased with increase in the weekly food intake status. Proportion of elderly with severe depression is highest at 69.5 per cent among those who had poor intake of food compared to 51.2 per cent observed for moderate level of food intake and 40.3 per cent for those who had good food intake. The results indicate the need for good intake of food for reducing the level of depression among elderly. Table 4. Percent Distribution of Elderly by their Depression Status and Weekly Food Intake Pattern Weekly food intake pattern Geriatric depression status N=900 25.8 23.2 51.0 Poor N=105 14.3 16.2 69.5 Moderate N=604 25.3 23.5 51.2 Good N=191 33.5 26.2 40.3 24.173 4 0.000 DF P- value

Normal Mild depression Severe depression

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Geriatric depression and leisure time activities The depression status of elderly according to their level of leisure time activities is presented in table 5. It is observed that the level of depression is having significant association with the level of leisure time activities of elderly. The level of leisure time activities of elderly is assessed based on their level of participation in various leisure time activities. A total of 10 leisure time activities such as reading newspaper, listening to radio, going to cinema etc. were listed out and a score of 1 is given for each of the leisure time activities performed by the elderly. Based on the total score, their level of participation in leisure time activities is grouped in to low, moderate and high level of participation in leisure time activities (scoring details given in Annexure - II) The proportion of elderly with severe depression is significantly low at 33.3 per cent among those who had high level participation in leisure time activities compared to those who had moderate (36.8 per cent) and low (54.5 per cent) level of participation in leisure time activities. Thus the results indicate that active involvement of elderly in leisure time activities helped them to get rid of severe depression. Table 5. Percent Distribution of Elderly According to their Depression Status and Level of Participation in Leisure Time Activities Leisure time activities Depression status All N=900 Normal Mild depression Severe depression 25.8 23.2 51.0 Low N=727 21.9 23.7 54.5 Moderate N=155 42.6 20.6 36.8 High N=18 38.9 27.8 33.3 32.115 4 0.000 DF P- value

Geriatric depression and physical mobility The percent distribution of elderly by their physical mobility status and level of depression is presented in table 6. It is observed that the proportion of elderly with severe depression is comparatively low at 39.4 per cent among those who move freely everywhere compared to 63 per cent observed among those who are bed ridden. The results indicate that the depression level of elderly increased significantly with decrease in their mobility status. Table 6. Percent Distribution of Elderly According to their Physical Mobility Status and Level of Depression Geriatric depression Physical mobility N Move freely everywhere Neighbourhood only Inside the house only Bed ridden Total 30.825 DF-6 452 297 97 54 900 P<0.000 Normal 33.4 24.2 23.7 16.7 25.8 Mild depression 27.2 21.2 15.5 20.4 23.2 Severe depression 39.4 54.5 60.8 63.0 51.0

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Geriatric depression and life style behaviour The life style behaviour of elderly is assessed based on their daily practice of walking, cycling, gardening etc. Based on the total score attained by each of the elderly they were grouped into poor, moderate and good practice of life style behavior (scoring details given in Annexure III). The daily life style behaviour of elderly and their level of depression are presented in table 7. It is observed that the overall status of daily life style behaviour of elderly is significantly associated with their depression status. The proportion of elderly with severe depression is lowest at 31.7 per cent among those who have good life style behaviour such as regular practice of prayer, walking, cycling etc. compared to 53.8 per cent observed among those who had poor life style behaviour. Table 7. Percent Distribution of Elderly According to their Daily Life Style Behaviour and Level of Depression Geriatric Depression Status Daily life style behaviour N 680 179 41 Normal 22.2 35.2 43.9 Mild depression 24.0 20.1 24.4 Severe depression 53.8 44.7 31.7 Chi 21.135 DF 4 Significance 0.000

Poor Moderate Good

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION The study results on the prevalence of depression among elderly in rural areas indicate an alarming figure of 51 percent with severe depression and 23.2 percent with mild depression. Only one fourth (25.8 percent) of elderly are observed to be free from depression. Thus, the prevalence of depression is observed to be very high in rural Tamil Nadu compared to an earlier study conducted in Tamil Nadu by Rajkumar A.P. et.al (2009). The prevalence of severe depression is significantly higher among illiterates and among those involved in business in their earlier life. Interestingly, the prevalence is significantly lowest among with salaried job than others. Prevalence of depression among Muslim elderly is significantly lowest compared to others. Most backward caste elderly have significantly higher prevalence of depression than others. The prevalence of severe depression is observed to be significantly high among elderly living alone compared to others. Malnutrition is observed to be significantly the major cause of depression among elderly. Significantly poor status of food in take pattern which is a major cause for malnutrition is observed to be significantly associated with depression among elderly. Further, physical mobility is also observed to have significantly associated with depression. Elderly move freely everywhere showed significantly lower depression. A dynamic life style such as walking, gardening, cycling etc is also observed to be significantly reducing the depression among elderly. Though the background characteristics such as education, occupation, religion, caste, etc are having significantly associated with the depression status of elderly no intervention could be initiated at this stage. However, intervention to improve the nutritional status of elderly through good food intake, behaviour changes such as exercise, entertainment, physical mobility are expected to improve the mental status of elderly. Village level day care centres with entertainment facilities and nutritional supplementation would certainly help to ease the depression among elderly in rural villages. REFERENCES Ankur Barua, Mihir Kumar Ghosh Nilamadhab Kar and Mary Anne Basilio (2011), Prevalence of depressive disorders in the elderly, Annals of Saudi Medicine, Nov-Dec; 31(6): 620624. Bandura Albert (1977), Self- efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological review (1977); 84, 191-215.

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Beck, A.T. (1987) Cognitive Models of Depression. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly. 1 (1): 5-37. Blazer D.G. (2002), Depression in late life (3 rd ed.), St. Louis: Mosby year book. Dan Blazer II and Celia F. Hybels (2005), Origins of depression in later life: Psychological medicine (2005); 35, 1-12. Clark (eds), Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Psychiatric Problems. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 169234. Fennell, M.J.V. (1989) Depression. In K. Hawton, P.M. Salkovskis, J. Kirk and D.M. Gilbert, P. (1992a) Depression: The Evolution of Powerlessness. Hove: Erlbaum. Gilbert, P. (1992b) Counselling for Depression. London: Sage. Jang Yuri and David A. Chiriboga (2010), Living in a Different World: Acculturative Stress Among Korean American Elders, Journal of Gerontology (B ) 2010 January; 65B(1): 1421. Kay D.W., Henderson A.S., Scott R, Wilson J, Rickwood D, Grayson DA (1985), Dementia and depression among the elderly living in the Hobart community: The effect of the diagnostic criteria on the prevalence rates. Psychol Med.;15:77188. Moore M. et al., (2005), Can the concepts of depression and quality of life be integrated using a time perspective?: Health and quality of life outcomes (2005); 3, 1. Nandi DN, Ajmany S, Ganguli H, Banerjee G, Boral GC, Ghosh A (1976), The Incidence of mental disorders in one year in a rural community in West Bengal. Indian Journal of Psychiatry.;18:7987. Rajkumar AP, Thangadurai P, Senthil kumar P, Gayathri K, Prince M, Jacob KS (2009). Nature, prevalence and factors associated with depression among the elderly in a rural south Indian Community, International Psychogeriator, April, 21 (2), pp.372-378. Ramachandran V, Menon Sarada M, Arunagiri S (1982), Socio-cultural factors in late onset Depression. Indian Jl. of Psychiatry.;24:26873. Rangaswamy SM. (2001), Geneva, Switzerland: The World Health Organization; World Health Report: Mental Health: New understanding New Hope. Regina M McDonald and Peter J Brown (2008), Exploration of social support systems for older adults: A preliminary study: Contemporary Nurse, 29, 194-189. Seligman, M.E.P. (1975), Helplessness: On Depression, Development, and Death. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman Wig NN. (2001), World Health Day, Indian Jl. of Psychiatry. 2001;43:14. Yesavage J.A., Brink T.L., Rose T.L., Lum, O., Huang V., Adey M.B. & Leirer V.O (1983), Development and validation of a geriatric depression screening scale: A preliminary report, Journal of Psychiatric Research, 17, pp.37-49. http:nihsenior.gov/depression/printer friendly, html retrieved on 11.22.2010

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YOUTH AND CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR- A STUDY AMONG THE COLLEGE STUDENTS IN THRISSUR DISTRICT
Manjima.M.V1 Abstract Youth is considered as the asset of the nation. The future of our country is lies in the hands of the youth. Youth is a concept used to demarcate a particular stage in the life span development of an individual. The period in a persons life is considered formative in the creation of their identity. Beginning in 1900s the most frequent reason given for attending college had changed to make a lot of money. Out ranking reasons such as becoming an authority in a field or helping others in difficulty came. This statement directly correlates with the rise of materialism specifically the theological aspect. At this time CD players, digital media, personal computers and cellular phones all began to integrate into the affluent societys everyday life style. Companies and corporations have realised that rich consumers are the most attractive targets for marketing their products. The upper class tastes, life styles and preferences trickle down to become standard, which all consumers seek to emulate. The study of consumer behaviour as a separate marketing discipline began when marketers realised that consumers did not always act or react as marketing theory suggested by the world. Despite sometimes me too approach to fads and fashions, many consumers rebelled at using identical products they felt reflected their own special needs, personalities and life styles.Youth is the main target of the markets. They can be easily influenced by the outlook and novelty of the products. Most of them wanted to become trend setters rather than trend followers. Consumerism among youth increased due to various factors and various reference groups emerged in the scene. Over consumerism with out thinking about the current financial condition and future investment will hinder the growth and development of the individual in future. Key words: Youth, consumer, consumerism, peer group, reference group, novelty INTRODUCTION India has the youngest population profile in different income segments and locations who influence the nations economic growth to a very large extend. They occupy one of the most important rungs of the society. Youth is a diverse group, around the world the term youth, adolescent, teen-ager, young person are interchanged often meaning the same though occasionally differentiated. Youth generally refers to a time of life that is neither childhood nor adulthood, but rather somewhere in between.Youth also identifies a particular mind set of attitude as he is very youthful. The term youth is also related to being young. Robert Kennady said that the term youth demands the qualities of youth, not a time of life but a state of mind, temper of the will, a quality of imagination, a pre-dominance of courage over timidity of the appetite for adventure over the love of ease. Youth has emerged as a distinct and powerful socio-demographic group in India. Youth is the most important asset and strength of the nation, they represent strength, vitality, vigour and are hope for the future of the nation. Youth as the time of life when one is young, especially the period between childhood and maturity the early period of existence, growth or development. (Websters New World Dictionary) Demographic Details Youth population projections (in millions) (source: Census of India 2001 C Series Tables) Age group Below 15 years 15-64 65+ 2001 363 622 42 2006 360 702 52 2011 351 780 66 2016 343 854 78 2021 337 916 94 2026 828 967 116

Many scholars in marketing have tried to define consumer and consumer behaviour. A Consumer is a purchaser of goods and services for the personal satisfaction of themselves and other members of their households, as distinct from use to generate further income. (Oxford Dictionary of Economics). The view that
1

Research Scholar, Dept.Of Sociology, St.Teresas College Ernakulam

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economic life should be organised for the benefit of consumers rather than producers. Because consumers are individuals while producers are mostly organised in firms, and consumers spread purchase over a much wider variety of goods and services that most firms produce consumers are mostly less well informed and less organized than the producers. Consumerism takes the view that where the interest of the consumers and producers clash, the law should be taken the side of the consumer protection. Consumer behaviour is a complex, dynamic, multi dimensional process and all marketing decisions are based on assumptions about consumer behaviour. One theory of consumerism views consumers as having utility function showing the levels of satisfaction. ( Consumes Behaviour, Prentice Hall of India Private Ltd 2002). They will derive from every possible sects of goods and services. Consumer behaviour is an integral part of human behaviour and cannot be separated from it. Leon.G.Schiffman and Leslie Lazar Kanuk explain consumer behaviour as the behaviour that consumers display in searching, purchasing, using, evaluating and disposing of products and services that they expect will satisfy their needs. The study of consumer behaviour is the study of how individuals make decisions to spend their available resource [money, time, effort] in the consumption of various items. (Consumes Behaviour, Prentice Hall of India Private Ltd 2002) Youth is a concept used to demarcate a particular stage in the life span development of an individual. The period in a persons life is considered formative in the creation of their identity. Interdependence and independence are essential to an individuals sense of self and place with in social groups. Consequently sub cultures and peer groups which youth involve themselves in shaping a sense of identity. The sociology of youth culture has sought to understand the nature of this collective sense of identity, its relation to adult culture and societal structures. Youth culture can often seen permeated with oppositional defence, youth defining their identity, its relation to adult culture. This issue arising from these phenomena is whether youth culture challenges the dominant structures of society. Consumerism is one of the most important phenomena influencing the entire society especially the most energetic group youth. Youth behaviour now-a-days becomes consumer behaviour. Most of them are aware about the new products that are emerging in market. Youth is the category of society, who are ready to accept innovative ideas in society. Consumer behaviour is very much evident among the youth. Consumerism among youth is influenced by various factors like family, friends, culture, advertisements, social groups---etc. In shopping they are sometimes not even thinking about whether the items they are going to buy is useful for them or not. Opponents of consumerism argue that many luxuries and necessary consumer products are social signals allowing people to identity like minded individuals through the display of similar products. It is in the interest of the product advertisers and marketers that the consumers needs and desires never be completely or permanently fulfilled. It is smarter for the marketer to sell the consumer a flashy trinket that will wear out and break quickly. It is even better for the product to be part of continuously changing fashion market, where items in a nearly new and good condition must be replaced to stay current with the latest trend. Emulation is also a core component of 21st century consumerism. A general trend is that regular consumers seek to emulate those who are above them on the social hierarchy. The poor strive to imitate the rich and rich imitates celebrities and other icons. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Urbanization and industrialization made many changes in the over all structure of the society. The category of youth is very much influenced by this new movement. By youth we mean age interval beginning with puberty and sometimes extending into late twenties. Youth involves both biological growth and protracted training. It is a period in which the person becomes emotionally emancipated from parents but remains economically dependent upon them, an age when sexual drives have heightened, but many have been explicitly restrained late marriage. Youth is the main consumers of society. They are very much influenced by the novelty of the products. Mobile phones, i-pads, laptops, tablets are some of the mind blowing products of the youth. They are identity seeking and impressionable. Advertisements, income of family, peer group are some of the important factors which influence the consumer behaviour of the youth. Monthly income of the parents, restrictions put by parents are deciding the consumption rate of youth. The dependent youths consumption rate is decided by the pocket money that is given by the parents. Youth is giving very much importance to their peer-group. Most of the youth is trying to imitate the lifestyle and new trends of their friends. For youth peer group culture is more dominant than parental culture. Companies are using a lot of strategies to make people aware about their products and persuading them to buy those products.

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Another factor which changed the consumption pattern of this youth is globalization. E- Commerce is an important example of this. Youth is the asset of the nation. Now a days consumption of junk food is very high. It affects the health of the youth. Over consumption will negatively affect the future investment and living condition of youth. This investigation is the need of the time and will help to understand the influence of various factors in the consumer behaviour of youth. This sociological study highlights the consumer behaviour of youth in Thrissur District. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. To find out the relationship between income and expenditure of youth for their purchase. To find out the relationship between monthly income of the household and satisfaction in pocket money of youth. To examine the role of income of the household in creating economic pressure on youth due to their consumption. To identify the role of religion in the consumer behaviour of youth. To find out the sex differences in consumption of products for religious practices. To study the general consumer behaviour of youth To find out the role of advertisement for increasing the consumption rate of youth. To identify the relationship between promotional offers and purchase of youth.

RESEARCH DESIGN The universe of the study is the college going youth in Thrissur district under the age group of 17-24. Sample size is 100 and the sampling technique is simple random sampling. A well designed questionnaire is prepared as the tool for data collection. Data was analyzed with the help of simple tables and cross tables. At first the data was coded and tabulated. The data analysis process give information about the details about different variables and their association CONCLUSION Youth in our country constitutes a critical input and a vast human resource, characterized by innovative approaches, idealism, development oriented positive attitudes. Youth represent our nations best resource. The dynamic energy, creative activity and adventurous spirit of youth have provided the sinews for the existence of the society from time immemorial. A nations progress is on the firm feet of youth. Youth is a bounding in their vigour, energy, enthusiasm and exuberance. Hence they want to assert themselves and play their past effectively and completely. Treat youth as resources to be developed, rather than as problems to be managed. Work from their strengths, rather than from their weakness, and emphasis their competence and mastery, there by building their self-confidence, self-worth and ability to contribute. Dont label them as at risk, but rather as at promise (Swadener 7 Lubeck, 1995). Youth is the nations best asset. The successful physical and mental development of a child depends upon proper training in thought. Failure in these, means inability to become mature adult. Youngsters have both enormous adaptive ability and a real joy in meeting changing circumstances. Youth living in a tremendous changing society. The development of the world and the innovative ideas are mainly adopted by youth especially the college students. The college students are fashion makers, they are attracted by the novelty of products. Most of the times when they buy anything they are not bothering about its usefulness. Over expenditure of the youth will affect their future savings and future life. REFERENCES Clark Shirley. M. Clark John. P. Youth In Modern Society, Richart And Winston Inc, New York, 1972. Cole. M. The Development of Children. Cole. S.R. Scientific American Books New York, 1993. C.R. Kothari: Research Methodology, New Age International (P) Ltd, New Delhi,2000 Garg Pulim,K Parich Indra. T: Profiles In Identity A study of India Youth At Crossroad of Culture. Vision Books, 1976.

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Dr. Gupta. S.L. Consumer Behaviour An Indian Perspective, Sulthan Chand and Sons New Delhi, 2002. Herbert. J. Walberg Children And Youth, Sage Olga, Reyes, Publications, Delhi, 1997. Roger.P.Weissber Dr. Jain. P.C Consumer Behaviour in Indian Bhatt Monika Context S. Chand and Company Ltd., New Delhi, 2003. Aravamudhan. N.R. HRM Review, January 2009, P -No. 33. Babu, Ramesh. G Marketing Mastermind, September 2006, P 13. Bakht Sikander Kerala Sociologist, December 2009, P-5 Bearden, W.O Etzel. M.J. Journal of Consumer Research , Sep. 1982, Bhavani, R HRM Review Jan-2009, P-42 Sharma. S.P. Social Welfare, October 1990, P 8 Singh, Jagit Social Welfare, October 1990, P 6. Swami. S.N. Social Welfare, October 1990, P 9. Tauber. E.M. Journal of Marketing, 2006. P 46 P -185

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CHARLOTTE BRONTES JANE EYRE AS AN UNCONVENTIONAL NOVEL


Dr.Kaushal Kotadia1 and Dr.Parul Popat2 Abstract The novels of the Charlotte Bronte are autobiographical and unconventional in nature. According to Charlotte, she described reality in her novels. There is no doubt that Jane Eyre is an autobiographical novel. The heroine Jane Eyre is Charlotte herself. Jane is an intelligent, honest, plain-featured young girl forced to contend with oppression, inequality, and hardship. Although she meets with a series of individuals who threaten her autonomy, Jane repeatedly succeeds at asserting herself and maintains her principles of justice, human dignity and morality. She also values intellectual and emotional fulfillment. Her strong belief in gender and social equality challenges the Victorian prejudices against women and the poor. The development of Jane Eyres character is central to the novel. In this article, we have tried to show that there are many incidents, which can prove it an unconventional novel. Key words: Autobiographical, Plain-featured, Unconventional, Similarity, Jane Eyre is a story of unconventional treatment. Charlotte Bronte and her sisters, Emily and Anne, were writers. Once they discussed the heroines of their novels. Except Charlotte, all other Bronte sisters believed that heroines should be tall, beautiful and should belong to high society. Such a heroine is not supposed to do hard work. Instead, she is supposed to be interested in music, dancing, and embroidery, merry-making and attending parties. However, Charlotte did not believe in these ideas. She opposed the ideas of her sisters and said, I will prove to you that you are wrong. I will show you a heroine as plain and as small as myself. The heroine will be quite interesting. I am going to prove this. The result was Jane Eyre. Charlotte Bront was a British novelist. She was the eldest out of the three famous Bront sisters ie Anne and Emily whose novels have become standards of English literature. Charlotte and her sisters were inspired by the Romantic authors of the time including Sir Walter Scott, William Wordsworth and Lord George Gordon Byron. As sisters and authors, Charlotte, Emily and Anne gave one another moral support, shared creative ideas and proof-read one anothers work. As the oldest of the Bronte authors, Charlotte approached her writing career as a means to financial independence and to support her siblings. She wrote four novels The Professor, Villette, Jane Eyre and Shirley. The First two novels were based on her personal experiences at a boarding house. Here, she most probably fell in love with a Belgian scholar. Charlotte Bronte, in her novels, revolted against the traditions of Jane Austen, Charles Dickens and William Makepeace Thackeray. Charlottes novels are the novels of passions, not of manners. Jane Eyre is a novel by Charlotte Bronte. Her novels are not rich in presenting a wide view of life. The same matter is repeated by her in her novels Jane Eyre and Villette. Her novels repeat the governess, the tutor and the school. They often interwoven with the cleric and the mill owner. Except Shirley in all her novels, the story is told in first person. The novels of the Charlotte Bronte are autobiographical in nature. They are the fragments from her own life. According to Charlotte, she described reality in her novels, but according to E A Baker, the one reality, she thoroughly knew was herself and her little world. She tried to reach what might be called the sensations of the soul, for these were the only sensations that interested her. Charlotte Bronte constructed the plots of her novels on her limited experiences. Her range was limited but she could make use of her experiences aptly and could create a novel like Jane Eyre. The novel was received with great love and enthusiasm. Charlotte Bront structures the thirty-eight chapter novel according to stages in Jane Eyre's life.

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Asst. Professor, Department of English, Nalini Arvind and TV Patel Arts College, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat. Asst. Professor, Department of English & Communication Skills, Government Engineering College, Gandhinagar, Gujarat

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These stages center on Jane as a Maltreated child in the home of Mrs. Sarah Reed (Jane s Life at Gateshead Hall) Child and adolescent student at Lowood Orphan Asylum (Janes Life at Lowood School) Teenage governess and teacher at Thornfield Hall, where she falls in love with her employer, Edward Rochester (Janes Life at Thornfield Hall) Wanderer through the moors after leaving Thornfield Hall. Tired, lacking food, she becomes deathly ill. Sojourner at the home of St. John, Diana, and Mary Rivers, where Jane recovers (Jane Life at Moor House) Fulfilled young woman at Ferndean Manor after re uniting with and marrying Rochester (Janes Life at Ferndean)

Jane Eyre tells her story in first-person point of view as the protagonist. Jane looks back on her life after her marriage to Edward Rochester. She begins the narrative when she is a ten-year-old orphan being brought up by a cruel aunt. Jane, the heroine of the novel Jane Eyre, is a girl of 18 years. She is a plain girl without any qualities of a traditional heroine. On the other hand, the man, she falls in love, is also not a hero in the sense of the traditional term. He is 35 years of age. He is irritable and changeable by nature. Jane knows all this. Their love is so true that it does not change with the change of fate and fortune. Though Jane cannot marry him when he is healthy, wealthy and handsome, she marries him as a blind and handicapped. Q D Leavis writes, Charlotte Brontes handling of this love theme demonstrates that the relations between lovers should be one of mutual need Love does not know any difference between age and status. It is blind. This is very much true in the case of Jane and Rochester. The love story of Jane and Rochester also prove that true love is not easy to get. There are many hurdles to overcome. Rochester is the owner of Thornfield Hall. Jane is working as a governess in his house. Rochester has a different kind of a personality. He has no usual courtesy. He has fallen in love with Jane when he meets her for the first time. He keeps on observing all the activities of Jane from distance. He remains cold to her and paid more attention to Miss Ingram. He does so, as he wants Jane to be in love with him as madly as he is. His trick works. Jane also falls in love with him but cannot tell him, as she is aware of the distance between them. She also helps him many times e.g. she saves him from the fire in time. She takes care of Mr. Mason in the absence of Mr. Rochester. At last, on one fine dusk time Jane is moving in the garden. Mr. Rochester comes there and starts talking about her like for Thornfield Hall. Jane is positive in her reply. Mr. Rochester says that she has to find out a new job as he is going to marry Miss Ingram. Jane cannot stand that any longer and burst into tears. At this moment, Mr. Rochester expresses his love for her. He says that he only loves her and wants to marry her. Thus, in a dramatic way, Mr. Rochester proposes Jane. Rochester is a married person. However, he hides this fact from Jane and proposes her. However, he deceives Jane; he loves her more than himself. When Jane leaves him, he is totally ruined. Nevertheless, he is happy when she returns and marries her. He says, Her coming was my hope each day, Her parting was my pain; The chance that did her steps delay Was ice in every vein. Janes love for Rochester is true and great. At the time of their marriage, she comes to know the secret of Rochesters marriage and she refuses to be his mistress and leaves Thornfield Hall. However, she never forgets him for a moment. When St John Rivers proposes her to marry him, she rejects it. She hears the voice of Rochester calling Jane! Jane! Jane! She, at once, returns to Thornfield Hall. She finds Thornfield Hall in ruins

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and learns that he has become blind and disabled. However, her love is so genuine that she accepts the disabled Mr Rochester and marries him. After marriage, she is very happy with him. She says, My Edward and I, then are happy: I know what it is to live entirely for what and with what I loved best on earth. I hold myself supremely blest blest beyond what language can express; because I am my husbands life as fully as he is mine. No woman was ever nearer to her mate than I am: even more absolutely bone of his bone and flesh of his flesh All my confidence is bestowed on him, all his confidence is devoted to me; we are precisely suited in character perfect concord is the result. Charlotte was reserve and unworldly. She had a very strong will power and was a lady of principles. Jane is also very much like her. At one place, Charlotte herself says, Jane Eyre is not herself except in bodily appearance, but not withstanding this denial, in the feelings of the governess and in the events of her life there is much of her own experience There is little in the novel that cannot be traced back to a source in her own experience. She herself was aware that she could work only upon her experiences and that was her limitation. She wrote to G H Lewes, I mean to observe to your warning about being careful how undertake new works; my material is not abundant, but very slender; and besides, neither my experience nor my powers are sufficiently varied to justify my ever becoming a frequent writer. Many incidents in the novel prove that it is an unconventional novel. However, it would be wrong to say that it is the autobiography of the authoress herself. There are incidents that have the touch of the imagination of the authoress, which makes it a novel. To sum up, both, Rochester and Jane unconventional hero and heroine of this novel and together they also make the novel an unconventional one. Contrary to the conventional hero and heroine, they lack physical charm and beauty. Even their love affair is an unconventional one. The hero is of 35 years of age and the heroine is of 18 years of age. Yet, the love affair resulted into a successful marriage. Jane knew that Rochester was aged. He was rough in his speech and behaviour with ladies. However, he had a good heart. Jane was able to penetrate into the personality of Rochester. In a way, this unconventionality makes the novel interesting till the end. REFERENCES https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlotte_Bront%C3%AB http://www.victorianweb.org/authors/bronte/cbronte/bronteov.html http://www.goodreads.com/author/show/1036615.Charlotte_Bront_ http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/janeeyre/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jane_Eyre http://www.shmoop.com/jane-eyre/summary.html http://litmed.med.nyu.edu/Annotation?action=view&annid=280 http://www.gradesaver.com/jane-eyre/ http://www.goodreads.com/work/quotes/2977639-jane-eyre http://www.notable-quotes.com/b/bronte_charlotte.html https://sites.google.com/a/cheshire.k12.ct.us/victorian-era/influential-authors/the-bronte-sisters/biography/janeeyre-analysis/literary-anlysis-of-jane-eyre

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COLOURS OF COURAGE-CHARACTERIZATION OF WOMEN BY RAJA RAO


Wadhwaniya Mayur11 Abstract The understanding that femininity is not a natural pre-existing entity but a social structure forms the basic premise of my article. From such a premise I propose to analyze the construction of femininity in Raja Rao's fictional works. By construction of femininity' I mean a definition of the real' woman which insists on a particular kind of behavior as natural for woman. Femininity, in Raja Rao's works, is constructed through inventory of the qualities of woman without considering the possibility of difference and variation. The absence of a comprehensive analysis of the representation of woman/women in Raja Rao's works makes this attempt essential not only because of the importance of Raja Rao as a writer, but also because of the contemporary relevance of an issue such as the construction of gender. This article shall focus primarily on the two novels, The Serpent and the Rope and The Chessmaster and His Moves because there is extensive discussion about woman in these two novels as compared to the others. Finally, the article summarizes the conclusions drawn from these novels and tries to explain the need for such a construct in Raja Rao's project of reviving "Indian tradition Key words: Femininity, Woman, Enumeration, Contemporary INTRODUCTION: Understanding how femininity is constructed in Raja Rao's fiction is important for several reasons. First of these is that no Indian writer in English has discussed woman' in fiction as extensively as Raja Rao has. Secondly, Raja Rao is seen by various readers and critics as representing the real' traditions of India. Therefore, it becomes important to my article to understand the role offered to woman in this India. Thirdly, no other novelist has used the concepts of Purusha-Prakriti and Shiva-Shakti as consistently as Raja Rao has in order to define woman and her role. Finally, the canonization of Raja Rao's works accords a certain authority to his status as a leading novelist. Consequently his views, including those on women, gain an added and perhaps dangerous strength. This makes a review of his works essential so that the validity of these ideas can be questioned. Significance of Feminism in works of Raja Rao: Feminism in its broadest sweep is a humanistic concern. Feminist perspective is to become aware of the situation of women, of relation of women to the world, of the oppression and discrimination to which women have been subjected and to use this as a power to change this situation. So, to regard feminism merely as a Western concept and to dismiss it, is to willfully ignore its importance . Indian tradition as suggested by Raja Rao's works is an adoption of Advaita, Manu Smriti, and so on. Raja Rao's views regarding women largely match with the scriptures of Manu concerning the duties end behavior of women. So, in attempting to read the novels exclusively in terms of what is regarded as Indian is to also confront the possibility of ignoring certain other aspects that might prove relevant to a different kind of reader such as one concerned with the depiction of women. Characterization of women and construction of femininity: The Indian woman fits more into the mould of the role model than her Western counterpart. In the context of the central concern of Raja Rao's works, which is a search for identity, the construction of woman becomes important. Since man is defined in contradistinction to woman, the representation of woman as the other could imply that woman is a deviation whereas man is the norm. Such a perception explains the concern regarding the representation of woman in these terms, especially, when the male characters hold such view. The basis of the construction of femininity in Raja Rao's works is the woman's constitution. Her attitudes and her responses are seen as being influenced by her biology. This is stated as much in The Serpent and the Rope by different characters. Savithri, for instance, says, "No woman who is a woman can choose her destiny. Men make her destiny. For a woman to choose is to betray her biology" (SR 291). The implication is that a woman's biology dictates and controls her actions. To do anything contrary would be to negate one's womanhood. An extension of the argument suggests that a woman's biology does not permit her to choose her destiny because her destiny is made by men. While the reference to the "biology of woman" is mainly to her procreative abilities, there is also the suggestion of a reciprocal relation between biology and behaviour. Biology is behaviour and behaviour is
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Research Scholar, Faculty of Arts (English Literature), Dr. K.N. Modi University, Newai-Rajasthan.

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biology. This kind of a relation is evident in the remarks of the other characters as well. Rama, referring to Madeleine's efforts to get Catherine and Georges married says, "the biology of woman and the cardinal part it plays in her activity - you see it best, not when she is in love (for that is melodrama) but when she wants to get a man and woman entangled for the continuance of the race" (SR 145) . There is also the remark by Rama that "Jealousy with woman is a greater biological quantum" (SR187). Biology and behavior of women: The correlation between biology and behaviour which is clearly stated in The Serpent and the Rope is implicit in the generalizations regarding women wherein the assumption is that the biology of all women being the same, their attitudes and their responses too must be similar. A construction of femininity, in fact, becomes possible only through such sweeping generalizations; by tracing the behaviour patterns of some women, femininity itself is defined. Such an unified view of woman necessarily ignores the expected difference between one woman and the other. But reservations of any kind, which would take into account these differences, are not expressed. Instead the underlying assumption, as expressed by Mirielle's words is that, "All women are women and they speak one language. But every man speaks a different language" (CM 352). The theory regarding a woman seeking man and his guidance in order to transcend the materialistic world is expressed in Comrade Kirillov as well. Kirillov's wife, Irene, who imbibes much of Indian philosophy" (an inerad icable part of Kirillov's mental make-up) writes in her diary, "The real man is the one who runs after abstractions, and the real woman she who catches, or tries to catch, the man who is trying to catch abstractions" (CK 117). Woman is thus represented as not being able to and also as not wanting to seek the abstractions directly but only through a man. Her fulfillment seems possible only through him. The suggestion is that a man not only leads woman to her God but also helps her to understand herself as explained in The Cat and Shakespeare. Pai is convinced that "Shantha worships me (Pai) and has herself" (CS 23). This view is tied up with his belief that "To be a wife is to worship your man. Then you are born" (CS 32). The echo of such statements emphasize that a woman ought to worship her husband/man. In The Chessmaster and His Move the theory of woman being able to reach the Absolute through the chosen man, is reiterated by Jayalakshmi who says "Our ancestors were right. A woman had to have a husband and lord, chosen and consecrated by as trilogy and the vedas, and it was through him to substantiate her belief that a woman attains God/Truth/Absolute through man (CM 172). She also uses the analog y of the sun, moon and the earth to make a similar point. Insolence of women in Raja Rao's characterization of women: A submissive attitude is one of the striking features of Raja Rao's characterization of women. Their submission is considered appropriate and necessary for the enlightenment of both the man and the woman. All the ideal women charactersSavithri, Shantha and Jayalakshmi, who act as illuminati to Rama, Pai and Siva respectively are also characters who submit themselves completely to these men. They perceive in them the ability to help them reach an awareness of themselves, of God and of Truth/Absolute. In Kanthapura, the submission of a wife to her husband is highlighted. This is evident in the incident involving Bade Khan. During the training of the women at the Kanthapura village, Rangarma advises Be strong sister. When your husband beats you, you do not hit back, do you? You only grumble and weep.(KP175). This kind of submission involves woman accepting the immediate superiority of her man in every day situations. However, the submission discussed in the other works is of the emotional and spiritual kind Rama says For women possession is knowledge. Bondage is her destiny. Not so with Savithri. Having accepted bondage she was free. To be a woman, she knew was to be absorbed by a man. (SR 187) Therefore, bondage, it is stated, is as an unchangeable part of a woman's life. So there can be no freedom other than through the acceptance of bondage. This is an attitude which suggests that chains are an integral part of a woman and within this limited space; she can be free only if she accepts them and adjusts to then. Therefore Savithri within this framework is the ideal woman. Her submission to Rama is evident in her statement, I can go nowhere ... I belong to you" (SR 211). The submissive nature of Madeleine too is emphasized. Rama says I was happy with Madeleine. I could be bent by the knowledge she had of me - the knowledge of my silences, the vigorous twists of my mental domain. But further down where the mind lost itself in the deeper roots of life, she waited like an Indian servant at the door, for me to come out. Then would she know what was told. (SR 92) This kind of a submission is privileged in all the works. It is repeatedly stressed that only through submission to a man can a woman hope to reach her goal of salvation. For a woman submission to a man is

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natural, all the more important because as Little Mother says, "for a woman the sacred feet of her husband be Paradise" (SR 294). Once a woman has submitted to her husband she has attained paradise. A woman being led by man is represented as predictable- fits into the general philosophy of Raja Rao's works that destiny cannot be changed. What is ordained will take place. Given this philosophy and the assertion that a woman's destiny is to be made by man, the woman is caught in a situation where there is no option for her but that of dependence. Marriage, motherhood and sati in works of Raja Rao: Marriage, in Raja Rao's works, is considered essential for woman because it is through man that she is able to reach the Absolute. However, marriage, as used in Raja Rao's works, is not restricted to the conventional sense the one recognized by law and society. The union between Rama and Savithri in The Serpent and the Rope and the relationship between Shantha and Pai in The cat and Shakespeare is also regarded as marriage. However, in whatever sense the word 'marriage' is used, an unmarried woman is still considered inauspicious. In Kanthapura, Venkamma's daughter's marriage to an old man is condemned. But the inevitability of a woman having to marry is emphasized in The Serpent and the Rope. The view expressed by Little Mother that a "woman has to marry whether she be blind, deaf, mute or tuberculosis. Her womb is her life."(SR 258). Marriage seems the culmination of a woman's experience because it means that she has found her man and also because it enables her to bear children and know motherhood. Referring to the happiness that Little Mother comments, After all, Rama what more happiness does a woman need than a home and a husband. As temple needs a bell ... and the girl a husband, to make the four walls shine" (SR 276). In Savithri's case her symbolic wedding with Rama is the one that is important when compared to her marriage with Pratap. Like Rama, she believes that they (Rama and she) had forever been married. Her marriage with Pratap is comparatively insignificant a duty to be performed in this life. The excessive importance given to marriage in The Serpent and the Rope is missing in The Cat and Shakespeare. Marriage, as recognized by society, does not mean anything to Shantha. For her there is only the instinctive recognition of her man. That is marriage to her. Woman and marriage are differently defined in The Cat and Shakespeare. Pai feels that to be a wife is not be wed. To be a wife is to worship your man. . . . You annihilate time and you become a wife. Wifehood of all states in the world seems most holy" (CS 32). To be a wife, is to worship the husband and consequently, understand the difference between illusion and reality which is one sign of enlightenment. Thus, an indication of having gained knowledge. Woman thus acquires knowledge by worshiping her husband. A reciprocal relation between attaining knowledge and worshiping the husband is suggested. Marriage, for woman, as observed earlier, is important also because of its promise of motherhood. The definition of femininity in Raja Rao's fiction lays great emphasis on the ability of woman to procreate. This ability is glorious in all the works of Raja Rao. The woman is to be revered because she bears children. Motherhood confers a special status on woman. She is regarded as holy even in her pregnant state. The notion of motherhood includes not only the idea of bearing children but also of nurturing and nourishing them. The mother, according to the interpretation emphasized in the works, is one who protects her children. Importance of men in womens life: The importance of a man in a woman's life is seen as deriving from his ability to provide guidance to her and also because her exalted state of motherhood is attained through marriage with him. Therefore, woman without man, according to the construction of femininity is, to quote Jayalakshmi, "inauspicious, impure" (CM 173). The concept of dharma, in the works of Raja Rao, defines a woman's dharma regarding her relationship with man but does not elaborate on the man's dharma towards a woman. Tradition and Femininity: The need for a tradition can be understood in the context of the characters being situated in the West. This necessitates an identity which while being different from the Western one not only offers a way of proving the superiority of the Indian tradition but also reveals the protagonists' involvement with the tradition. Indian tradition needs to survive in an alien culture also by establishing the identity of one's own culture. In The Chessmaster and His Move, the traditionality of Jayalakshmi becomes a matter of great pride and admiration for Siva because she is so totally uncorrupted by Western materialism, that she can, even in France, maintain her attitude of respect towards him. Jayalakshmi insists on following Siva in the traditional manner of Indian women instead of succumbing to the Western notion of chivalrywomen preceding men. It is significant, therefore, that Jayalakshmi dismisses Western materialism in her comments- Oh, the West, how much they have still to learn to be civilized (CM 173-74). This comment works at two levels. Firstly, it descants Western materialism by

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stating that it has much to learn. The implicit suggestion is that the lessons should be drawn from India regarding the evolution of civilizations. Secondly, the masculine is privileged over the feminine. In the context of the Indian tradition being represented as superior to the Western one, the characterization of Indian versus Western women gains significance. The characters, both Indian and Western, acknowledge the superiority of Indian civilization. For instance In The Serpent and the Rope Madeleine comments, Oh, to be born in a country where tradition is so alive . . . that even the skin of her men is like some royal satin ..." (SR 19). In contrast, the Indian women are able to accept the guidance of the male characters, and hence are regarded as being able to live the tradition more successfully than their Western counterparts. By privileging the attitude of the Indian women over that of the Western women, the tradition of woman submitting to man is also reinforced. CONCLUSION In Raja Rao's construction of femininity woman is mostly empowered in terms of abstractions. In actuality her power is very limited. While the works state that men need women in order to inspire them, that is act as the "illuminati", it is they (men) who are more important in the social structure. So the problems of women do not get solved at the concrete level. In fact, the problems themselves are erased in the abstract generalizations of woman and so no solution is suggested for them even in here. The model of leaving he offers to the actual world is detrimental to the interest if women because it leaves them powerless to act independence of men .Raja Rao has regarded Pursha with men and Prakriti with female and so at this juncture there is conflict categories in works of Raja Rao. The general philosophy of Raja Rao is a women is led by men and hence it leads to this philosophy that assertion that a woman's destiny is to be made by man, the woman is caught in a situation where there is no option for her but that of dependence. The patterns in the characterization of women and the views expressed on woman in Raja Rao's different works enables the readers the understanding of his construction of femininity while also answering the questions that have been raised. WORKS CITED Barrett, Michele.Women's Oppression Today. London: verso Editions and NLB, 1980. Baskiyar, D. D. Indianness in the Novels of Raja Rao. Indian Journal of English Studies. (1985) : Belsey, Catherine and Jane Moore, eds. The Feminist Reader. London: Macmillan Education Limited, 1989. Kolodony, Annette. The NewFeminist Criticism. London:Virago Press, 1986. Krishnankutty, Gita. Women in the Novels of Raja Rao and Patrick White. Diss. Uni. of Mysore. 1987. Krishna Raj, Maithreyi. Women's Studies in India. Bombay: Popular Prakashan Private Limited, 1986. Masih, Y. The Hindu religious Thought. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1983. Sangari, Kumkum and Sudesh Vaid, eds. Recasting Women. New Delhi: Kali, 1989. Sharrad, Paul. Raja Rao and Cultural Tradition. New Delhi: Sterling Publishers Private Limited, 1987. Showalter Elaine, ed. The New Feminist Criticise. London: Virago Press, 1986. ABBREVIATIONS CM-The Chessmaster and His Moves SR-The Serpent and the Rope KP-Kanthapura CS- The Cat and Shakespeare MAYUR

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THE METAMORPHOSIS OF CULTURE CONFLICT IN CHINUA ACHEBES THINGS FALL APART


Soniya Rajput1 Abstract The present paper intends to bring out imminent features of culture conflict as rationalized in Chinua Achebes Things Fall Apart. The research shows how the African black culture epitomizes the Igbo tribes and rule of British imperialism. The magnitude of Achebe lies in the bright portrayal of place, which is Nigeria and people who are the native Africans. He sketches a world in which violence, war, and suffering exist, but are balanced by a strong sense of culture, tradition, ritual and social coherence. He has illustrated the inner conflict that took place inside the major characters, like Okonkwo, who endures the conflict between the individual and society. The conflict has two facets; an internal, which can be trace within the same culture among its members and sometimes inside a specific character, on the other hand, an external conflict that took place between two cultures the natives and the whites. Okonkwo, whose sense of pride and self-esteem persists until the end, chooses to live and die on his own terms rather than to submit the domineering British one. It is quite evident that the African culture continued its struggle for existence in the hearts and minds of the new generation. The entire hunt is for the survival whether on individual level or cultural level. Africa does occupy a unique place in a global culture history. 1 Understanding Culture and defining it is quite challenging as it is considered to be more subjective. Not even the simple definition a peoples way of life, often influenced by their religion is accepted today. The cultural viewpoint denotes that conflict appears due to clashes in values; the socio-psychological perspective that conflict is caused by the clashes in status; and the pertinent source views that conflict is caused by the neverending struggle over lucrative resources. The majority of African cultures are communal. If we scrutinize, Africa is a territory to myriad tribes, races, religion, language, civilization, ethics, past and present political influences. Its culture is affected by the penetrations of Islam and Christianity. The impact of the other cultures not only modifies the culture but also modifies genre of the Africa. In this process African writers have succeed in evolving their own unique style of writing and presenting the subject from different perspectives which has not been implemented earlier by any other writers. The eminent African writers are: Chinua Achebe, Wole Soyinka, J.P.Clark, Christopher Okigbo, Amos Tutoola, G.Okara, Ngugi wa Thinogo etc. Among these writers Chinua Achebe and Wole Soyinka were unique, direct and open in presenting Africa. Commonwealth literature in India began to assume its own character in the 1930s, in the West Indies in the later 1950s, and in Africa in the 1960s. In Africa, its most impressive talent is shown in the novel and the play, particularly in the novels of Chinua Achebe and the drama of Wole Soyinka2 but Chinua Achebe makes his earnest effort to portray the inside of Africa and its people through his work. Chinua Achebe, who works from a near -Renaissance impulse to teach by entertaining, is much concerned with the growth and decline of Ibo civilization, a world which is masculine, coherent, and, in a sense, Greek.3 The English speaking Nigerian writer, Chinua Achebe, envisioned of the African writers as a man with a mission. In his writing, he transcends time and space to continue the educational mission traditionally devoted to the oral tradition. He talks about art as applied art as opposed to pure art of writing, a movement during which the African writer can classify their identity and recover their historical roots. It enables him to project culture and social commitment, and responsibilities to African societies are expressed in his novel.
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Assistant Professor, Department of Communication Skills, Faculty of Management Studies, Charotar University of Science and Technology, Charusat, Changa.

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Being distinct from African writers, Chinua Achebe expresses his most important focus from the Igbo terroir, the Igbo knowledge of which he has first-hand experience being himself a native of Eastern Nigeria. He believes that the writer during his honored position in society can effectively contribute to the education of his people especially about culture, past, history, values, ethics and so on. It is this mission that he successfully pursues in his debut novel Things Fall Apart. (1958) Things Fall Apart is a novel with a cultural framework. It is book originated in the social customs, traditions, and cultural milieu of a people. The characters and their actions are better understood when they are examined in that light. What we have in this novel is a vivid picture of the Igbo society at the end of the nineteenth century. Achebe described for the world the positive as well as the negative aspects of the Igbo people. He discussed the Igbos' social customs, their political structures, religions, even seasonal festivals and ceremonies. He provided the picture without any attempt to idealize or sentimentalize it. He is of the opinion that the characters in the novel, including the Gods or the divinities, ancestors, and the events are actual representations of the Igbo people and their cultural belief system, he told the story as it is. The fact of his account is that the Igbo clan is a group of African people with a complex, vigorous, and self-sufficient way of life. Prior to the invasion of their land and the eclipse of their culture by foreign powers, they were undisturbed by the present, and they had no nostalgia for the past. In the novel, Achebe portrayed a people who are now caught between two conflicting cultures. On the one hand, there is the traditional way of life pulling on the Umuofia people and one man's struggle to maintain that cultural integrity against an overwhelming force of the colonial imperialism. On the other hand, the European style seems to represent the future, a new community of the so-called civilized world. Chinua Achebes main achievement in the novel is that of accurately rendering a complex picture of the African cultural tradition and identity from the inside the tradition itself, that is, by telling a story of the Igbo people which speaks for itself and which sees life from the perspective of the Nigerian people and not from the outside. The most important message of the novel is clearly the gradual demise of the Ibo culture, of its traditions, customs and religion under the powerful wave of white European civilization. This message is already enclosed in the title of the novel: Achebe describes in his novel the falling apart of the African culture. The Christian white missionaries in the novel, Mr. Brown and Rev. Smith, are a major cause of the things falling apart. It is obvious that Achebe, without being critical of Christianity as a religion, criticizes the methods that were used by the white colonizers to undermine the African culture. While the conversion tactics used by the two missionaries are very different; Mr. Brown is moderate and tries to establish a relationship with the people while Rev. Smith is overzealous and intransigent and instigates major conflicts inside the Umuofia clanboth contribute to the same end: the falling apart of a culture. The novel describes about Africa that includes about Okonkwos life proving the misunderstanding of the white people of the complex African culture. Okonkwos tragedy described in Achebes Things Fall Apart is thus the tragedy of the Igbo culture itself that falls apart under the new dominating white wave. Mr. Brown and Mr. Smith are both instruments for this destruction. The attainment of the primitive tribes is a typical phrase for the colonialist who were convinced that the African were savage people who needed their salvation, while Achebes novel proves exactly the opposite, through the insight into real African tradition and culture. REFERENCES Achebe, Chinua. An Image of Africa, The University of Massachusetts, 1977 Achebe, Chinua. The Novelist as a teacher, A selection of African Prose, Oxford, 1964 Achebe, Chinua. The Role of the Writer in a New Nation. African Writers on African Writing. Ed. G.D.1978 Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart, Allied Publishers, New Delhi, 2012 Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart, Blooms literary criticism, new edition, 1958 Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. London: Heinemann, 1986, P. 40 Ibid., p. 4. The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th Edition. (2007). Columbia University Press. New York. file:///J:/Department/AFRICAN%20CULTURE%20COMPLEX%20%20%20Personalities%20of%20Afri can%20culture.htm

Walsh, William, Great Writers Student Library, Commonwealth Literature, The Macmillan Press Ld., 1979, P.4.

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Wim van Binsbergen, 2004, Challenges for the sociology of religion in the African context: Prospects for the next fifty years, Social Compass: International Review of Sociology of Religion, 5 1, 1 (2004, March): 85-98. http://www.nigeriabusinesspages.com/entertainment-new/reviews/item/things-fall-apart-written-by-chinuaachebe.html http://www.africanholocaust.net/africanculture.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_of_Africa http://www.africanholocaust.net/index.html http://www.jstor.org/stable/25112519. http://salempress.com/Store/samples/critical_insights/things_fall_reception.htm

Soniya Rajput: Assistant Professor, Department of Communication Skills, Faculty of Management Studies, Charotar University of Science and Technology, CHARUSAT, Changa. An Ardent professional with almost five years of teaching experience in English, Professional communication and Communication skills. Areas explored like comparative studies, Post-colonial, Feminism and English Language Teaching. ******

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WOMEN IN MILLETCROP MANAGEMENT INFLUENCING POLICY CHANGE


Dr. R. Shankar1 and Dr. A. Lalitha2 Abstract Womens contribution to national development is crucial. The process of development would be incomplete and lopsided, unless women are fully involved in it. From time immemorial women are involved fully in agricultural activities. According to Swaminathan, the famous agricultural scientist, some historians believe that it was woman who first domesticated crop plants and thereby initiated the art and science of farming. While men went out hunting in search of food, women started gathering seeds from the native flora and began cultivating those of interest from the point of view of food, feed, fodder, fibre and fuel. Women have played and continue to play a key role in the conservation of basic life support systems such as land, water, flora and fauna. (Prasad & Singh 1992). The United Nations estimates that 80% of economically active women in Sub-Saharan Africa and 50% of economically active women in Asia are involved in agriculture. Worldwide it is estimated that women compose about 43% of the total agricultural labour force and this is growing dramatically as men move to urban centres to work. The nature and extent of womens involvement in agriculture, no doubt, varies greatly from region to region. But regardless of these variations, there is hardly any activity in agricultural production, except ploughing in which women are not actively involved. In some of the farm activities like processing and storage, especially millets women predominate so strongly than men workers. This study was designed to analyse the management and sovereignty of women engaged in agriculture especially in millet crop cultivation and it is concluded that they are very effective in managing millet crop cultivation, processing and value addition of millets and hence effective in influencing policy change. Key words: Millet crop management, Food sovereignty, food processing, value addition in millets, Public Distribution System INTRODUCTION Womens contribution to national development is crucial. The process of development would be incomplete and lopsided, unless women are fully involved in it. Emancipation of women is an essential prerequisite for economic development and social progress of the nation. The United Nations estimates that 80% of economically active women in Sub-Saharan Africa and 50% of economically active women in Asia are involved in agriculture. Worldwide it is estimated that women compose about 43% of the total agricultural labour force and this is growing dramatically as men move to urban centers to work. According to Swaminathan, the famous agricultural scientist, .some historians believe that it was woman who first domesticated crop plants and thereby initiated the art and science of farming. While men went out hunting in search of food, women started gathering seeds from the native flora and began cultivating those of interest from the point of view of food, feed, fodder, fibre and fuel..Women have played and continue to play a key role in the conservation of basic life support systems such as land, water, flora and fauna. They have protected the health of the soil through organic recycling and promoted crop security through the maintenance of varietal diversity and genetic resistance. Therefore, without the total intellectual and physical participation of women, it will not be possible to popularize alternative systems of land management to shifting cultivation, arrest gene and soil erosion, and promote the care of the soil and the health of economic plants and farm animals. (Prasad & Singh 1992) Rural Indian women are extensively involved in agricultural activities. However the nature and extent of their involvement differs with the variations in agro-production systems. The mode of female participation in agricultural production varies with the landowning status of farm households. Their roles range from managers to landless labourers. In over all farm production, womens average contribution is estimated at 55% to 66% o f the total labour with percentages, much higher in certain regions. In the Indian Himalayas a pair of bullocks works 1064 hours, a man 1212 hours and a woman 3485 hours in a year on a one hectare farm, a figure that illustrates womens significant contribution to agricultural production. (Shiva FAO, 1991)

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Director, Centre for Career Development and Counseling, Professor, Department of Sociology, Bharathidasan University, Trichy Post-Doctoral Fellow (ICSSR), School of Social Sciences, Bharathidasan University, Trichy

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The impact of W.T.O rules and policies of trade liberalization in the agriculture sector on women is distinctive for four reasons. Firstly, women have been the primary seed keepers, processors. They have been the both experts and producers of food, from seed to the kitchen. W.T.O impacts womens expertise and productive functions throughout the food chain. The Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement impacts womens knowledge of and control over seed. The Agreement on Agriculture impacts womens livelihood and income security, and also has secondary impacts in terms of increased violence against women. Secondly, as globalization shifts agriculture to capital intensive, chemical intensive systems, women bear disproportionate cots of both displacement and health hazards. Thirdly, Women carry the heavier work burden in food production, and because of gender discrimination get lower returns for their work. When WTO destroys rural livelihoods, it is women who loose the most. When WTO rules allow dumping which leads to decline in prices of farm products, it is women - already low incomes, which go down further. Fourthly, their position vis--vis WTO is also more vulnerable because as the livelihoods and incomes of farmers in general, and women agriculturists in particular are eroded, they are displaced from productive roles, women in agriculture and their status is further devalued, while the patriarchal power of those who control assets and benefit from asset transfer due to globalisation is increased, other social processes are triggered which result in increased violence against women. Thus women play a significant and crucial role in agricultural development and allied fields including in the main crop production, livestock production, horticulture, post harvest operations, agro/social forestry, fisheries, etc. is a fact long taken for granted but also long ignored. The nature and extent of womens involvement in agriculture, no doubt, varies greatly from region to region. Even within a region, their involvement varies widely among different ecological sub-zones, farming systems, castes, classes and stages in the family cycle. But regardless of these variations, there is hardly any activity in agricultural production, except ploughing in which women are not actively involved. In some of the farm activities like processing and storage, women predominate so strongly that men workers are numerically insignificant. (Aggarwal 2003) Studies on women in agriculture conducted in India and other developing and under developed countries all point to the conclusion that women contribute far more to agricultural production than has generally been acknowledged. Recognition of their crucial role in agriculture should not obscure the fact that farm women continue to be concerned with their primary functions as wives, mothers and homemakers. India faces a dual crisis related to food and agriculture. First is the malnutrition and hunger crisis. Every 4th Indian is hungry. Every third women is severely malnourished. Every second child is wasted. This is not Shinning India but Starving India. The second aspect of the crisis is the agrarian crisis, tragically highlighted by 250,000 farmers suicides in the last one and a half decades, driven by debt which is largely caused by high cost chemical inputs. The agrarian crisis and the food and nutrition crisis are really connected. Taking note of the hunger and malnutrition crisis, the Government is trying to put together a Food Security Act. However, there are two serious limitations to the proposed Act. Firstly, it leaves out nutrition. Without nutrition there can be no right to food or health. Malnutrition is leading to a public health crisis, of hunger on the one hand, and obesity, diabetes etc. on the other. Secondly, it leaves out agriculture, food producers and food production systems. Without agriculture and nutrition, there can be no food security. Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to enough safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy lifestyle. (World Food Summit 1996) To be food secure means that: Food is available - The amount and quality of food available globally, nationally and locally can be affected temporarily or for long periods by many factors including climate, disasters, war, civil unrest, population size and growth, agricultural practices, environment, social status and trade. Food is affordable - When there is a shortage of food prices increase and while richer people will likely still be able to feed themselves, poorer people may have difficulty obtaining sufficient safe and nutritious food without assistance. Food accessible: People must be able to regularly acquire adequate quantities of food, through purchase, home production, barter, gifts, borrowing or food aid, Food is utilised - Consumed food must have a positive nutritional impact on people. It entails cooking, storage and hygiene practices, individuals health, water and sanitations, feeding and sharing practices

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within the household. At the household level, sufficient and varied food needs to be prepared safely so that people can grow and develop normally, meet their energy needs and avoid disease. Both aspects of the food crisis, the agrarian crisis on the one hand and the malnutrition crisis on the other are related to the fact that food production has become chemical intensive and is focused on Yield per Acre. This ignores nutrition and biodiversity. Thus the Green Revolution led to increase of rice and wheat with chemical intensive, capital intensive and water intensive inputs, but it displaced pulses, oil seeds, millets, greens, vegetables, fruits from the field and from the diet. Multi-Dimensional Role of Women (i) (ii) Agriculture: Sowing, transplanting, weeding, irrigation, fertilizer application, plant protection, harvesting, threshing, storing etc. Domestic: Cooking, child rearing, water collection, fuel wood gathering, household maintenance etc.

(iii) Allied Activities: Cattle management, fodder collection, milking etc. Mainly rural women are engaged in agricultural activities in three different ways depending on the socioeconomic status of their family and regional factors. They are work as: (i) (ii) Paid Labourers Cultivator doing labour on their own land and

(iii) Managers of certain aspects of agricultural production by way of labour supervision and the participation in post harvest operations. Especially in the cultivation of millets women take care of all the work as sowing, weeding, harvesting, threshing, storing and marketing of the traditional food grains. This study was designed with the objective to analyse the management and sovereignty of women engaged in agriculture especially in millet crop cultivation which in turn changes the policy. Global food security has been increasingly narrowing down to a handful of crops. Over 50% of the global requirement for proteins and calories are met by just three grains, maize, wheat and rice.. Many of these species like millets, pulses and cereals occupy important niches, adapted to the high risk and fragile conditions where significant sections of the rural communities practice marginal farming. These crops have a comparative advantage in marginal lands where they have been selected to withstand stress conditions and contribute to sustainable production with low inputs at low cost of production. They also contribute to the diversity-richness as well as to the stability of agro-ecosystems. There are hardly any alternatives to these species for their strategic role in fragile ecosystems, such as found in arid and semi-arid lands, in mountains, steppes and tropical forests. Neglected and underutilized species are considered minor in terms of global trade and the research attention that they have received. They are often, however, far from minor in the lives of the rural poor. As well as playing significant, if not crucial roles in household food security and income generation, many are important in local food cultures. Nutrients in Millets Millets are highly nutritious, non-glutinous and not acid forming foods. Hence they are soothing and easy to digest. They are considered to be the least allergenic and most digestible grains available. Compared to Paddy rice, especially polished Paddy rice, millets release lesser percentage of glucose and over a longer period of time. This lowers the risk of diabetes. Millets are particularly high in minerals like iron, magnesium, phosphorous and potassium. Finger millet (Ragi) is the richest in calcium content, about 10 times that of Paddy rice or wheat.

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Composition of small millets, wheat & rice (100g)

Unlike Paddy rice and wheat that require many inputs in terms of soil fertility and water, millets grow well in dry regions as rain-fed crops. By eating millets, we will be encouraging farmers in dry land areas to grow crops that are best suited for those regions. This is a step towards sustainable cropping practices where by introducing diversity in our diets, we respect the biodiversity in nature rather than forcefully changing cropping patterns to grow wheat and Paddy rice everywhere. Role of Millets in Food Security Nutritious millets do have important role in the food security in regions these crops have been traditionally growing. Regions growing nutritious millets may hardly suit for alternate grain crops to meet local food security. Nutritious millet cultivation offers more employment to women. Majority of farmers use farm saved seeds and hence recycling of seeds at farm or village level is an important process. Drudgery of women in manual grain processing is the major cause promoting increasing shift from these grains. Nutritious millets are also valued for their superior fodder in comparison with straw of rice/wheat. Farmers are aware of the importance of soil health management with either organic or inorganic manures or both. Pesticides usage in nutritious millet cultivation is uncommon. There is local market for the surplus grain and straw, Value addition of millets by centralized and specialized milling does not benefit producer farmers. The rural millet milling, wherever exists, is done by mills designed for other cereal grains with poor efficiency. Consumption of grain is in traditional forms and most consumers are not aware of diversified utilization opportunities. Demand for nutritious millet based health food is rising in urban areas. Millet is more than just an interesting alternative to the more common grains. Our food ranking system qualified it as a good source of some very important nutrients, including manganese, phosphorus, and magnesium. Women and Millet Cultivation The position of women in the country through the prevailing social structure is reflected in their economic roles. Women contribute substantially to household income, but her contribution is attributed as supplementary. Women not only take care of 70 to 80% of fieldwork and post harvesting and processing is solely their responsibility. Men do all work involving machinery while all manual work like transplantation, weeding and threshing is done by women. Studies have shown that women contribute extensively to agriculture. They have the responsibility of taking care of their households and farm production. With rapid increase in agriculture degradation, changing agriculture technologies and practice; workload on women has increased considerably. Women contribute to the household income through farm and nonfarm activities as well as through agriculture labour. Especially in the process of minor millets cultivation, women have the major role. Moreover the rural women in the study area are the experts of the traditional food crop cultivation and food processing.

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While women have always played a key role in agricultural production, their importance both as workers and as managers of farms has been growing, as an increasing number of men move to non-farm jobs. Today 53% of all male workers but 75% of all female workers, and 85% of all rural female workers, are in agriculture. Women constitute 40% of the agricultural work force and this percentage is rising. An estimated 20 percent of rural households are de facto female headed, due to widowhood, desertion, or male out-migration. Trichirappalli Chekkanam Navalnayakkanpatti 2 villages No. of Farmers 30 30 60 Pudukkottai Mosakkudi Nallathngalpatti 2 villages No. of Farmers 30 30 60 Total 60 60 120

When a study conducted among 120 women farmers of four villages from two districts (Trichirappalli and Pudukkottai) it is found that they were much interested in dry land cropping. Dry land cropping includes food crops like millets, cereals and pulses in which men were not interested. Rather men show much interest in cash crops like paddy, sugarcane and banana and the like. Whereas the cash crops or market driven crops need more water and more input costs, the dry land crops need much less water and very less input cost. The women felt that they involved in dry land cropping which need less capital investment but at the same time it does not need pesticide or fertilizers because they are pest resistant and disease resistant and more over the dry land crops are drought resistant also and there the women, independently without their spouse dependence, could manage in cultivating such crops. They not only involve in cultivation but also managing marketing and value adding to the millets and cereals. Moreover these millets and pulses are very nutritive in nature and in future lead to food security. As it is stated that food security includes not only availability of food, but availability of nutritive food at all the time with the easy accessibility of all sorts of people whether poor or rich. These millets, pulses and cereals in other words dry land crops would be available in the drought period also without much external input or without spending much input costs, they could give quality and nutritive food grains/ yield. Hence the study revealed that women farmers if they concentrate on dry land cropping their health is much safeguarded by avoiding the application of pesticides and fertilizers instead could reap a nutritive, healthy and quality food through which everybody can attain food security. They have become food secured and food sovereign in the case of millet crops. It also revealed that by continuing the dry land crop cultivation the mere extinct and endangered species varieties of millets, pulses and cereals could be revived and the farmers felt not only food security but also food sovereignty at the same time. They could have their own seeds and food grains within themselves. Name of the Districts and the respective sample villages Age Distribution of the Women Farmers Age 25-35 years 36-45 years 46-55 years 56-65 years Total No. of Respondents 40 52 22 6 120 Percentage 33.3 43.3 5 18.3 100

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Varieties of Crops they Cultivate Varieties of Millets cultivated Sorghum Finger millet Foxtail millet Little millet Barnyard millet Pearl millet Total No. of Respondents 52 40 6 4 2 16 120 Percentage 43.3 33.3 5 3.3 1.6 13.3 100

WOMEN AND FOOD SOVEREIGNTY The women farmers of the study area and also from the study of Deccan Development Society (DDS, Andhra, 2009, 2012) and studies of Tamil Nadu (2010, 2011), Orissa (2006), Karnataka (2003) and Africa (1986)state that they are not only food secured through millet crops but also food sovereign by managing, exchanging and marketing the millet crops on their own. The women farmers assured that through dry land crop cultivation the income has increased; could get nutritious food; easily accessible, affordable and available with them and so food secured, thus food sovereign. The farmers from Deccan Development society, Zaheerabad are running an Alternative Public Distribution System (PDS) on their own and make other people to get the millet food grains from them. They are proud enough to say that they are food sovereign and are in no way depending on men for their food any more. It is not only sovereignty but also sovereign over nutritious food like millets, cereals and pulses. VALUE ADDITION IN MILLETS Processing of millets and development of value added products received major emphasis among the women farmers who cultivate millets. Finger millet flour is enhancing food security and income in southern Karnataka. Finger millet and Pearl millet offer many opportunities for value addition and diversified utilization of the grain. Malting is one of the age old practices and finger millet is highly suitable for malting. Finger millet malt has improved nutritional quality with enhanced digestive enzymes and is an ideal base to prepare weaning foods, infant foods, malted milk foods as well as health and medical foods. Grain is suitable for popping and develops fine aroma. Popped finger millet flour is useful to make many ready-to-eat products. The millet flour along with refined wheat flour can be used as composite flour for bakery products also. Malting of these millets does not offer economic advantages because of the low yield of malted grains, poor levels of amylolytic enzymes.

Market price of finger millet had not been very encouraging since many decades which resulted in significant reduction in the acreage of this crop forcing many farmers not to cultivate finger millet for commercial purpose but rather to restrict its cultivation to meet their domestic requirements as well livestock

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demand. However, compared to other small millets, the market price of finger millet was fairly better. Finger millet was not included in the list of commodities for minimum support price by the Government of India and was also not included in public distribution system (PDS) in earlier years. Concerted efforts are now being made to get finger millet included in PDS in the Karnataka State. More over the farmers of the study villages add value to their products of millets, and pulses in the form of energy flour, idly flour, Pearl millet flour and finder millet flour. They are marketing it in the local market and supply the same to the NGOs regularly. The NGOs sell the same as health drink to the members and to the staff, especially they supply these health drinks whenever they conduct training programmes and meetings. Therefore there will be demand for such value added products. Therefore the women respondents feel satisfied with their processed produce and hence feel encouraged over their millet production. Some farmers sell Pearl millet porridge directly in their local places during summer as it is a very good cooling nutritious agent for health. MILLETS THROUGH PDS, INFLUENCING POLICY CHANGE Food-grain crops are highly regulated in India, with floor prices for farmers, government purchases and subsidized sales to consumers. State-specific regulations on storage and transport further limit internal grain movement. In 2002 and 2003, India reformed its domestic grains policies, with a particular eye to removing barriers to inter-state trade. Since Indias independence in 1947, the government established a large social assistance program to support the incomes of rural farmers while providing affordable food for its urban poor. These goals are executed primarily through two programs: The Food Corporation of India (FCI) procures staple food crops from farmers, often at higher than market prices. Then the Public Distribution System (PDS) sells to the poor through government-run Fair Price Shops. This intervention comprises a large share of the market for staple crops. For example, the FCI purchases nearly twenty percent of the total wheat crop in India, and in the state of Punjab, the FCI purchases nearly eighty percent of the crop (NMCE 2009). Decentralization of food procurement could facilitate universalisation of the public distribution system under the proposed National Food Security Act. Non-green revolution crops such as millets, coarse cereals, pulses, oilseeds, etc, should also be covered in the PDS. We often hear that the current form of the (targeted) public distribution system (PDS) and the centralised procurement of food grains are not enough to be able to provide 35 kg of food grains to every household. Of the diverse array of food grains available across the country only rice, wheat and sugar are provided from the ration shops in most areas. The other crops like millets, coarse cereals, pulses, oilseeds, etc, which are part of the diet of people across the country are surprisingly not available in ration shops. Most of these other crops grow in rain-fed conditions an overwhelming majority (between 60% and 70%) of Indian agriculture is rain-fed and an array of crops grows in these regions, yet our procurement and public distribution relies only on three crops. This, we shall demonstrate, is because of a flawed strategy of the green revolution paradigm. There are quite a few advantages to the mechanism proposed above. Assured and higher Minimum Support Price (MSP) for crops which generally grow in rain-fed conditions will give a much needed push to almost 60%-70% of the countrys agricultural area. This will start shifting cropping patterns to more sustainable agrarian systems (EPW, 2011). 31 December 2011 - Recently, IIT-Delhi and the University of Allahabad carried out a survey of the Public Distribution System (PDS) across nine states in India. More than 1200 people living in small villages across the country were interviewed. A number of findings from this survey are noteworthy, in light of recent demands to 'reform' the food security system in the country. The survey found that the PDS is functioning remarkably well even in states where it was dismal in the recent past. Most people were getting nearly all their quota of grain and were satisfied with the functioning of their ration shops. Most of them preferred to get their entitlements from the ration shop rather than receive cash - as has been proposed in the recent draft of the Food Security Bill. One of the questions in the survey was whether the respondent would be willing to buy grains like Finger Millet (ragi), Pearl Millet (bajra), Sorghum (jowar) or Corn (makka) if these were made available in the ration shops. An overwhelming 79 per cent of the respondents said 'yes' in reply to this question (see Table for state-wise data).

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People are very aware of the benefits of these nutritious grains, and feel that eating these grains will enable them to work well and be healthy. Millets have been eaten for a very long time and were probably the first cultivated foods. A recent archaeological excavation in China found 4000 year old noodles made of foxtail millet. In India too, people used to eat these grains in the past, but with the shift in agricultural practices and government support to rice and wheat, their eating patterns also shifted. But if these grains were to be made available in the ration shops, they would gladly consume them again. Distributing millets in the PDS would also help strengthen the PDS system itself. Local procurement and distribution of millets, as opposed to the current practice of centralised procurement of rice and wheat, and then transporting these to far-off places, would help reduce transportation and storage costs. The Dharwad Declaration issued by the Millet Network of India has demanded the introduction of millets in the Public Distribution System, besides encouraging their production, storage and distribution at the local level. The declaration has been thrown open for consideration of policy makers, administrators, scientists, farmers and civil society groups in India and abroad. Besides introducing millets in the PDS, the government should ensure the use of millets in Integrated Child Development Service, School mid-day meal programme, social welfare hostels, government canteens and state celebrations. This will not only ensure a large market for millets, but also recapture for millets their rightful position in the food culture in the country. This will also enhance the nutrition status of the population, the declaration said. It also suggested that government should adopt a new policy to promote cultivation of millets using traditional methods besides providing support bonus of Rs.10,000 per hectate to farmers growing millets. The government should introduce millets under the public distribution system, noon-meal scheme and Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) to promote community agro-biodiversity, said M.S. Swaminathan, Chairman, M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation (MSSRF). At a State-level consultation, Mr. Swaminathan said the addition of millets to the PDS would enlarge the food basket in an era of climate change, which was changing rainfall patterns that could result in water scarcity and yield problems due to increase in temperatures. As rain-fed crops such as little millet (samai), kodo millet (varagu), finger millet (kezhvaragu) have a problem of market access, the incorporation of millets into the public distribution system would improve the livelihood of the marginalised sections of society producing the crop in remote, hilly terrains, said V. Arivudai Nambi, Principal Scientist (Biodiversity), MSSRF. A change was needed at the policy level as the area under millets had been reduced, he emphasised. CONCLUSION Millets the forsaken traditional food grains have been revived by the women farmers of Trichirappalli and Pudukkottai districts not only for its nutritive value but also for the soil fertility and especially to bring food security and food sovereignty to the women farmers of the villages of these districts. As these millets support their livelihood enhancement they prefer the government to procure their product and to sell it with subsidy in the Public Distribution System. As more studies concentrate on recommending the state and central government to include millets in the PDS, which will give nutritious food grain to the public and also can encourage the millet promoters to establish food security and food sovereignty.

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REFERENCES Agarwal, C.M, (2003) Indian women, Vol. III, New Delhi, India publication. Bala Ravi S., I. Hoeschle-Zeledon, M.S. Swaminathan and E. Frison (eds.). (2006) Hunger and Poverty: the Role of Agrobiodiversity. Published by MSSRF-IPGRIGFU, Chennai, 232 p. Lucy E. Creevey (1986), Women farmers in Africa: rural development in Mali and the SahelSyracuse University press, New York. Reddy, Gidda., (2003), Farming Performance of Farm Women 2003, Concept Publishing Company, New Delhi. Saraswati Mishra, (2000), Status of Indian Women, New Delhi, Gyan publishing house. Shiva Vandana & Gitanjali Bedi,(2002), Globalisation of Agriculture, Food Security and Sustainability in sustainable Agriculture and Food Security. Sage Publications, New Delhi. Singh Harswarup and Punia R.K., (1991), Role and Status of Women in Agriculture, Northern Book Centre, New Delhi. Satheesh, P.V, (2001), Crops of truth: farmers' perception of agro -biodiversity in the Deccan Region of South India Deccan Development Society. Journals THE HINDU, Chennai, June 8, 2010. State urged to introduce millets under PDS, Economic & Political Weekly EPW December 24, 2011 vol. xlvi no 52 Kaustav Banerjee and Centre for Studies in Science Policy, 2011- Economic Research Unit, JNU, New Delhi. Bhag Mal, S. Padulosi and S. Bala Ravi, editors. 2010. Minor Millets in South Asia: Learnings from IFAD-NUS Project in India and Nepal. Bioversity International, Maccarese, Rome, Italy and the M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation, Chennai, India. 185 p. ISBN 978-92-9043-863-2 Dharwad Declaration calls for millets in PDS, Business Standard Che nnai, October 24, 2011 Chaudhury Sarmishtha, 2004, Invisible Activities of Rural Women., Kurukshetra, Vol. 52, No. 9, July. Reports Bhutani Shalini, (2004),.Food Sovereingnity and Agriculture., Business Line, New Delhi. Biodiversity and World Food Security: Nourishing the Planet and its People 2010 Conference Report. Carol S. Coonrod, (1998), Chronic Hunger and the Status of Women i n India, June Chandrasekhar C.P. and Jyanti Ghosh, (2002) Women in India. A Status Report, Business Line,September 3, New Delhi. CP Sujaya (2006), Climbing a Long Road, MSSRF, Chennai. Karuna M, 31 Dec 2011, Karuna M is an independent researcher based in Dindigul. Feedback: Adding to millets to the basket, In the PDS Survey 2011. Shiva Vandana, (1991), Most Farmers in India are Women. FAO, New Delhi.

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AN EMPIRICAL STUDY ON STRESS LEVEL AMONG WOMEN EMPLOYEES AND ITS IMPACT ON THEIR BEHAVIOR/HEALTH
Rajesh Sain1 and Madhumala Pathy2 Abstract The paper studies the causes of stress among women employees working in BPO sector. The data for the study was collected from two companies engaged in BPO activities. For accomplishing the objective of this research, a structured questionnaire was designed and administered on 50 employees selected from all levels. Information was also collected through personal interviews and observation for getting deeper insights with regard to the topic of study. Both the organizational and individual factors were analyzed for availing a focused perspective on the causes of stress. It was identified that the employees mostly suffer from stress due to heavy work load leads to work life imbalance anxieties and ill health. Women constitute a significant number of the workforce in BPO sector in the country. They are primarily in their mid-twenties and qualified with graduate or post graduate degrees.. However, it has been found that thin strains of discontentment creep in over time on issues such as inadequate salary packages, differential promotional prospects and increments, ambiguous service conditions, irregular and arduous work schedules and lack of facilities in workplace. INTRODUCTION At present work environment has become more stressful because of diverse role expectations, cut throat competition, globalization and technological innovation. Such changes have created several complications on both the domestic and professional fronts for the employees. It is because of these problems that a number of organizations have been organizing several programs for helping their employees get rid of their baggages of stress. Managed effectively, stress can enhance motivation and effort, thus contributing to professional growth and developmentThere are three categories of potential stressors: environmental, organizational and individual. The environmental factors could be economic uncertainty, political uncertainty; organizational factors include task demand, role demand, interpersonal demand, organizational structure and organizational leadership; and the individual factors could be family issues, personal economic problems and personality characteristics BPO sector is one of the fastest growing sectors in the present scenario with ample growth opportunities and, apart from this, is one of the major sources of employment. Companies face several challenges in the pursuit of business excellence, and a few amongst them are: cost effective and timely responses to regulatory changes; Improving productivity; Delivering guaranteed results through commercial innovation, including outsourcing and joint ventures; and Optimizing resources

With the expansion of business possibilities in the competitive environment, the employees of BPO sector face a high level of stress, leading to several complications in the fulfillment of job responsibilities. BPO sector has been one of the most rapidly growing sectors in the present scenario with a remarkable growth rate of 52 percent annually, thus attracting the cream talent to the industry. Insurance along with the banking sector has contributed to the tune of 7% percent to the GDP of the country. A fast growing industry is susceptible to several changes, and thus may contribute to high stress levels for the employees. Since BPO sector is one of the most profitable sectors of the Indian economy, where employees are the most crucial resource in defining the success of an organization, a study on stress under such circumstances becomes all the more important as it affects their efficiency and motivation for performing relentlessly in their pursuit of excellence. The study aims at understanding the causes of stress among the employees in BPO sector by assessing the present trends, the work ambience and the personal feedback from the employees of different BPOs. The focus is on identifying the subtle issues that affect the performance of the employees both directly and indirectly. The main objective is to diagnose the pertinent stressors and offer remedial measures for helping the employees in overcoming the problems related with it. For a deeper perspective on this issue, studies on stress
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Hod dept of Business Administration Senior lecturer, Business Administration Ravenshaw university

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were reviewed, which facilitated a focused understanding of the topic under study; and along with that the causal factors responsible for stress among employees were also analyzed. REVIEW OF LITERATURE Arnold and Feldman (1986) define stress as the reactions of individuals to new or threatening factors in their work environment. S ince our work environments often contain new situations, this definition suggests that stress is inevitable. This definition also highlights the fact that reactions to stressful situations are individualized and can result in emotional, perceptual, behavioral, and physiological changes. Stress ma be regarded as a force that strains usual coping resources. It is the physiological response by the body to external or internal stimuli. Described usually as a response to a threatening or challenging situation or environment (Franks, 1994), stress may involve self-doubt, anxiety, fear and anger. It is often accompanied by physical symptoms such as muscular tension, headaches and exhaustion (Fry, 1995). Work-related stress can affect individuals when they feel an inability to cope or control demands placed on them within their work environment and can eventually contribute to the development of maladaptive behaviors such as drinking and smoking (Stan field et al., 2000) and physical conditions such as depression, anxiety, nervousness, fatigue and heart disorder (European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, 2002). Research indicates that time pressures, excessive demands, role conflicts, ergonomic deficiencies, job security and relationship with customers are particularly common stressors amongst employees in the financial services sector (Toivanen et al., 1993; Graca and Kompier, 1999). Furthermore, new stressors such as computer breakdowns, computer slowdowns and electronic performance monitoring, have developed as a result of increased human interaction with computers (Smith et al., 1999). As the occupational environment, organizational structure and policies, and role and task demands are the determining factors in the levels of stress and violence to which employees are exposed to (Dharmangadan, 1988), researchers assert the need to recognize and deal with these issues more accurately at a situational level (Sparks and Cooper, 1999; Giga et al., 2002; and Di Martino et al., 2003). Past research has proven that stressors can be divided into those that arise from within an individual (internal), and those that are attributable to the environment (external). Internal stressors are the results from individual factors and are within a person's control, whereas external stressors are solely the environmental factors and are beyond a person's control. Bhagat (1983) has reported that work performance can be seriously impaired by external stressors. The various external stressors are issues of structure, management's use of authority, monotony, a lack of opportunity for advancement, excessive responsibilities, ambiguous demands, value conflicts and unrealistic work loads. For that matter, a person's personal life, including the family, friends, health and financial situations, May also is an important source of stress. A lot of published evidences exist on stress and its effect on employees in financial and banking sector, but very little attention has been paid to the BPO sector. The growth of BPO sector has been a recent phenomenon, due to which enough of literary review on the major stressors affecting the BPO employees does not exist. This study aims at identifying the vital causes of stress usually affecting the employees of BPO sector in the Indian context. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES 1. 2. 3. 4. To gain familiarity about various social, emotional and physical problems faced by BPO employees. To study the impact of inadequate sleep on the health of employees working in the BPO sector. To find out various strategies adopted by companies to help their employees to maintain good worklife balance. To find out various present stressful practices.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY A sample of 50 employees of two leading BPO companies from the city Bhubaneswar irrespective of their level of employment and demographic status were taken randomly for our research work. HYPOTHESIS 1. 2. Employees working in day shifts are more productive than those working in night shifts. Employees working in night shifts are facing more physical and emotional problems than those of day shifts.

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3.

Night shift BPO employees have poor work-life balance.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Sample The total sample size was 50 employees of the two of the leading BPO companies. EXL and HCL the respondents were from all the cadres of management (top, middle and bottom), because employees of all the levels faced some form of stress or the other due to various reasons. Tool As the study aimed at knowing the causes of stress among the employees working in the BPO sector, the information was mainly collected from primary sources, which included questionnaires, interviews and personal observation of the work environment for capturing the pulse of the professional ambience. A nondisguised structured questionnaire for measuring the causes of stress was designed, comprising of multiple options, out of which the respondents were asked to select their preferred options. The options covered various factors leading to a stress buildup among the employees. Data Collection A pilot testing was conducted initially by administering the questionnaire on around 10 numbers of respondents. The information was collected from the employees at all levels from two of the leading BPO companies in Bhubaneswar EXL and HCL. Moreover, interviews were also conducted with the employees for gathering information on their perception about their organization and the problems which they faced both directly and indirectly in the discharge of their responsibilities. To interview the respondents, a format was prepared, including several questions on the issues affecting the stress levels of the employees, such as the perception about their place of work, impact of family pressures on their work, expectations from their roles, up to what extent they are satisfied and possible suggestions for overcoming the adversities of stress by evaluating the individual initiatives and organizational initiatives. RESEARCH DATA ANALYSIS This paper also includes an analysis of the data collected by representing it in tabular form along with the interpretations. Moreover, the information collected from interviews and observation was also analyzed for arriving at proper perspectives on the topic. From Table 1, it could be inferred that a majority of the respondents working in the organizations under study felt that they were under stress. Around 96 percent respondents felt that they faced stress due to both personal and professional reasons, whereas around 4 percent of the respondents felt that they were not stressed. Table 1. Percentage of Respondents who Felt that they were Stressed Category Stressed Not Stressed % of Respondents 96 4

From Table 2, it could be understood that the causes of stress among the BPO employees are long working hours (12 percent) and excess work load (36 percent). Moreover, due to the effect of privatization, most of the organizations have adopted a hire-and-fire policy, including the insurance sector, due to which around 23 percent of the respondents had a tremendous sense of job insecurity. The burden of competition was also felt by around 14 percent of the respondents. The findings from the interviews even supported the fact that the employees felt that they were facing severe work pressure, as they were expected to handle multiple roles and responsibilities. Moreover, the target limits kept on piling with each passing day which led to a feeling of insecurity and fear of losing the job in case of non-achievement of targets; this was a potent source of stress for the employees.

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Table 2. Major Causes of Stress factors long working hours Job Insecurity Burden of competition Work Overload/Bound Less work Lack of Support % of Respondents 12 23 14 36 15

Table 3 presents details on the secondary causes of stress which usually affect the BPO employees. Secondary factors affect the stress levels of the employees but to a minor extent. It indicates that amongst the secondary factors related to stress, communication gap (13 percent) is one of the causes of stress. Communication gap means disturbances or misunderstandings generated out of ineffective communication, thus, leading to problems in relationships. Moreover, around 13 percent of the respondents also considered work life imbalance as one of the factors contributing to stress for an employee. This can be regarded as a factor building up stress because a lot of employees complained that they were unable to balance both the personal and professional fronts successfully. Extra work pressures and demands from the work environment at times led to the neglect of personal front. Around 11 percent of the respondents held low economic status as one of the important causes of stress. It was clear from the interviews that managers in senior level positions enjoying higher income were less stressful in comparison to the employees working in the junior positions with less salary. Table 3. Secondary Causes of Stress Factors Communication Gap Lack of Acceptability Limited Future Prospects Work Life Imbalance Lack of Skills Lack of Awareness Work Environment Unmatched Expectations Technology Change Difference in Salary Low economic status % of Respondents 13 2 7 13 7 5 10 6 7 6 11

From Table 4, it could be implied that around 21 percent of the respondents reckoned that they require continuous training for improving their performance and efficiency level. The respondents were keen on product training and honing their soft skills, which would enable them to achieve their targets successfully. Moreover, around 18 percent of the respondents expected that they required recognition from the organization for a superior performance which would facilitate their motivation level and provide them extra kick for giving their best shot. Around 18 percent of respondents also wanted an encouraging and an open work culture in their organization, as it would improve their level of motivation for a better performance. 15 percent of the respondents felt that their organization must organize stress management programs for helping the employees in getting rid of their baggages of stress. Around 13 percent of the respondents wanted job enrichment, which means they required enrichment of their responsibilities by adding special roles to the existing set of responsibilities for better opportunities in the future

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Table 4. Preferential Need for Success Factors Continuous Training Constant Recognition Good Ambience Stress Management Campaign Job Enrichment Longer Breaks in Between Works Hours % of Respondents 21 18 18 15 13 15

When you are in a stressful situation, your body launches a physical response. Your nervous system springs into action, releasing hormones that prepare you to either fight or take off. It's called the "fight or flight" response, and it's why, when you're in a stressful situation, you may notice that your heartbeat speeds up, your breathing gets faster, your muscles tense, and you start to sweat. This kind of stress is short-term and temporary (acute stress), and your body usually recovers quickly from it. But if your stress system stays activated over a long period of time (chronic stress), it can lead to more serious health problems. The constant rush of stress hormones can put a lot of wear and tear on your body, causing it to age more quickly and making it more prone to illness. this can be better illustrated through table-5 and table-6. Table 5. Pshysical Sign of Stress Headache Difficulty sleeping Fatigue Difficulty concentrating Upset stomach Irritability When stress becomes long-term and is not properly addressed, it can lead to a number of more serious health conditions, including: Table 6. Serious Health conditions Abnormal heartbeat (arrhythmia) Hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis) Heart disease Depression High blood pressure Heart attack Heartburn, ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome

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upset stomach -- cramps, constipation, and diarrhea Weight gain or loss changes in sex drive Fertility problems Flare-ups of asthma or arthritis Skin problems such as acne, eczema, and psoriasis.

MAJOR FINDINGS OF THE RESEARCH The research was primarily an empirical examination of the factors affecting the employees and some of the crucial findings of this study are: stress levels of BPO

Around 96 percent of the respondents of BPO sector believed that they face high level of stress, which may be due to both professional and personal reasons. A majority of the respondents considered heavy target load as one of the causal factors for aggravating stress in the work. Apart from this, the respondents also felt that they were overburdened with work load in their work place which led to a rise in their stress levels. Some of the secondary factors causing stress amongst the employees were communication gap and work life imbalance. Usually the communication gap took place because of lack of effective communication of the organizational policies from the top, weak interpersonal relationship, clutter of responsibilities and misperception. The respondents expected that the management should come up with a few of the initiatives for controlling their stress levels. From the research it is revealed that workplace stress can affect the quality of your work and employees health. The organization must take the initiative for managing their employees stress by building up a fostering work climate, promoting employee motivation by organizing training programs and recognizing excellent performance, and offering timely feedback through mentoring and counseling sessions. Employer should involve the employees in the organizational process and should intimate every new initiative of the management and required empowerment for developing an involvement in their work. The management must help individuals in building up stress management skills by teaching employees time management and relaxation techniques, or suggesting changes to ones diet or exercise. management must enforce policies for mandatory vacations management should also enforce reasonable working hours by providing extra breaks during the working schedule Management should provide ample opportunities for employee recreation and rejuvenation for boosting the energy level of their workforce.

SUGGESTIONS 1.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

CONCLUSION The problem of stress is inevitable and unavoidable in the BPO sector. A majority of the employees face severe stress-related ailments and a lot of psychological problems. Hence, the management must take several initiatives in helping their employees overcome its disastrous effect, as otherwise this would ultimately affect their productivity and presence in a highly competitive market. Efforts should be made to provide a common platform to the workforce, where they get an opportunity to communicate freely and project them as a

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potential talent. Since stress in BPO sector is mostly due to excess work pressure and heavy targets, continuous training and motivation and offering programs on stress management and work life balance would produce positive results. REFERENCES Centre for Global Justice, 2005 Conference Mattingly, D. J. "Indian Call Centers: The Outsourcing of 'Good Jobs' for Women", Centre for Global Justice, 2005 Conference Papers. ILO (2001) World Employment Report, 2001; ILO, Geneva. Mattingly, D. J. "Indian Call Centers: The Outsourcing of 'Good Jobs' for Women". NASSCOM Directory of Indian IT Enabled Services 2002, NASSCOM, New Delhi. NASSCOM Indian ITES-BPO Industry Fact Sheet, ASSCOM, New Delhi, 2004. Ramesh, B. P. "Labour in Business Process Outsourcing: A Case Study of Call Centre Agents", NLI Research Studies Series No.51, V. V. Giri National Labour Institute, Noida, 2004. Singh, P. and A Pandey (2005) 'Women in Call Centers', Economic and Political Weekly, Vol.40, No.7, pp. 684688.

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A STUDY ON MAHABHARATA
Dr. Sreeletha. P1 Abstract Mahabharata is one of the great Indian epic. The story is about a war for power between the cousins. The book has 18 parvas and many sub parvas. This is the study of 3 stories chosen from the vanaparva of Mahabharata" These stories portray Arjuna as an undefeatable warrior. Arjuna was a gallant warrior and a skilled archer, best known for stringing numbers of arrows in a fraction of second and that with deadly accuracy. The character of Arjuna in Mahabharata teaches what you should be while confronting an abominable moral crisis" Diverting our minds from the sensual pleasures of the world, he instructs that rather celebrating the good fortune or crying over the bad, you have to be always joyful as it is the very foundation for daily living. Key words: Parva, Kairata Parva, Indralokagamana Parva, Surabithi, Airavata, daityas,Gosha Yatra Parva, Dvaitavana" INTRODUCTION Epics are the very long poems that try to articulate the knowledge of the epoch. These epics reflect the problems in the present epoch and suggest solutions to those problems. One such great Indian Epic, the Mahabharata, has been able to capture the knowledge and life style of people during the Dwaparayuga. The main characters in the epic are the descendants of the clan of Bharata, hence it is titled Mahabharata, meaning the stories about the people of Bharata. The story is about a war for power between the cousins. The book has 18 Parvas and many sub parvas. There are many interrelated side stories in the Mahabharata which try to reflect the then society. Here is the study of three stories chosen from the Vanaparva of Mahabharata, in which the valour of the five Pandavas is showcased and contrasted with that of the Kauravas, the sons of Dritharashtra. The stories start with how Arjuna goes on a penance and attains the grace of god Shiva. He then proceeds to the heaven to learn the arts of war, music, dance and repays his preceptor with what he desires. Once he returns back to the earth, there ensues a great battle with the Gandharvas, and the pandavas emerge victorious. These stories mainly portray Arjuna as an undefeatable warrior. These stories worsen the relationship between the Pandavas and Kauravas and lay the foundation for the war that happens later on. Kauravas had despised the pandavas for a long time and seeing Arjuna attain the abode of the gods, and get powerful weapons instigates their hatred. Dhuryodhana getting saved by the pandavas from the gandharvas, worsens the situation and thought of defeating the pandavas in war gets settled in the minds of the of sons of Dhritharashtra's, Karna and Shakuni. Without these stories, the idea of defeating pandavas in the war wouldn't have been ignited and the enemity between the children of Bharata clan would continue without any solution. The purpose of these stories is to show pandavas as noble and powerful warriors contrary to the Kauravas who are weak and filled with hatred. For every story, a summary for reference and an analysis have done for the study. Story: 1. KAIRATA PARVA Summary This story is about the war between Arjuna, the archer who has never been defeated before, and god Shiva who is an extraordinary three eyed god. At the command of Yudhishthira, Arjuna embarks on a journey to the Himalayas in order to attain weapons from the Celestial beings. Choosing a favourable place, he engages himself in asceticism. Understanding the reason behind Arjuna's asceticism, god Shiva assumes the form of a hunter and comes down to earth with his wife Uma and other divine beings. At the same time a danava named Muka assumes the form of a boar and tries to attack Arjuna. When Arjuna notices the disguise, aims at the boar, which was also simultaneously aimed by the hunter, Shiva. The arrows from both the bows hit the boar at the same time killing it in an instant. Then both the hunter and Arjuna, start arguing about who had killed the boar which results in a fight between the two.

Associate Professor, Dept. of Hindi, Sree Sankaracharya, University of Sanskrit.,Panmana (Regional Centre),Kollam (Dist)

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Arjuna shoots innumerable arrows at the hunter who remains unscathed by those arrows. Then Arjuna starts attacking with his bow. The hunter then snatches the bow and throws it away leaving Arjuna with only a sword to fight with. But even that sword, which can cut rock, cannot harm the hunter. Unable to control his anger Arjuna engages in a fist fight with the hunter in which he gets wounded severely and falls on the ground unable to fight. Accepting his defeat, Arjuna starts praying to him and god Shiva gets pleased. He praises Arjuna for his deeds and grants him a wish. Arjuna asks for the Brahmashtra weapon which could destroy the entire universe. Shiva grants him his favourite weapon, Pashupata, which should not be withdrawn without proper reason or else it would destroy the Universe. Shiva grants him the knowledge of using the weapon and then departs to his abode. Arjuna gets pleased and he considers himself blessed. Later all the heavenly lords along with Shakra, the lord of heaven as consider by the Hindus, appeared before him and grant him many divine weapons which could destroy all his enemies. Then the lords return back to their abodes.(Ramnaresh Tripathi, Mahabharata, p.383-384) Analysis of the narration This story takes place at the foot hills of Himalaya. There are many reasons for choosing this place. It is considered as the abode of Shiva and also whatever happens, there is unknown to the people who cannot question it and check the authenticity. This gives the advantage that anything could be said without showing any proof. If this story was developed at other places, then doubts could have been raised like when god Shiva descended to the earth, hasn't anyone seen him because he alone didn't come down but many apsaras have followed him? So building up the Story at Himalayas provided the best option. From this story we get an idea about the powers of the gods. They could change forms and they are invincible to all the weapons. The gods came from heaven to bless Arjuna signifies the idea that gods keep watching us humans and they bless us for our good deeds. Though Arjuna was a great archer, he couldn't stand against Shiva. This shows the gap between humans and gods and that a human cannot surpass gods whatever they do. A way has been suggested in the story for a human to meet with god. Wearing clothes made of grass and deer skin, and by taking up asceticism one could meet with god. He should forsake meat and beverages and live on plants. The amount of food intake should decrease as time passes by, from fruits in the first month at intervals of three nights, in the second month at the interval of six nights, in the third month at the interval of fortnight and during the fourth month simply the air. (Sharma TRS, Reflection and variations on the Mahabharata, p.201) Certain rules followed by archers have been put forward in the story. The target aimed by one archer should not be aimed by another one and it is a highly offending act. Indirectly, the author is suggesting that it is a disgrace to doubt the skill of a warrior. The characteristics of a warrior have been neatly presented here. In the story, Arjuna is shown as the ideal warrior who fights the opponent with all his strength. He accepts defeat only when he loses his consciousness. The story portrays the idea of a warrior as one who would never show his back in a fight, even though he is at the verge of a defeat. The main purpose of this story has been to elevate Arjuna as a great warrior and bring out the view that the one who has impressed and is blessed by the gods is undefeatable. This is very important to the later parts of the story because there are many great warriors and when Arjuna must emerge victorious among them, he must have achieved something which others would not even dare to aspire. This story had served the purpose and enemies start to hesitate to confront him and fearing him later on in the Mahabharata. Story 2: INDRALOKAGAMANA PARVA Summary This story is about how Arjuna goes to heaven to learn the mystical weaponry of the gods and their arts like dance and music and how he gets cursed by Urvashi, the apsara. After Arjuna pleased the god Shiva, obtained the pashupatha and was blessed by the celestials, he starts his meditation. Soon a golden chariot comes to him from heaven, to carry him to Shakra's abode on the invitation of god Indra (Shakra). There Falguni (Arjuna) prays to the Mountain god where he had been staying so far and ascends the chariot. On his journey he encounters various rishis, gandharvas, apsaras, the white elephant Airavata and at last reaches the city Amaravati. The city was filled with sacred trees and flowers and Arjuna comes across the Nandana, the celestial Garden and gets captured by its beauty. When he enters into the

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Surabhithi (Milky Way) he sees vasus, rudras, ashvins, Tumbaru, Narada and other Gandharvas and salutes them. When he dismounts the chariot, he sees Indra (Shakra). Arjuna approaches him and salutes him by bending low. Shakra, very much pleased to see his son, makes him sit on his chair. The happiness at the union of father and son is portrayed in the form of dance and music by the great celestial performers. Arjuna living in the house of his father, Indra, learns using many weapons along with the great Vajra (Thunder) weapon. At the command of his father he lives there for five years. He also learns the celestial dance and music arts from Chitrasena. Though he was happy there, he couldn't get peace of mind remembering his brothers, mother and the dice game in which they were defeated. One day in the assembly, Arjuna gazed specially at the apsara, Urvashi. Seeing this, Indra (Shakra) asks Chitrasena to send Urvashi to Arjuna as he seemed attracted to her. Receiving the command, Chitrasena goes to Urvashi and informs her about the command of Indra. He asks her to satisfy his needs and Urvashi agrees to it. After sending Chitrasena away, Urvashi moves out to meet Arjuna. On the way, all the passersby are spell bounded by her beauty. When she reaches the gates of Arjuna's palace, Arjuna respectfully comes and receives her. Seeing her, Arjuna modestly closes his eyes and then saluting her asks what brought her here so late at night. Then Urvashi explains to him that once he had looked at her at the assembly with steady gaze and Indra observing this asked Chitrasena to send Urvashi to Arjuna's place, and thus she has come here. Arjuna filled with shame shut his eyes and ears and says it isn't proper for him to hear her say such words. He says that to him she occupies the same place as his mother Kunthi. He admits he has gazed at her steadily, it wasn't because he was attracted to her but because he was surprised seeing the mother of the Puru Dynasty dance there. He says he doesn't hold any other feelings toward her than seeing as his great mother. Urvashi says she belongs to the clan of apsaras, who are free and unfettered in their choice, so Arjuna should not consider her as his superior. A1l sons and grandsons of the Puru dynasty come there and sport with them and they don't incur any sin by doing it, so she asks him not to send her away. But Arjuna remains unchanged in his attitude towards her. He tells her that she is same to him as are Kunthi and Madri and bows his head to her asking her to leave and protect him as her son. Hearing this, Urvashi loses her senses, gets angered and curses Arjuna that he would live among women becoming a dancer, losing his manhood and his respect. She then returns to her house infuriated. Thereupon Arjuna goes to Chitrasena and explains to him what has happened and about the curse. Chitrasena then goes and says it to Shakra. Shakra then tries to console Arjuna by saying that the curse is for good and it would come in handy during the last year of the fourteen years exile. Hearing this Arjuna becomes glad and forgets about the curse. Later one day a great rishi named Lomasha comes to visit Indra. He is surprised to see Arjuna, a mere human, sitting beside Indra. While he was wondering what great deeds might have been performed by Arjuna, Indra explains to him that Arjuna was not a mortal even though he has been born among men. He says that there were earlier two great Rishis named Nara and Narayana renown in the three worlds, who at request by Indra sent to earth to accomplish a job of reducing the burden of mother earth. They are born as Arjuna and Krishna. There are many daityas (demons) like Nivatakavachas, who by obtaining boons are trying to attack the celestial worlds. They can be killed only by Partha (Arjuna) and Krishna. On this purpose Arjuna has come to the heaven to obtain celestial weapons. Indra then requests the rishi Lomasha to go to earth and inform Yudhishtira that Arjuna has achieved what he came to heaven for and would return back to earth soon. Lomasha then departs from the heaven to earth.(Kisari Mohan Ganguli The Mahabharata ,p.18 9) At the same time, Dhritharashtra, on the earth, comes to know from Sanjaya, the suta, about Arjuna's blessings from god Shiva. He gets frightened thinking his sons. Sanjaya consoles him and he has lost his chance to save his children. Earlier, when his sons were dragging Draupati to the assembly, he couldn't control them and now he is bearing the fruits of it. Analysis of the narration The story takes place at heaven whose splendor is described beautifully in the story. Heaven is the final destination for good people and this story signifies that by taking Arjuna to heaven, who is considered the best among humans. If Arjuna trained at a place on earth by the best teachers, others might think of going to that place to learn too, but if the same happened in heaven, which no other person might even think of approaching, then it would achieve the purpose. Hence heaven was chosen to train Arjuna in divine weapons. This story us a glimpse of how heaven looks like. On the way to heaven, we first encounter rishis, gandharvas and apsaras, then the golden chariots of the gods and the heavenly elephant Airavata.

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Then we enter the city of Amaravathi which is the assembly of Indra and the houses of other gods. Thus we get a picture of the heaven as having the core central part filled with the houses of gods and important places and the surrounding areas of filled with beings of lower status like the apsaras, gandharvas and rishis. The buildings are beautiful, adorned with gems and gold. There are the beautiful apsaras, whom every man aspiries, who entertain the audience with dances and music. There are beautiful gardens throughout the heaven which are filled with beautiful beasts. There is no scarcity of food there. Heaven is portrayed as an embodiment of every good aspect that a being aspires. Heaven is the place every being aspiries to be, and this description of that place is quite satisfactory. The character of Arjuna is portrayed as the one who knows the dharma and behaves properly. The selfrestrain that he shows before Urvashi is an index of his good nature. This instance highlights that it is wrong to have feelings towards a person who is in the mother's position and this belief is valid still in the present society. The curse incurred by Arjuna, is turned into blessing which comes to aid during the last year of the exile.(Aravind Sharma, Essays on the Mahabharata, p.265) This projects the idea that one who follows the dharma can negate all the negative forces acting on him. The story shows the necessity for a person to follow dharma and the benefits that he obtains by doing so. There was a belief of reincarnation during the period of Mahabharata and this idea has been reinforced in this story, when Indra narrates the birth story of Arjuna and Krishna to rishi Lomasha. The idea of Karma is strongly followed in the story, which says that a person's destiny is decided at his birth and he alone bears the results of his actions either good or bad. This has been made clear when the rishi Lomasha sees Arjuna on the seat of Indra which is not available to great rishis let Arjuna, who is a mere human. At the time of Mahabharata, there is a procedure followed to impregnate the queen, if the king is unable to do so. Other people, as per certain rules, are eligible to perform the task, but still the son born would be the legitimate son of the king. This fact is revealed in this story when Indra states that Arjuna is his son. This gives us an insight into the social customs during the period of Mahabharata.(Sharma TRS, Reflecti on and variations on the Mahabharata, p.109) We can see that Caste system was present during the times of Mahabharata and in this story we see the demarcation between people of the kshatriya class, the upper class of the kings and the Suta class, who are just inferior to the kshatriya class and serve them. Sanjaya, the suta, is obedient to Dhritharashtra, the Kshatriya, and provides him with valuable suggestions from time to time. Mahabharata is full of valuable suggestions on how to lead a life. In this story, we get to know that it is improper to repent about something later on when one had the opportunity earlier to prevent this situation. This truth has been expressed as a conversation between Dhritharashtra and Sanjaya, when the king fears his sons d eath seeing Arjuna obtaining the heavenly weapons. After reading this story we look at Arjuna as a warrior more powerful than Indra himself after obtaining the heavenly weapons. It has been shown that Destiny and Karma play an important part in the life of an individual and even great personalities like Arjuna are controlled by it. Story 3: GOSHA YATRA PARVA Summary This story describes the valor of Pandavas and how Dhuryodhana was saved from the Gandharvas by the sons of Pandu which resulted in Dhuryodhana deciding to defeat the Pandavas in the war. When the Pandavas were in the forest as per the oath taken, Dhritharashtra and his sons were in Hastinapura enjoying the comforts. Pandavas settled near a lake which was far from the habitations of men and many rishis came to see them. Seeing their condition, Dhritharashtra feels sad and says that his sons need to pay for what they have done and no one can stop that from happening. Having heard that Arjuna has fought with god Shiva and blessed with divine weapons, Shakuni carries the news to Dhuryodhana and Karna. When Dhuryodhana is filled with grief, Shakuni suggests that they should visit Pandavas in the forest and gain happiness by seeing their condition. On hearing this at first Dhuryodhana got excited, but at the same time he was in confusion that king Dhritharashtra would not grant permission to go the place where the Pandavas are. He orders Shakuni and Karna to find a valid reason so that Dhritharashtra would not prevent them. The next day they make a plan, as their cattle herds are located at Dvaitavana, they could go on the pretext of checking them. They instructed a cowherd to approach the king with this proposal and when it was done they offered to go and check the cattle. Dhritharashtra felt the reason was proper as a king should check his cattle from time to time, but he was afraid that his sons might face the wrath of the Pandavas who are also living in the same region. He asks Dhuryodhana to send some faithful servants to go check the cattle rather than he himself going. Shakuni tries to

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convince the king that they don't have interest to interfere with the Pandavas and their sole purpose is to count the cattle. As they would't go near the residence of Pandavas, there is no question of any wrong happening. Hearing this Dhritharashtra unwillingly gave them permission to go. Dhuryodhana along with Karna starts on the journey accompanied by many chariots, horses and elephants. They settle at a favourable place four miles away from the lake and the cattle are brought there. Dhuryodhana himself supervised the cattle counting and once the task is done, they begin enjoying the forest. At that time Yudhishthira was living near the lake and performing a sacrifice called Rajarshi. Arriving at that place Dhuryodhana orders his soldiers to build pleasure houses. When the soldiers reach the lake, some gandharvas ask them to leave the premises saying they are sporting at that place and it is closed for all comers. When the soldiers return back, Dhuryodhana gets angry and orders his Kuru army to vanquish the gandharvas in the battle and capture the area. Thus the army goes to attack the gandharvas. Thus a war breaks out between the parties. Karna with his mighty shower of arrows begins to attack the gandharvas. Gandharvas became serious and they begin to use illusionary techniques. The Kuru army became unable to fight with them, only Karna stood still continuing the fight. When all the gandharvas rush upon Karna destroying his chariot he jumps away from the chariot and escapes on a horse. Seeing Karna slip away, the Kuru army looses courage and fled away at the sight of rushing gandharvas except the king Dhuryodhana, who keeps on fighting. The Gandharvas capture the king and all the ladies of the royal household. The sons of Dhritharashtra who ran away come to Pandavas to ask for their help. Though the four Pandavas were against the idea of helping them, Yudhishthira explains to them that family members may fight among themselves, but they shouldn't tolerate any outsider insulting their family and now the family honor has been destroyed and he orders them to go and help the king. As he is in the middle of a sacrifice, he asks the four Pandavas to take up the task of protecting the family honor. Then the Pandavas arm themselves and ride on chariots and encounter the Gandharvas in the forest. They kindly ask them to leave Dhuryodhana and their family members and when they reject it, a war broke out between the Pandavas and the Gandharvas. The Gandharvas feared to come near them due to the great shower of arrows from the Pandavas. With the new acquired celestial weapons, Arjuna kills Gandharvas in large numbers. When the Gandharvas try to ascend the sky and take away Dhuryodhana, Arjuna surrounds them on all sides by his arrows. Arjuna uses arrows with manthras and cancels their illusionary techniques. When the Gandharva king Chithrasena gets attacked by those arrows, he asks Arjuna to stop this war. When Arjuna request him to release Dhuryodhana and the ladies of royal families, Chitrasena explains him the intentions with which Dhuryodhana came to the forest. Indra, who had known this before hand, had ordered him to stop them. Having heard this Arjuna feels happy seeing the help extended by the Gandharvas, but he says that Dhuryodhana needs to be released as it was requested by his brother Yudhishthira. So they approach Yudhishthira and narrate to him what has happened. By thinking about the family respect Yudhishthira requests the Gandharvas to release the captured members and thanks them to return to heaven. Dhuryodhana being saved by Yudhishthira thanks him and leaves back to the capital. During return, Karna joins them and asks how they defeated the Gandharvas. Dhuryodhana explains to him what has happened and thinking about the insult he encountered, he refuses to go ahead and declares that he would commit fasting till his death. Even though Karna, Shakuni and his brothers try to convince him, he wouldn't agree. Karna and others too refuse to move forward and decided to stay with Dhuryodhana. On hearing about the fasting unto death of the king, the sons of Diti and the Danavas fearing that they wouldn't stand a chance before the gods without the leadership of Dhuryodhana. A godess appeared before them and brought the great king to their place. Daityas plead him to break his vow to starve till death. They explain to him the origin of his birth and assure him that with the great weapons that they possess and with his leadership they could easily defeat the Pandavas. In order to help them many asuras had been born and they are going to manipulate the great warriors like Bhishma, Drona, Karna and others to fight with their enemies. Also many Daityas and Yakshas have been born as kings and they would unite with Dhuryodhana in his war against Pandavas. They assure him that he is going to rule the world without any rival. On being pleased by the speech of the daityas, Dhuryodhana stops his idea to commit suicide and gets convinced that they would be able to defeat the Pandavas. Dhuryodhana didn't reveal what had happened to any one and kept it to himself. He returns back to Hastinapur, but he wouldn't stop making plans to destroy the sons of Pandu. Karna in order to show his valor to the king, goes on a campaign to annex the kingdoms and returns successfully. Dhuryodhana decides to perform the rajasuya yaga, but being unable to do so perform another sacrifice called Vaishnava and calls all the neighboring kings to show his splendor. The sacrifice ends successfully, but some remain unsatisfied comparing it with the rajasuya yaga performed by Yudhishthira. This

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hurts their feelings and they pledge to kills the Pandavas when they return from their fourteen year exile. (Ramnaresh Tripathi, Mahabharata, p.252) Analysis of the narration The story takes place in the forest named Dvaitavana. As the Pandavas were in their exile, they had to be in the forest and this place was away from Hastinapur. There had been enmity between cousins (Pandavas and Kauravas) from earlier times. This story intensifies the enmity which is the base for the war. Dhritharashtra is partially responsible for bringing down the war. He is the head, the king, of the country, the person who should be impartial to his subjects and think properly about the situation before taking any decision. Contrary to this, he has been prejudiced towards his own children and allows them to insult the Pandavas, and he had partially enjoyed Pandavas' disgrace himself. After performing such unkind acts, looking at the Pandavas grow in power, he fears the death of his sons and starts repenting. Even in this story, he knows he shouldn't believe what his sons promise, but due to the love for them, he allows them to check the cattle because of which Dhuryodhana is disgraced in the fight with Gandharvas and he decides that war is inevitable. (Aravind Sharma, Essays on the Mahabharata, p.183) Dhuryodhana was not purely responsible for the disastrous war. It has been due to the evil intentions of Karna and Shakuni. During the dice game, when the Pandavas had been defeated, it was because of Karna's cruel intentions that Dhuryodhana decided to defame her in the assembly. It was because of the evil intentions of Shakuni and Karna that Dhuryodhana had decided to go to the forest to criticize the Pandavas in that situation. Karna is portrayed in the story as a weak minded person who boasts of his skill and when the need arises, would be the first person to run away. Karna had been the person responsible for the trip to forest with the idea of insulting the Pandavas in their poverty. When the Kuru army was fighting with the Gandharvas, he took his stand initially, but when they threatened his life he started running away. Later on when he joins the king, he simply starts praising him without even realizing the blunder that he had committed. Later he tries to annex the neighboring kingdoms. In Mahabharata, Karna involved too much in the in the family matters of the Kuru. Actually, he was the reason for the disgrace done to Draupati during the dice game. He is powerful but boasts more about it and he creates false impressions in the mind of Dhuryodhana. The story suggests that a king, during those times, possessed a large number of cattle which are left to the care of the cowherds. They are a form of wealth which indicates the status of the king. These cattle roam in the grass lands within the territory of the king and once in a while are counted by marking them with the royal emblem. It is the right of the king to take care of his cattle from time to time. This right had been made use of by the sons of Dhritharashtra to go to the forest. The importance of cattle wealth is also indicated in the story of Goharana Parva, where the Kauravas try to criticize the king of Virata by stealing his cattle. Hence we can say that during those times, cattle had been considered as an important component of the king's wealth. Some revelations about the abilities of the Gandharvas have been shown in this story. Gandharvas belong to the heaven and can fly in the sky. They are experts in the arts of dance and music. They are great warriors and can use illusions in the war. The sons of Dhritharashtra was unable to defeat them. They do not stand a chance against the divine warriors. REFERENCES Aravind Sharma, (2007). 'Essays on the Mahabhalata, Motilal Banarsidass, New Delhi Kisari Mohan Ganguli, (2008). The Mahabharata, Munshiram Manaharilal, New Delhi Ramnaresh Tripathi, (2001).Mahabharata, Rghunandan Samma Hindi Press, Prayag. Sharma TRS,(2009). 'Reflection and Variations on the Mahabharata, Sahitya Akademi, New Delhi.

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NGO's FOR THE CAUSE OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT


M. Sreedhar1 INTRODUCTION India is one of the oldest civilizations in the world with a rich cultural heritage. It has achieved all round socio-economic progress during the last 63 years of its Independence. India has become self-sufficient in agricultural production and is now the tenth industrialized country in the world and the sixth nation to have gone into outer space to conquer nature for the benefit of the people. It covers an area of 32,87,2631 sq km. extending from the snow-covered Himalaya Heights to the tropical rain forests of the south. As the 7 th largest country in the world, India stands apart from the rest of Asia, marked off as it is by mountains and the sea, which give the country a distinct geographical entity bounded by the Great Himalayas in the north, it stretches south Southwards and at the Tropic of Cancer, tapers off into the Indian Ocean between the Bay of Bengal on the east and the Arabian sea on the west. The Indian sub continent has been exposed to disaster from tune immemorial. The unique geo-climatic and socio-economic conditions of the Indian sub-continent make the region vulnerable to both natural and manmade disasters. The increase in the vulnerability in recent years has been serious threat to the overall development of the country. Subsequently, the development process itself has been a contributing factor to this susceptibility. Coupled with lack of information and communication channels, this has been a serious impediment in the path of progress. India's vulnerability to various disasters has led to mounting losses year after year. Mammoth funds were drawn to provide post-disaster relief to the recurring victims of floods, cyclones, droughts and the less suspecting landslides and earthquakes. Considering the vast area of the India landmass, around 57% of the land is vulnerable to earthquakes, 69% of the area is vulnerable to drought, 12% is vulnerable to floods and 8% of the land is vulnerable to cyclones. Adding to this is the susceptibility of various man-made hazards. Figuratively speaking, around one million houses are damaged annually, compounded by human, economic, social and other losses. NATIONAL CHALLENGES POSED BY DISASTERS Disaster loss is on the rise with grave consequences for the survival, dignity and livelihood of individuals, particularly the poor and hard-won development gains. Disaster risk is increasingly of global concern and its impact and actions in one region can have an impact on risks in another, and vice-versa. This compounded by increasing vulnerabilities related to changing demographic, technological and socio-economic conditions, unplanned urbanization, development within high risk zones, under development, environmental degradation, climate variability, climate change, geological hazards, competition for scarce resources, and the impact of epidemics such as HIV/AIDS, point to a fixture where disasters could increasingly threaten the world's economy and its population and the sustainable development of developing countries. In the past two decades, on average, more than 200 million people have been affected every year, by disasters. Disaster risk arises when hazards interact with physical, social, economic and environmental vulnerabilities. Events of hydro-meteorological origin constitute the large majority of disasters. Despite the growing understanding and acceptance of the importance of disaster risk reduction and increased disaster response capacities, disasters and in particular the management and reduction of risk continue to pose a global challenge. There is now international acknowledgement that efforts to reduce risks must be systematically integrated into policies, plans and programs for sustainable development and poverty reduction and supported through bilateral, regional and international cooperation, including partnerships. Sustainable development, poverty reduction, good governance, and disaster risk reduction are mutually supportive objectives, and in order to meet the challenges ahead, accelerated efforts must be made to build the necessary capacities at the community and national levels to manage and reduce risk. Such an approach is to be recognized as an important element for the achievement of internationally agreed development goals, including those contained in the Millennium Declaration. Voluntary Organizations (VOs) / Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and Disaster Preparedness Voluntary Organizations (VOs) play a vital role in the shaping and implementation of Disaster Management Act. They have been contributing immensely towards various development programs. NGOs may
1

Research Scholar, Dept of. Human Rights and Social Development, SV University, Tirupati.

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provide innovative and alternative cost effective models for development. They can mobilize people for constructive community work and often reach the most marginalized and vulnerable sections of society and contribute to the socio-economic development of the country, with much wider outreach. Community based disaster preparedness for all sorts of hazards are the key to VOs preparedness plan. Capacity building of all three tiers of panchayats and local community's task forces and volunteers of organized institutions like Red Cross, NSS, NCC, Scout and guide are very important. The climate calendar and written community contingency plan will enhance the local community's coping capacity. NGOs can play a great role for coordination, collaboration and networking amongst themselves, government and community. The good practices needs to be documented and disseminated well so that replication and up-scaling becomes possible. The voluntary sector has a significant presence in almost all regions of the country and its role as an important partner of government in development is being increasingly recognized in May 2007. The Government of India approved a national policy on the voluntary sector which was prepared by the planning commission of India in consultation with VOs, concerned Departments / Ministries and State Governments. A National NGO Task Force on disaster management set up by the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA): Government of India has set up a core group, which met on 19 th November 2009 at New Delhi. This has been done to primarily follow-up on the preparation of the National Disaster Management Guidelines on the role of NGOs in Disaster Management. In India, the types of roles and responses to situations of natural disasters by the NGOs can be broadly classified into the following categories: a) For large relief agencies and NGOs, the main response is to provide material relief and rescue operations (to the extent possible) during times of disasters including medical relief;

b) This is followed by a longer period of reconstruction activities of the physical infrastructure like roads, houses, community buildings, drinking water facilities, etc. and continuation of medical aid. In some instances, some financial aid and other assistance are provided to the affected people to start their traditional economic pursuits. c) For the small and localized NGOs, the initial response is in the form of rescue and material relief. In instances where other activities like reconstruction of homes etc., are undertaken, they are usually dependent on support from the large relief agencies and international aid.

d) Most of the larger Indian agencies, which are not located in the disaster prone areas, withdraw after the initial phases of relief and reconstruction, while only a few prolong their presence in the areas for restarting some developmental activities. Government support is also restricted to relief and rehabilitation. e) Only a few external agencies stay back in the disaster prone areas for disaster mitigation, long-term development of the people of the area and especially for disaster strikes. This approach, till date, can be seen only in a few rare exceptions. Local NGOs, who also participate in relief and reconstruction activities during times of disasters, revert back to their usually pre-disaster activities after the initial phase. The linkages between the usually developmental activities and the requirements for adopting a methodology where such activities will lead to state of disaster preparedness of the community is rarely observed.

f)

Though all agree that larger areas and number of people are becoming increasingly vulnerable to disasters, the planning and interventions along with the form and content of disaster aid do not consciously incorporate the aspect of promoting disaster preparedness. Most responses have therefore primarily remained in the form of relief. The form and content of disaster aid has only promoted this approach. However, given the greater degree of flexibility of the NGOs and their regular contact with the people residing in remote disaster prone areas, their involvement during times of disasters and post disaster activities have been also very positive. Some of the major activities of the NGOs which should be highlighted are: i. A more coordinated and just distribution of relief materials and the capacity to involve a larger number of volunteers for such operations, especially from amongst the community. The effectiveness of a much more effective disaster and post-disaster medical relief and health services should also be mentioned; A large participation of the community in the planning and implementation of relief and reconstruction activities ensuring people's participation.

ii.

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iii.

Because of greater degree of flexibility, adoption and modifications of physical infrastructural development work to suit the local conditions and aspirations of the people. In this context, a great deal of experimentation especially on modified form of housing for specific disaster prone areas needs special mention-e.g, Housing in the flood prone-areas of West Bengal, earthquake prone areas of Himachal Pradesh, and the newly designed cyclone shelters and housing in Andhra Pradesh. The NGOs, in a few states, in recent years, have also been largely involved in micro watershed development, forest protection and plantations and other form of micro conservation experiments in drought and land-slide prone areas. Only the NGOs have been involved in training and awareness building amongst the local communities for disaster preparedness. However, there is a further scope for development of training systems for disaster preparedness. The NGOs have been also involved in creating and promoting community funds, grain banks and other resources base amongst the community for disaster preparedness.

iv.

v.

ROLE OF NGOS IN DISASTER: A BRIEF NOTE: DISASTER RESPONSE Track the warnings (flood/eye lone) and update the staff on the latest developments. Closely coordinate with the fellow NGOs and local government and other interested institutions. Extend your supportive role (proactive) to the local government machinery. Revisit your vendor resource directory. Mobilize volunteers Ensure that your teams are reached to the possible affected area to support the government machinery in: i. Information dissemination to the ii. Identification of safe places for evacuation. iii. Evacuation focusing on the vulnerable members of the community. iv. Organize relief camps. v. Provide first aid to the needy. vi. Support the government in debris clearance. Reach the affected area as early as possible with more human resources and the material. Focus/assist in early treatment of the injured and there by increase the chances of recovery. Those affected, however, show temporary emotional upsets and fear. Support them with opportunity for expression. Avoid duplication of relief efforts. Organizing the places of shelter and help them to meet the basic needs. Ensure that the community becomes the "subject" rather than an "object". Develop plans and initiate action for the reconstruction and rehabilitation.

CODE OF CONDUCT FOR RELIEF 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The human imperatives come first. Aid is given regardless of race, creed or nationality of the recipient and without adverse distinction of any kind. Aid priorities are calculated on the basis of need alone. Aid will not be used to further a particular political or religious standpoint. We shall endeavor not to act as instruments of government policy, x We shall respect culture and custom. We shall attempt to build disaster response on local capacities.

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6. 7. 8. 9.

Ways shall be found to involve program beneficiaries in the management of relief aid. Relief aid must strive to reduce future vulnerabilities to disaster as w:ell as meeting basic needs. We hold ourselves responsible to both those who seek to assist and those from whom we accept resources. In our information, publicity and advertising activities, we shall recognize disaster victims as dignified human beings, not hopeless object.

DISASTER MITIGATION Linking disaster mitigation with development activities. Prepare the families / communities long before the disaster strikes to boost the mental stage to cope with emergencies. Provide as much information on disaster at individual, the family and community level, like: o o o o What disaster are likely to occur; Possible effects; How to cope; Rehearsal of survival techniques through various task force committees.

Promote family/community discussions of past disasters and their effects. Encourage to develop family /village level plans to deal with disasters. People who have survived the disasters are strongly motivated not only to repair the damage done, but also to bring something positive out of their ruins. We need to consider these lessons for cross learning. Build the capacities of the communities for the development of the village contingency plans and their execution. Coordination with the respective departments so that the contingency plans are built into the government budget. Encourage mangrove cultivation. Regular awareness camps and media programmes on disaster mitigation and preparedness. Working for alternatives - cropping pattern in the flood prone area. Develop locally (community) accepted warning systems. Increase livelihood opportunities with ongoing developmental programs to the vulnerable communities, increasing their capacity to absorb loss and damage and recover. Strengthen community organizations, increasing their capacity to negotiate resources from the local governmental and NGOs.

Finally, generally speaking, the role, responsibility and contribution of the civil society and the NGOs in disaster management is not fully acknowledged and appreciated. There always remains an element of doubt and even suspicion on their role and contribution. But, it is also a fact that these two agencies are far closer to community than the rest. One of the most important agencies that plays in disaster management is the government, which controls the funds, technology and technical manpower in disaster management. But government alone is meaningless, if disasters are to be managed efficiently, effectively and sustainable. In Indian context, time and again, it has been seen that non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have contributed immensely whenever any disaster has struck us. The role of these non-government organizations plays becomes further important if the disaster is of sudden impact like cyclones and earthquakes. Thus, the NGOs being nearer to people and disaster affected community usually play, the role of liaison between government and common people at grass-root level with a lot of flexibility. In recent times, there has been a healthy growth of NGOs specializing in disaster management having professional skills and trained man power. There is a need to acknowledge and incorporate this aspect in the governmental disaster management programmes.

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REFERENCES International federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescen (IFRC), (2001): Guidelines for the implementation of a psychological support programme in emergencies, Geneva, Switzerland. International federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescen (IFRC), (2003): Psychological support policy. Geneva, Switzerland. ISDR (2002): International Strategy for Disaster Reduction-Living with risk, United Nations, Geneve, Switzerland. Narayan, S (2000): Anthropology of Disaster Management, New Delhi, Gyan Publications. SPHERE Project (2004): Humanitarian charter and minimum standards in disaster response . The Sphere Project, Geneva. UNICEF Orissa, Bhuvaneswar (2006): Orissa super cyclone emergency information pack, UNICEF, Bhuvaneswar, Pp. 35. United Nations, New Delhi (2006): Tsunami, India two years after: a joint report by United Nations, World Bank and Asian Development Bank. Pp 74-79.

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PROS AND CONS OF EMPLOYEES STOCK OPTIONS IN INDIA


Dr. Deepak R. Raste1 Abstract High employee turnover has become a serious problem for the Corporate world. Employees stock options have been used as a means to retain talented employees by many companies all over the world in the last century. In India INFOSYS was the first company to use it. Which was followed many other major companies but INFOSYS it self suspended this practice in 2004. In view of the fact that corporate performance is increasingly dependent on talent, the regulatory and other problems related to ESOPs in India are investigated in this paper. The investigation is focused on three main take holders i.e. the Company, the Employees and the Regulatory bodies. ESOPs have lots of benefits for both the issuing companies like easy retention of talented and valued employees, increase internal holdings and attracting better human resource etc. While the employees benefit through cheaper acquisition of shares, dual role of employee and shareholder etc. It has been found that the major problems relate to lack of precise regulations, reactive nature of regulators, accounting system confusions and delays in actual realization of benefits by the beneficiary employees amongst others. However the problems have so far surpassed the benefit resulting in meager use of this facility. Key words: Employees Stock Options, ESOP Accounting System ESOPs Regulations, ESOP benefits, ESOP Problems. INTRODUCTION In modern era the ultimate objective of any company is to maximize the wealth of its shareholders. The wealth of shareholders is directly related with the performance of the company. Shareholders are rewarded by the companys performance in two ways. One is internal reward in the form of dividend and bonus shares. The other is external reward in the form of rise in the prices of shares. In fact the performance of the company is the outcome of its employees efforts. Especially in high technology oriented industries employees are the key players whose contribution largely determines the performance of the company. But the fact is that for their contribution towards the success of the company, employees are neither rewarded internally nor externally like shareholders despite their highly talented performance reflected in the progress of the company. To retain the highly talented employees companies felt a need to reward the employees for their performance by making them participants in the management of the company. To fulfill this purpose, employees are given an opportunity to acquire the shares of the employer company under a special scheme for employees called Employees Stock Option Scheme (ESOS). This later on came to be known more popularly as ESOP (Employees Stock Option Plan). In this paper after a brief look at the history of stock options in the USA the history of ESOPs in India is investigated first through the regulatory aspects and then through the history of actual practice in India. Thereafter analysis of the pros and cons of ESOPs in India in the present context are investigated. ESOPs were a new type of financial instruments with very unique characteristics outlined below: They were a new form of equity/ fully convertible debentures. Through them the internal holding of the company increased. They were available to a very limited section of the public only the employees and directors of the company. Then too the chosen ones by the company. The option features attached with them was very different from the usual options. No option premium was required to be paid by the option holder. The main purpose was to reward the employee and not the general purpose of taking advantage of the price variations of the underlying in the market.

Associate Professor, Shri Sahjanand Vanijya Mahavidyalaya, Ahmedabad.

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Through this, the company manages to empower the employees to have a stake in the management of the company, there by providing an incentive for the employees to remain with the company, reduce staff turnover and obtain long term benefits from the training and experience of the employees.

Once they were introduced in the USA markets, this innovation naturally attracted a lot of attention from researchers. Most of the research investigation for ESOPs took off from the traditional options. Normally options contracts were readily available for many different types of underlying instruments and at many exchanges in the USA and the world. Therefore, the focus of most of the research on ESOPs concentrated on two areas viz. pricing problems and accounting problems. Ferguson (2009), West (2009), Madhani (2007), Hull and Alan (2004), Bettis et al (2003), Bodie (2003), Wong and Li (2004), Dechow et al (1999), Aboody and Lev (1998), Aboody (1996), Byrne (1998), Carpenter (1998), Corrado et al (2000) and (1998) , Morgenson (1998), Aboody (1996), Huddart and Lang (1996), Cuny and Jorion (1995), Hemmer et al (1994), Kulatilaka and Marcus (1994), Foster et al (1993), Hull andAlan (1993), Jennergren and Naslund (1993), Chou (1988), Emanuel (1983), Smith and Zimmerman (1976) have all concentrated on the valuation of ESOP. Guay et al (2006), Landsman et al (2004), Core et al (2002), Bell et al (2001), Dechow et al (1996), Rubinstein (1995), Galai(1989), Noreen and Wolfson (1981) investigated the accounting issues related to ESOPs. The actual usage of ESOPs and their pros and cons for all stake holders have not attracted the interest of the researchers much. HISTORY OF ESOPS The history of the corporate world goes back several centuries but the intense need of reward to the employees such as ESOP was felt only in 1950. A lawyer and investment banker Louise Kelso in USA was of the opinion that the capitalist system would be stronger if all workers, not just a few shareholders, could acquire an ownership interest in companies where they are employed. He advocated the granting of company stocks through a plan to the employees called ESOP. Only a few companies in USA adopted the idea mainly due lack of statutory recognition. Kelso convinced Senator Russell Long, Chairman of the Tax Writing Senate Finance Committee that the tax benefit for the ESOP should be permitted and encouraged under employee benefit law. Consequently a statutory framework for ESOP was introduced under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) of 1974. ESOP was adopted in USA as an important option to improve performance of the companies during 80s and 90s. In the 90s the growth in the economy shifted from manufacturing activities to knowledge based activities. This further popularized the use of ESOP for employee retention. Along with this, venture capitalist accepted ESOPs as an essential ingredient to attract the key management talent and the ESOP got momentum in USA. (Ramani, 2005). HISTORY OF ESOPS IN INDIA The concept of ESOP was unknown in India until computer software companies started this as a part of pay package to highly talented employees. Infosys Technologies Ltd. was the first company to issue ESOP in 1994. The company noticed a considerable reduction in the employee turn over rate due to the ESOP. But overall scenario in India does not seem to be encouraging. Only 200 companies out of 4930 listed companies as on 31st March 2009 have issued shares under ESOP till the financial year 2008-09(Prowess database, Table 1). This proportion is only about 4% of listed companies on BSE as on 31-03-09. The proportion of the value of shares issued under ESOPs in India to the total paid up capital of the company is also not encouraging. Paid capital of only eight companies was found to be comprising of more than 1% of ESOP issue. This proportion was not sustained for more than two years. Paid up capital of rest of the companies was found to be less than 1% subscribed by ESOP issue. Even tax laws regarding ESOPs in India were not encouraging for employees. The CBDT issued Circular No. 710 dated 24-7-1995 under which the difference between the offer price and the market price of shares offered under ESOP was to be taxed as a perquisite. ESOP as a taxable perquisite continued for five years and it was abolished from financial year 2000-01 but it was continued to be taxed as capital gain tax. Not only this, a majority of the companies initiated the ESOP only during last five years. Infosys, the pioneer company which introduced ESOPs first in India discontinued this scheme for its employees from 2004 due to some major problems. As per the annual report of Infosys for the year 2004-05 We had introduced various stock option plans for our employees. However, the grant of stock options to employees has been temporarily suspended under the 1998 and 1999 stock options plans, pending clarity in the regulations relating to grant of stock options as well as the relevant acc ounting regulations. They have not restarted any new plan till date. (NOTE 1)

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REGULATORY FRAMEWORK OF ESOPS IN INDIA The first formal regulation for the corporate sector in India the Companies Act 1956 had a provision with respect to ESOP through an indirect reference to issue of shares to employees in Section 77(2) (b) enabling the companies to fund a trust for the benefit of the employees of the company to acquire shares of the company or shares could be allotted directly to eligible employees (Sekhar, 1994). But this provision was not used. The Controller of Capital Issues (CCI), under The Ministry of Finance, Government of India first of all gave a formal sanction to the companies to offer ESOPs to its employees but only in the form of fully convertible debentures in 1985. (NOTE 2) Thereafter, The Reserve Bank of India (RBI), Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT) and Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) came up with different regulations from time to time related to different aspects of ESOPs. (NOTE 3) Table No. 2 gives the chronological development of regulations regarding ESOPs in India. PROS AND CONS OF ESOPS IN INDIA For ESOPs there are three main stake holders: 1. The issuing Company 2. The beneficiary employees of the Company and 3. The Regulatory bodies. We now discuss the pros and cons of ESOPs for each one of these stakeholders. 1. The Issuing Company The very fact that ESOPs were an innovation designed by the companies provides ample proof that they benefited the companies. Their main benefits from the view points of companies are: a) Highly talented employees can be retained by the companies. Highly trained, efficient and talented employees attracted several offers of jobs from competitors and could shift to any other company with better offers of jobs. Further, with the movement towards high technology, knowledge based industries, the demand for such persons rose sky high. High turn over in employees always increase the human resource cost for any company. Any amount of increase in pay or perks may still not be enough for the employee to make a permanent commitment to the company. It was believed that if the employee became an owner of the company itself through acquisition of its shares, the employee would develop a permanent affiliation. It was also believed that employees would not buy the shares of their own and so they were induced to purchase the shares of the companies through the offer of ESOPs. In most of the cases these offers were also made attractive by the highly discounted prices at which they are offered to the employees. It would be relevant to quote from the annual report of Infosys for the year 2002-03 in this context wherein it was stated that One of the objectives of the American Depositary Share (ADS) issue and the consequent listing on the NASDAQ stock exchange was to institute an ADS-linked stock option plan to attract the best and the brightest from across the world. b) SEBI provisions allow the companies to reserve 5% of their total issued capital for offering to the employees in the form of stock options. Once the companies issue the ESOPs, the internal holdings of the companies increase. Therefore, the companies also benefit from ESOPs through the increase in internal holdings. Increase in internal holdings makes it easier for the companies to implement all its managerial decisions. At the other hand the interest of the promoters is also not hampered as a mere change in 5% of the holdings is too small to have any impact on their control. c) To encourage the performance of employees and let them participate in value creation for share holders. Employees determine the performance of the company. Their share in the good performance of the company is only in the form of increases in salaries and perks. It is often the employees whose suggestions and innovations lead to the better performance of the company. But the compensation for their contribution to this is quite transitory and meager. Whereas an ordinary share holder really does not contribute directly to the good performance of the company. But the share holder gets ample reward in the two forms: one through the dividend and bonus shares, and the other in the form of price increase of the shares in the market. So that the asset value of the shares for the share holder increases with just a passive participation. Once the employees

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become the share holders of the company they too get the two rewards of dividend cum bonus shares and asset value enhancement through price increase in the market. d) Companies can attract better quality human resource particularly in high technology industries. The very fact that a company offers good ESOPs over and above the usual rewards for good work to the employees makes the company an attractive place to work for. So the company may be able to obtain the best talent in the field. e) Companies can increase the pay package of the employees through non-cash measures. ESOPs form a part of the pay package to the employees. But when a part of it is given in the form of ESOPs, it reduces the cash payment to the employees by the company thereby conserving the cash reserves of the company. f) It helps in increasing the liquidity of the company at almost nil cost and shortest time. When a company issues ESOPs; its capital increases, which leads to an increase in liquidity. Besides, ESOPs can be issued without the usual floating cost. ESOPs do not require the elaborate procedures for issuing of shares once they are approved by the ESOP committee and the share holders. Therefore it saves time for the company. g) ESOPs provide a tax shield for the Company. Cost of ESOPs can be included in the employees cost which enters as a debit in the Profit & Loss Account. This leads to a tax saving for the company. h) Venture capitalists can attract better, experienced, efficient and more talented personnel with the lure of ESOPs. Since ESOPs have multiple benefits for the employees in the form of ownership of the company, an indirect form of compensation, gains through price escalation in the market, experienced persons may opt for joining the new venture in spite of the dangers involved in it. These ESOPs however, generated problems of their own for the company, the majority of which are discussed below. i) Options become an obligation for the company. Unlike the normal options contract, the company giving ESOP does not have a speculatory exposure in the underlying instrument. Therefore, the normal trading advantages of options do not accrue to the company. Or else the option premium covers the risk associated with option writing. But with ESOPs there is no option premium and the only compensation which the company might get would be indirectly through increase in liquidity and sometimes, tax advantage. The risk of exercise however, remains the same for the company as for the normal options contract. Thus they can be considered as more risky and costlier than market options. ii) It is only the actual exercise of the options that generates liquidity for the company but the time and amount of this remains uncertain till the date of exercise. Therefore, the liquidity benefit of ESOPs is highly uncertain. iii) The companies face two fold financial problems related to valuation and accounting while issuing ESOPs. The first one relates to lack of clear cut guidelines regarding valuation of ESOPs. The second one relates to proper accounting method for ESOPS. These two are major impediments for the company and are discussed in more details in point iii(a) and iii(b) below. iii (a) Valuation of ESOPs There are two basic methods of valuation of options. The Black-Scholes model is generally used for determination of option premium and its price. Many companies use this method for ESOPs also (generally known as fair value). But a major difference between ESOPs and options offered on the exchanges is that the company does not charge a premium from the employees. Therefore, the use of this model may not be appropriate for the company. The other theoretical binomial pricing model for options is generally not used by the companies for ESOPs. The market value model (generally known as intrinsic value) is the other method for valuation of ESOPs. SEBI has revised the guidelines for valuation of ESOPs based on market price for four times. Originally CCI had recommended that average of previous six months high and low market price from the date of grant of ESOP should be taken as the market price. In 1996 SEBI revised it to the higher price between average price of weekly high and low of last six months or average price of last two weeks before the date of grant. In 1999 SEBI again revised it to average of last two weeks high and low price and it was further revised in 2003 as closing price of shares before the date of grant converging with USGAAP (NOTE 4). It was again clarified in 2004 as the latest closing price before the date of meeting of board of director in which the options were granted.

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The companies were free to choose any one of these valuation models as per their convenience. The two methods generated very different costs in the financial statements. This, in turn, affected the profit and EPS in very significant and in different ways. Since the companies were not efficient in calculating the opportunity cost of opting for one of these valuation models, it generated confusion in the companies as to which model was more suitable for them. To compound the problem, if the companies calculated the employee compensation cost using the intrinsic value of the stock options, the difference between the cost so calculated and the cost if they had used the fair value model, they were required to report it in the Directors rep ort regarding the impact of this difference on profits and EPS of the company whereas no such requirement was THERE FOR THE MARKET VALUATION SYSTEM.

iii (b) PROBLEMS WITH THE ACCOUNTING SYSTEM The system of accounting for ESOPs depends upon the type of valuation system adopted. When Black-Scholes model is adopted, the cost to the company is equal to the difference between the market price of the shares and fair value of the option. When the market valuation system is adopted, the accounting method is that the difference between the market price and the offer price is considered as the cost of option to the company. Whereas if the exercise price was to be determined on the basis of the market price, the cost of ESOPs would be nil and there was no need to comply with the accounting policies prescribed by SEBI. Further problem arises regarding reversing the expense already accounted for over the vesting period when the vested and unvested options lapse. Thus the years of expensing and reversing would be different which raises a question of true profit.

iv) ESOPs also create problems of Corporate Governance. ESOPs create wealth for the shareholders. But these are given to the employees at heavy discount, discriminating between ordinary shareholders and employeeshareholders. It affects the interest of the share-holders in the long run. This creates problems of transparency and non-discrimination in corporate governance. Thus there is no clear cut direction given to the companies as to what is the proper method to be adopted. Since both methods of valuation are accepted by regulators and carry different accounting methods they tend to create confusion and uncertainty in the minds of the financial managers of the companies and other stakeholders. This is evident from the quotation cited from the annual report of Infosys above. 2. The Beneficiary Employees of the Company Employees have a tradition of buying shares of the company in which they work. The usual system was that they would purchase the shares from the open market, at market price. The ESOPs are given to them at a price which is considerably lower than the market price. Thus ESOPs have the following advantages for the employees: a) They acquire the shares at a price which is lower than the market price thereby benefiting directly in terms of lower prices. b) They get these shares mostly as a form of perk. Since these are non-monetary, they form an asset for the employee. c) They are liquid assets as the employees can sell them off in the market at any time after exercise. d) Their position in the company changes from that of mere employee to employee-owner. This enhances their value in their own eyes as well as in the eyes of all the other stake holders. e) It is not compulsory for the employees to exercise the option. They still retain the freedom to exercise or not. In case the option is not exercised, the company does not punish them in any manner. f) Their contribution to the company is not only returned to them in the form of salary and other payments but they also benefit by the share price appreciation. g) They also get capital gains by selling these shares in the market at higher prices. h) Apart from the normal ESOPs some companies also award shares at face value to the employees based on their performance. These are called performance shares. The employees have to just pay the face value to

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acquire them. Since the market price is generally many times higher than the face value, the employees get assets of much larger value. Nevertheless, there are several problems for the employees related to ESOPS. They are: i) ESOPs are different from the other options in their exercise time characteristics. While the market options are short term instruments, ESOPs generally end up as long term instruments due to the process through which they are issued and exercised. First of all the committee set up by the company has to take decisions about the grant of the option. However, the grant of the ESOPs is distributed over the vesting period which covers several years. The grant is issued annually so that at the end of the vesting the total numbers of shares are available to the employee for exercise. It means that the employee can exercise the option after a gap of minimum three years as per recommendations by SEBI. The final benefit comes to the employee only when the shares are sold by the employee. In case the shares are not sold immediately after acquisition, the capital gains would be delayed further. Thus the perceptible benefit accrues to the employee after a long period. This waiting period often becomes intolerable and the main reason why the ESOPs are not exercised. This problem is further compounded by the fact that for each year the exercise price is calculated on the basis of the current market price using one or the other valuation model. Thus the employee shall have to pay different prices (often higher in the subsequent years) for the ESOPs which were originally granted in one year. ii) In case an employee quits the company before the vesting period is over, the whole option is forfeited, thus incurring a loss for the employees. iii) In case the market price goes down, no advantage can be had by the employee from ESOPs. iv) The wavering policy of the regulators on taxing and then removing the tax on ESOPs as a form of perk also disturbs the employees. (NOTE 5) v) Cash incentives are preferred generally by the employees rather than those in the form of ESOPs as they area liquid, available for utilization instantly and have higher perceptible value 3. The Regulatory Bodies As stated above, the initial provisions related to ESOPs in India were embedded in the Companies Act, 1956. This act was implemented by the Government of India. Hence initially it was this act which regulated the ESOP. The other body to regulate this was the Controller of Capital Issues. But ESOPs were not used by the Indian corporates till 1994. By that time SEBI had come into existence. RBI issued an indirect guideline on this issue which was contained in the guidelines related to ADR/GDR. However, SEBI issued the detailed guidelines regarding ESOPs in 1999. The conflict with regard to regulations was that whereas the CCI and the Companies Act dealt with only the question of whether a company can issue ESOPs or not, SEBI, on the other hand issued guidelines only related to the valuation of ESOPs. The CCI was abolished in 1992. In the intervening period, only the provisions of the Companies Act were applicable. Incidentally, Infosys issued the first ESOP in 1994. At this time they faced confusion regarding the valuation and accounting of ESOP. Thereafter all three regulators, i.e. SEBI, RBI and the Companies Act are the three regulators which control the issue of ESOP by any company in India at present. For the regulators the following issues are relevant: a) The regulations regarding issuing powers for ESOP would enhance the interests of the employees in the company and enable the companies to retain good employees.

b) The provision for foreign ESOP by Indian companies reduces the employee turnover and these companies are able to attract better employees. c) Since many foreign regulations exist for ESOPs, Indian regulations can match them.

d) The rules framed by the ICAI are only recommendatory in nature and they require regulatory provisions from bodies like SEBI for actual implementation. At the same time a lot of problems exist in this area. They are: i) There are three different regulatory bodies related to ESOP. They all frame regulations with different perspectives. For example, the Companies Act focuses only on the empowerment aspect while SEBI lays emphasis on only the valuation aspect.

ii) The regulations are still not very clear as they allow the companies to decide on the valuation system on their own. Either the companies or the employees can incur a loss when any one of the valuation systems are adopted.

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iii) The regulations issued by SEBI are reactive in nature and not proactive. The history of regulations implemented by SEBI reveal that it issued the regulations only when the companies took their problems related to ESOP to it. iv) Till 2003 different regulations existed in ESOP regulations between India and USA. Therefore, Indian multinationals which issued ESOPs in India and USA had to follow different set of regulations. CONCLUSION There seem to be more problems associated with ESOPs than their benefits for the companies. The factual evidence states that ESOPs were used by Indian companies but in between they became quite unpopular for many reasons. The first problem relates to their valuation. In India, the valuation of ESOPs was not regulated till 1999 when SEBI issued the detailed guidelines. But even in this guideline, two options were available companies could take either the fair value or the intrinsic value of the option for its valuation. A similar case existed in USA where SFAS 123 prescribed the valuation system. Another proposal existed which suggested valuation on the basis of Exposure of the company. Bell et al (2001) showed that the exposure draft method was far superior to the actual SFAS 123 on actual market evidence. Yet the exposure draft has not been adopted in the USA. Infosys, the company which used ESOPs most widely also stated that they were suspending the scheme due to confusion over the valuation system. A severe accounting problem also exists. Again SEBI provided detailed guidelines for the accounting of ESOPs only in 1999. It is pertinent to note here that Baum et al (2000) found that the ability to attract talented employees was one of the major variables along with innovation which explained the market value of a share over and above the traditional accounting assets and liabil ities. In todays knowledge based economy all the companies would benefit by issuing ESOPs but do not do so largely due to the accounting problem. They might even take the same path as taken by the US companies where they did not disclose the impact of ESOPs on profit (Ramani, 2005). One of the major problems in the Indian context from the employees point of view is the inordinately long time required to actually realize the benefits of ESOPs. Thus the shortsighted regulations related to ESOPs have almost put an embargo on the use of such an excellent facility in the Indian corporate sector. Notes: 1. During 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003 employees of Infosys exercised ESOPs to acquire 11900, 7417, 28013, 56948 no. of shares respectively. Which shows vide variations in exercise. Similar pattern has been displayed for other companies also like Ambuja Cement, Bharti Airtel, Tech Mahindra, CRISIL etc. CCI: Office of the Controller of Capital Issues (CCI) was established under Ministry of Finance, Department of Economic Affairs; Government of India to regulate control over capital issues, and capital reorganization plan in India under the Capital Issues (Continuous of control) Act in April 1947.The CCI was repealed and replaced by SEBI in 1992. SEBI: Securities & Exchange Board of India is an autonomous body formed in 1992, repealing CCI, under the ministry of finance to regulate and promote the Security Market in India. US GAAP: United States Generally Accepted Accounting Principles are used to prepare, present and report the financial statements for companies, non-profit organizations and government. These rules are established by Financial Accounting Standard Board (SASB) in US. The valuation system for ESOPs was advised by SEBI in 1999. Thereafter the companies started issuing ESOPs. Then in 2001 they were taxed as perks. This tax on perks was later removed in 2006.

2.

3 4.

5.

REFERENCES Aboody, D. (1996), Market Valuation of Employee Stock Options, Journal of accounting and Economics, Vol. 22, issue 3, pp 357-359 Aboody, D. and Lev B. (1998), The Value Relevance of Intangibles: the Case of Software capitalization, Journal of Accounting Research, Vol. 36 (Supplement), pp 161-191 Annual report of Infosys Technologies Ltd. For the year 2002-03, 2003-04 and 2004-05.

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Baum, G.; C. Ittner; D. Larker; J. Low; T. Sielfeld and M.S. Malone (2000), Introducing the New Value Creation Index, Forbes ASAP, pp 140-143 Bell, Timothy, B.; Landsman, R. Wayne; Miller; Bruce, L. and yeh, Shu (2001), The Valuations Implications of Employee Stock Option Accounting for Computer Software Firms, www.ssrn.com, accessed on 27-07-09 Bettis, J. Car; Bizjak, John M. and Lemmon, Michael, L. (2003), The Cost of Employee Stock Options, www.ssrn.com, accessed on 27-07-09 Bodie, Matthew, T. (2003), Aligning Incentives with Equity: Employee Stock Options and Rule 10b-5, www.ssrn.com, accessed on 27-07-09 Byrne, J. A. (1998), How to reward failure: Reprice Stock Options, Business Week, October 12, 1998, pp 50 63 Carpenter, Jennifer, N. (1998), The exercise and valuation of executive stock options, Journal of Financial Economics, Vol. 48, issue 2, pp 127-158 Chou, R. (1988), Volatility Persistence and Stock Valuations, Journal of Applied Econometrics, Vol. 3, issue 2, pp 279-294 Core, John; Wayne, Guay and Kothari, S. P. (2002), The economic dilution of employee stock options: Diluted EPS for valuation and financial reporting, Accounting Review, Vol. 77, issue 7, pp 627 -652 Corrado, Chrles, J; Jordan, Bradford, D.; Miller Jr., Thomas W. and Stansfield, John J. (1998 and 2000), Repricing and Employee Stock Option Valuation www.ssrn.com, accessed on 27-07-09 Cuny, C. and Jorion, P. (1995), Valuing Executive Stock Options with endogenous departure , The Accounting and Economics, Vol. 20, issue 2, pp 193-205 Dechow, P.M.; Hutton, A.P. and Sloan, R., G. (1996), Economic Consequences of Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation, Journal of Accounting Research, Vol. 34 (Supplement), pp 1 -20 Dechow, P.M.; Hutton, A.P. and Sloan, R., G. (1999), An Empirical Assessment of the Residual Income Valuation Model, Journal of Accounting and Economics, Vol. 26, issue 5, pp 1-34 Emanuel, David, C. (1983), Warrant valuation and exercise strategy, Journal of Financial Economics, Vol. 12, issue 3, pp 211-235 Ferguson, Thomas, P. (2009), The Requirement to Expense Options: A Reactionary and Deleterious Response to Outrage, www.ssrn.com, accessed on 27-07-09 Foster, T. III; Koogler, P. and Vickrey, D. (1993), Valuation of Executive Stock Options and FASB proposal: an extension, The Accounting Review, Vol. 68, issue 2, pp 184-189 Galai, D. (1989), A note on equilibrium warrant pricing models and accounting for executive stock options , Journal of Accounting Research, Vol. 27, issue 1, pp 313-315 Guay, R. Wayne; Kothari, S.P. and Sloan, G. Richard (2006), Accounting for Employee Stock Options, www.ssrn.com, accessed on 27-07-09 Hemmer, Thomas; Steven, Matsunaga and Terry, Shevlin (1994), Estimating the fair value of employee stock options with expected early exercise, Accounting Horizons, Vol. 8, issue 2, pp 23-42 Huddart, S. and Lang, M. (1996), Employee Stock Option Exercises: An Empirical Analysis, Journal of Accounting and Economics, Vol. 21 issue 7, pp 5-43 Hull, John and Alan, White (1993), Efficient procedures for valuing European and American path-dependent options, Journal of Derivatives, pp 21-31 Hull, John and Alan, White (2004), How to value employee stock options, Financial Analysts Journal, Vol. 60, issue 1, pp 114-119 Jennergren, L.P. and Naslund, B. (1993), Valuation of Executive Stock Options and the FASB proposal: comment, The Accounting Review, Vol. 68, issue 4, pp 179 -183 Kulatilaka, N. and Marcus, A. (1994), Valuing Employee Stock Options, Financial Analysts Journal, Vol. 50, issue 3, pp 46-56

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Landsman, Wayne, R.; Peasnell, Ken; Pope, Peter, F. and Yeh, Shu (2004), The Value Relevance of Alternative Methods of Accounting for Employee Stock Options, www.ssrn.com, accessed on 27-07-09 Madhani, Pankaj, M. (2007), Employee Stock Option Accounting: New GAAP Standard for Enhanced Transparency in Financial Reporting, Paper presented at Nirma International Conference on Management, January 5-7, 2007 at the Institute of Management, Nirma University of Science & Technology, Ahmedabad Morgenson, G. (May 18, 1998), Stock Options are not a Free Lunch, Forbes, pp 213-217 Noreen, E. and Wolfson, M. (1981), Equilibrium warrant pricing models and accounting for executives stock options, Journal of Accounting Research, Vol. 19, issue 2, pp 384-398 Prowess database of CMIE Ramani, V. V. (2005), ESOPs: An Introduction, 1 st Ed. The ICFAI University Press, Hyderabad, pp 45-54 Rubinstein, M. (1995), On the valuation of employee stock options, The Journal of Derivatives, Vol.16, pp 8 24 Sekhar, K., (1994), Guide to SEBI Capital Issues, Debentures & Listing, 2 nd Ed. Wadhwa and Company, Nagpur, pp 124-135 Smith, C. Jr. and Zimmerman, J. (1976), Valuing employee stock option plans using option pricing models , Journal of Accounting Research, Vol. 14, issue 3, pp 357-364 Sryanarayan, R. and Varadarjan V. (2004), Handbook on ESOP. Employees Stock Option Plan, Preferential Allotment and Sweat Equity, 1st Ed. Commercial Law Publishers (India) Pvt. Ltd., Delhi, pp 72-90 Verma, J.C., (1989), A manual of Merchant Banking (Practice & Procedures), 2 nd Ed., Bharat Law House, New Delhi, 1989, pp 340-351 West, Graeme, (2009), A Finite Difference Model for Valuation of Employee Stock Options , www.ssrn.com, accessed on 27-07-09 Wong, M. H. Franco and Li, Feng, (2004), Employee Stock Options, Equity Valuation, and the Valuation of option Granted using a Warrant-Pricing Model, www.ssrn.com, accessed on 27-07-09 www.bse.org.in, accessed on 10-08-09 www.sebi.gov.in, accessed on 2-8-2009

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EFFECT OF DEEP BREATHING ON BLOOD PRESSURE IN WOMEN WITH HYPERTENSION IN SELECTED COMMUNITY AREAS
Ms. Adriana Pinto1 Abstract Hypertension is a worrisome public health trajectory. It is a chronic medical condition in which the blood pressure is elevated. Cardiovascular risk is poorly managed in women, especially during the menopausal transition when susceptibility to cardiovascular events increases. Hypertension is a particularly powerful risk factor and lowering of blood pressure is pivotal in this age group of women. This study aims to assess the effect of deep breathing on blood pressure in women affected with hypertension. A total of 60 samples were taken thirty in experimental and thirty in control group for a period of two weeks each. The experimental group was taught the deep breathing exercise and their blood pressure was checked at various intervals and compared with the control group. A significant change (decrease) in blood pressure was found in the experimental group. Key words- Hypertension, Women, Blood pressure, Deep breathing. INTRODUCTION Hypertension (elevated blood pressure) has become a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The prevalence of hypertension in women is on the rise. Though antihypertensive drugs have proved beneficial in the treatment of hypertension, the increased number of medications, non- compliance to drug regime, stress of modern life and increased financial expenses have led to poor management of hypertension leading to various hypertension related complications. To overcome these factors along with the medical management, nursing interventions play an equally important role. In this effort, the researcher thought that, complementary alternative therapy like deep breathing may prove beneficial in reducing blood pressure. With this in mind the researcher undertook this study Effect of deep breathing on bl ood pressure in women with hypertension in selected community areas. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Effect of deep breathing on blood pressure in women with hypertension in selected community areas OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1. To assess the blood pressure of women with hypertension before and after deep breathing in the experimental group 2. To assess blood pressure of women with hypertension in the control group 3. To compare the difference in blood pressure in the two groups 4. To find out the views of the women in the experimental group regarding the deep breathing exercise METHODOLOGY Design and Sample Research approach used in this study was a quasi- experimental approach and two- group pretest posttest method was selected for the study. Total sixty samples (thirty in control and thirty in experimental group), who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, were selected from two community areas. The sampling technique used in the study was non-probability convenience sampling technique. The sample for this study comprised of women between 41- 70 years diagnosed with pre hypertension who were selected from around the areas surrounding the community areas. Tool Description It consisted of the following tools.
1

Lecturer, Hiranandani College of Nursing

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Tool I: Demographic data Tool II: Record of physiological parameter- blood pressure Tool III: Observational checklist for performance of deep breathing exercise Tool IV: Record of practice of deep breathing exercise at home Tool V: Self reported semi structured questionnaire to assess the views of the women with hypertension regarding the deep breathing exercise Demographic data consisted of personal data of the patient i.e. age, education, occupation, income, marital status, type of family. History of hypertension and any previous history of deep breathing exercise Record of physiological parameter- blood pressure consisted of the blood pressure readings of the women with hypertension in the control group and experimental group on the 1 st day before providing deep breathing and subsequent readings on the 4th , 8th, and 14th day of the study The observation checklist was developed to ensure that the women in the experimental group would practice the exercise correctly when in front of the researcher. The record provided a detailed account of practice of the deep breathing technique at home, by the experimental group. It included a record of all 14 days along with provision for recording the time of practice of the exercise. The semi-structured questionnaire was prepared with a view to provide a feedback or views of the women in the experimental group regarding the deep breathing technique Data Collection The data collection period was from 2nd October to 4th November, 2010. Baseline blood pressure readings were established in both groups by averaging three readings separated by time duration of 5- 10 minutes. Deep breathing technique was taught to the experimental group and a return demonstration was taken from them. An observational check list ensuring the accuracy of demonstration of the exercise by the women and home record of practice of deep breathing by the women served as instruments to ensure compliance of the women to the deep breathing exercise for duration of 14 days. They were divided into seven groups and were called everyday to the centre where they would perform the exercise in front of the investigator. They were instructed to perform the exercise 2-3 times in a day. Their blood pressure was checked on the 4th, 8th and 14th day after providing deep breathing. On the 14 th day, the women were provided with a questionnaire regarding their views on the deep breathing technique. For the control group no deep breathing technique was taught. They were divided into six groups and their blood pressure was checked on day 1 (baseline blood pressure), day 4, day 8 and day 14. Data Analysis The various data was analysed as follows: Tool I- Demographic data analyzed by frequency and percentage Tool II: Record of physiological parameter- blood pressure analyzed by ANOVA. Tool III: Observational check list for performance of deep breathing exercise- analyzed by frequency and percentage Tool IV: Record of performance of deep breathing exercise at home- analyzed by frequency and percentage Tool V: Self reported semi structured questionnaire to assess the views of the women with hypertension regarding the deep breathing exercise- analyzed by frequency and percentage RESULTS In the experimental group in regards to systolic blood pressure the F value computed (50.864) was much larger than the critical or table value (2.682) for df of 3.116. Similarly, when the diastolic blood pressure of the women was compared in the experimental group within and among themselves, using the ANOVA, the calculated F value (121.131) was once again more than the critical F value (2.682) with a df of 3.116. This

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indicates that there was a significant difference in the systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure in the women in the experimental group across the time intervals Table 1. Comparison of Systolic Blood Pressure between the Subjects in both the Experimental and Control Groups on Day 1, Day 4, Day 8 and Day 14 Experimental Vs. control DAY 1 df 58 t stat 0.962 t critical 2.001 p value 0.339 >0.05 3.07E-10 <0.05 6.45E-16 <0.05 3.25E-15 <0.05 SIGNIFICANT SIGNIFICANT NOT SIGNIFICANT Difference is

DAY4

58

7.583

2.001

DAY8

58

11.062

2.001

DAY14

58

10.614

2.001

SIGNIFICANT

Figure 1. Line Chart Showing Systolic Blood Pressure at Four Time Intervals in Experimental and Control Groups. Figure 1 and table 1 show that except for day 1 there was a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure on day 4, day 8 and day 14 in the experimental group.

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Table 2. Comparison of Diastolic Blood Pressure between the Subjects in both the Experimental and Control Groups on Day 1, Day 4, Day 8 and Day 14 Experimental Vs. control DAY 1 df 58 t stat -0.105 t critical 2.001 p value 0.916 >0.05 DAY4 58 6.700 2.001 9.30E-09 <0.05 DAY8 58 8.005 2.001 5.99E-11 <0.05 DAY14 58 12.861 2.001 1.247 E-18 <0.05 SIGNIFICANT SIGNIFICANT SIGNIFICANT Difference is NOT SIGNIFICANT

Figure 2. Line Chart Showing Diastolic Blood Pressure at Four Time Intervals in Experimental and Control Groups Figure 2 and table 2 shows that except for day 1 there was a significant reduction in diastolic blood pressure on day 4, day 8 and day 14 in the experimental group. With regards to the views of the women regarding the deep breathing technique, all (100%) of the women found it useful. A majority of women (40%) found that the deep breathing exercise brought about both physical and mental ease. All the women (100%) would continue the deep breathing exercise and would

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encourage other people to practice the exercise. A majority (73.33%) of women were of the view that besides deep breathing, yoga would be a beneficial exercise to reduce blood pressure. From the above it can be concluded that, in this study deep breathing exercises performed 2-3 times daily for 14 days for duration of 10 minutes at a time, was associated with a significant reduction of B.P. in women with hypertension by a clinically meaningful value of 24/16 mmHg for systolic and diastolic B.P. respectively DISCUSSION When developing programs for hypertension care, it is important to use the nurse's capacity and ability to increase the quality of the hypertension care to satisfy the patient. Although traditional treatments have had some success, nurse-led clinics are having better success not only in controlling raised blood pressure but also in reducing cardiac, pulmonary and renal morbidity. Nurse-led management of people with high blood pressure could lead to improvements due to strict adherence to protocols, agreed target blood pressure, better prescribing and compliance, and regular follow-up. Moreover, Nurse-led clinics are more cost-effective and staffs are more productive. In this study too, a nurse led intervention like deep breathing was effective in reducing the blood pressure of the women with hypertension due to regularity and compliance on the part of the women in practicing the exercise. IMPLICATIONS Nurses can utilize this deep breathing technique to become physically, emotionally and psychologically stronger to handle stressful situations. Nurses working in clinical setting, O.P.D. setting or in community can teach hypertensive women to practice deep breathing technique according to their needs to overcome the potential complications of hypertension that the patients face. This study has shown that when the patients are taught such simple, less time consuming and cost effective techniques they are eager to learn and are prepared physically using pursed lip breathing and psychologically due to diaphragmatic breathing. This technique, which prepares them both physically and psychologically, helps the patient to maintain blood pressure within normal limits and reduce the need for medical support in the future. CONCLUSION The various findings of the study showed that deep breathing exercises performed 2-3 times daily for 14 days for duration of 10 minutes at a time, was associated with a significant reduction of blood pressure in women with hypertension by a clinically meaningful value of 24/16 mmHg for systolic and diastolic blood pressure respectively. REFERENCES Bengtson, A., Drevenhorn, E. (2003). The Nurse's Role and Skills in Nurse Specialist, 17(5), 260-68. Hypertension Care: a review. Clinical

Burns, N., Grove, K. (2005). The practice of nursing research: conduct, critique and utilization. ( 4 th ed.). U.S.A: Elseiver Health Sciences. Cao, Y., DiGiacomo, M., Du, H. Y., Ollerton, E., Davidson, P. (2008). Cardiovascular disease in Chinese women: an emerging high risk population and implications for nursing practice. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 23(5), 386-94. Christopher, E., Lindsay, C., Smith, F. P., Taylor, R.S., Campbell, J.L. (2010). Nurse led interventions to improve control of blood pressure in people with hypertension: systematic review and meta-analysis. British Medical Journal, 341:3995. Das, M., Pal, S., Ghosh, A. (2008). Rural urban differences of cardiovascular disease risk factors in adult Asian Indians. American Journal of Human Biology, 20(4), 440-5. Fagard, R. H., Cornellissen, V.A. (2007). Effect of exercise on blood pressure control in hypertensive patients. European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation 2007, 14(1), 12-17. Gupta, R., Sharma, A.K., Gupta, V.P., Bhatnagar, S., Rastogi, S., Deedwania, P. C. (2003). Increased variance in blood pressure distribution and changing hypertension prevalence in an urban Indian population. Journal of Human Hypertension, 17(8), 535-40.

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Hackman, D.G., Khan, N.A., Hemmalgarn, B.R., Rabkin, S.W., Touyz, R.M., Campbell, N.R. et al. (2010). The 2010 Canadian hypertension education program recommendations for the management of hypertension: part 2 - therapy. Canadian Journal of Cardiology, 26(5), 249-58. Jerath, R., Barnes, V.A. (2009). Augmentation of mind-body therapy and role of deep slow breathing. Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine, 6(1), Article 31. Joseph, C.N., Porta, C., Casucci, G., Casiraghi, N., Maffeis, M., Rossi, M. et al. (2005). Slow breathing improves arterial baroreflex sensitivity and decreases blood pressure in essential hypertension. Hypertension, 46(4), 714-18. Meles, E., Giannattasio, C., Failla, M., Gentile, G., Capra, A., Mancia, G. (2004). Nonpharmacologic treatment of hypertension by respiratory exercise in the home setting. American Journal of Hypertension, 17(4), 370-4. Mourya, M., Sood, A., Mahajan, Singh, N. P., Jain, A. K.. (2009). Effect of Slow- and Fast-Breathing Exercises on Autonomic Functions in Patients with Essential Hypertension. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 15(7), 711-717. Oakeshott, P., Kerry, S., Austina, A., Cappuccio, F. (2003). Is there a role for nurse-led blood pressure management in primary care? Family Practice, 20(4), 469-473. Pednekar, M. S., Gupta, R., Gupta, P.C. (2009). Association of blood pressure and cardiovascular mortality in India: Mumbai cohort study. American Journal of Hypertension, 22(10), 1076-84. Polit, D.F., Beck, C.T. (2008). Nursing research: principles and methods. (8 th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott William & Wilkins. Samad, Zainab, Tracy, Y., Frazier, Camille, G., Shah et al. (2008). Closing the Gap: Treating Hypertension in Women. European Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery, 16(6), 305-13. Seventh report on joint national committee on prevention, detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood pressure. U.S. department of health and human services. Retrieved 18 January, 2010 Available from:URL: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/hypertension/jnc7full.pdf Tandon, V.R., Mahajan, A., Sharma, S., Sharma, A. (2010). Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women: A rural study. Journal of Mid-life Health, 1, 26-9. Viskoper, R. , Shapira, I., Priluck, R., Mindlin, R., Chornia, L., Laszt, A. et al. (2003). Nonpharmacologic treatment of resistant hypertensives by device-guided slow breathing exercises. American Journal of Hypertension 2003, 16(6), 484-7.

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DEVELOPMENT OF A COMMUNICATION BOARD TO IDENTIFY NEEDS OF PATIENTS ON MECHANICAL VENTILATION POST CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS GRAFTING
Ms.RintaRajan1

Abstract The number of people affected with coronary artery disease and undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) is on the rise. These patients are subjected to endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation which impairs their communication process. Impairment in communication affects the quality of care that is provided and can lead to disruption in the therapeutic relationship between the nurse and the patient. The inability to express the needs and problems of patients during mechanical ventilation also leads to feelings of negativism and anxiety among the patients. Hence it is necessary to have a means to communicate when speech is not an option. The pictorial communication board is helpful in facilitating communication between nurses and patients. With this in mind the investigator undertook the study to develop a pictorial communication board to facilitate expression of needs and problems of mechanically ventilated patients. PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to develop a pictorial communication board to aid in identification of needs and problems of patients on mechanical ventilation post CABG. METHOD Thirty post CABG, extubated patients were selected using convenient sampling technique .they were interviewed and data was collected pertaining to their needs and problems when they were on mechanical ventilation after CABG. This data was then analyzed and a pictorial communication board to aid in expression of needs and problems by the patient on mechanical ventilation was prepared .Views about the communication board was obtained from nurses working in the cardiac recovery room. RESULTS The findings of the study showed that majority patients undergoing CABG (66.33%) belonged to the age group of 41-60 and were males (83.33%) .It was found that only 50% patients received information about mechanical ventilation and none of them received any information related to endotracheal tube intubation and communication difficulties resulting from it. The means of communication used by majority patients during the period of mechanical ventilation were gestures (90%) followed by head nods (53.33%), use of pen and paper (6.67%) and eye blinks (3.33%). Patients reported that pain and the need to change position were the major needs they wanted to communicate. The other problems reported were dry mouth, thirst, inability to sleep, feeling itchy and choking sensation. Most patients wanted to know about their surroundings and the time of the day. From the social point of view many patients wanted to meet their families and wanted to know about their well being. Very few patients reported spiritual needs. Based on the stated needs, a pictorial communication board was developed and validated. The study showed that there is association between the number of needs expressed by patients and their educational status. There is no association between age and occupation with the number of needs expressed. CONCLUSION Patients who are intubated and mechanically ventilated post CABG remain non sedated before they are extubated , during this time they experience a wide range of needs and problems that needs immediate addressing . Based on the data collected about their needs during mechanical ventilation, the pictorial communication board was developed and the views of nurses working with these patients were collected. This method of communication is a baby step into the wide world of augmentive and alternative communication techniques that can be effectively used for patients when speech is a problem and the process of communication is disrupted.

RN.RM. MSN (CVTS)

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INTRODUCTION Communication holds a central space in our lives. Everyone communicates in diverse ways in varied settings. However commonplace the act of communication, it is nonetheless difficult to analyze. The more we learn to analyze these processes the more complex they appear to be. Communication is a critical component in the hospital setting where its impact is seen in the patients overall medical care, psychological functioning and social interactions. There is a considerable rise in the number of patients who are hospitalized and require advanced medical care like mechanical ventilation. Mechanical ventilation is a method of mechanically assisting or replacing spontaneous breathing with a machine known as the ventilator. This procedure requires a tube to be introduced into the trachea for air to flow in and out. Endotracheal tube passing through the vocal cords makes speech impossible, thus dramatically altering the communication process. Current projections by WHO suggest that by year 2020, India will have the largest cardiovascular burden in the world. Studies show that CABG remains one of the best treatment options for patients with CAD. Hence a large number of patients will undergo CABG in the coming years and mechanical ventilation and endotracheal intubation resulting from it. A qualitative study into experiences of CABG patients revealed that patients experienced loneliness and loss of control due to impaired communication owing to intubation. It becomes necessary to develop a strategy that can help in communicating needs of patients with a view to improve interpersonal relationship between nurses and patients. However very little systematic research has been done to determine the use of communication board which has the potential to improve communication in intubated patients. Furthermore the available communication boards are made by experts in the field of communication and lack the contribution of patients who have undergone communication difficulties due to mechanical ventilation. Hence there is a need to explore the patients needs and identify content that they want in a communication board. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1. 2. 3. 4. To identify the problems related to communication during mechanical ventilation from patients who are extubated post CABG To prepare a communication board based on the expressed needs identified from data collected from patients on mechanical ventilation post CABG. To assess the relation between expressed needs and demographic variables ( age, educational qualification and occupation) To obtain views regarding the prepared communication board from nurses

METHOD This descriptive study used the theory of interpersonal relationship by Hildergard Peplau . Thirty post CABG extubated patients were selected from a hospital using convenient sampling technique. These patients had undergone intubation and mechanically ventilation after CABG for 18 hours and were interviewed within 24 hours of extubation .patents who were hemodynamically unstable and sedated throughout the process of mechanical ventilation were excluded.a semi structured interview schedule was used to collect data from the patients and an oppinionnaire was used to collect the views of nurses. The interview schedule consisted of questions related to experiences of patients during mechanical ventilation pertaining to communication and fifty multiple choice questions related to the common needs that they experienced during mechanical ventilation. Based on the data collected , a pictorial communication board to aid the patients in communicating their needs and problems when mechanically ventilated was developed FINDINGS Majority patients (63.33%) belonged to the age group 41-60 years. None of the patients undergoing CABG were informed about mechanical ventilation and endotracheal intubation and the resulting communication difficulties that would arise. The means of communication used by patients to express their needs and problems to nurses were mainly gestures. Only 46.67% patients were satisfied with the communication they were able to achieve. All the patients felt the need to change positions and report pain .the other physical problems encountered were dry mouth , inability to sleep , dry lips and throat irritation. Majority patients reported that they did not know the time of the day .psychological problems like anxiety, sadness

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,frustration and confusion were reported by patients .although spiritual wellbeing is an important aspect , findings suggest that it may not be a vital area when patients are on short term ventilation. There was a significant association between the number of needs and educational qualification. As the educational qualification increases the number of needs decrease. The findings were used to prepare a pictorial communication board that would help patients in communicating their needs when on mechanical ventilation .the communication board has. .the board consists of physical ,physiological , psychological ,orientation related and spiritual needs reported by patients. It also has a pain scale diagram and pain location diagram. Instructions of how to use the board are provided on the last flap of the board. Cent percent nurses opined that the pictorial communication board would improve patient participation in care and hence would improve therapeutic nurse patient relationship. CONCLUSION Based on the data collected from patients who had undergone mechanical ventilation and endotracheal intubation, a pictorial communication board was developed .this communication board can be used for patients who are intubated and for whom nurse patient communication through spoken words is a barrier. This method of communication is a baby step into the wide world of augmentive and alternative communication techniques that can be effectively used for patients when speech is a problem and the process of communication is disrupted. REFERENCES Patrick WS.Marie CM. Pieter K . Antonio C , David R , Holmes et.al. Percutaneous coronary intervention versus coronary artery bypass grafting for severe coronary artery disease. the new England journal of medicine 2009;360(10):961-972 Schou L, Egerod I.A qualitative study into lived experiences of post CABG patients during mechanical ventilator weaning .Intensive crit care Nurs.2008 Jun;24(3):171-9 World health organization. World health statistics 2008.France.WHO Library cataloguing-in-publication data.29-32

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MEASUREMENT OF CONCENTRATION OF U, Th AND K IN THE SEDIMENTS FROM THE PERMIAN TRIASSIC SECTIONS, SPITI VALLEY, H.P. INDIA
Punam Mehta1 Abstract This paper describes the atmospheric condition of about 250Ma ago. It involves measurement of concentration of U, Th and K-40. 21 Sample were taken from Permian Triassic shale of spiti valley, H.P. concentration of U was found highest at P/Tr boundry which implies that at that time atmosphere was highly anoxic. Th/U profile starts increasing from 30 cm before the PTB. which implies that extinction did not takes place suddenly. INTRODUCTION Dinosaurs were wiped out about 65 Ma ago between cretaceous and tertiary period. While at the end of Permian period about 250 Ma ago, about 90% species in the ocean, 2/3 of reptiles and amphibians on land 1/3 of insects vanished (mother of mass extinction).By the previous study of guling sample from spiti valley, it was found that the limonitic band (P/Tr boundry) which separates the Permian grey black and triassic lime stone is present throughout the spiti valley and lahul valley. To characterize the environmental condition of that time samples of Spiti valley area was taken. TECHNIQUE AND EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS For detection of gamma ray a gamma ray spectrometer is used. Here intermediate size detector is used that converted gamma ray photons into electrons. when energy less than 1.02MeV,the spectrum consists of Compton continuum and full energy peak with added contribution of multiple Compton events. pulse height spectra display the pulse amplitude. The total no. of pulse were obtained by integrating the area under the entire spectrum. METHODOLOGY Sample details and preparation 21 samples from Guling village were processed through ethyl alcohol and IR radiation and kept in air tight box for 15 days so that 100% Rn(half life 3.825 days) is decayed. Then sample was kept in gamma ray detector. Counts obtained from energy deposition of radiation contain counts due to Compton effect. Net counts=total no of counts in cross hatched area-no of counts obtained due to compton1 and compton2.cpm=Net counts /live time.netcpm=cpm for photo peak-cpm for background.cpm/g for basalt standard#107 and sample was compaired to obtain the concentration of particular element in sample. RESULTS Concentration of U,Thand K in standard were 5.69ppm,14.5ppmand 2.63ppm.Concentration to U for two energy values 609keV and 352 keV were calculated .The concentration of U is going on increasing near the PTB,it started increasing about 30cm before the PTB then started decreasing above the boundry.It implies that at the time of extinction the U+6 was changed into U+4(insoluble in water)that means the environment was anoxic and due to death of a no. of species ,lot of organic carbon converted into co2 making environment highly anoxic. Reducing condition also inferred from the color of shale pieces which changes from grey (Permian) to black (PTB). concentration of Th is same for all samples and value of s.d. is ranging from 0.02 to .1 for Pb212(238keV) while s.d. is ranging from .05 to .55 for Tl208(583keV) so Tl208 should be used for further study.th/u profile is an indicator of redox condition at the time of sedimentation. Assuming sedimentation rate 1mm per thousand year then it can be inferred that anoxia started about 3,00,000 yrs before the PTB and extinction had taken time to reach at extreme. Along with anoxic condition impact of asteroid or meteorite might have put lot of stress on the living species at the P/Tr time. Further work is required to conclude the observation more convincingly.

Lecturer, Govt H.S.School, Ingoria, Ujjain.

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REFERENCES A.D. Shukla, N. Bhandari and P.N. Shukla (2000)Permian-Triassic transitional environment in spiti valley,Himalaya,India paper presented in internation al conferences catastrophic events and MassExtinction:Impact and beyondJuly9-12,2000. Knoll, Glenn F. (1989) Radiation detection and measurement, Jhon Willey & Sons. N. Bhandari and P.N. Shukla and R azmi (1992)Positive europium anomaly in Lalung P/Tr section in spiti valley.Geophys.Res.Lett.,1531-1534. ******

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CHARACTERIZATION OF PLASMA TREATED POLYESTER FABRIC


Naseerali.M.K.1 Abstract In this study, 100% Polyester fabric has been undergone to low temperature plasma in the plasma chamber and characterized. Weight Loss Studies, Capillary Rise Measurement, Moisture Content Measurement, Wettability Studies, Sem Analysis and Whiteness Index and Yellowness Index were done on the fabric accordingly. The result shows that By the low temperature plasma treatment on the polyester fabrics, it is possible to change or modify the various properties of the samples without affecting its color. ROLE OF PLASMA IN TEXTILE INDUSTRY It is well known that textile fiber surfaces play a key role in textile processing and application technology. As with many other types of material, the surfaces of fibers can be readily functionalized by the use of plasma technology without impairment of their bulk properties. Plasma technology offers great potential for significant improvements in fiber surface properties, based on changes in both physical and chemical attributes. For an increasing number of applications the surfaces of textile fibers are specially engineered to create the structure that gives the product its desired properties. As with many other types of material, the surface properties of textile fibers can be readily altered by the use of plasma technology. Gas plasmas are complicated mixtures of highly excited atomic, molecular, ionic and free radical species. Gas plasma technology provides environmental advantages over traditional textile coating procedures and offers great potential for significant improvements in fiber surface properties based on changes in physical and chemical properties resulting from introducing functional structures. Plasma treatments are gaining popularity in textile industry due to their numerous advantages over conventional wet processing techniques. Plasma which contains electrons, ions and neutral particles can interact with polymer surface and modify their chemical and physical properties. Surface modification is mainly due to the information of functional groups on their surface (process I) and the etching of their surfaces. In process I, radicals combine with other radicals in the plasma to form new functional groups. This is an essential reaction for the formation of functional groups on the polymer surface. Degradation reactions of the polymers are initiated from the carbon radicals at the polymer chain ends. Degradation products with low molecular weight and injured layer are formed on the polymer surface. As long as plasma is used to develop functional groups, the etching process is unavoidable during the modification reactions. In the plasma surface modification process, glow discharge plasma is created by evacuating a reaction chamber and then refilling it with low pressure gas. The gas is then energized by one of the following types of energy radio frequency microwaves and alternating or direct current. The energetic species in gas plasma include ions, electrons, radical metastable and photons in the short wave ultraviolet range surfaces with the gas plasma are bombarded by these energetic species and their energy is transferred from plasma to the solid. The energy transfers are dissipated within the solid by a variety of chemical and physical process to result in a unique type of surface modification that react with surfaces in depth from several hundred angstroms to 10 m without changing the bulk properties of the material. SURFACE MODIFICATION BY PLASMA TREATMENT The past decade has witnessed a tremendous surge interest regarding various techniques for material surface preparation and modification. The critical principle behind these technologies is that they make it possible to change the surface properties of a material without changing the bulk properties. This essentially creates new materials with new possibilities, opening novel perspectives to help resolve produce or design issues and develop innovative applications. Production difficulties frequently arise when a new material is substituted for an existing one and turns out to have surface characteristics that are incompatible with effective processing. Recent surface modification methods often can address such problems while also inspiring unanticipated design solutions as designers begin to think beyond conventional mechanical or chemical surface alteration. One such process is low-pressure plasma technology, an environmentally friend and cost-effective way to modify material surfaces on a microscopic level without manual operations or the use of chemical products.

Research scholar, Govt. Training College, Trivandrum

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Low temperature plasma is an ionic gas whose components and characteristics are different from the normal gas. With the help of electrical discharge, plasma of different ionization extents can be produced. Since the temperature of plasma is relatively low, the activating species in plasma easily lose their energy once reacting with the material. It has been used in a wide variety of engineering applications in a well-controlled and reproducible way to clean, activate, etch or otherwise modify the surface of plastic, metal or ceramic materials including the textile process to improve their bonding capabilities or achieve totally new surface properties. Low temperature plasma is particularly suited to apply to textile processing because most textile materials are sensitive polymers. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Fiber Idenification A fiber identification test has been done in the chemistry lab of SITRA to identify and confirm the type of the wept and warp yarns of the fabric. From this test, it is clear that both the wept and warp yarns of the samples were 100% polyester. Weight Loss Studies In this present work, the low pressure air plasma was applied to study the weight loss percentage for polyester fabrics. Experimental conditions for the plasma treatment of polyester fabrics: Discharge power Distance between the electrodes Plasma treatment time Pressure Dimensions of the sample : : : : : 350 V 3 cm 6 min 0.08, 0.2, 0.6 mbar 5X5 cm

Before the plasma treatment, samples are weighed individually in a vacuum balance. The samples are now subjected to plasma treatment at various pressures and weighed individually. The difference in weight of both before and after treatment makes the sample to lose its weight considerably. Table 1. Weight Loss Studies Sample No 1 2 3 Pressure inside the chamber mbar 0.08 0.2 0.6 Weight of the sample before treatment W1 0.4665 0.4706 0.4735 Weight of the sample after treatment W2 0.4658 0.4694 0.4724 Percentage of weight loss (W1-W2/W1)*100 0.1500 0.2549 0.2323

The table shows that when the pressure increases, the percentage of weight loss increases up to a peak value and then decreases gradually. Capillary Rise Measurement In this study the polyester fabric of size 10 x 2 cm was inserted in to the plasma reactor and was subjected to air plasma treatment (at various pressures 0.08, 0.2, 0.6 mbar) for 6 minutes and an applied potential of 350 V. The treated sample strips are dipped in to a blue dye solution in a beaker by means of a clamper. Using a stop watch for various time intervals, the height of the raising dye solution in the strip are noted and then tabulated.

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50 45

3 minutes

48 44 40

WICKING HEIGHT (mm)


40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

0.6 m bar

WICKING HEIGHT (mm)

2 minutes

36 32 28 24 20 16 12 8 4 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5

1 minutes

0.2 m bar 0.08 m bar

PRESSURE (mbar)

WICKING TIME (minutes)

Figure 1. Pressure (mbar) Vs Wicking height (mm)

Figure 2. Wicking time (minutes) Vs Wicking height (mm)

From the Figure 1 and Figure 2, we infer that the samples wickability increases as the treatment pressure increases. It is also clear that as the wicking time increases the wickability also increases and it reaches a maximum value. Moisture Content Measurement In this study, low pressure air plasma was applied to measure the moisture content of the polyester samples. Experimental conditions for the plasma treatment of polyester fabrics: Discharge power Distance between the electrodes Plasma treatment time Pressure Dimensions of the sample : : : : : 350 V 3 cm 6 min 0.08, 0.2, 0.6 mbar 5X5 cm

Table 2. Moisture Content Capability of Polyester Fabrics Sample No 1 2 3 Plasma exposure pressure mbar 0.08 0.2 0.6 Weight of the plasma treated wet sample Ww 0.4661 0.4697 0.4721 Weight of the plasma treated sample after drying Wd 0.4614 0.4631 0.4655 Percentage of Moisture content (Ww-Wd/ Ww) *100 % 1.0083 1.4051 1.398

POLYESTER
1.5 1.4

moisture content (%)

1.3 1.2 1.1 1 0 0.2 pressure(m bar) 0.4 0.6

Figure 3. Pressure Vs Moisture content%

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From the Figure 3, it is seen that the increase in the pressure increases the moisture content capability and became almost constant for higher pressures. This may be due to the surface removal of the fabric. Wettability Studies In this study the polyester fabric of size 10 x 5 cm was inserted in to the plasma reactor and was subjected to air plasma treatment at various pressures say 0.08, 0.2, 0.6 mbar for 6 minutes and an applied potential of 350 V. Table 3. Wet ability measurements of polyester samples Sample No. 1 2 3 Pressure ( m bar) 0.08 0.2 0.6 Wetting time for 10 micro liter water (sec) 360 192 40 Wetting area (cm2) 1.69 2.03 2.26

Polyester 400 350


wetting time (seconds)

2.5

AREA OF WETTING
0 0.2
pressure ( m bar )

300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0.4 0.6

1.5

1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 PRESSURE (mbar)

Figure.4. pressure Vs wetting time

Figure 5. pressure Vs area of wetting cm2

From the Figure 4, it is clear that as the pressure increases the wetting time decreases. That is, at lower pressure, the wetting time is more and therefore the wettability of the fabric is low. From the Figure 5, it is seen that an increase in treatment pressure may decrease the amount of water absorption. This is due to surface removal of fabrics surface oxidation although not severe enough to cause gross topographical change, should alter the surface dependent fabric properties such as absorbency and dye ability. When plasma treated polyester fabrics were wetted with water or with dye, they rapidly observed each liquid and were wetted uniformly over the entire length of the specimen. These two properties can make useful for the designing of dresses for different seasons such as rainy season. Sem Analysis In our present work, polyester fabric of size 5 X 5 cm was introduced in to the plasma chamber and treated for 6 minutes at low pressure of 0.08, 0.2, 0.6 mbar and at an applied potential of 350 V.

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Figure 6. SEM images for untreated polyester fabric The above two figures shows the SEM images of the untreated polyester fabric. It demonstrates that the fiber surface is smooth and free from roughness, indicating that no damage has occurred on the fiber surface.

Figure 7. SEM images for 6 min plasma treated polyester fabric The above figures display the SEM images of plasma treated polyester fiber which illustrates a change in the fiber surface morphology with voids and pores. The roughness of the surface depends on the chemical nature of the polyester material as well as on the setup of the reactor, treatment time, treatment pressure and type of gas used. Here we are used air as the treatment medium. The thickness of the modified layer is several hundreds of A0 and it is due to that the plasma treatment has an influence on the mechanical properties of cotton fiber. Whiteness Index and Yellowness Index
125 120 115

WHITENESS INDEX

110 105 100 95 90 85 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

PRESSURE (mbar)

Figure 8. Pressure (mbar) Vs Whiteness index

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From the whiteness index test, it is clear that for the pressure 0.08 and 0.2 mbar the plasma treated fabrics shows the whiteness index almost as same as untreated one. But as the pressure increases (0.6 mbar) the whiteness index of the sample decreases gradually. The increase in treatment pressure may reduce the color of the fabric. The yellowness index is not applicable for our samples since the color is not much differed for the plasma treated and untreated one. CONCLUSION By the low temperature plasma treatment on the polyester fabrics, it is possible to change or modify the various properties of the samples without affecting its color. REFERENCES Akishev Y, Grushin M., Napartovitch A, Trushkin N., Plasmas and Polymers, 7 (2002) 261. C.J Jahagirdar and Yasmin Srivastava, Journal of Applied Polymer Science 82 (2001) 292. C.W.M.Yuen, S.Q.Jiang, C.W.Kan and W.S.Tung, Applied Surface Science 253(2007)5250. E.Payen, N.De Geyter, C.Lets and R.Morent , Surface and Coating Technology. F.Ferrero ., C.Tonin, F.R Pollone, Coloration Technology 120(2004)30. F.Ferrero., Polymer Testing 22 (2003) 571. G.Akovali., f.Takrouri, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 42 (1991) 2717. H.Krump, I.Hudec and A.S Luyt, International journal of Adhesion & Adhesives 25 (2005) 269. Jyh-Ping Chen and Yi-Ping Chiang, Journal of membrane science 270 (2006) 212. Karthick Samanta, Manjeet Jassa and Ashwini.K.Agarwal,Indian Journal of Fiber and Textile Research 31 (2006) 83. N.De Geyter, R.Morent & C.Leys and E.Payen, Surface and Coatings Technology 201 (2006) 2460. N.V Bhat and Y.N Behjamih, Textile Research Journal 69 (1999) 38. P.A.F.Herbert and E.Bourdin, Journal of Coated Fabrics 28 (1999) 170. P.Alexy, M.jasso, D.Kovacik and H.Krump, International Journal of Adhesion % Adhesives 26 (2007) 2460. P.H.Bae, Y.J.Hwang, H.J.Jo and H.J.Kim, Journal of chemosphere 63 (2006) 1041. Paul.A.Charpentier, Annemaguire, and Wan-Kei Wan Journal of Applied Surface Science 252 (2006) 6360. R.Ogaki, F.Green and S.Li and I.S. Gilmore, Journal of Applied Surface Science 252 (2006) 6797. Rashidi., H. Moussavi pourgharbhi Miralili and M.Ghoranneviss, Indian Journal of Fiber and Textile Research 29(2004) 74 S.Shahidi, M.Ghoranneviss,B.Moazzenchi D.Dorranjan and A.Rashidi, The Netherlands 18 (2005) 135. Saurabh Garg, Chris Hurren and Akif Kayanak, Synthetic Metals 157 (2007) 41. T.H.C Costa, M.C Fector, C.Alves Jr. and P.B. Freire, Journal of Materials Processing Technology 173 (2006) 40. U.Vohrer, M.Muller and C.Oehr, Surface and Coatings Technology 98 (1998) 1128.

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TO STUDY ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF EUCALYPTUS GLOBULES PLANT ON E.COLI SPECIES, BHOPAL, M.P. INDIA
Ankur Pauranik1 Abstract This paper reveals the antimicrobial properties of Euclyptus Globules plant commonly available in and around Bhopal region against pathogenic microorganism Escherasia Coli. The organism was found weakly and moderately sensitive against plant extract collected from stem and leaves of E. Globules. INTRODUCTION E.coli is a gram negative rod shaped bacteria that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warmblooded organisms. Most E. coli strains are harmless, but some, such as serotypeO157:H7, can cause serious food poisoning in humans. E. coli are not always confined to the intestine, and their ability to survive for brief periods outside the body makes them an ideal indicator organism to test environmental samples for fecal contamination.. Escherichia coli O157 is one of the most important pathogenic strains reported from food-borne illnesses leading to enterohemorrhagic colitis. The National Salmonella and Escherichia Centre is a national reference centre for Salmonella and Escherichia for India; it receives samples from research laboratories, hospitals and institutions for serological identification. This study is an epidemiological survey of E. coli O157 in different regions of India. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1. 2. 3. To use commonly used plant products for medicinal use. To study significant antimicrobial property of plant against deadly microorganism E.coli . To compare present antibiotics with experimental products on positive samples by using serial dilutions.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE Angela E. Sadlon, ND, MS, 2007 Immune-Modifying and Antimicrobial Effects of Eucalyptus Oil and Simple Inhalation Devices. Study has suggested antimicrobial properties of Eucalyptus plant against microorganisms other than E.coli. Davis W. Lamson, MS, 2009 also studied anti-inflammatory properties of Euclyptus plant, but E.coli organism was not a part of the study.

METHODOLOGY Subjects: The positive samples containing E.coli species were collected Peoples Hospital and Medical College, Bhopal.

Sample size: Total 5 positive samples were collected from Peoples Hospital. Sampling : Random positive samples was collected for study.

Study Design: This is an experimental study. Procedure Plant Extract Plant material or essential oil was obtained from surrounding areas. Microorganisms The microorganisms were obtained from microbiology department, Central Laboratory of Peoples Hospital at Bhopal city. The bacteria Escherichia coli was isolated and identified by classical methods. Escherichia coli organisms wasisolated from the urine sample of patients.
1

Assistant Professor, Peoples Paramedical College, Peoples University, Bhopal

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Preservation of urine sample:To delay decomposition of urine, following methods was employed for preservation:1. Refrigeration. 2. Preservatives include:Hydrochloric acid, Boric acid, Glacial acetic acid, other preservatives used include formaldehyde. Note :- The sample was processed within 8 hours of collection. Identification of organisms:The identification of organisms was based on cellular, cultural and biochemical characteristics. Microscopy Grams Stain:- Grams stained smears showed short Gram Negative Bacilli. Culture On blood agar after 24 hrs. Of incubation at 37 degree C colonies were circular, smooth convex and about 1-3 mm in diameter. Colonies were mucoid and some strains are Beta Haemolytic. On Macconkey media,colonies were red to pink due to lactose fermentation. Biochemical Tests:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Lactose fermentation:- Acid with or without gas. Glucose:- Gas production. M.R. test:- Positive. V-P test:- Negative. Indole test:- Positive. Nitrate test:- Positive.

Determination of the essential oil antiseptic activity :The micro atmosphere method:This technique allows evidence to describe the diffusion of volatile essential oils components in petri dishes and to obtain clear or resistant zones on the petri dish containing microorganisms. A disc (with 2.5 cm diameter) impregnated with 50 ul essential oils was deposited in the center of the agar previously incorporated with E.coli microorganisms then incubated to 37 C for 16-18 hours . The suspension of germs method :The microorganisms (S.aureus, E. coli) present in suspension were dissolved in broth, then diluted in a series of test tubes. The essential oils were added to each diluted test tubes to a certain volume (10, 50, and 100ml) . Microbial growth was cheked by spectrophotomtric determination at 600nm after 10 minutes, 20 minutes and 24 hours of incubation. The surviving bacteria were then counted and transferred to agar culture medium Mueller Hinton for their development. Standard antibiotic discs such as ampicillin, amoxicillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, nitroxoline and pristinamycine were used for antibiogram test. Assignment tools :-Compound Microscope, Colony counter, Colorimeter, Variable Micropipettes ( 10100 ul, 100-1000 ul), Incubator, Laminar Airflow ,rotator and shaker. RESEARCH OUTCOME The study had proved the importance of easily available medicinal plant E. Globules as antimicrobial agent against deadly E.Coli microorganisms.

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REFERENCES Bentley R, Meganathan R (1 September 1982). "Biosynthesis of vitamin K (menaquinone) in bacteria". Microbiol. Rev.46 (3): 24180. PMID 6127606. PMC 281544.. Escherichia coli O157:H7". CDC Division of Bacterial and Mycotic http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo/escherichiacoli_g.htm. Retrieved 2007-01-25. Diseases.

Eucalyptus L' Hr.. Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 200901-27. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/genus.pl?4477. Retrieved 2010-02-28. Hudault S, Guignot J, Servin AL (July 2001). "Escherichia coli strains colonising the gastrointestinal tract protect germfree mice against Salmonella typhimurium infection". Gut10.1136/gut.49.1.47. Vogt RL, Dippold L (2005). "Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak associated with consumption of ground beef, June-July 2002". Public Health Rep120 (2): 1748. PMID 15842119. ******

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d.kZ Nsnu & laLdkj yksd jhfr esa ifj.kr gks pqdk FkkA bl le; dsoy vkSipkfjdrk gh cjrh tkrh FkhA lwj us Hkh bls yksdjhfr ds :Ik esa fpf=r fd;kA bldk Hkh vk;kstu lwj dkyhu czt esa vkt dh vis{kk dgh vf/kd /kwe/kke ls gksrk FkkA lwj us vis{kkd`r bldk Hkh foLr`r o.kZu fd;kA ;Kksiohr laLdkj &

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