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IntroductiontoComposite MaterialsandStructures

NachiketaTiwari IndianInstituteofTechnologyKanpur

Lecture1 Introduction

OverviewofLectures
Module 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Lecture Numbers 1,2,3 4,5,6,7,8,9 10,11,12,13,14 Contents Introduction toComposites Fibers,Matrices andFillers ManufacturingofComposites andTerminologies

15,16,17,18,19,20, 21 Unidirectionaland ShortFiberComposites 22,23,24 25,26,27 28,29,30, 31,32 33,34,35,36,37,38, 39 40 39, OrthotropicLaminates Laminated Composites FailureofComposites ThermalStresses, MoistureStresses, HygrothermalStressesandClosure

LectureOverview
Whatarecomposites? Importanceandareasofapplication Classification Advantagesoffiberreinforcedcomposites

Whatarecomposites? p
Composite: p Twoormorechemically ydifferent constituentscombinedmacroscopically to yieldausefulmaterial material. Examplesofnaturallyoccurringcomposites
Wood:Cellulosefibersboundbyligninmatrix Bone:Stiffmineralfibersinasoftorganicmatrix permeatedwithholesfilledwithliquids Granite:Granularcompositeofquartz,feldspar, and dmica i

Whatarecomposites? composites ?
Someexamplesofmanmadecomposites
Concrete:Particulatecomposite p ofaggregates gg g (limestoneorgranite),sand,cementandwater Plywood:Severallayersofwoodveneerglued together Fiberglass:Plasticmatrixreinforcedbyglassfibers Cemets:Ceramicandmetalcomposites Fibrouscomposites:Varietyoffibers(glass,kevlar, graphite,nylon,etc.)boundtogetherbya polymericmatrix

Thesearenotcomposites!
Plastics:Eventhoughtheymayhaveseveral presencedoesnotalterthe fillers,theirp physicalpropertiessignificantly. Alloys:Herethealloyisnotmacroscopically heterogeneous,especiallyintermsofphysical properties. Metalswithimpurities:Thepresenceof impuritiesdoesnotsignificantlyalterphysical propertiesofthemetal metal.

Wherearecompositesused?
Automotiveindustry:Lighter,stronger,wear resistance,rustfree,aesthetics
Carbody Brakepads Driveshafts Fueltanks Hoods Spoilers

Wherearecompositesused?
Aerospace:Lighter,stronger,temperature resistance,smartstructures,wearresistance
Aircraft:Nose,doors,struts,trunnion,fairings, cowlings,ailerons,outboardandinboardflaps, stabilizers,elevators,rudders,fintips,spoilers, edges Rockets&missiles:Nose,body,pressuretanks, frame fueltanks, frame, tanks turbomotorstators, stators etc. etc Satellites:Antennae,frames,structuralparts

Wherearecompositesused?
Sports:Lighter,stronger,toughness,better g damping p g p properties p aesthetics,higher
Tennis Bicycles Badminton Boats Hockey y Golfing Motorcycles

Wherearecompositesused?
Transportation&Infrastructure:Lighter, g toughness, g damping p g stronger,
Railwaycoaches Bridges Shipsandboats Dams Truckbodiesandfloors RVbodies

Wherearecompositesused?
Andmanymoreindustrysectors
Biomedicalindustry y Consumergoods Agriculturalequipment Heavymachinery Computers Healthcare

ClassificationofComposites
Engineered i d Composites

Particulate

Fibrous

Random Orientation

Preferred Orientation

SingleLayer

MultiLayer

Continuous& LongFibers

Discontinuous &ShortFibers

Laminate

Hybrid Laminate

Unidirectional

BiDirectional

Random Orientation

Preferred Orientation

R f References
1. Analysis and Performance of Fiber Composites, Agarwal, B D and B.D. d Broutman, B t L J., L. J John J h Wiley Wil & Sons. S Mechanics M h i of f Composite C i Materials, M i l Jones, J R M., R. M Mc M Graw G Hill. Engineering Mechanics of Composite Materials, Daniel, I. M and Ishai, M. Ishai O., O Oxford University Press. Press

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