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GE Global Research

Robert Perry June 19, 2013

1 R. Perry 02/22/2013

GE a heritage of innovation
Founded in 1892

300,000 employees worldwide $150 billion in annual revenues


Only company in Dow Jones index originally listed in 1896

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GE today
Energy Healthcare GE Capital

Oil & Gas

Aviation

Home & Business Solutions

Power & Water

Transportation

Aligned for growth


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Market-focused R&D
First U.S. industrial lab Began 1900 in Schenectady, NY Founding principle improve businesses through technology One of the worlds most diverse industrial labs

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A tradition of innovation
1909 1913 1927 1932 1938 1942 1953 1955 1962 1973 1984 1994 1999 2004 2009 2010 2012 Ductile tungsten Medical X-ray First television broadcast reception Langmuir Nobel Prize in chemistry Invisible/glareless glass First US jet engine LEXANTM polycarbonate Man-made diamonds Semi-conductor laser Giaever Nobel Prize in physics Magnetic resonance imaging GE90 composite fan blade Digital X-ray Lightspeed VCT Wide Bore 1.5T MR System Energy SmartR LED Durathon Battery

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Expanding our global presence

AMSTC Ann Arbor, MI


Global Research HQ Niskayuna, NY

Global Research - Europe Munich, Germany

Global Software Center Silicon Valley, CA

China Technology Center Shanghai, China

Brazil Technology Center Rio de Janeiro, Brazil


2000 researchers in 7 sites

John F. Welch Technology Center Bangalore, India


>3600 patents filed in 2011
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2012, General Electric Company

Carbon Capture Technology Development at GE

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CO 2 Capture Technologies
Post-combustion CO 2 capture

Pre-combustion CO 2 capture

Separation processes

Amine solvent
(baseline) Low P CO2 High steam loss

Low Temp CO 2 Novel solvent/ CO 2 Selective Capture Phase Change Membrane


(mid term)
High P CO2 No steam loss

TM

(mid term) Mid P CO2 Low steam loss

(long term) High P CO2 No steam loss

(baseline)

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Program Objectives Aminosilicone Solvents for Post-Combustion CO2 Capture


Program Objective: Develop novel solvent and process for postcombustion capture of CO2 from coal-fired power plants with 90% Capture efficiency, and less than 35% increase in cost of electricity

GE Global Research GE Energy University of Pittsburgh

Develop a novel, CO2 capture solvent with: 90% Carbon capture efficiency 25% Increase in capacity vs MEA

Robert Perry Research Experience in Carbon capture At NCCC, Birmingham, AL June 19, 2013

Less than 35% increase in Cost of Sequestration Energy Services

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Acknowledgement . The information, data, or work presented herein was funded in part by the Advanced Research Projects Agency Energy (ARPA-E), U.S. Department of Energy, under Award Number DE-AR0000084 and DOE- NETL under Award Numbers DE-NT0005310 and DE-NT0007502. Disclaimer. The information, data, or work presented herein was funded in part by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.
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Team Members
GRC Bob Perry Mike OBrien Sarah Genovese Ben Wood Gosia Rubinsztajn Tiffany Westendorf Rachel Farnum John McDermott Irina Spiry Harish Acharya Surinder Singh Mark Doherty Paul Wilson Paul Buckley GEE Ravi-Kumar Vipperla Lisa Wichmann Ray Steele Michael Yee Martin Tabbita U Pitt Bob Enick Deepak Tapriyal Lei Hong Alex Stola

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Generation of Electricity

http://www.eia.gov/electricity/

~40% of US electricity comes from coal This source of power will not be eliminated in near future

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Generation of Electricity from Coal


General Process Diagram Coal is burned in a boiler to generate steam. Steam is used to produce electricity. Flue gas from boiler treated to remove solids, NOx, SO2. CO2 from combustion currently exhausted to air.
-1400 plants in US produced 318 GW electricity in 2011. -Also released ~1.7 billion tons of CO2. -largest commodity chemical is H2SO4 = 60 million tons
http://www.eia.gov/electricity/capacity/ http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/coalvswind/c02c.html http://www.topsoe.com/sitecore/shell/Applications/~/media/PDF%20files/Topsoe_Catalysis_Forum/2007/Peacock.ashx
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CO2 Capture & Sequestration


CO 2 Capture- Removal of CO2 from flue gas. Potential approaches: - Chilled ammonia - Aqueous solutions of organic amines - Carbonates - Ionic liquids - Cryogenics - Membranes CO 2 Use & Sequestration- Storage or use of captured CO2. Potential approaches: - Geological storage - Enhanced oil recovery/fracking - Artificial photosynthesis - Reduction to fuel (methanol)
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CO2 Capture Process Schematic


Capture CO2 after SO2 scrubber & before stack.

Absorb CO2 at 50oC/ 1 atm Rich solvent heated to 120 oC to release CO2 Lean solvent recycled to absorber CO2 compressed for storage Typical capture process

R. Vipperla

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MEA Process Issue - Cost of Electricity (COE)


Sources of Extra Cost

30% power lost in conventional MEA process (~80% increase in COE). Significant portion of that due to heating/condensing water Other issues with MEA: - Corrosivity - Thermo-oxidative instability - Volatility

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New Solvent System


DOE Target: Material & Process with >90% CO2 capture efficiency & <35% increase in COE vs plant w/o capture Solvent Properties
Low/no water
Liquid carbamate salt
CO2-philic backbone (physi-sorption)
CO2-reactive group (chemi-sorption)

Thermal stability
High CO2 loading High desorption pressure

Aminosiloxanes

Low desorption energy


Low volatility High reaction rates

Low cost
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Aminosiloxanes
High molecular weight amino polysiloxanes used in conditioners for hair & in textile treatment Amine content of these commercial polysiloxanes low little CO2 capacity
Need low molecular weight monomeric or oligomeric versions Commercially available examples:

Bis(aminopropyl)tetramethyldisiloxane

Bis(aminoethylaminomethyl)tetramethyldisiloxane

GAP-0

GAP-AEAM
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Variety of aminosiloxanes
GAP-0 MDM

GAP-1

GAP-AEAM M3T

DAB-0

GAP-AEAP

DAB-Me

GAP-nPr

GAP-Dytek

DAB-Me2
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Synthetic Route 1: Alkylation of Primary Amines

Examples:

M. OBrien

This method can be problematic => over alkylation is an issue


Alkyl iodide added to excess amine to mitigate this issue Excess amine removed with water washes or vacuum stripping
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Synthetic Route 2: Hydrosilylation/Hydrogenation

Example:
NaOMe / EtOAc/MeOH

PdCl2L2 / PPh3

R. Perry

Hydrosilylation is extremely useful in silicone chemistry.


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Synthetic Route 3: Formation of Dinitriles/Reduction

Example:

M. OBrien R. Perry

Allows preparation of highly functional compounds


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Cyclic Disiloxane Derivatives

mp = 132-134C

Ether/THF Ether

60 98

40 2

M. OBrien R. Perry

Cyclic disiloxane formed instead of linear material Some reductive decyanation seen in LAH

Rxn- solvent dependent

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Synthetic Route 4: Siloxane Equilibration

MM

D4

MDxM
(linears)

Dy
(cyclics)
M. OBrien

Example:

GAP-0

MDM (GAP-1)

Siloxanes mixed and reaction allowed to go to equilibrium Catalyst is then removed or destroyed and volatiles (cyclics) stripped Can use functional D groups as well to control amine content Material is actually a mixture of species with average composition equal to target
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Silicone Nomenclature

Prime denotes functionality


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Carbamate Salt Formation with GAP-0


Me H2N Si Me O Me Si Me NH2 CO2 H2N Me Si Me O 2 Me Si Me N H O OH

-CO2

1 GAP-0 O O N H O N H O H3N intermolecular H shift Me Si Me Me H3N Si Me 5 O Me Si Me NH3 3 O intramolecular H shift O N H O

Me Si Me 4 O

Me Si Me

Me Si Me

Absorbs CO2 very rapidly in the 40-50oC range

High CO2 loading (>17% weight gain, >95% of theoretical value)


Carbamate readily decarboxylates at higher temps However carbamate is solid
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Neat Aminosiloxane Summary


Nearly all aminosiloxanes synthesized gave solid reaction products with CO2. - Depending on nature of solid=> variable CO2 uptake (mass transfer issues)

Exceptions were copolymers like:

M. OBrien

However these materials showed inferior CO2 uptake (<10% wt gain). - Very viscous carbamates => again poor mass transfer tested in bulk

Given that carbamates are mostly solids or very viscous liquidswanted to test in non-aqueous co-solvents
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Co-solvent Selection
Needs to solubilize both aminosiloxane and carbamate at high concentrations
High boiling to minimize evaporative loss on desorption

Thermally stable/low toxicity/etc Low specific heat Best results obtained with ethylene glycol oligomers

Triethylene glycol (TEG) bp = 126oC/0.1 mm Hg Specific heat half of H2O

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CO2 Uptake on Diaminosiloxanes


Structure
Me H2N Me NH2

Neat CO2 Wt Gain (% of Theoretical)

CO2 Wt Gain in TEG (% of Theoretical)

Si O Si Me
Me

17.3% (98%)
14.6% (92%) 13.5% (94%) 9.5% (72%)

10.2% (115%)
8.6% (108%) 8.2% (116%) 5.4% (84%)

Me
Me NH2

H2N

Si O Si Me Me

Me H2N

Me NH2

Si O Si Me
Me

Me
Me NH2

H2N

Si O Si Me Me

All 1:1 TEG solutions gave liquid carbamate blends Improved mass transfer in liquid => closer to theoretical uptake

Secondary amine & sterically hindered amine less efficient


Values >100% theoretical => bicarbonate formation (water in TEG)
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13C{1H}

NMR of GAP-0/CO2 Reaction Products


Carbonyl Region

H:\My Documents\NMR Data\1446-1b13c-1-pdata-1.nmr Acquired on 11/04/10 14:23:26


F1 Nucleus = 13C Freq = 100.612769 MHz Offset = 100.00 PPM F2 Nucleus = 1H Freq = 400.131601 MHz Offset = 4.00 PPM Temperature T = 22.2 deg C Receiver Gain = 4096 Digitizer Mode = QSIM SW = 24.0 kHz CB = 16 k pts DW = 41.7 us AT = 683.213 ms Counters NS = 300 DG = 0 Lock Nucleus = 2H Solvent = MeOD Power = -35 Gain = -10 Experiment Experiment = zgpg30 PL1 = 1 P1 = 10us PL2 = -1 Probe = 5 mm DUL 13C-1H/D Z3756/0192 PL12 = 20.16 D1 = 316.737ms PL13 = 20.16 Processing Size = 32 k pts LB = 1 Hertz

164.34

RNH 3 O

NHR

159.96

RNH 3 O

OH

168

167

166

165

164

163 162 PPM

161

160

159

158

157

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CO2 Uptake Data: Tetra-aminosiloxanes


Structure
H2N H N Me Me Si O Si Me
Me H2N N H

Neat CO2 Wt Gain (% of Theoretical)


NH2

CO2 Wt Gain in TEG (% of Theoretical)


15.9% (101%)

H N

21.8% (69%)
NH2

Me
Me N H

Si O Si Me Me

16.7% (64%)
16.5% (79%)

11.8% (90%)
9.9% (95%)

H2N

Me N H

Me N H

Si O Si Me Me

NH2

Tetra-amines: theoretically 2 CO2 s per molecule High CO2 weight gain number neat but not as close to theoretical - Half the amines are secondary - Solids not as powdery mass transfer issue TEG solutions all liquid, uptake closer to theoretical
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CO2 Uptake Data: Aminosiloxane Oligomers


Structure Neat CO2 Wt Gain (% of Theoretical) 13.1% (96%) 10.9% (107%)
18.8% (103%) TEG also works well with oligomers Most cases less TEG is needed to maintain liquidity

%TEG Needed Liquid Soln 30% 17%


50%

CO2 Wt Gain in TEG (% of Theoretical) 10.4% (109%) 9.3% (107%)


9.8% (107%)

MDM MD2.5M M3T


Advantage of oligomers: stable towards crystallization of carbamate


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Corrosion Studies
Neat GAP-0
GAP-0 0.00
0.00
C1018 @ 50 C

50/50 GAP-0/TEG
GAP/TEG 0
Weight Loss (%)

Weight Loss (%)

0 -0.05

500

1000

1500
oC

2000

2500
C1018 @ 100 C C1018 @ 150 C

3000

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

-0.05

Carbon steel, 150


-0.10

340L @ 50 340L @ 100 C 340L @ 150 C

Carbon steel, 150 oC


-0.10

C1018 @ 50 C C1018 @ 100 C C1018 @ 150 C 340L @ 50 c 40l @ 100 c 340 l @ 150 c

-0.15

-0.15

-0.20 Exposure Time (h)

-0.20 Exposure Time (h)

30% MEA/TEG
30% MEA/TEG 0.00 0
Weight Loss (%)

SS coupons stable in all solvent systems


2500
C1018 @ 50 C C1018 @ 100 C C1018 @ 150 C 340L @ 50 C 340L @ 100 C 340L @ 150 C

500

1000

1500

2000

3000

-0.10

Carbon steel, 100 oC


-0.20 -0.30

Carbon steel stable in neat GAP-0 to 1000 h Weight loss/corrosion seen with carbon steel @ 150 oC in GAP-0 /TEG and large effect with 30% MEA/TEG @ 100 oC
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Carbon steel, 150 oC


-0.40 -0.50 Exposure Time (h)

K. Zarnoch

Physical Properties
lnP (psia)

0 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 -12 -14 -16 -18 -20 -22 -24


DAB-diME GAP-0 GAP-AEAP GAP-AEAM MEA (Theory) MEA (Experiment) DAB-0 GAP-nPr M'DM' M'3T GAP-Dytek

0.0026

0.0028

0.0030

0.0032

Viscosity
5000 4500 4000 3500

R. Enich, D. Tapriyal

1/Temperature (1/K)

K. Johnson, H.-B. Xie

0.0034

Vapor pressure
0% carbamate 30% carbamate 60% carbamate 100% carbamate

Viscostiy of of50/50 50/50 GAP-0/TEG GAP-0/TEG Viscosity

Viscosity (cP)

3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Temperature (C)

S. Genovese

Density

K. Johnson, H.-B. Xie


34 R. Perry 6/19/2013

Lab Demonstration of Continuous Process

B. Wood B. Wood

35 Successfully demonstrated with GAP-0 and GAP-1/TEG blend R. Perry 6/19/2013 Over time GAP-0 carbamate crystallized while GAP-1 version did not

Energy Penalty

ASPEN Plus model built for CO2 separation using GAP-1; Updated with experimental results Energy Penalty: GAP-1 EP for the overall system ~24% vs. ~31% for MEA
36 R. Perry 6/19/2013

Aminosiloxane/Solvent Blend Summary


Aminosiloxanes efficiently & reversibly react with CO2 Primary amine functionality works best Enhanced thermal stability and vapor pressure over MEA
Polyethylene glycol derivatives like TEG can be used to maintain solution liquidity during CO2 absorption Mass and heat transfer may be mitigated using TEG

Best candidate currently appears to be GAP-1/TEG Received additional DOE grant to scale this process up to 80-100X previous lab scale
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Bench-Scale Unit

Fully automated Data gathering for pilot scale

~100x scale of lab-scale system

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ARPA-E Phase Change Program

30% power lost in conventional MEA process (~80% increase in COE) Significant portion of that due to heating/condensing water Low water based processes reduce energy/cost (~50% COE increase) Eliminate all non-reactive co-solvents (potential of ~40% COE increase)

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Phase-Changing Absorbent

Many neat aminosiloxanes give solid carbamate salts.

Some were high quality, free-flowing powders Those that were powder exhibited high CO2 uptake.
- Some >50% higher weight gain than 30% MEA Could we devise a process to allow use of these materials?

40 R. Perry 6/19/2013

Phase Change Process

1
1 Make the solid (Solvent development)
2 Collect the solid (Solid isolation)

3 Move the solid (Solids transport)


4 Regenerate the solvent (CO2 desorption and recycle)

Low Pressure

High Pressure

4
41 R. Perry 6/19/2013

Solvent Choice for Phase Change Approach


Solvent Requirements
Low viscosity as liquid Highly solid carbamate salt

Low hygroscopicity as salt Low volatility (vapor pressure) High reaction rates
High desorption pressure

Free flowing solid

High CO2 loading (15% weight gain)

Low desorption energy


Thermal stability over heat cycles Low cost
42 Need free flowing solid in order to facilitate material collection and transport. R. Perry

6/19/2013

Solvent Evaluation: Form of Carbamate Salt


Studied impact of dry vs wet CO2 - Dry: CO2 passed through drying tube before rxn with amine - Wet: CO2 passed through H2O bubbler before rxn with amine.
Solvent Dry % Wt Gain Dry Salt Form (% of Theoretical) Wet % Wt Gain Wet Salt Form (% of Theoretical)

GAP-0 GAP-1 MDM M3T


Me Me Si O Me Si Me

17.3 (98)
13.1 (96) 17.8 (99) 18.8 (103)

Powder
Powder Powder Powder

18.4 (104)
14.1 (103) 16.6 (92) 17.4 (96)

Chunky Solid
Sticky Wax Glass Sticky Gum

17.3 (92)

Powder

20.7 (109)

Powder
M. OBrien

NH2 NH2

Pure compounds GAP-0 & cyclic diamine looked best Oligomer-based salts softened with H2O & became sticky

43 R. Perry 6/19/2013

Thermal Stability
Determine inherent stability by heating to 150oC for 3 months
120 100 % Starting material remaining

80

GAP-0 M'D'M' GAP-1 M'3T' GAP-AEAM Cyclic

60

40

20

0 0 20 40 60 80 100 R. Farnum, M. OBrien

Time (days)

Many materials show good inherent stability Cyclic diamine and GAP-AEAM are exceptions Studying decomposition products to provide insight into potential stabilization approaches (additives are commonly used in these 44 R. Perry systems) 6/19/2013

Thermal Stability

Significant increase in stability with TEMPO


45 R. Perry 6/19/2013

Vapor Pressure

MEA control shows excellent agreement with literature 1- 2 orders of magnitude reduced vapor pressure vs MEA

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Heats of Reaction

MEA

R. Farnum

GAP-0 Hrxn ~ 2500 kJ/kg MEA ~ 1850 kJ/kg

Breaks in curve indicate transition to physical absorption of CO2

47 R. Perry 6/19/2013

Heats of Reaction

Compd
GAP-0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

R
H Methyl Ethyl Propyl Isopropyl Butyl Isobutyl t-Butyl Cyclohexyl

% Wt Gain
17.3 18.3 16.5 14.3 6.1 13.1 10.8 0.6 8.5

% of Theory
100 115 114 108 46 107 89 5 85

Heat of Absorption (kJ/kg CO 2) 2554 2168 2151 2125 2026 2175 2013 ND 2035
48 R. Perry 6/19/2013

Substantial decrease in Hrxn All material were viscous liquids or pseudo-solids

Solid Formation and Isolation

Microscopy of Particles

B. Enick D. Tapriyal L. Hong

Spray drier with co-current CO2 flow


Nearly instantaneous solid formation 50-400 g sample size

-Mean particles < 50 mm -Need to optimize for solid isolation.


49 R. Perry 6/19/2013

PSD by Image Analysis


PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION (based on number)
40% 100% 90%

July 2010 UPitt mixture


sieve by wt IA by area
m m m m

35%

Relative Number Frequency

30% 25% 20%

70% 60% 50%

Cumulative Number

% passing

STATISTICS Mean: 4.3 Std. Dev.: 3.8 Minimum: 0.2 Maximum: 38.0 Object Count: 1646 (based on number)

100.0%
80%

90.0%

80.0%
70.0% 60.0% 50.0%

15%
10%

40%
30% 20%

40.0%
30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% 1 10 100 1000 10000

5% 0%

10% 0%

11

13

15

17

19

21

23

25

27

29

31

33

35

37

39

Particle Diameter (m)

particle size, um

Mean size = 4.3 um Aspect ratio 0.6-1.0 (most 0.75-0.9)

Sieve measures agglomerate size (as expected)

For solids handling want ~ 500 mm particle size


Desire larger particles
T. Westendorf J. Grande
50 R. Perry 6/19/2013

Options for Solid Transport

T. Westendorf

* Trademark of General Electric Company

Contingent upon physical characteristics of solid

Density, shape , cohesiveness, moisture content, thermal stability


Integration between absorber and desorber

Low pressure to high pressure


Slurry transport

51 R. Perry 6/19/2013

Slurry Transport

2wt%

5wt%

10wt%

15wt%

20wt%

30wt%

40wt%

50wt%

Slurry Transfer Unit

settling of slurry mixtures

Dual ISCO high pressure pumps


Pump 50-60 wt % slurry into desorption vessel Problem w/ settling and structuring

Loss of capture capacity

52 R. Perry 6/19/2013

Desorption
Desorption Isotherms

R. Farnum S. Genovese

Error bars = 95% CI

Neat GAP-0 data

Rich Solvent >16% CO2 to Lean Solvent <5% CO2


~11% dynamic range CO2 can be desorbed at relatively high pressure.
53 R. Perry 6/19/2013

Unit Operations
Two spray reactors, 1 w/ MS capability
Slurry transfer unit with ISCO pumps

CSTR as high pressure desorption apparatus


All operations functional
Absorber/spray dryer

Next step integrated system

Slurry Transfer Unit

Desorber Unit

54 R. Perry 6/19/2013

Improvements in Desorption
Not satisfied with desorption process Sacrificing inherent ability of GAP-0 Revisit solids transport

Use an extruder as a transport device


PRISM twin screw extruder

55 R. Perry 6/19/2013

56 R. Perry 6/19/2013

Further Improvements
Take process one step further Use extruder to desorb CO2 from carbamate combine 2 unit operations save space and money

57 R. Perry 6/19/2013

58 R. Perry 6/19/2013

FT-IR for real time monitoring


Jason Nichols

GAP-0

carbamate

Increasing pressure

psig

63 27 80

60 0

>68 62

84

Effective tool for in-situ monitoring of carbamate formation Real time measurement

Change in intensity of signals related to carbamate concentration


59 R. Perry 6/19/2013

FT-IR for real time monitoring

Extruder parameters varied both back-pressure and feed rate and rpm.

60 R. Perry 6/19/2013

Extruder Model Developed

Early model

Refined Model

IR composition data permitted early model development Refined model with additional data shows closer agreement Expand experimental parameters
61 R. Perry 6/19/2013

Continuous System
System ~90% complete

Larger absorption unit


Absorber

FT-IR/MS/CO2 analyzer installed Pressure regulators and totalizers

Gas control Parr Reactor

Extruder Rotary Valve control

62 R. Perry 6/19/2013

Preliminary Energy Penalty Waterfall

R. Vipperla

Large savings with reduced water


24- 32% reduction in energy consumption

Savings with higher CO2 pressure

63 R. Perry 6/19/2013

Technology Commercialization
Highly desirable to have strong business pull Network to know your colleagues/competitors Be realistic dont over sell the process/technology Focus on product areas that are strengths Bite off manageable pieces of opportunity Look for smaller scale operations that can retire risks

64 R. Perry 6/19/2013

Summary
Novel use of aminosilicone sorbents for CO2 capture 5th year of effort

2 parallel programs ongoing


Solution-based system in bench-scale phase Skid commissioned in Jan 2013

Unique phase-change process demonstrated


Integrated system assembled Proposals submitted for continued funding

Looking for opportunities to leverage this technology in


appropriate businesses

Partner with external industries to validate process(es) and bring value to both
65 R. Perry 6/19/2013

Thank You

66 R. Perry 6/19/2013