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Example: Composite floor slab

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Example: Composite floor slab EN 1994-1-1, EN 1993-1-3, EN 1992-1-1 & EN 1993-1-1 Jonas Gozzi Bernt Johansson
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Example: Composite floor slab


This example shows the design of a composite floor slab for both construction stage and composite stage. The composite slab is checked at both ultimate limit state and serviceability limit state. In many markets there are benefits in avoiding propped construction but in this example props are used for pedagogical reasons. The slab considered is propped, as shown below
[mm]

P
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P 1800 1800 1800 1800

P 1800

1800

P are temporary props during casting of the concrete Sheeting data: The characteristic values for the chosen sheeting are as follows: Yield strength Thickness Effective steel area Second moment of area of steel core Plastic bending resistance Sagging bending resistance Hogging bending resistance Resistance to support reaction Resistance to horizontal shear fyp,k = 320 N/mm ts = 0,778 mm Ap = 955 mm2/m Ip = 33,0 104 mm4/m Mpa,Rk = 5,29 kNm/m
+ M a, Rk = 3,41 kNm/m M a, Rk = 2,86 kNm/m
2

From trade literature

Rw,k = 34,0 kN/m

u,Rk = 0,306 N/mm2

Example: Composite floor slab

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Slab data: Slab depth Slab mean depth Slab depth above sheeting Effective depth Concrete C25/30 ht = 120 mm hred = 103,5 mm hc = 75 mm dp = 101 mm fck = 25 N/mm2 Ecm = 31000 N/mm2 Sheeting geometry and slab:
[mm]

dp

ht

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19

10 45

30 50o 60 150 900

27

Partial safety factors: Loads: The slab is designed for both the construction stage and the composite stage. In the construction stage, the steel sheeting acts as shuttering and has to carry its own weight, the wet concrete and the construction loads. In the composite stage the slab has to carry its own weight, floor finishes and the live load. The following loads are considered in this example: G = 1,35 Q = 1,5 M0 = 1,0 M1 = 1,0 C = 1,5 VS = 1,25 (permanent loads) (variable loads) EN 1993-1-1 EN 1993-1-1 EN 1992-1-1 EN 1994-1-1 EN 1990

Example: Composite floor slab

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Construction stage: Self weight of the sheeting Self weight of the wet concrete Distributed construction load Concentrated construction load Composite stage: Self weight of the slab Floor finishes Live load (hotel) g1 = 2,5 + 0,09 = 2,6 kN/m2 g2 = 1,2 kN/m2 q = 5,0 kN/m2 gp = 0,09 kN/m2 gc = 2,6 kN/m2 q1 = 0,75 kN/m2 q2 = 1,5 kN/m2

Verification of the sheeting as shuttering


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The sheeting resistance needs to be verified in the construction stage in both ultimate and serviceability limit state according to EN 1993-1-3. Ultimate limit state: Maximum sagging bending moment:

+ + + M Ed = G Mg + Q Mq

+ + + Mg = Mg + Mg = 0, 078 0, 09 1, 82 + 0, 094 2, 6 1, 82 = 0,81 kNm/m p c


+ Mq = 0, 094 1, 5 1, 82 = 0,46 kNm/m

+ M Ed = 1, 35 0, 81 + 1, 5 0, 46 = 1,78 kNm/m

Example: Composite floor slab

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Maximum hogging bending moment:


q2 q1 gc gp

3000
M Ed = G Mg + Q Mq = 1, 35 1, 01 + 1, 5 0, 55 = 2,18 kNm/m

FEd = G FG + Q Fq = 1,35 5,75 + 1,5 3,15 = 12,5 kN/m


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Mg , Mq , Fg and Fq are calculated by computer.

Design check: Positive bending


+ M Rd = + M Rk

M0

3,41 + = 3,41 kNm/m > M Ed =1,78 kNm/m OK 1,0

Negative bending M
Rd

M Rk

M0

2,86 = 2,86 kNm/m > M Ed = 2,18 kNm/m OK 1,0

Support reaction

RRd =

M1

RRk

34,0 = 34,0 kN/m > FEd= 12,5 kN/m 1,0

OK

Interaction, moment and support reaction


M Ed F + Ed 1,25 M Rd Rw,Rd

EN 1993-1-3 6.1.11 (6.28) OK

2,18 12, 5 + = 1,13 < 1, 25 2, 86 34, 0 All design checks are OK at the ultimate limit state.

Example: Composite floor slab

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Serviceability limit state: The deflection, s, due to the wet concrete and the self weight of the sheeting should not, unless otherwise noted in the National Annex, exceed s,max = L/180. EN 1994-1-1 9.6 (2)

s =

( 2, 65 g p + 3, 4 g c ) L4 384 EI p

Check if the sheeting is fully effective, i.e. does Ip need to be recalculated due to local buckling? Maximum positive moment in serviceability limit state:

M sls = 0, 078 0, 09 1, 82 + 0, 094 2, 6 1,82 = 0,81 kNm/m


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Maximum compression stress in top flange:

com =
p = =

M sls 0, 81 106 z = ( 45 19) = 63,8 N/mm2 4 Ip 33, 0 10


fy

cr
235

b/t 28, 4 k 235 = 1,9 63, 8

EN 1993-1-5 4.4

com

with = 1, Table 4.1 gives k = 4

p =

30 / 0, 778 28, 4 1, 9 4, 0

EN 1993-1-5 Table 4.1

= 0,36 = 1, 0

Since the reduction factor, = 1, 0 , no reduction of the top flange is necessary, i.e. Ip is fully effective.

s =

( 2, 65 0, 09 + 3, 4 2, 6) 18004 = 3,6 mm 384 210000 33, 0 104


L 1800 =10 mm > 3,6 mm = s = 180 180

s,max =

OK EN 1994-1-1 9.3.2 (2)

The deflection, s, is less than 1/10 of the slab depth, therefore no ponding effects need to be taken into account. Hence, the serviceability limit state is also OK. The sheeting can work as shuttering in the construction stage.

Example: Composite floor slab

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Verification of the composite slab:


Ultimate limit state: The continuous slab will be designed as a series of simply supported spans. EN 1994-1-1 9.4.2 (5)

q g1+g2

M Ed =
M Ed
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[ G ( g1 + g 2 ) + Q q] L2 8

[1, 35 ( 2, 6 + 1, 2) + 1, 5 5, 0] 3, 62 = 20,5 kNm/m = 8

Design bending resistance: The sagging bending moment resistance should be calculated from the stress distribution in the figure below, if the neutral axis is above the sheeting.
0,85 fcd xpl dp + fyp,d
centroidal axis of the profiled steel sheeting

Nc,f z Np Mpl,Rd

EN 1994-1-1 Figure 9.5

xpl =

Ap f yp,d 0, 85 b f cd f yp,k

f yp,d =

M0
f ck

320 = 320 N/mm2 1, 0

f cd =

25 = 16,7 N/mm2 1, 5

pl =

955 320 = 21,6 mm 0,85 1000 16,7

Example: Composite floor slab

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For full shear connection:


M pl,Rd = Ap f yd d p xpl / 2

M pl,Rd = 955 320 (101 21, 6 / 2 ) 103 = 27,5 kNm/m > 20,5 = MEd Longitudinal shear by partial connection method: Shear span required for full shear connection
N c = u,Rd b Lx N cf

EN 1994-1-1 9.7.3 (8)

The distance to the nearest support, Lx, required for full shear connection can be determined by
Lx =
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Ap f yd N cf = b u,Rd b u,Rd

u,Rd =
Lx =

u,Rk 0, 306 = = 0,245 N/mm2 Vs 1, 25

955 320 = 1247 mm 1000 0,245

Hence, at a distance of 1247 mm from the support a full shear connection is fulfilled. Design check using the simplified partial interaction diagram: For any cross section along the span it has to be shown that the corresponding design bending moment, MEd, does not exceed the design bending resistance, MRd. In the figure x is the distance from the support.

Example: Composite floor slab

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MRd, MEd [kNm/m]


30

Mpl,Rd MRd
20

10

M Ed =

[ G ( g1 + g 2 ) + Q q ] x 2

( L x)

Mpa
0
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x [m]
0 0.4 0.8 1.2

Lx

1.6

M Ed M Rd for all cross sections Vertical shear: VEd =


VEd =

[ G ( g1 + g 2 ) + Q q ] L 2
[1, 35 ( 2, 6 + 1, 2) + 1, 5 5, 0] 3, 6 = 22,7 kN/m 2

Design vertical shear resistance:


1/ 3 Vv,Rd = CRd,c k (100 I f ck ) + k1 cp bw d p

EN 1992-1-1 6.2.2

with a minimum of
Vv,Rd,min = ( vmin + k1 cp ) bw d p

CRd,c = k = 1+

0,18

0,18 = 0,12 1, 5

See Note in EN 1992-1-1 6.2.2

200 200 = 1+ = 2, 4 dp 101

Example: Composite floor slab

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l =

Asl 0,02 bw d p

Asl is the area of the tension reinforcement in [mm], i.e Asl = Ap bw = 400 mm/m, i.e. the smallest width in [mm] of the section in the tension area.

l =

955 = 0,024 > 0,02 l = 0,02 400 101

cp =

N Ed = 0 , since NEd = 0, i.e. no axial forces or prestress. Ac

k1 = 0,15
1/ 3 Vv,Rd = 0,12 2, 4 (100 0, 02 25) + 0,15 0 400 101
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See Note in EN 1992-1-1 6.2.2

Vv,Rd = 42,8 kN/m Minimum value


1/2 vmin = 0, 035 k 3 / 2 f ck = 0, 035 2, 43 / 2 251 / 2 = 0,65

Vv,Rd,min = ( 0, 65 + 0,15 0) 400 101 = 26,3 kN/m

Vv,Rd = 42,8 kN/m > 22,7 kNm/m = VEd

OK

All design checks of the composite slab in the ultimate limit state are OK. Serviceability limit state: Cracking of concrete: As the slab is designed as simply supported, only anti-crack reinforcement is EN 1994-1-1 needed. The cross-sectional area of the reinforcement above the ribs should be 9.8.1 (2) not less than 0,4% of the cross-sectional area of the concrete above the ribs. min As = 0, 004 b hc = 0, 004 1000 75 = 300 mm2/m 8 s160 mm will be enough for this purpose.

Example: Composite floor slab

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Deflection: For the calculations of the deflections of the slab, the slab is considered to be continuous. The following approximations apply: the second moment of area may be taken as the average of the values for the cracked and un-cracked section; for concrete, an average value of the modular ratio, n, for both longand short-term effects may be used.
n= Ep E
' cm

EN1994-1-1 9.8.2 (5)

Ep E 1 Ecm + cm 2 3

210000 10 2 31000 3

Second moment of area for the cracked section


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I bc =

3 b xc + Ap ( d p xc )2 + I p 3 n

xc =

Ai zi Ai

n Ap 2 b dp 1+ 1 b n Ap

xc =

10 955 2 1000 101 1+ 1 = 35,4 mm 1000 10 955

I bc =

1000 35, 43 + 955 (101 35, 4)2 + 33, 0 104 = 5, 92 106 mm4/m 3 10

Second moment of area for the un-cracked section


I bu b hc3 b hc = + 12 n n
2 3 hp hc b0 hp b0 hp xu + + ht xu + 2 12 n n 2 2

Ap ( d p xu )2 + I p

b xu =

h hc2 + b0 hp ht p + n Ap d p 2 2 b hc + b0 hp + n Ap

Example: Composite floor slab

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1000 xu =

752 45 + 650 45 120 + 10 955 101 2 2 = 58,3 mm 1000 75 + 650 45 + 10 955


2

I bu

1000 753 1000 75 75 610 453 + = + 58, 3 + 12 10 10 2 12 10 610 45 45 120 58, 3 + 955 (101 58, 3)2 + 10 2 33, 0 104 = 13, 5 106 mm 4 /m
2

Average Ib of the cracked and un-cracked section

Ib =
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I bc + I bu 5, 92 + 13, 5 = 106 = 9, 7 106 mm 4 /m 2 2

Deflections The total deflection under the worst load case should not exceed L/250. Weight of floor finishes: 0, 0068 g 2 L4 0, 0068 1, 2 36004 = = = 0,67 mm E Ib 210000 9, 7 106 EN1992-1-1 7.4.1(4)

c,g

Live load, worst case:

c,q =

0, 0099 1 q L4 0, 0099 0, 7 5, 0 36004 = = 2,86 mm E Ib 210000 9, 7 106

Removal of the props:


G 1' G 1' G 1'

G1 = g1

L 3, 6 = 4,68 kN/m = 2, 6 2 2

c,G =
1

0, 01146 G1 L3 0, 01146 4680 36003 = = 1,23 mm E Ib 210000 9, 7 106

E g

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Total deflection:
p

c = c,G + c,g + c,q = 1, 23 + 0, 67 + 2, 86 = 4,76 mm


1 2

, o

c = 4,76 mm <

L 3600 = = 14,4 mm 250 250

OK

y d s u C T r h e i a s t e m d a t o e n r i T a l e i s a c

Example: Composite floor slab

Example: Composite floor slab SX009a-EN-EU

Quality Record
RESOURCE TITLE Reference(s) ORIGINAL DOCUMENT Name Created by Technical content checked by Editorial content checked by Technical content endorsed by the following STEEL Partners: 1. UK 2. France 3. Sweden
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Example: Composite floor slab

Company SBI SBI

Date 10/03/2005 08/04/2005

Jonas Gozzi Bernt Johansson

G W Owens A Bureau A Olsson C Muller J Chica G W Owens

SCI CTICM SBI RWTH Labein SCI

7/7/05 17/8/05 8/8/05 10/8/05 12/8/05 06/7/06

4. Germany 5. Spain Resource approved by Technical Coordinator TRANSLATED DOCUMENT This Translation made and checked by: Translated resource approved by: