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# Outline of discrete mathematics

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search The following outline is presented as an overview of and topical guide to discrete mathematics: Discrete mathematics is the study of mathematical structures that are fundamentally discrete rather than continuous. In contrast to real numbers that have the property of varying "smoothly", the objects studied in discrete mathematics such as integers, graphs, and statements in logic do not vary smoothly in this way, but have distinct, separated values. Discrete mathematics therefore excludes topics in "continuous mathematics" such as calculus and analysis. Included below are many of the standard terms used routinely in university-level courses and in research papers. This is not, however, intended as a complete list of mathematical terms; just a selection of typical terms of art that may be encountered.

Contents

## 1 Subjects in discrete mathematics 2 Discrete mathematical disciplines 3 Concepts in discrete mathematics

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3.1 Sets 3.2 Functions 3.3 Operations 3.4 Arithmetic 3.5 Elementary algebra 3.6 Mathematical relations 3.7 Mathematical phraseology 3.8 Combinatorics 3.9 Probability 3.10 Propositional logic

## Subjects in discrete mathematics

Logic a study of reasoning Set theory a study of collections of elements Number theory Combinatorics a study of counting Graph theory Digital geometry and digital topology Algorithmics a study of methods of calculation Information theory Computability and complexity theories dealing with theoretical and practical limitations of algorithms Elementary probability theory and Markov chains Linear algebra a study of related linear equations Functions Partially ordered set Probability Proofs Counting Relation

## Discrete mathematical disciplines

For further reading in discrete mathematics, beyond a basic level, see these pages. Many of these disciplines are closely related to computer science.

## Automata theory Combinatorics Combinatorial geometry

Computational geometry Digital geometry Discrete geometry Graph theory Mathematical logic Combinatorial optimization Set theory Combinatorial topology Number theory Information theory Game theory

Sets

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Disjoint union

Disjoint sets

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## Ordered pair Cartesian product

Power set Simple theorems in the algebra of sets Naive set theory Multiset

Functions

Function Domain of a function Codomain Range of a function Image (mathematics) Injective function Surjection Bijection Function composition Partial function Multivalued function Binary function Floor function Sign function Inclusion map Pigeonhole principle Relation composition Permutations Symmetry

Operations

## Binary operator Associativity

Commutativity Distributivity

Arithmetic

Decimal Binary numeral system Divisor Division by zero Indeterminate form Empty product Euclidean algorithm Fundamental theorem of arithmetic Modular arithmetic Successor function

Elementary algebra
Main article: Elementary algebra Left-hand side and right-hand side of an equation Linear equation Quadratic equation

Solution point Arithmetic progression Recurrence relation Finite difference Difference operator Groups Group isomorphism Subgroups Fermat's little theorem Cryptography

Faulhaber's formula

Mathematical relations

Binary relation Mathematical relation Reflexive relation Reflexive property of equality Symmetric relation Symmetric property of equality Antisymmetric relation Transitivity (mathematics)
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## Substitution property of equality Graphing equivalence Extensionality

Uniqueness quantification

Mathematical phraseology

If and only if Necessary and sufficient (Sufficient condition) Distinct Difference Absolute value Up to Modular arithmetic Characterization (mathematics) Normal form Canonical form Without loss of generality Vacuous truth Contradiction, Reductio ad absurdum Counterexample Sufficiently large Pons asinorum Table of mathematical symbols Contrapositive Mathematical induction

Combinatorics
Main article: Combinatorics Permutations and combinations Permutation

Combination Factorial
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Empty product

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## Bijective proof Double counting (proof technique)

Probability
Main article: Probability Average Expected value

Discrete random variable Sample space Event Conditional Probability Independence Random variables

Propositional logic

Logical operator Truth table De Morgan's laws Open sentence List of topics in logic

Discrete mathematicians