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NOTES IN PHYSICAL /EARTH SCIENCE

Lecture by: N.R. Bautista

What is Science
Science from the Latin word scientia, meaning knowledge - is a systematized body of knowledge based on facts. It is a way of thinking logical (through deductive [general to specific] / inductive reasoning [specific to general]) Facts are based on observation (using the 5 human senses sight, hearing, smell, taste, feeling; or through the help of instruments (e.g. thermometers, barometers, seismograph) and through controlled experimentation Main purpose of science: To know the truth (or part of the truth) of the world around us . SCIENCE IS A METHOD OF FINDING ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS CREATE BY THE HUMAN MIND - THIRST FOR ANSWERS (Who am I? Where did I came from? What is my purpose? Where am I heading? IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE 1. To gain information / knowledge based on facts and logic 2. To uplift living standard of man 3. To solve everyday problems 4. To explain natural phenomenon 5. To predict the future 6. To prevent future catastrophies / accidents / collapse of civilization (through wars, famine)

7. Liberate man from myths, prejudices, rumors, fallacies & fears 8. For survival / for safety / Security e,g. Means to acquire safe food 9. To effectively and efficiently manage limited resources 10. To harness the natural forces of nature for the service to man CATEGORY OF ADVANCED CIVILIZATION Type 0 (Primitive) e.g. Our present human civilization 1. Type 1 (Planetary) Can control all thing in the planet 2. Type 2 (Stellar) Can control its sun and the planets around it. E.g. Star Trek 3. Type 3 (Galactic)Can control things within its galaxy. ex. Starwars PURE SCIENCE VS TECHNOLOGY Pure Science is when you study a particular phenomenon for the sake of studying without any current applications / importance Technology is when the knowldege you derived from science is used for a certain application / benefit. EXAMPLES Pure Science -- Learning some of the nature & characteristics of Radioactive elements (e.g. Uranium or Radium)

Technology -- Using radioactive technology to create nuclear energy, used in dating prehistoric artifacts or rocks, and sterilization through gamma radiation; killing cancer cells using radiation. Note: Over the years, man has developed a lot of technology like Optics in making microscopes /telescope; Use of gunpowder in modern weapons (guns), radar (inspired by bats), infra-red in remote controls, making of steel, and the use of computers in everyday life. PHILOSOPHERS VS SCIENTISTS Philosopher -- They are great thinkers, usually makes mental / logical explanations of things without experimentation; they are mostly elite (kings) / wealthy individuals and consider experimentation dirty & fit only for slaves. Scientist - Modern ; creates mental & logical explanation of things but also design controlled experiments to validate their hypothesis. SCIENTIFIC METHOD It is a logical step by step procedure followed by scientists in investigating a problem. Facts needs to be testable, repeatable, answers the basics questions, and acceptable to majority of scientists. NOTE: Not all Scientific Discoveries has been successfully acceptable to a majority of society some create intellectual revolutions! E.g. Evolution of Man; Knowing Geocentric view of the solar system is false; Gregor Mendels Genes theory; Concept of infectious germs paved the way to aseptic / sterile technology.

THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Observation of the Environment/ Phy. World Statement of the Problem / Question Review of Related Literature / if study has been done before Formulate Hypothesis an intelligent guess Conduct controlled Experiment; or actual observation of specimen or Survey. Gather data from the experiment need proper measurement Analysis of data gathered from experiment; sometimes needs for statistical procedure may need to consult other experts from the field of specialization for their opinion. Generalization / conclusion Accurate reporting of the Study to a scientific community

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ATTITUDE OF A SCIENTIST 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Observant sensitive enough for changes / peculiarities Open minded may change ones view or may accept other opinion when new evidence becomes available. Skeptic always doubt the accurary / truthfulness not to be biased or affected by emotion; Organized sorts collected data, categorizes them, records them, catalogues them properly Systematic follows a particular procedure or protocol Logical uses deductive or inductive reasoning; tries to explains the whys of things. common sense Creates questions which leads to further study / understanding