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Smart Grid Seminar held on 13&14th April2012 at IIT (Kanpur)

Synchrophasor, How They Making Grid Smarter


Kamin Dave Business Development Manager Kamin_dave@selinc.com Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, India www.selinc.com
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Synchrophasor: Outline Back Ground Theory Application & Benefits Testing Concluding Observations
2 KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE

Smart Grid:
Implementation technology will be different at different areas Transmission: Evolved over 100years periods to deliver power at high voltage on longer distance (400kV line, 500MW power flow, 765kV line 800MW power flow, 1200kV line 2000MW power flow) Complex grid network (interconnections) with automatic controls, advance protections system and real time monitoring & power dynamics Equipment cost is very high Less Feeders compare to Distribution system
3 KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE

Smart Grid:
Implementation technology will be different at different areas Distribution: Power distribution on low voltage Shorter distance Most of the places, Radial distribution Amount of power flow less More feeders Protection control is much simpler then Transmission system Less Monitoring & power dynamics Smart meters can reduce distribution loss
4 KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE

Smart Grid:
Implementation technology will be different at different areas Generation: Power generation on lower voltage but transmission on high voltage Power dynamics and oscillations are dangerous for machine operation Automatic generator control Accurate monitoring of power dynamics, Metering & advance protection control Loss of Synchronism

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Synchrophasor: Motivation
Motivation: After 2003 Blackout in North America

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Phasor: Theory
Phasor Definition: Pure sinusoidal waveform V(t) = Vm*cos(wt + Theta) I(t) = Im*cos(wt + Theta) jVX V = VR + jVX
V = Mag @ Ang

jIX I = IR + jIX

VR

I = Mag@Ang I R

Definition: A complex equivalent of a simple cosine wave quantity such that the complex modulus is the cosine wave amplitude and the complex angle (in polar form) is the cosine wave phase angle. 7
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE

Phasor: Theory
Phasor Definition: Pure sinusoidal waveform
V(t) = Vm*cos(wt + Theta) V(t) = Vm*cos(2*pi*F*t + Theta)

0 deg.
1 cycle 0 deg. 90 deg. 360 deg. 270 deg. 90 deg.

180 deg.
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Theory: Phasor
Phasor Definition: Pure sinusoidal waveform
V(t) = Vm*cos(wt + Theta) V(t) = Vm*cos(2*pi*F*t + Theta)

90 Deg. V@30 Deg.


180 Deg.

0 Deg. V@30 Deg.

90 Deg.

0 Deg. -90 Deg.

-90 Deg. Angle Rotation counter clockwise

180 Deg. Angle Rotation clockwise


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KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE

Phasor: Theory
Terminology Water Flows Power Flows

Water Flow is from Higher level to Lower level

High level Tank

Low level Tank


10 KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE

Phasor: Theory
Terminology: Power Flow

X
G1
Zs ZL

Y
Zs

G2

Vx

<00

21

Ix

Iy

VY <-300

Ix+Iy <-

Ix Ix + Iy Iy
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Phasor: Theory
X
G1
Zs

Terminology: Power Flow


ZL

Y
Zs

G2

Vx <00

21

Ix

Iy

VY

<+300

Ix+Iy <+

Iy Ix + Iy Ix

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Phasor: Theory
Angle between buses playing more important role in power system
Phase angle difference of various buses Vs Dadri 400kV Station

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Phasor Estimation: Theory


Phasor Estimation on Local time stamps without common reference
R1
Lag Lead

R2 CB3

CB1

S1
CB2 CB5 R3
Lag Lead Lead Lag

S2
CB4 R4 CB5

CB6

R5

Can we guess!!! Which Load & Gen Bus in grid network???

R6
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CB6

S3

KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE

S3

Synchrophasor: Theory
Synchrophasor: Pure sinusoidal waveform
Instantaneous phase angle relative to a cosine function at nominal frequency synchronized to universal time coordinated (UTC) Measurement should be tag with UTC time Measurement sent over high speed communication link

jVX V = VR + jVX = V{cos(theta) + sin(theta)} VR

Definition: A phasor calculated from data samples using a standard time signal as the reference for the measurement.
15 KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE

Synchrophasor: Theory
Synchrophasor: Sinusoidal waveform
Synchronized to UTC time with Higher accuracy 1micro s Error corresponds Phase Angle Error is 0.018O Magnitude and Phase Angles of voltages & currents measured at different locations at same instant across the system

jVX V = VR + jVX = V{cos(theta) + sin(theta)}


Measurement Error

VR

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Synchrophasor: Basic Structure


Synchrophasor System have major three components:
PMU: Phase Measurement Unit Estimates multiple phasors (VR, VY, VB, IR, IY, IB and symmetrical components) Class M & P type PMUs PDC: Phasor Data Concentrator It Receives data from PMU/s (One or multiple PMUs) High Precision Clock for Accurate Time Synchronization to transmit real time data
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Synchrophasor: Theory

Synchrophasor: Sinusoidal waveform


Phasor Estimation Transmitted as a Data Frame at a Rate FS Data Frame Includes Multiple Channel of Phasor Estimate, Analogue words, Digital Words combined with Single Time Tag

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Synchrophasor: Basic Structure

16 bits A/D or 32 bits A/D

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Synchrophasor: Standards
Time Synchronization: 1 pulse per second (PPS): Signal consisting of
square pluses occurring at frequency of 1Hz. Time stamp in IRIG-B format: Inter-Range instrumentation Group (IRIG) Most common used Version B Transmits day of year, hour, minute and second once per second The standard also defines a high precision IRIG-B format suitable for fiber optic links.
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Synchrophasor: Standards
IEEE C37.118
Message Type:
Command (Receive by PMU/PDC) Data (Transmit from PMU/PDC) Configuration (Transmit from PMU/PDC) Header (Transmit from PMU/PDC)

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Synchrophasor: Basic Structure

PDC

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Synchrophasor: Basic Structure


NRLDC (Northern Grid, India)

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Synchrophasor: Basic Structure


NRLDC (Northern Grid, India)

Clock

PMU

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Synchrophasor: Basic Structure


NRLDC (Northern Grid, India)

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Synchrophasor: Theory
UTC
PMU1
Lag Lead

PMU2 CB3

CB1

S1
CB2 CB5 PMU3
Lag Lead Lead

S2
CB4 PMU4 CB5

UTC

Lag

CB6

PMU5

PMU6
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CB6

S3

KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE

S4

Synchrophasor: Standards
IEEE standard for SYNCHROPHASORS for Power Systems IEEE Std 1344-1995 Released in 1995 IEEE Std ANSIC37.118 C37.118.1 (Measurement) C37.118.2 (Communication) IEC61850-9-5 IEEE Std ANSIC37.238 (SGAC)
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Synchrophasor: Standards
2005 2009 2010 2011

C37.118 Published

IEEE request IEC to develop IEC61850IEC61850-95

IEEE Split in to C37.118C37.118-1 & C37.118C37.118-2 And SGIPSGIP-PAP13

IEEE C37.118C37.118-1 & C37.118C37.118-2 And C37.238 Submitted to IEEE SA

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Synchrophasor: Standards
Communication Standards C37.118C37.118-2 IEC61850IEC61850-9-5 Measurement Standards C37.118C37.118-1 Timing Standards C37.238C37.238-2011 Real TimeTimeMonitoring & Alarming device
Real Time Control
PDC Guide Requirements, system communication & testing C37.244

PDC
Data Storage Offline dynamic analysis

Data storage Standards C37.111 (COMTRADE)


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KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE

Synchrophasor: Standards
IEC61850-9-5: Edition2 included
Synchrophasor over IEC61850-9-5 TC57-WG10 group is working on Draft report Draft report is under preparation IEC61850-9-5 will support event driven (GOOSE) & SV communications Remote PDC control will be achieved (LN: PDC1name, PDC2namePDCNname Standard Name of Voltage, Current, Sequence Voltage & Current will be achieved

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Synchrophasor: Why
Measurement under operational conditions Not faults or failed equipments High Speed & High Accurate measurements System wide & long record measurement Operational analysis WAMPC

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Synchrophasor: Application
Phasor Information Applications Analysis & Control
Situational Awareness continuously Increasing visibility of SAG & SWELL in voltage Real time Angle check Load duration plot MW/MVAR Oscillation viewing & detection Real time Load flow study Determine dynamic ratings of equipments (Lines & Generator) Online continuously thermal over load protection
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Synchrophasor: Application

NRLDC (Northern Grid, India) Situational Awareness Continuously

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Synchrophasor: Application

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Synchrophasor: Application
PMUs Installation
400kV North Bus of Vindhyachal HVDC back to back station Proximity to major pithead thermal generation complex Proximity to HVDC rihand terminal of +/-500kV rihand-dadri bipole 400kV Kanpur station Connectivity with generation complex Connectivity with major load centre 400kV Bus of HVDC Dadri station +/-500kV rihand-dadri HVDC bipole Close proximity to major load centre and power stations
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Synchrophasor: Application
PMUs Installation
400kV Moga station Pooling station for present & future haydro power stations Will be upgraded to 765kV level Proximity to Bhiwadi terminal of +/-500kV HVDC baliya-bhiwadi bipole

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Synchrophasor: Application
Other critical locations

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Synchrophasor: Application

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Synchrophasor: Application

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Synchrophasor: Application
Oscillation in voltage observed at various location

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Synchrophasor: Application

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Synchrophasor: Application
Case Study1
Loss of 2000MW at Rihand STPS on dated 1st June2010 All four running units tripped Unit 1 & 2 Tripped on Pole slipping due to fault in system at far end Unit 3 & 4 Tripped on Auxiliary supply failure Analysis of Tripping with synchrophasor data Phase Voltages Frequencies Rate of Change of Frequency Angles

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Synchrophasor: Application
Oscillation in voltage observed at various location

400kV Dadri voltage

Angular separation between few locations

43 KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE

Synchronism: Application

Speed Trucks/Loaders Loads Speed Force Generators Electrical Loads Frequency Power Flows

All the trucks & loaders have Same speeds Pulling load on almost at same angles!!!

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Synchronism: Application
Pullout

2 3 1

Speed
All the trucks & loaders have different speeds Pulling load on different angles!!! angles
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Synchronism: Application
Isolated and Accelerating Speed

2 3

Decreasing Speed All the trucks & loaders have different speeds Pulling load on different angles!!! angles
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Synchrophasor: Electrical center


X

G
TL

Y GT

TL

ZTL
ZT + Z

ZT
= 90O

Sys

-R

Electrical Centre

Xd
X

ZTL : Transmission line Impedance ZT : GT Impedance Xd : Generator Impedance : Load Angle


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Synchrophasor: Pole Slipping


Electrical Centre ZT
= 90O X

G
TL

Y GT

TL

ZTL
ZT + Z

Sys

-R

Swing locus Xd
X

Electrical Centre moves towards machine create swing on generator terminal


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Synchrophasor: Power Swing


Power Swing in Transmission Lines
A

I
ZL

B ZsB

EA

ZsA

EB

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Power Flow Flow from from A A to to B B Power leads E by angle E E leads E by angle A B A B Total impedance impedance :: Z=Z Z=Z +Z +Z Total +Z SA +Z L SB SA L SB Current II = = (E (E E )/Z Current E )/Z A B A B Voltage E E at at the the Relay Relay = = EAEAI*Z EA Voltage I*Z EA SA SA
49 KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE

Synchrophasor: Power Swing


Power Swing in Transmission Lines
A

I
ZL

B ZsB

EA

ZsA

EB

21

ZR=E / I

EA EA - EB

I
E

I*ZSA

EA - EB EB
50 KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE

Synchrophasor: Power Swing


Power Swing in Transmission Lines
A

I
ZL

B ZsB

EA

ZsA

EB

21

ZR=E / I

EA

I*ZSA

ZR ismuch muchsmaller smallerthen thenZR ZR ZR ZR is ZR E issmall small E is EA -EBis islarge largedue duelarge large E A-EB
E EA - EB

EB
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Synchrophasor: Power Swing


X ZSB

P.S. LOCUS ZL LOAD R ZSA

52 KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE

Synchrophasor: Application
Frequency Measurement at all four locations

Absolute Frequency

Rate of change of Frequency

53 KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE

Synchrophasor: Application
Case Study2
F is high V is high Over excitation study

V is Low F is Low

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Synchrophasor: Application
Transient response of Instrument Transformers can easily observed

Transient response of Current Transformer Frequency response during various transient condition (Time constant effect) Step response during fault condition (Normal to Fault) Step response during switching condition (Breaker Open to Close) CT Saturation phenomena Transient response of Voltage Transformer CVT Transient Phenomena 55
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE

Synchrophasor: Application
Phasor Information Applications Analysis & Control
Voltage stability supervision Detection & Assessment of Power Swing or Out of Step condition in entire network Centralize control of Tap Changers Selective & Remote back up Protection FACT device control (i.e. HVDC) Multi wind farm co-ordination Post event analysis is very much precise (micro accuracy)

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Synchrophasor: Application
Phasor Information Applications Real time congestion management
Definition: Adjust Generator dispatch to manage real time flow across transmission line with in reliable transfer capability Rationale: Synchrophasor can provide improved calculation of path limits and flows allowing higher transfer and reduced congestion payment Benefits: Potential cost saving

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Synchrophasor: Application
Phasor Information Applications Post disturbance analysis
Description: Reconstruction of sequence of event after wide area power disturbance (i.e. Blackout) has occurred to determine the causes and corrct them Rationale: The availability, higher accuracy of time synchronization of synchrophasor data can reduce effort to analyze complex wide area cascading Benefits: Much quicker identification of contributory factor and development of corrective measure and reduced possibility of future blackout
58 KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE

Synchrophasor: Application
Phasor Information Applications Model Vs Reality
Description: Theoretically simulated data (Power Dynamics) on software Vs Actual real time power dynamics recorded Rationale: Synchrophasor is offering to record real time power dynamics during on load conditions and fault conditions Benefits: Much easier to understand

59 KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE

Synchrophasor: Application
Phasor Information Applications Model Vs Reality
Actual Plot

Model Simulation

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Synchrophasor: Application
Phasor Information Applications Power system restoration
Description: Standard operating procedures that define the steps to be followed for putting outage facilities and customer back in to service after blackout generally standard procedure and system parameters Rationale: Synchrophasor is data provides real time information (Power flows, Power dynamics) which can help to operator to minimizing the speed for restoration of systems Benefits: Resulting cost benefits to all parties
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Synchrophasor: Application
Failed Prime-mover Gen Set

GT D Y

MVAR

TL Line
CB1 CB3

MW

G
E
Gen Set

GCB

PMU

PMU

CB5

PDC

GT D Y

MVAR

TL Line
CB2 CB4

MW

G
E

GCB

PMU

PMU

Healthy Prime-mover

Local End

Remote End
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Real Time MW Control Faster

KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE

Synchrophasor: Application
Failed Exciter Gen Set

GT D Y

MVAR

TL Line
CB1 CB3

MW

G
E
Gen Set

GCB

PMU

PMU

CB5

PDC

GT D Y

MVAR

TL Line
CB2 CB4

MW

G
E

GCB

PMU

PMU

Healthy Prime-mover

Local End

Remote End
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Real Time MVAr Control Faster

KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE

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Synchrophasor: Application
Gen Swing & AVR Control (MVar (MVar) MVar) Amplitude Modulation
Multiplicative

Fundamental Amplitude Gen Swing & Governor Control (MW) Frequency Modulation
Multiplicative Excitation & Speed Control

Fundamental Frequency
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Synchrophasor: Application
TL Swing & MVAr Control) Low Frequency Resonance

Output

Series or Shunt LC circuit or series compensated line

S1
PMU PMU

S2

65 KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE

Synchrophasor: Application
Gen Swing & AVR Control (MVar (MVar) MVar) Amplitude Modulation
Multiplicative
Series & Shunt LC circuit (TL lines)

Low Frequency Resonance


MVar control

Fundamental Amplitude Gen Swing & Governor Control (MW) Frequency Modulation
Multiplicative Excitation & Speed Control

HVDC link

Fundamental Frequency

Harmonics
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Synchrophasor: Application
Phasor Information Applications Adaptive Protection scheme
Description: Protection system design that provides for adjustments in protection settings automatically as system condition change Rationale: At present condition, the protections are set based on normal condition all lines and generators are in service. Existing numerical relays capable of adapting to system changes given the real time data Benefits: Adaptive protection can automatically perform the number of adjustment, resulting would be greater system reliability and security
67 KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE

Synchrophasor: Application
Phasor Information Applications Adaptive Protection scheme
Relay back up zone supervision: Avoid undesirable and unnecessary Zone3 back up relay operation Intelligent load shedding: Supervision of load dropping scheme in emergencies to avoid the formation of Islands in grid and to keep the system frequency stable on 50Hz/60Hz Adaptive loss of field relaying: Online adjustment of LOF relay to ensure proper relay operation at system condition change over time Adaptive reclosing Fault location 68
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE

Synchrophasor: Application
Phasor Information Applications Adaptive Protection scheme
Adaptive reclosing: More accurate monitoring of phase angles and voltage amplitude to minimize the transient switching surge during system restoration (Autoreclosing with synchrocheck) Fault location: Precise and quick location of point where a fault occurs

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Synchrophasor: Application
Remote Backup Protection Scheme
Zone3 based remote back up protection schemes are dependable but not secure A relay Mal-operation or wrong operation can act as a system collapse situation Incorrect Zone 3 operation may be consequence of either Load Encroachment, Over load or Under Voltage. Electromechanical Oscillations like Power Swings or Out of Step condition

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Zone 3 : Load Encroachment

Load

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Synchrophasor: Application
R5 PMU1
Lag Lead

UTC
PMU2

R7

CB1

CB3

S1
CB2
PMU3

Controller
CB4
PMU4
Lag Lead

S2

R6

R8

Substation1

UTC

Substation2

Supervisory Back protection of a parallel lines with a PMUs at both ends 72


KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE

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Synchrophasor: Application
Remote Synchronization Applied

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Synchrophasor: Application
Remote Synchronization Applied

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Synchrophasor: Application

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Synchrophasor: Application
WAMPCS installed at MEXICO

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Synchrophasor: Projects
Implementation of System will be done on Stage wise; Stage1:- Require to Install PMU & PDC at Major locations or Bays (Generating stations, Load despatch centers & Critical & Semi-critical bays of 220kV, 400kV, 765kV) and starts to do real time monitoring of voltage & current amplitude, frequency & Phase angle parameters (Dynamic behaviors of power system). Wide area monitoring implementation has to be done first. Stage2:- Wide area Protections (SPS) should be adopted
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Synchrophasor: Projects
Implementation of System will be done on Stage wise; Stage3:- Wide area control based on monitoring & protection functions

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Synchrophasor: Accuracy as per C37.118

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Synchrophasor: Accuracy
SPDC
Local level
Level 0 (Regional Level)

Local level

Level 1

PDC1

PDC2

Level 1

PMU1

PMU2

PMU3

PMU4

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Synchrophasor: Accuracy (PMU Class as per C37.118-1)

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Synchrophasor: Accuracy (PMU Class as per C37.118-1)

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Synchrophasor: Accuracy (PMU class as per C37.118-1)

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Synchrophasor: PMU Testing


Steady State Testing

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Synchrophasor: PMU Testing


1% PMU Requirement according to IEEE C37.118
E 0.25% Calibration Device Requirement according to IEEE C37.118 0.05% Reference Grade test set Requirement

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Synchrophasor: PMU Testing


Transient Testing

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Synchrophasor: PMU Testing


Interoperability of Multiple PMUs

Test Set
V&I Signals IEEE C37.118

PMU1

PDC

GPS
PMU2 PMU3
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Synchrophasor: PMU Testing

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Synchrophasor: PMU Testing

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Synchrophasor: Conclusion
Synchrophasor have rapidly moved from R&D environment into the real time application of Grid Existing SCADA technology offer the steady state view of Electrical grid IEEE COMTRADE tool provide the offline analysis of fault record Synchrophasor data can provide enhanced real time situational awareness (Online & Offline) to enhance operator efficiency and performance. PMU shall be design for the future IEC61850 advancements and upcoming dynamic synchrophasor standards for better interoperability with other vendor devices
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Synchrophasor: Conclusion
Synchrophasor system can work as modern power management system which can provides proactive and reactive power control in transmission system Synchrophasor data provide real time analysis for post disturbance records Dynamic performance of synchrophasor system does not define in standards PMUs connected to Metering core of Cts or Protection core of Cts are question to user Out of step protection scheme will be improved Entire grid stability and reliability will be increased

91 KNOWLEDGE IS POWER BUT IMMAGINATION IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN KNOWLEDGE

Ask Ask Q???


Kamin_dave@selinc.com

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