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Samkhya

Samkhya
Samkhya, also Sankhya, Skhya, or Skhya (Sanskrit: , IAST: skhya) is one of the six schools of Hindu philosophy and classical Indian philosophy. The Samkhya school is dualistic and atheistic. Sage Kapila is traditionally considered as the founder of the Samkhya school, although no historical verification is possible. It is regarded as one of the oldest philosophical systems in India.[1] Smkhya is one of the six orthodox systems (stika, those systems that recognize Vedic authority) of Hindu philosophy. The major text of this Vedic school is the extant Samkhya Karika circa 200 CE. This text (in karika 70) identifies Smkhya as a Tantra[2] and its philosophy was one of the main influences both on the rise of the Tantras as a body of literature, as well as Tantra sadhana.[3] Smkhya is an enumerationist philosophy that is strongly dualist.[4][5][6] Samkhya denies the existence of Ishvara (God) or any other exterior influence.[7] Smkhya philosophy regards the universe as consisting of two realities: Purusha (consciousness) and Prakriti (phenomenal realm of matter). They are the experiencer and the experienced, but not like the res cogitans and res extensa of Ren Descartes because Prakriti further bifurcates into sensor and sensed realms : on the other hand, Purua separates out into countless souls or individual units of consciousness which fuse into the mind and body of the sensor branch of Prakriti consisting of 13 karanas (instruments) : 3 inner or antah karanas (buddhi/intelligence, ahamkaara/ego, mana/mind) and 10 external or baahya karanas (five sense organs and five organs of karma or action), distinct from ten sensed constituents of Prakriti : 5 mah-bhootas and their five tanmtrs. Jiva is that state of Purua in which Purua lies bonded to Prakriti through the glue of desire, and end of this bondage is Moksha. Samkhya does not describe what happens after Moksha and does not mention anything about Ishwara or God, because after liberation there is no essential distinction of individual and universal Purua. Smkhya is an stika philosophy, i.e, following the Vedas. Last verse of White Yajurveda says : "yo asau ditya PuruaH so asau ahaM" ("I am the same Purua which is in ditya"). This last dictum of Veda is the root of Vednta, and here Smkhya has no essential difference from Vednta. Prakriti is completely inanimate or jaDa, and it is only by dint of association with Purua that a part of Prakriti starts functioning as (false-) consciousness known as Chitta which is same as krana-shareera consisting of 13 karanas. This Chitta is merely a two sided mirror : on the one hand it reflects the external physical world through senses to the inner perceiver, and on the other hand it reflects one's self identity also but wrongly due to false self-identification with Ego. Due to attachment to desires, this false self (ego) is strengthened and the soul gets alienated from its real identity. That is why Saamkhya stresses the need of self knowledge for getting rid of this delusion. There are differences between Samkhya and Western forms of dualism. In the West, the fundamental distinction is between mind and body which are both inanimate or jaDa in Smkhya. In Samkhya, however, the dualism is between the real self (as Purua) and matter (Prakriti). There are three possible states of existence of Purua : (1) liberated state when Purua has no connection with Prakriti, (2)bonded state without life when Purua is bonded to 13 karanas but does not have a body, and (3) physical state as a living being or jeeva when this jeeva gets attached to a body. Therefore, the theory of rebirth or transmigration of the soul is inherent in Saamkhya.

Literature
Sage Kapila is considered as the founder of the Samkhya school, but there is no evidence to prove that the texts attributed to him, the Skhyapravacana Stra and the Tattvasamsa were actually composed by him, although there is no evidence to prove the contrary either : no ancient or mediaeval authority said these texts were not by Kapila. According to a modern scholar Surendranath Dasgupta the doctrine of the earliest school of Samkhya is found in an ancient Indian medical treatise, Charaka Samhita.[8] Another early extant text of this school is Skhya Krik of Ivaraka (3rd century). Ivaraka in his Krik described himself as being in the succession of the disciples from Kapila, through suri and Pacaikha. Gauapda wrote a commentary on this Krik. The next important work is Vcaspatis Skhyatattvakaumud (9th century AD). Nryaas treatise Skhyacandrik is

Samkhya based on the Krik. The Skhyapravacana Stra is assigned to the 14th century, as Guaratna (14th century) did not refer to this text but referred to the Krik. This text consists of 6 chapters and 526 stras. The most important commentary on the Skhyapravacana Stra is Vijnabhikus Skhyapravacanabhya (16th century). Anirruddhas Kpilaskhyapravacanastravtti (15th century) and Mahdevas Skhyapravacanastravttisra (c. 1600) and Ngeas Laghuskhyastravtti are the other important commentaries on this text.[9] The Samkhya-Pravachana-Sutram of Kapila declares God as unproved. Its conclusion is that God is unproved (I. 92)[10]. "For, we must conceive Isvara as being either free (from all fetters) or bound (by material conditions). He can be neither free nor bound; because, in the former case, being perfect, He would have nothing to fulfil by creation, and, in the latter case, He would not possess absolute power (I.93-94)[11]. No doubt, in the Srutis, we find such declarations as He is verily the all-knower, the creator of all, and the like ; these, however, do not allude to an eternal, uncaused Isvara (God), but are only eulogies of such Jivas or Incarnate Selves as are going to be freed, or of the Yogins, human as well as super-human, who have attained perfection by the practice of Yoga (I. 95)[12]. Some say that attainment of the highest end results through absorption into the Cause (III. 54). But this is not so, because, as people rise up again after immersion into water, so do Purusas, merged into Prakriti at the time of Pralaya, appear, again, at thenext Creation, as Isvaras (III. 54-55)[13]. The Vedic declarations, e. g.,He is verily the all-knower, the creator of all refer to such Highest Selves (III. 56)[14]. "Neither is the existence of God as the moral governor of the world, proved ; for, if God Himself produce the consequences of acts, He would do so even without the aid of Karma; on the other hand, if His agency in this respect be subsidiary to that of Karma, then let Karma itself be the cause of its consequences; what is the use of a God ? Moreover, it is impossible that God should be the dispenser of the consequences of acts. For, His motive will be either egoistic or altruistic. But it cannot be the latter, as it is simply inconceivable that one acting for the, good of others, should create a world so full of pain. Nor can it be the former[15]; because (1) in that case, He would possess unfulfilled desires, and, consequently, suffer pain and the like. Thus your worldly God would be no -better than Highest selves[16] (2) Agency cannot be established in the absence of desire, for, behind every act, there lies an intense desire. And to attribute intense desire to God would be to take away from his eternal freedom[17]. (3) Further, desire is a particular product of Prakriti. It cannot, therefore, naturally grow within the Self, whether it be God or the Jiva ; it must come from the outside. Now, it cannot be said that desire, which is an evolute of Prakriti, directly has connection with the Self, as it would contradict hundreds of Vedic declarations to the effect that the Self is Asanga, absolutely free from attachment or association. Neither can it be maintained that Prakriti establishes connection of desire with the Self by induction, as it were, through its mere proximity to it ; as this would apply equally to all the Selves at the same time (V. 2-9)[18]. Furthermore, the above arguments might have lost their force or relevancy, were there positive proof of the existence of God ; but there is no such proof. For, proof is of three kinds, viz., Perception, Inference and Testimony. Now, God certainly is not an object of perception. Neither can He be known by inference ; because there is no general proposition (Vyapti) whereby to infer the existence of God, inasmuch as, Prakriti alone being the cause of the world, the law of causation is of no avail here. And the testimony of the Veda speaks of Prakriti as being the origin of the world, and hence does not prove the existence of God (V. 10-12)[19]. Thus, Kapila declares[20] that the various objective arguments for the establishment of theism, viz., the ontological, the cosmological, the teleological, and the moral, cannot stand, and pronounces the verdict of non-proven in regard to the existence of God. So the Samkhyas maintain that it cannot be proved by evidence that an eternal, self-caused God exists ; that the ordinary means of proof, Perception, Inference and Testimony, fail to reach Him ; and that there is no other means of correct knowledge on our plane of the Universe.

Samkhya

Epistemology
According to the Samkhya school, all knowledge is possible through three pramanas (means of valid knowledge)[21] 1. Pratyaka or Dam direct sense perception, 2. Anumna logical inference and 3. abda or ptavacana verbal testimony from sages or shstras. Samkhya cites two kinds of perceptions: Indeterminate (nirvikalpa) perceptions and determinate (savikalpa) perceptions (nirvikalpa technically means without any samkalpas or vrittis in the chitta). Indeterminate perception of nirvikalpa type is direct perception like a mere witness without thinking and desiring and active participation. They reveal no knowledge of the qualities or the name of the object through logical processes of thinking. There is only pure awareness about an object. There is cognition of the object, but no discriminative recognition into logical categories as signifiable through words. For example, a babys initial experience is full of impression. There is a lot of data from sensory perception, but there is little or no understanding of the inputs. Hence they can be neither differentiated nor labeled. Most of them are indeterminate perceptions. The only difference is that the baby has no self awareness of the real soul. Determinate perceptions are the logical state of perceptions which have been processed and differentiated appropriately. Once the sensations have been processed, categorized, and interpreted properly, they become determinate perceptions. They can lead to identification and also generate logical knowledge.

Metaphysics
Ontology
Broadly, the Samkhya system classifies all objects as falling into one of the two categories: Purusha and Prakriti. Metaphysically, Samkhya maintains an intermingled duality between spirit/consciousness (Purua) and matter (Prakrti). But Saamkhya does not elaborate whether Prakriti is merely a perception of Purua or a separate reality, although the inferred meaning is that Purua is perceiver and Prakriti is perceived, hence Prakriti exists only as perception and therefore cannot exist and function as an independent reality while Purua can exist separately after liberation. But since number of jeevas is infinite, Prakriti is bound to exist forever and can be regarded as reality in this sense. Hence, the duality of Smkhya carries a hidden monism : the jaDa or inanimate Prakriti needs a perceiver and cannot function in isolation from the perceiver, while the perceiver Consciousness or the Purua can exist independently of Prakriti after moksha. Purua Purua is the transcendental self or pure consciousness. It is absolute, independent, free, imperceptible, unknowable through other agencies, above any experience by mind or senses and beyond any words or explanations. It remains pure, nonattributive consciousness. Purua is neither produced nor does it produce. It is held that unlike Advaita Vedanta and like Purva-Mimamsa, Samkhya believes in plurality of the Puruas.[22] , although Smkhya does not clearly mention that individual souls are separate entities after liberation. Smkhya describes only the state in this world and the ways of getting rid of it, and does not describe the state after this world, hence varied interpretations are possible.

Samkhya Prakriti Prakriti is the first cause of the manifest material universe of everything except the Purua,. Prakriti is accounts for whatever is physical, both mind and matter-cum-energy or force. Since it is the first principle (tattva) of the universe, it is called the Pradhna, but, as it is the unconscious and unintelligent principle, it is also called the jaDa. It is composed of three essential characteristics (trigunas). These are: sattva poise, fineness, lightness, illumination, and joy; rajas dynamism, activity, excitation, and pain; tamas inertia, coarseness, heavyness, obstruction, and sloth.[23][24][25] All physical events are considered to be manifestations of the evolution of Prakriti, or primal nature (from which all physical bodies are derived). Each sentient being or Jeeva is a fusion of Purua and Prakriti, whose soul/Purua is limitless and unrestricted by its physical body. Samsra or bondage arises when the Purua does not have the discriminate knowledge and so is misled as to its own identity, confusing itself with the Ego/ahamkra, which is actually an attribute of Prakriti. The spirit is liberated when the discriminate knowledge of the difference between conscious Purua and unconscious Prakriti is realized by the Purua. Ivara (Creationist God) The Skhyapravacana Stra in verse no. 1.92 directly states that existence of "God is unproved"[26]. Hence there is no philosophical place for a creationist God in this system. It is also argued by commentators of this text that the existence of Ishvara cannot be proved and hence cannot be admitted to exist.[27] Dualist commentators of Samkhya argue against the existence of God on metaphysical grounds. Samkhya theorists argue that an unchanging God cannot be the source of an ever changing world. It is inferred by commentators that God was a necessary metaphysical assumption demanded by circumstances.[28] The Sutras of Samkhya have no explicit role for a separate God distinct from the Purua. Such a distinct God is inconceivable and self-contradictory and some commentaries speak plainly on this subject. The Sankhya-tattva-kaumudi commenting on Karika 57 argues that a perfect God can have no need to create a world (for Himself) and if God's motive is kindness (for others), these commentatoes of Samkhya question whether it is reasonable to call into existence beings who while non-existent had no suffering (but this reasoning is fallacious because it assumes souls are also created by God which is nowhere stated in any stika philosophy). These commentaries of Samkhya postulate that a benevolent deity ought to create only happy creatures, not a mixed world like the real world.[29] A majority of modern academic scholars are of view that the concept of Ishvara was incorporated into the nirishvara (atheistic) Samkhya viewpoint only after it became associated with the Yoga, the Pasupata and the Bhagavata schools of philosophy. This theistic Samkhya philosophy is described in the Mahabharata, the Puranas and the Bhagavad Gita[30] One thing is forgotten by moderners : in all ancient texts, Smkhya is used for the jnnayogis (real sanysins) and the term for Purua in Smkhyakrika is jna, that is why academics differ with the stika view. Late Umesha Mishra, first Vice Chancellor of KS Darbhanga Sanskrit University, explained these points in his book and also discussed some lost verses found in Chinese versions.

Nature of Duality
Samkhya recognizes only two ultimate entities, Prakriti and Purua. While the Prakriti is a single entity, the Samkhya admits a plurality of the Puruas in this world. Unintelligent, unmanifest, uncaused, ever-active, imperceptible and eternal Prakriti is alone the final source of the world of objects which is implicitly and potentially contained in its bosom. The Purua is considered as the conscious principle, a passive enjoyer (bhokta) and the Prakriti is the enjoyed (bhogya). Samkhya believes that the Purua cannot be regarded as the source of inanimate world, because an intelligent principle cannot transform itself into the unconscious world. It is a pluralistic spiritualism, atheistic realism and uncompromising dualism.[25] See Consciousnessmatter dualism as far as existence of souls in this world is seen. One fine point is missed by all such commentators : the very word Prakriti means it is First Kriti or Prime Creation, hence there must be a Creator. This point is not dealt with either in any text

Samkhya or in any commentary of Smkhya.

Theory of Existence
The Samkhya system is based on Sat-krya-vda. According to Satkryavda, the effect pre-exists in the cause. Cause and effect are seen as different temporal aspects of the same thing the effect lies latent in the cause which in turn seeds the next effect. More specifically, Samkhya system follows the Prakriti-Parinma Vda. Parinma denotes that the effect is a real transformation of the cause. The cause under consideration here is Prakriti or more precisely Moola-Prakriti (Primordial Matter). The Samkhya system is therefore an exponent of an evolutionary theory of matter beginning with primordial matter. In evolution, Prakriti is transformed and differentiated into multiplicity of objects. Evolution is followed by dissolution. In dissolution the physical existence, all the worldly objects mingle back into Prakriti, which now remains as the undifferentiated, primordial substance. This is how the cycles of evolution and dissolution follow each other. But this theory is very different from the modern theories of science in the sense that Prakriti evolves for each Jeeva separately, giving individual bodies and minds to each and after liberation these elements of Prakriti merges into the Moola Prakriti. Another uniqueness of Smkhya is that not only physical entities but even mind, ego and intelligence are regarded as forms of Unconsciousness, quite distinct from pure consciousness. The twenty-four constituents Samkhya theorizes that Prakriti is the source of the perceived world of becoming. It is pure potentiality that evolves itself successively into twenty four tattvas or principles. The evolution itself is possible because Prakriti is always in a state of tension among its constituent strands called Gunas : Sattva a template of light which allows Consciousness to flow, symbolized as white; Rajas a template of activity, symbolized as red; Tamas a template of lethargy which blocks Consciousness, symbolized as black. In a state of equilibrium of three elements/Gunas, the three together are one, "unmanifest" Prakriti which is unknowable. The most subtle potentiality that is behind whatever is created in the physical universe, also called "primordial Matter". A Guna is defined as that entity which can change, either increase or decrease. Pure Consciousness, therefore is nirguna in this sense according to Saamkhya, and the special qualities of Pure Consciousness cannot be described in terms understandable to elements of Prakriti like mind or intelligence. All macrocosmic and microcosmic creation is based on these templates. Due to the proximity of Purusha it is said, the continued cause and effect production of differentiation is due to the 'imbalance' of these different proportions of these three Gunas. A restricted analogy can be drawn with three coloured quarks as building blocks of all matter in modern quantum chromodynamics. Colours of quarks have nothing in common with sensorily perceived colours. Similarly, colours of three gunas, white for sata or red for raja or black for tama have nothing in ommon with sensorily perceived colours because the latter are attributes of panch tanmtr (roopa, rasa, gandha, sparsha, shabda) which are latter evolutes of basic gunas and attributes of basic gunas cannot be derivatives of evolutes. There are 24 constituents of Prakriti. First is the Prakriti itself which is hidden cause of physical world and is unknowable through empirical methods. Remaining 23 constituents fall into two broad categories with sub-categories : (A) Instruments of Bhoga (perception, enjoyment) : 13 karanas constituting the kaarana shareera or Chitta (Pshyche) which has two sub-categories : Antah-karanas (inner instruments) consisting of : (1)Buddhi or Mahat,

Samkhya (2)Ahamkra, (3)Mana. Bhya-karanas (external instruments) consisting of : (4 to 9) five jnnendriyas (sense organs) and (9 to 13) five karmendriyas (organs of action : 9-hands, 10-feet, 11-vka or voice, 12-upastha or sex organ, 13-gud or anus : these are subtle entities which accompany the jeeva even after death till liberation). (B) Objects of Bhoga : Five primary physical elements from which all manifest elemts are built : 14-ksh or Sky, which is the only pure physical element consisting of iteself. 15-Vyu or Air, which includes ksh also. 16-Agni or Fire, which includes preceding two elements also. 17-Jala or Water, which includes preceding three elements also. 18-Prithvi or Earth, which includes preceding four elements also. Five qualities of these five primary physical elements : 19-Shabda, attribute of ksh. 20-Sparsha, attribute of Vyu. 21-Roopa, attribute of Agni. 22-Rasa, attribute of Jala. 23-Gandha, attribute of Prithvi. 24th is the Moola Prakriti itself. Maht first product of evolution from Prakriti, pure potentiality (predominately Sattva) 'Mahat is also considered to be the principle responsible for the rise of buddhi or discriminatory power (wisdom) in living beings, defined as that type of intelligence which follows the path of shaastra. Ahamkra or ego-sense second product of evolution. It is responsible for the self-sense in normal living beings. This self-sense is also modified with one's identification with the outer world and its contents. It has three forms according to three gunas. Manas is that faculty of Chitta or Psyche which takes samkalpa (resolutions, decisions). Paca jna indriyas or five sense organs (eyes, ears, nose, tongue and body) also evolves from the sattva aspect of Ahamkara. Paca karma indriyas or five organs of action The organs of action are hands, legs, vocal apparatus, urino-genital organ and anus. They evolve from the rajas aspect of Ahamkara. "Paca Tanmtrs" or five objects (color, sound, smell, taste, touch) are a simultaneous product from Maht Tattva, along with the Ahamkra. They are the subtle form of Paca mahbhtas which result from grossification or Panchikaran of the Tanmatras. Each of these Tanmatras are made of all three Gunas. Paca mahbhtas or five great substances earth, water, fire, air and ether. They evolve from the "tamas" aspect of the "Ahamkara". This is the revealed aspect of the physical universe.

Samkhya The evolution of primal nature is also considered to be purposeful Prakrti evolves for the spirit in bondage. The spirit who is always free intrinsically and is only a witness to the evolution in fact, even though due to the absence of discriminate knowledge, he misidentifies himself with Prakrti (mind and body). The evolution obeys causality relationships, with primal Nature itself being the material cause of all physical creation. The cause and effect theory of Samkhya is called Satkrya-vda (theory of existent causes), and holds that nothing can really be created from or destroyed into nothingness all evolution is simply the transformation of primal Nature from one form to another. The evolution of matter occurs when the relative strengths of the attributes change. The evolution ceases when the spirit realizes that it is distinct from primal Nature and thus cannot evolve. This destroys the purpose of evolution, thus stopping Prakrti from evolving for Purusha. Samkhya cosmology describes how life emerges in the universe; the relationship between Purusha and Prakriti is crucial to Patanjali's yoga system. The strands of Samkhya thought can be traced back to the Vedic speculation of creation. It is also frequently mentioned in the Mahabharata and Yogavasishta.

Moka
Like other major systems of Hindu Theology (or Indian philosophy), Samkhya regards ignorance as the root cause of bondage and suffering (Samsara). According to Samkhya, the Purua is eternal, pure consciousness. Due to ignorance, it identifies itself with the physical body and its accompaniments Manas, Ahamkara and Mahat, which are products of Prakriti. Once it becomes free of this false identification and the material bonds, Moksha ensues. Other forms of Samkhya teach that Moka is attained by one's own development of the higher faculties of discrimination achieved by meditation and other yogic practices as prescribed through the Hindu Vedas.

Notes
[1] Sharma, C. (1997). A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0365-5, p.149 [2] P.C. Bagchi, Evolution of the Tantras, Studies on the Tantras, Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture, Kolkata, 1989, ISBN 81-85843-36-8, pp.6 [3] P.C. Bagchi, Evolution of the Tantras, Studies on the Tantras, Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture, Kolkata, 1989, ISBN 81-85843-36-8, pp.10 [4] For the basis of Samkhya as dualist Purusha and Prakriti, see: Michaels, p. 264. [5] For the separation between Purusha and Prakriti as the "cardinal doctrine" of Samkhya philosophy, see: Sen Gupta, p. 6. [6] For Samkhya as a dualist school, see: Radhakrishnan and Moore, p. 89. [7] Dasgupta, Surendranath (1992). A history of Indian philosophy, Volume 1 (http:/ / books. google. co. in/ books?id=PoaMFmS1_lEC& pg=PA258). Motilal Banarsidass Publ.. p.258. ISBN978-81-208-0412-8. . [8] Dasgupta, Surendranath. (1922, reprint 1997) A History of Indian Philosophy, Volume 1, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0412-0, pp.2137 [9] Radhakrishnan, S. Indian Philosophy, Vol. II, Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2006, ISBN 0-19-563820-4, pp.25356 [10] The samkhya philosophy by Nandlal Sinha (allahabad :1915) [11] The samkhya philosophy by Nandlal Sinha (allahabad :1915) [12] The samkhya philosophy by Nandlal Sinha (allahabad :1915) [13] The samkhya philosophy by Nandlal Sinha (allahabad :1915) [14] The samkhya philosophy by Nandlal Sinha (allahabad :1915) [15] The samkhya philosophy by Nandlal Sinha (allahabad :1915) [16] The samkhya philosophy by Nandlal Sinha (allahabad :1915) [17] The samkhya philosophy by Nandlal Sinha (allahabad :1915) [18] The samkhya philosophy by Nandlal Sinha (allahabad :1915) [19] The samkhya philosophy by Nandlal Sinha (allahabad :1915) [20] The samkhya philosophy by Nandlal Sinha (allahabad :1915) [21] Samkhya Karika, loka4 [22] Sharma, C. (1997). A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0365-5, pp.1557 [23] Hiriyanna, M. (1993, reprint 2000). Outlines of Indian Philosophy, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-1099-6, pp.2702 [24] Chattopadhyaya, D. (1986). Indian Philosophy: A popular Introduction, New Delhi: People's Publishing House, ISBN 81-7007-023-6, pp.109110

Samkhya
[25] Sharma, C. (1997). A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0365-5, pp.14968 [26] Samkhya Darshana , Basumati Publication, 9th edition, page 48 [27] Skhyapravacana Stra (http:/ / www. archive. org/ stream/ thesamkhyaphilos00sinhuoft/ thesamkhyaphilos00sinhuoft_djvu. txt) I.92. [28] Rajadhyaksha (1959). The six systems of Indian philosophy (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=ihkRAQAAIAAJ). p.95. . [29] Eliot, Charles. Hinduism and Buddhism, Vol II. (of 3) (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=K4ZpPleiyokC). p.243. . [30] Karmarkar, A.P. (1962). Religion and Philosophy of Epics in S. Radhakrishnan ed. The Cultural Heritage of India, Vol.II, Calcutta: The Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture, ISBN 81-85843-03-1, pp.901

References
Eliade, Mircea (1969). Yoga: Immortality and Freedom. Bollingen Series LVI. New York, New York: Bollingen Foundation, Inc.. ISBN0-691-01764-6. Second Edition. Translated from the French by Willard R. Trask. Michaels, Axel (2004). Hinduism: Past and Present. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN0-691-08953-1. Radhakrishnan, S.; Moore, C. A. (1957). A Source Book in Indian Philosophy. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN0-691-01958-4. Princeton paperback 12th printing, 1989. Sen Gupta, Anima. The Evolution of the Skhya School of Thought. Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd.: New Delhi, 1986.

Further reading
Chatterjee, Satischandra; Datta, Dhirendramohan (1984). An Introduction to Indian Philosophy (Eighth Reprint Edition ed.). Calcutta: University of Calcutta. Meller, Max (1899). Six Systems of Indian Philosophy; Samkhya and Yoga, Naya and Vaiseshika. Calcutta: Susil Gupta (India) Ltd.. ISBN0-7661-4296-5. Reprint edition; Originally published under the title of The Six Systems of Indian Philosophy. Radhakrishnan, S.; Moore, CA (1967). A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy. Princeton. ISBN0-691-01958-4. R.A. Ramaswami Shastri, A Short History Of The Purva Mimamsa Shastra, Annamalai University Sanskrit Series No. 3 (1936). Zimmer, Heinrich (1951). Philosophies of India. New York, New York: Princeton University Press. ISBN0-691-01758-1. Bollingen Series XXVI; Edited by Joseph Cambell. Larson, Gerald J., Classical Samkhya, New Delhi 1979, sec. rev. ed., (includes translation of Isvarakrsna's Samkhyakarika). Weerasinghe, S.G.M., The Sankhya Philosophy; A Critical Evaluation of Its Origins and Development, New Delhi 1993. Garbe, Richard, Die Samkhya-Philosophie, eine Darstellung des indischen Rationalismus, Leipzig 1894. Kambhampati, Parvathi Kumar (1993). Sankya The Sacred Doctrine (First Edition ed.). Visakhapatnam: Dhanishta. ISBN81-900332-3-9..

Samkhya

External links
Samkhya (http://www.iep.utm.edu/sankhya) entry in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy Origin and Development of the Samkhya System of Thought (http://asi.nic.in/asi_books/7278.pdf) by Pulinbihari Chakravarti M.A., Curator of Manuscripts, The Asiatic Society, Calcutta. Sankhya philosophy (archive) (http://web.archive.org/web/20041023062627/http://www.philo.demon.co. uk/enumerat.htm) Kak, Subhash (2003) Greek and Indian Cosmology: Review of Early History (http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/ 607500/files/0303001.pdf?version=1) PDF file of Ishwarkrishna's sankhyakarikaa 200BC (in Sanskrit) available for research purposes only (http:// sanskritdocuments.org/all_pdf/IshvarakRiShNasAnkyakArikA.pdf) Complete Lectures on Sankya Shastra of Kapila maharishi at ShastraNethralaya (http://www.shastranethralaya. org/LectureSankya.html)

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Samkhya Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=489897084 Contributors: 777sms, Abecedare, Adudney, Ajnichol, Alma Pater, Amir.far, Anarchia, Andries, Arjun024, Arrow740, Arundhati bakshi, Arvindn, Ashdurbat, Atomar, Babub, Borgx, Broomstick33, Brownguy20, Bryan Derksen, Buddhipriya, CDN99, Calsicol, Chhajjusandeep, Clara rosa, Cminard, Crypticfirefly, DaGizza, Dangerous-Boy, Dbachmann, Deeptrivia, Devasagayam, Douglasfrankfort, Dougweller, Dream of Nyx, Editor2020, Edward, El C, Ernobe, Freedomji, Gaius Cornelius, Geoffg, Gerua, Giraffedata, Goethean, Green23, Gregbard, GregorB, Gsvasktg, Gurch, Hede2000, HinduDefender, Imc, Interlingua, Ivan tambuk, Jacob.jose, Jagged 85, Joseph Solis in Australia, Joy1963, Kajasudhakarababu, Karl-Henner, Keithbob, Koavf, Ksri99, Lecheminlu, Lefty4949, Logical Fuzz, LordSimonofShropshire, Luna Santin, MER-C, Mafat0327, Magicalsaumy, Materialscientist, Merlinmedved, Michael Hardy, Mitsube, Moryoga, Murtasa, Mwadewik, Nat Krause, Nlu, Northumbrian, Ogress, Oldwes, Orpheus, Philosopher4, Pigman, Poor Yorick, Pretzelogic, Punanimal, RJHall, Renamed user 4, Rjwilmsi, Ronz, Rudra79, Rudraprasadmatilal, Rudrasharman, RyoGTO, Rzelnik, Screen name1234, Shreevinekar, Singinglemon, Snowcream, SquirleyWurley, Srkris, Stillwaterising, Stokakrishna, Sunil vasisht, TeleComNasSprVen, Template namespace initialisation script, The Anome, Thedavid, Themunozgroup, Thomas Larsen, Titodutta, Tomisti, Transmogrifier, Username2577u, VanishedUser314159, Varoon Arya, VedicScience, Vinay Jha, Viriditas, Viscious81, Vontrotta, Vprajkumar, Webrider, Wikignome0530, Zachorious, Zerokitsune, , 190 anonymous edits

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