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NAME ______Travis Hicks___________SECTION _L07____ DATE _10/4/12_______ PARTNER(S) __Breanna Pickard, Jeff Dixon__________ ____________________

LABORATORY REPORT CHM 1045 Experiment Chemical Reactions of Copper and Percent Yield
INTRODUCTION: Most Chemical processes involve methods of separation such as filtration and decantation. This experiment uses these methods to recover sufficient amounts of copper. There is a minimal chance of error in this experiment as long as the methods are correctly carried out.

PURPOSE: To gain familiarity with basic laboratory procedures, some chemistry of a typical transition element, and the concept of percent yield.

REAGENTS and MEDIA HNO3 Cu Cu(NO3)2 NaOH Cu(OH)2 CuSO4 Zn Al APPARATUS and MATERIAL: 0.5 g piece of no. 16 or no. 18 copper wire 250 mL beaker (2) weighing paper concentrated HNO3 (4 6 mL) 6.0 M H2SO4 (15 mL) graduated cylinder granular zinc 3.0 M NaOH (30 mL) methanol carborundum boiling chips acetone stirring rod towel iron ring and ring stand balance wire gauze aluminum foil cut in 1-inch squares Bunsen burner concentrated HCl (drops) evaporating dish

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS 1. Wear Goggles 2. Wear Safety Coat


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NAME ______Travis Hicks___________SECTION _L07____ DATE _10/4/12_______ PARTNER(S) __Breanna Pickard, Jeff Dixon__________ ____________________

LABORATORY REPORT CHM 1045 Experiment Chemical Reactions of Copper and Percent Yield
3. Do not touch hot equipment 4. Do not inhale fumes 5. Do not drink liquid PROCEDURE Weight approximately 0.500 g of no. 16 or no. 18 copper wire (1) to the nearest 0.0001 g and place it in a 250 mL beaker. Add 4-5 mL of concentrated HNO3 to the beaker, IN THE HOOD. After the reaction is complete, add 100 mL distilled H2O. Describe the reaction (6) as to color change, evolution of gas, and change in temperature (exothermic or endothermic) in the report sheet. Add 30 mL of 3.0 M NaOH to the solution in your beaker and describe the reaction (7). Add two or three boiling chips and carefully heat the solution -while stirring with a glass stirring rod -- just to the boiling point. Describe the reaction on your report sheet (8). Remove the boiling chips. Allow the black CuO to settle; then decant the supernatant liquid. Add about 200 mL of very hot the CuO to settle. Decant once more. What are you removing by washing and decanting (9)? Add 15 mL of 6.0 M H2SO4. What copper compound is present in the beaker now (10)?

Reduction with Zinc In the hood, add 2.0 g of 30-mesh zinc metal all at once and stir until the supernatant liquid is colorless. Describe the reaction on your report sheet (11). What is present in solution (12)? When gas evolution has become very slow, heat the solution gently (but do not boil) and allow it to cool. What gas is formed in this reaction (13)? How do you know (14)? When gas evolution has ceased, decant the solution and transfer the precipitate to a preweighed porcelain evaporating dish (3). Wash the precipitated copper with about 5 mL of distilled water, allow to settle, decant the solution, and repeat the process. What are you removing by washing (15)? Wash the precipitate with about 5 mL of methanol (KEEP THE METHANOL AWAY FROM FLAMES _ IT IS FLAMMABLE!) Allow the precipitate to settle, and decant the methanol. (METHANOL IS ALSO EXTREMELY TOXIC: AVOID BREATHING THE VAPORS AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE.) Finally, wash the precipitate with about 5 mL of acetone (KEEP THE ACETONE AWAY FROM FLAMES - IT IS EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE!), allow the precipitate to settle, and decant the acetone from the precipitate. Prepare a steam bath as illustrated and dry the product on your steam bath for at least 5
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NAME ______Travis Hicks___________SECTION _L07____ DATE _10/4/12_______ PARTNER(S) __Breanna Pickard, Jeff Dixon__________ ____________________

LABORATORY REPORT CHM 1045 Experiment Chemical Reactions of Copper and Percent Yield
minutes. Wipe the bottom of the evaporating dish with a towel, remove the boiling chips and weigh the evaporating dish plus copper (2). Calculate the final weight of copper (4). Compare the weight with your initial weight and calculate the percent yield (5). What color is your copper sample (16)? Is it uniform in appearance (17)? Suggest possible sources of error in this experiment (18).

PROCEDURE MODIFICATION The procedure was changed as depicted below: a. During the lab we did not use Aluminum foil instead we used powdered Zinc. OBSERVATION: When HNO3 was added to the copper wire, a blue solution was formed and a gas developed. The reaction was exothermic. When water was added, the solution turned light blue. When NaOH was added, the solution returned to blue again. After heating the new solution, a black precipitate formed. By adding distilled water to the black precipitate and then decanting, all stray ions and other precipitates except for CuO are removed from the beaker. When H2SO4 was added, a clear green-blue solution was formed. When zinc was added to the solution, a gas evolved quickly. Zinc (II) sulfate is present in the solution. The type of gas that forms is sulfate gas. After the reaction, a copper-brown-colored substance remained. Washing that solution removed all other ions or precipitates from the beaker. The copper precipitate was uniform in appearance.

DATA and ANALYSIS (with calculations, equations, graph) Mass of Original Copper (initial) 0.51 g Mass of Evaporating Dish 48.71g Mass of Copper and Evaporating Dish 44.22g Mass of Copper Recovered(finial) 0.82g % Yield 160% 0.81/0.51=1.60g 1.60*100=160% DISCUSSION (include reasons for possible errors) The CuO2 was left over which made the copper to be heavier.

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NAME ______Travis Hicks___________SECTION _L07____ DATE _10/4/12_______ PARTNER(S) __Breanna Pickard, Jeff Dixon__________ ____________________

LABORATORY REPORT CHM 1045 Experiment Chemical Reactions of Copper and Percent Yield
CONCLUSION: As a result, we yielded more copper than what we started with; this is because of excess CuO2 which made the copper heavier than before we measured it. Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Sulfuric Acid
Chemical Product Chemical Name: Nitric acid Chemical Formula: HNO3 Synonym: Aqua Fortis, Azotic Acid, Engravers Acid, Nital, Hydrogen Nitrate Hazards Identification Physical State and Appearance: Liquid. Emergency Overview: WARNING ! HARMFUL IF INHALED OR SWALLOWED. CAUSES EYE AND SKIN BURNS. MAY CAUSE RESPIRATORY TRACT BURNS. OXIDIZER. CONTACT WITH OTHER MATERIAL MAY CAUSE FIRE. CONTAINS MATERIAL WHICH CAUSES DAMAGE TO THE FOLLOWING ORGANS: LUNGS, MUCOUS MEMBRANES, RESPIRATORY TRACT, SKIN, EYE, LENS OR CORNEA, TEETH. MAY CAUSE BIRTH DEFECTS BASED ON ANIMAL DATA. Routes of Entry: Absorbed through skin. Eye contact. Inhalation. Ingestion. Potential Acute Health Effects: Eyes -- Hazardous in case of eye contact (corrosive). Causes eye burns. Skin -- Hazardous in case of skin contact (corrosive). Skin contact produces burns. Inhalation -- Hazardous in case of inhalation. May be hazardous in case of inhalation (lung corrosive). Ingestion -- Hazardous in case of ingestion First Aid Measures Eye Contact: Check for and remove any contact lenses. In case of contact, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. Cold water may be used. Get medical attention immediately. Skin Contact: In case of contact, immediately flush skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Cold water may be used. Wash clothing before reuse. Thoroughly clean shoes before reuse. Get medical attention immediately. Inhalant: If inhaled, remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical attention immediately Ingestion: If swallowed, do not induce vomiting unless directed to do so by medical personnel. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Loosen tight clothing such as a collar, tie, belt or waistband. Get medical attention immediately. Fire and Explosive Data Flammability: Non-flammable Page 4 of 7

NAME ______Travis Hicks___________SECTION _L07____ DATE _10/4/12_______ PARTNER(S) __Breanna Pickard, Jeff Dixon__________ ____________________

LABORATORY REPORT CHM 1045 Experiment Chemical Reactions of Copper and Percent Yield
Fire hazards in presence of various substances : Not applicable Explosive Hazards in presence of various substances: May be explosive on contact with combustibles Accidental Release Measures Small Spill: Dilute with water and mop up, or absorb with an inert dry material and place in an appropriate waste disposal container. If necessary: Neutralize the residue with a dilute solution of sodium carbonate. Personal Protection Safety glasses. Lab coat. Physical and Chemical properties Physical state and appearance: Odor: Suffocating Color: Clear. Colorless to light yellow Boiling Point: 83.94C Melting Point: -0.1C Critical Temperature: Solubility: Soluble in all proportions in water National Fire Protection Association (U.S.A.) Health: 3 Flammability: 0 Reactivity: 0 Specific hazard:

Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Sulfuric acid


Chemical Product Chemical Name: Sulfuric acid Chemical Formula: H2SO4 Synonym: Oil of Vitriol Hazards Identification Potential Acute Health Effects: Very hazardous in case of skin contact (corrosive, irritant, permeator), of eye contact (irritant, corrosive), of ingestion, of inhalation. Liquid or spray mist may produce tissue damage particularly on mucous membranes of eyes, mouth and respiratory tract. Skin contact may produce burns. Inhalation of the spray mist may produce severe irritation of respiratory tract, characterized by coughing, choking, or shortness of breath. Severe over-exposure can result in death. Inflammation of the eye is characterized by redness, watering, and itching. Skin inflammation is characterized by itching, scaling, reddening, or, ccasionally, blistering. Potential Chronic Health Effects: CARCINOGENIC EFFECTS: Classified 1 (Proven for human.) by IARC, + (Proven.) by OSHA. Classified A2 (Suspected for human.) by ACGIH. MUTAGENIC EFFECTS: Not available. TERATOGENIC EFFECTS: Not available. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY: Not available. The substance may be toxic to kidneys, lungs, heart, cardiovascular system, upper respiratory tract, eyes, teeth. Repeated or prolonged exposure to the substance can produce target organs damage. Repeated or prolongedp. 2 Page 5 of 7

NAME ______Travis Hicks___________SECTION _L07____ DATE _10/4/12_______ PARTNER(S) __Breanna Pickard, Jeff Dixon__________ ____________________

LABORATORY REPORT CHM 1045 Experiment Chemical Reactions of Copper and Percent Yield
contact with spray mist may produce chronic eye irritation and severe skin irritation. Repeated or prolonged exposure to spray mist may produce respiratory tract irritation leading to frequent attacks of bronchial infection. Repeated exposure to a highly toxic material may produce general deterioration of health by an accumulation in one or many human organs. First Aid Measures Eye Contact: Check for and remove any contact lenses. In case of contact, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. Cold water may be used. Get medical attention immediately. Skin Contact: In case of contact, immediately flush skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Cover the irritated skin with an emollient. Cold water may be used.Wash clothing before reuse. Thoroughly clean shoes before reuse. Get medical attention immediately. Inhalant: If inhaled, remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical attention immediately Ingestion: Do NOT induce vomiting unless directed to do so by medical personnel. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Loosen tight clothing such as a collar, tie, belt or waistband. Get medical attention if symptoms appear. Fire and Explosive Data Flammability: Non-flammable Fire hazards in presence of various substances : Combustible materials Explosive Hazards in presence of various substances: Slightly explosive in presence of oxidizing materials Accidental Release Measures Small Spill: Dilute with water and mop up, or absorb with an inert dry material and place in an appropriate waste disposal container. If necessary: Neutralize the residue with a dilute solution of sodium carbonate Personal Protection Safety glasses. Lab coat. Physical and Chemical properties Physical state and appearance: Liquid Odor: Odorless Color: Colorless Boiling Point: 270C Melting Point: -35C Critical Temperature: N/A Solubility: Soluble in cold water, ethyl alcohol National Fire Protection Association (U.S.A.) Health: 3 Flammability: 0 Reactivity: 2 Specific hazard:

Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Sodium hydroxide


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NAME ______Travis Hicks___________SECTION _L07____ DATE _10/4/12_______ PARTNER(S) __Breanna Pickard, Jeff Dixon__________ ____________________

LABORATORY REPORT CHM 1045 Experiment Chemical Reactions of Copper and Percent Yield
Chemical Name: Sodium hydroxide Chemical Formula: NaOH Synonym: Caustic soda Hazards Identification Potential Acute Health Effects: Very hazardous in case of skin contact (corrosive, irritant, permeator), of eye contact (irritant, corrosive), of ingestion, of inhalation. Potential Chronic Health Effects: CARCINOGENIC EFFECTS: Not available. MUTAGENIC EFFECTS: Not available. TERATOGENIC EFFECTS: Not available. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY: Not available First Aid Measures Eye Contact: Check for and remove any contact lenses. In case of contact, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. Cold water may be used. Get medical attention immediately. Skin Contact: In case of contact, immediately flush skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Inhalant: If inhaled, remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Ingestion: Do NOT induce vomiting unless directed to do so by medical personnel. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Fire and Explosive Data Flammability: Non-flammable Fire hazards in presence of various substances : Metals Explosive Hazards in presence of various substances: Slightly explosive in presence of heat Accidental Release Measures Small Spill: Use appropriate tools to put the spilled solid in a convenient waste disposal container. If necessary: Neutralize the residue with a dilute solution of acetic acid. Personal Protection Safety glasses. Lab coat. Physical and Chemical properties Physical state and appearance: Solid Odor: Odorless Color: White Boiling Point: 1388C Melting Point: 323C Critical Temperature: N/A Solubility: Soluble in cold water National Fire Protection Association (U.S.A.) Health: 3 Flammability: 0 Reactivity: 1 Specific hazard:

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