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Name of the experiment: Interfacing the Control of High Voltage Device using electromagnetic relay. Objectives: 1.

To learn about the basic operation concept of electromagnetic relay. 2. To learn about the basics of controlling high voltage devices. Experiment Equipment: Relay Circuit, 1 Transistor, 1 Diode, 1 LED, 2 Resistance (1k ohm, 150ohm), connecting wire, Breadboard etc. Theory: A relay can be used to switch higher power devices such as motors. A relay is an electrically operated switch. Current flowing through the coil of the relay creates a magnetic field which attracts a lever and changes the switch contacts. The relays switch connections are usually labeled COM (POLE), NC and NO: COM/POLE= Common, NC and NO always connect to this; it is the moving part of the switch. NC = Normally Closed, COM/POLE is connected to this when the relay coil is not magnetized. NO = Normally Open, COM/POLE is connected to this when the relay coil is MAGNETIZED and vice versa. A relay shown in the picture is an electromagnetic or mechanical relay:

There are 5 Pins in a relay. Two pins A and B are two ends of a coil that are kept inside the relay. The coil is wound on a small rod that gets magnetized whenever current passes through it. COM/POLE is always connected to NC (Normally Connected) pin. As current is passed through the coil A, B, the pole gets connected to NO (Normally Open) pin of the relay. Current flowing through a relay coil creates a magnetic field which collapses suddenly when the current is switched off. The sudden collapse of the magnetic field induces a brief high voltage across the relay coil which is very likely to damage transistors and ICs. The protection diode allows the induced voltage to drive a brief current through the coil (and diode) so the magnetic field dies away quickly rather than instantly. This prevents the induced voltage becoming high enough to cause damage to transistors and ICs. Circuit Diagram:

Procedure: 1. Firstly placed a relay circuit in the bread board. 2. Then check a transistor by multi-meter. Choose a NPN transistor. 3. Now properly placed diode, resistance according to given diagram. 4. Provide a given power to the circuit. 5. Then lastly switch on the breadboard. Discussion: 1. Led must not be given directly +5V, instead using a 100 ohm resistance to protect the led from fusing. 2. Diode must be not being placed in reverse order; otherwise relay circuit can be damaged.

Name of the experiment: Interfacing Seven Segment Display. Objectives: Learn how to show digits in seven segment display and to familiarize with the seven segments led display. Experiment Equipment: 1 seven segment display, Multi-meter, Connecting wire and Breadboard. Theory: A seven segment display contains seven LED(Light Emitting Diode) bars that can be lit up in different combinations to show the ten digits 0 to 9. The seven segment display is divided into seven parts; each labeled with a different letter. It is wide used in most digital notation of numbers (clocks, signs, etc.).

Seven segment displays are available in two types, called common cathode and common anode. The difference between the two displays is the common cathode has all the cathodes of the 7-segments connected directly together and the common anode has all the anodes of the 7-segments connected together.

Representation of digit a 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 Procedure: 1. First take a seven segment display and checked this by following steps: a. Hold the display in hand and identify the pin 1 by observing .Dot symbol in 7 segments. This can be done as shown in figure below. b. Now take multi-meter (Assumption followed red lead for positive and black lead for negative). Set the multi-meter in continuity range. c. Put the Black lead of multi-meter on pin 3 or 8 both are common pin as they are internally connected. d. Now put Red lead of multi-meter on any other pin may be 1, 5. e. If any of the segment glows then your display is common cathode. f. If none of the segment glows than interchange the leads of multi-meter. g. Connect the Red lead of multi-meter on pin 3 or pin 8 as both are common pin and internally connected to each other. h. Now put the black lead of the multi-meter on other remaining pin. If any of the segment glow than your display is common anode, as in common anode positive pin is common and rest are supplied with negative supply. i. Check all segments of both common cathode and anode to ensure your display is working properly. j. If none of the segment glows means your 7 segment is faulty. 2. Then connected each point (a to g) in a proper way in the breadboard. Discussion: 1. Improper or careless connections to the seven segment display can destroy it. b 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 C 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 d 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 e 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 f 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 g 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 Display 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Name of the experiment: Understanding the operation of stepper motors and controlling it through switch from breadboard. Objectives: To learn about basic operation of stepper motor.

Experiment Equipment: Four NPN Transistor, 4 Resistance, 4 Diode, Stepper Motor, Breadboard, Connecting wire etc. Theory: Stepper motors are very accurate motors that are commonly used in computer disk drives, printers and clocks. Unlike dc motors, which spin round freely when power is applied, stepper motors require that their power supply be continuously pulsed in specific patterns. For each pulse, the stepper motor moves around one step, often 7.5 degrees. There are two main types of stepper motors - Unipolar and Bipolar. Unipolar motors usually have four coils which are switched on and off in a particular sequence. Bipolar motors have two coils in which the current flow is reversed in a similar sequence. Each of the four coils in a unipolar stepper motor must be switched on and off in a certain order to make the motor turn.

Circuit Diagram:

Steps to turn a motor: The table below show the four different steps required to make the motor turn. Step 1 2 3 4 1 Coil 1 1 1 0 0 1 Coil 2 0 0 1 1 0 Coil 3 1 0 0 1 1 Coil 4 0 1 1 0 0

Look carefully at the table, and notice that a pattern is visible. Coil 2 is always the opposite (or logical NOT) of coil 1. The same applies for coils 3 and 4. Procedure: 1. Firstly identify the A, B, C, D point in stepper motor to observe the rotation more easily by taking account some calculation and experiment. 2. Then placed diode, resistance and motor according to diagram. Discussion: When we first switched on after connecting all connections, we saw that motor firstly rotated, but in later time it did not moved due to some improper connection.