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UNIT I 1. What is meant by software? Discuss in detail the evolving role of software. OR Explain the evolving role of software.

. 2. Discuss in detail various characteristics of software. 3. What is meant by Software myth? Discuss on various types of software myths and the true aspects of these myths. OR Explain the Software myths 4. Explain in detail various software engineering layers. OR What do you mean by software Engineering? Explain the software engineering layers. 5. Explain in detail the capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) OR Explain the process maturity levels in detail. 6. Explain in detail the process patterns with suitable examples. 7. Discuss in detail various characteristics of software. 8. Explain briefly the different categories of computer software available today. Also describe the recent challenges faced by it.

9. With the help of a diagram discuss on software process framework. What are the five generic process frame work activities?

10. Define a task set. List the entities of task set for relatively small and simple project as well as for large and complex software project. 11. Draw the diagram depicting the software process and methods applied for assessment and improvement. Also explain the techniques which are used to access the software process. _______

UNIT II 1. With the help of the diagram discuss in detail waterfall model. Give certain reasons for its failure. 2. Write briefly on (a) the incremental model (b) The RAD Model OR Describe the incremental software development process model.

3. Explain the Spiral model in detail? 4. With the help of the diagram explain the concurrent development model OR Describe the elements of concurrent process model.

5. What is meant by unified process? Elaborate on the unified process work products. 6. Discuss the user requirements in detail. OR Write short notes on user requirements. What is requirements amalgamation?

7. Discuss in detail the system requirements along with locations for requirements specification. 8. Elaborate on software requirements document. 9. What is meant by prototyping? Discuss in detail the Prototyping model? 10. Discuss various phases of the unified process in detail. 11. What are functional requirements of software? Discuss in detail. 12. Discuss the non-functional requirements of software in detail.

13. Explain the structured language specifications in detail. Draw a sequence diagram narrating various consequences during ATM withdrawal.

UNIT III 1. With the help of diagram depict the requirements engineering process. Also explain the spiral model of requirements engineering. 2. Elaborate on Feasibility studies. 3. Elaborate on requirements elicitation and analysis process. OR Explain the requirements analysis techniques.

4. Elaborate on requirements discovery and viewpoints. 5. Explain the Ethnography in detail. 6. Elaborate on requirements management. 7. Elaborate on context models. 8. Write short notes on (a) Data flow model (b) State machine model. 9. What are the use cases? Draw the use cases for library system. 10. Draw an interaction diagram for ATM with drawl. 11. List the number of checks which are to be carried out on the requirements in the requirements documents and the number of validation techniques. 12. Explain briefly of requirements reviews. 13. Explain briefly on requirements change management process.

14. Give few examples of types of models essential during the analysis process. 15. Explain the data models with suitable examples also state few advantages of using a data dictionary. 16. Give examples diagram for each of the following: (a) Inheritance Models (b) Object Aggregation (c) Object behavior model.

17. Elaborate on Structured methods.

UNIT IV 1. Give few characteristics of good design. 2. Illustrate on the following software attributes. (a) functionality (b) Usability (c) Reliability (d) performance (e) supportability OR Explain various software quality standards and discuss how to assure them.

3. What are the characteristics of well-formed design? 4. What is architecture? Describe its importance. 5. Discuss briefly on data design at the architectural level and Data design at the component level. 6. Explain (a) Data Centered Architecture (b) Data Flow Architecture with the help of diagrams. 7. What is meant by Archetype? Using a diagram explain few Archetypes.

8. Explain the process of refining the architecture into components with the help of a diagram. 9. Explain how instantiation of the architecture can be developed with the help of a diagram. 10. Write short notes on the following: (a) Abstraction (b) Architecture (c) Patterns (d) Modularity (f) functional independence (g) refinement (h) Refactoring.

(e) information hiding

11. What are design classes? What are the types of classes created by the designer? 12. Elaborate on design model. 13. Explain briefly on Data design elements and architectural design elements. 14. Write short notes on interface design elements, component level design elements and deployment level design elements. 15. What are architectural styles? Explain briefly. 16. Write short notes on architectural patterns. 17. With the help of a diagram explain call and return architecture and layered architecture. 18. Explain the following terms with respect to the architectural patterns (a) Concurrency (b) Persistence (c) Distribution 19. Draw the architectural context diagram. Explain different parts used in this diagram. 20. Draw the architectural diagram depicting the safe home security systems. 21. With the help of a diagram explain the process of refining the architecture into components. UNIT V 1. Explain in detail the objects and classes along with their notations. Also explain the generalization hierarchy and association models.

2. Write short notes on (a) concurrent Objects (b) system context and models of use. 3. Explain in detail the object identification process. OR Explain in detail object identification OR What is an Object? What are the ways of identifying object?

4. Explain in detail on object interface specification. 5. Explain briefly the design evolution. OR Explain briefly on design evolution.

6. Place the user in control Elaborate. 7. Explain in detail the interface analysis and design models. 8. Explain the User interface design process. OR What are the goals of the user interface design?

9. Explain the following terms (a) Object oriented analysis design (c) Object oriented Programming. 10. Give an example with a diagram depicting the interaction of objects.

(b) Object oriented

11. Explain in detail the object oriented design process. Also give the layered architecture for whether mapping system and sub systems in the whether mapping system. 12. Write short notes on (a) sub systems models (b) Sequence model (c) state machine model.

13. Reduce the user memory load Elaborate. 14. Make the interface consistent Elaborate. 15. Write short notes on (a) Used cases (b) Task Elaboration (c) Object elaboration with respective user interface design. 16. Write short notes on (a) work flow analysis (b) Hierarchical representation. 17. Elaborate on various interface design steps. 18. With the help of a diagram explain in detail interface design evolution cycle. ________

UNIT VI

1. Define Software Testing. Give few generic characteristics of it. 2. Discuss briefly on (a) Verification (b) Validation. 3. Explain in detail the unit testing along with unit text procedures. OR Explain Unit testing. 4. Explain briefly on integration testing. Discuss on top down integration by specifying different step to achieve it and various critiques encountered during this approach. OR Explain top-down integration testing. 5. Write short notes on (a) bottom up Integration (b) Regression testing (c) Smoke Testing. OR What is meant by bottom-up integration test? Explain how it is implemented?

6. What is meant by system testing? Write short notes on the following with respect to system testing (a) Recovery Testing (b) Security Testing (c) Stress testing (d) Performance testing 7. With the help of a diagram explain the debugging process. 8. While correcting an error, what are the important facts to be considered? OR Describe various consequence of correcting the error. 9. Discuss in detail (a) McCalls Quality factors (b) ISO 9126 Quality factors. 10. Discuss in detail the metrics for testing. 11. Discuss overall strategy for software testing also discuss on software testing steps. 12. Explain briefly on software testing strategy for object oriented architecture. 13. Explain the terminating issued of testing. 14. List various advantages of using smoke testing on complex time critical software engineering projects. 15. What is critical module in integration testing and describe its characteristics. 16. Describe the following terms with respective validation testing (a) Validation test criteria (b) configuration review (c) Alpha & Beta Testing. 17. List the reason which leads us to the complexity of debugging. 18. Discuss various debugging strategies. 19. Discuss briefly on black box and white box testing. 20. Discuss in detail on function based metrics. 21. Discuss in detail the architectural design metrics. 22. Discuss the nine distinct and measurable characteristics of object oriented design. 23. Discuss the class oriented metrics-the MOOD metrics suite. 24. Discuss the class oriented metrics-the CK metrics suite. 25. Write short notes on (a) component level design metrics (b) Operation Oriented Metrics. 26. Write shorts notes on (a) metrics for source code (b) metrics for maintenance.

UNIT VII 1. Write short notes on the following with respect to software measurement (a) size oriented Metrics (b) function-oriented metrics. OR Tabulate the similarities and differences between size oriented, function oriented metrics.

2. Write short notes on (a) Reactive vs. Proactive risk strategies during software development.

(b) Risks encountered

3. Explain in detail how risks are identified during software development. OR What do you understand by risk identification? What are the popular techniques develop for this purpose.

4. Explain briefly on Accessing risk Impact. OR What is meant by risk assessment? What are the different steps to be performed in risk assessment? Explain.

5. Explain in detail the Risk Mitigation, Monitoring and management or RMMM. 6. Write short notes on (a) Object oriented metrics (b) use case oriented metrics. 7. Explain briefly the Web engineering project metrics. 8. Explain the following terms with respect to measuring software quality (a) Usability (b) Integrity (c) Maintainability (d) Correctness. 9. Write short notes on defect removal efficiency. 10. List four risks projection steps and explain the process of developing risk tables. 11. Explain in detail RMMM Plan. 12. Write short notes on Risk Refinement.

UNIT VIII 1. Explain various activities performed by software quality assurance or SQA group. OR Discuss about SQA activities.

2. Explain in detail on various aspects of software reviews. 3. Write short notes on the following with respect to formal technical reviews (a) the review meeting (b) review reporting and record keeping. OR Discuss in detail about formal technical reviews (FTR) performed by software engineers. OR What is formal technical review? Explain how it will assess software design quality.

4. Explain briefly on the following with respect to formal technical reviews (a) Review guidelines (b) sample-driven reviews. OR What is formal technical review? Explain how it will assess software design quality.

5. Write short notes on six sigma for software engineering and software reliability. 6. Write short notes on software reliability. 7. OR Discuss about measure of software reliability and software availability. Explain briefly on (a) Measures of reliability and availability (b) software safety

8. Write short note on the SQA plan. OR Explain the software quality Assurance (SQA) plan. OR Discuss about SQA activities. 9. Write short notes on (a) Quality (b) Quality control (c) Quality assurance (d) cost of quality. 10. Define Software quality and write about its background issues.

11. List the essential steps to perform statistical software quality assurance. Also provide a generic example to support your justifications. _________

Objective Question Bank


UNIT I
1. Which question no longer concerns the modern software engineer? a) Why does computer hardware cost so much? b) Why does software take a long time to finish?

c) Why does it cost so much to develop a piece of software? d) Why can't software errors be removed from products prior to delivery?

ANS: a 2. Today the increased power of the personal computer has brought about an abandonment of the practice of team development of software a) True ANS: b 3. Software is a product and can be manufactured using the same technologies used for other engineering artifacts a) True ANS: b 4. Software deteriorates rather than wears out because a) Software suffers from exposure to hostile environments b) Defects are more likely to arise after software has been used often c) Multiple change requests introduce errors in component interactions d) Software spare parts become harder to order ANS: c 5. Most software continues to be custom built because a) Component reuse is common in the software world b) False b) False

b) Reusable components are too expensive to use c) Software is easier to build without using someone else's components d) Off-the-shelf software components are unavailable in many application domains ANS: d 6. The nature of software applications can be characterized by their information a) complexity ANS: d 7. Modern software applications are so complex that it is hard to develop mutually exclusive category names a) True ANS: a 8. The so called "new economy" that gripped commerce and finance during the 1990s died and no longer influences decisions made by businesses and software engineers. (b) a) True ANS: b 9. The functionality of most computer systems does not need to be enhanced the lifetime of the system a) True ANS: b 10. Change cannot be easily accommodated in most software systems, unless the system was designed with change in mind a) True ANS: a 11. Most software development projects are initiated to try to meet some business need a) True ANS: a 12. In general software only succeeds if its behavior is consistent with the objectives of its designers. a) True b) False b) False b) False b) False b) False b) False b) content c) determinacy d) both b and c

ANS: b 13. Which of the items listed below is not one of the software engineering layers? a) Process ANS: b b) Manufacturing c) Methods d) Tools

14. Software engineering umbrella activities are only applied during the initial phases of software development projects a) True ANS: b 15. Which of these are the 5 generic software engineering framework activities? (a) a) communication, planning, modeling, construction, deployment b) communication, risk management, measurement, production, reviewing c) analysis, designing, programming, debugging, maintenance d) analysis, planning, designing, programming, testing ANS: a 16. Process models are described as agile because they a) eliminate the need for cumbersome documentation b) emphasize maneuverability and adaptability c) do not waste development time on planning activities d) make extensive use of prototype creation ANS: b 17. Which of these terms are level names in the Capability Maturity Model? a) Performed ANS: e 18. b) Repeated c) Reused d) Optimized e) both a and d b) False

Software processes can be constructed out of pre-existing software patterns to best meet the needs of a software project (a) a) True b) False ANS: a

19.

Which of these are standards for assessing software processes? a) SEIb) SPICE c) ISO 19002d) ISO 9001 e) both b and d ANS: e The best software process model is one that has been created by the people who will actually be doing the work. a) True b) False ANS: a

20.

21.

Which of these is not a characteristic of Personal Software Process? a) Emphasizes personal measurement of work product b) Practitioner requires careful supervision by the project manager

c) Individual practitioner is responsible for estimating and scheduling d) Practitioner is empowered to control quality of software work products ANS: b 22. Which of these are objectives of Team Software Process? (e) a) Accelerate software process improvement b) Allow better time management by highly trained professionals c) Build self-directed software teams d) Show managers how to reduce costs and sustain quality e) both b and c ANS: e Process technology tools allow software organizations to compress schedules by skipping unimportant activities a) True b) False ANS: b 24. It is generally accepted that one cannot have weak software processes and create high quality end products. a) True b) False ANS: a _______

23.

UNIT-II
1. Waterfall model is also termed as _________ ANS: linear sequential model 2. Waterfall model process through _________ ANS: analysis, design, coding, testing 3. Analysis is specially intended to _________ ANS: understand the nature of the programs. 4. The analyst must understand ___________ ANS: Information domain, required functions, behavior, performance, and interface.

5. Design focuses on _________ ANS: data structure, software architecture, interface representations, and procedural detail

6. Requirements can be translated in to representation of software using ________

ANS: design 7. Translation of design into a machine-readable form can be done using ______ ANS: coding 8. The testing process focuses on _________of the software. ANS: logical internals 9. Which of the fallowing is the incremental process model? a) RAD model b) Prototype model c) Concurrent development model ANS: a 10.Which combines elements of the waterfall model with the iterative fashion? ANS: The incremental model 11. Each linear sequence in incremental model produces a deliverable _______ ANS: Increment of the software 12.-------------------------------------------------------------What is the first increment in incremental model ___________ ANS: core product 13. RAD: ANS: Rapid application development 14. RAD is a ___________ ANS: Incremental software development process model 15. High-speed adaptation of waterfall model ____________ ANS: The RAD model 16. RAD Modeling includes three major phases, what are they? I) Business modeling ii) Data modeling iii) Process modeling d) Spiral model

17. Evolutionary models are ___________ ANS: iterative 18. Which of the following is not evolutionary process model? a) Prototyping Model c) The Concurrent Development Model ANS: d 19.What are the different frame work activities? b) Spiral Model d) RAD model

ANS: Customer communication: Planning, Construction, Release & customer evaluation

Risk

analysis,

Engineering,

20.To establishing effective communication between developer and customer, we need? ANS: Customer communication 21.To define resources, timelines, and other project related information, we need? ANS: Planning 22.To assess both technical and management risks we need? ANS: Risk analysis 23.To build one or more representations of the application, we require? ANS: Engineering 24.These are required to construct, test, install, and provide user support? ANS: construction & release 25.These are required to obtain customer feedback based on evaluation? ANS: customer evaluation 26.In spiral model each region is populated by a series of work tasks these called _______ ANS: task set 27.The first circuit around the spiral might results? ANS: development of a product specification 28.The objective of the WINWIN spiral model is? ANS: to bring out project requirements from the customer 29.An accurate state of the current state of a project is provided by _______ ANS: The Concurrent Development Model 30.Which will draw on the best features and characteristics of conventional software process models? ANS: Unified Process 31.The phases of the unified process are _________________ ANS: Inception, Elaboration, Construction Transition and Production 32.The inception phase of the unified process includes __________ ANS: Customer communication and planning activities 33.Elaboration includes _________ ANS: The customer communication and modeling activities. 34.The construction phase develops ANS: the software components ?

35.Transition phase includes ? ANS: The latter stages of construction activity and the first part of the deployment activity 36.Functional requirements specify _________ ANS: Which outputs should be produced from the given inputs? 37.Nonfunctional requirements define ________ ANS: system properties and constraints 38.Nonfunctional requirements can be classified as ANS: Product requirements, Organizational requirements ________ requirements, External

39.Product requirements specify that ANS: How delivered product must behave in a particular way 40.User requirements should describe _________ ANS: Functional and non-functional requirements 41.System requirements are intended ________ ANS: To communicate the functions that the system should provide 42.Requirements document states _________ ANS: What the software will do 43.The main purpose of a requirements document is ________ ANS: To serve as an agreement between the developers and the customers on what the application will do.

UNIT-III
1. The requirement Engineering is a process used to ______ , ______and ________ system requirements ANS: discover, analyze, validate 2. ___________ decides whether or not the proposed system is useful ANS: A feasibility study 3. `The customers are not completely sure of what is needed' is a _______ type of elicitation problem? a) Problems of scope b) Problems of understanding c) Problems of volatility d) None of the above ANS: b 4. `The customers specify unnecessary technical detail that may confuse, rather than clarify' is type of elicitation problem? a) Problems of scope b) Problems

of

understanding b) ANS: a

Problems of volatility

c) None of the above

5. The requirement change over time is ______ type of elicitation problem. a) c) ANS: c 6. Problems of scope understanding Problems of volatility b) Problems of

d) None of the above

__________ Categorizes requirements and organizes them into related subsets? ANS: Requirement analysis __________ examines requirements for consistency, and ambiguity? ANS: Requirement analysis

7.

8. __________ examines the specification to ensure that all system requirements have been stated unambiguously so that inconsistencies, omissions, and errors have been detected and corrected? ANS: Requirements validation 9. is a set of activities that help the project team to identify, control, and track requirements and changes to requirements at any time as the project proceeds ANS: Requirements management 10.Requirements management ___________ ANS: identification begins with

11.Each requirement is assigned a unique identifier that might take the form _________ ANS: <requirement type><requirement #> 12.Requirement type `F' _________ ANS: functional requirement takes on values as?

13.Requirement type `D' __________ takes on values as? ANS: data requirement 14.Requirement type `B' takes on values as? ANS: behavioral requirement 15.Requirement type `I' _______takes on values as? ANS: interface requirement 16.Requirement type `P' __________ takes on values as? ANS: output requirement 17.If a requirement identified as `F09' indicates _______ ANS: a functional requirement assigned requirement number 9

18.Once requirements have been identified, _______ are developed? ANS: Traceability tables 19. __________ shows how requirements relate to important customer observable system/product features? ANS: Features traceability table 20._________ identifies the source of each requirement? ANS: Source traceability table 21. __________ indicates how requirements are related to one another? ANS: Dependency traceability table 22. __________ Categorizes requirements by the subsystem(s) that they govern? ANS: Subsystem traceability table 23. __________ Shows how requirements relate to both internal and external system interfaces ANS: Interface traceability table 24. __________ helps the analyst to understand the functionality of the system and models are used to communicate with customers ANS: System modeling 25.Different types of model? ANS: Data processing model, Composition model, Classification model, Stimulus/response model 26._______ are used to illustrate the boundaries of a system? ANS: Context models 27._______ are used to describe the overall behavior of a system? ANS: Behavioral models 28.Two types of behavioral model are ________ ANS: Data processing models, State machine models 29.______ Model the system from a functional point of view? ANS: Data flow diagrams 30. _________Show how the data is processed as it moves through the system? ANS: Data processing models Architectural model,

31._______show the system's response to different events? ANS: State machine models 32.These are often used for modeling real-time systems ANS: State machine models 33._________are used to describe the logical structure of data that is processed by the system? ANS: Data models

34._______ can be implemented using relational databases? ANS: Data models 35._________ sets out the relationships between these entities and the entity attributes? ANS: Entity-relation-attribute model 36.________ describe the system in terms of object classes? ANS: Object models 37.Natural ways of reflecting the real-world entities manipulated by _________ ANS: Object models 38.Give object models? ANS: Inheritance models, Aggregation models and Interaction models. 39. _________ organize the domain object classes into a hierarchy? ANS: Inheritance models 40. _________ incorporate system modeling as an inherent part of the method? ANS: Structured methods

41.______ Model the system from a functional point of view?


ANS: Data flow diagrams 42 _________ Show how the data is processed as it moves through the system? ANS: Data processing models

43 _______ show the system's response to different events? ANS: State machine models 44. These are often used for modeling real-time systems ANS: State machine models 45. _________are used to describe the logical structure of data that is processed by the system? ANS: Data models 46. _______ can be implemented using relational databases? ANS: Data models 47. _________ sets out the relationships between these entities and the entity attributes? ANS: Entity-relation-attribute model 48. ________ describe the system in terms of object classes? ANS: Object models 49. Natural ways of reflecting the real-world entities manipulated by _________

ANS: Object models 50. Give object models? 51. ANS: Inheritance models, Aggregation models and Interaction models. 50. _________ organizes the domain object classes into a hierarchy?

ANS: Inheritance models 51 _________ incorporate system modeling as an inherent part of the method? ANS: Structured methods

UNTI-IV
Objective Questions 1. Software design is an iterative process through which requirements are translated into a ______ for the software? ANS: blueprint ___________ are the design models are required for a complete specification of design? ANS: Data design, Architectural design, Interface design and Component design

2.

3. ___________ will transform the information domain model into the data structures? ANS: Data design 4. _________ defines the relationship between major structural elements of the software? ANS: Architectural design 5. _________ describes how the software communicates within itself, with systems that inter operate with it, and with humans who use it ANS: Interface design 6. ___________ transforms structural elements of the software architecture into a procedural description of software components ANS: component design 7. The quality of the software can be assessed using ________ ANS: design process. 8. Each step in the software process is a refinement in the level of _______ ANS: abstraction 9. A Procedural abstraction is a _______ ANS: Is a named sequence of instructions that has a specific and limited Functions 10. ______ is a named collection of data that describes a data object

ANS: Data abstraction 11. ______ is the third form of abstraction used in software design? ANS: Control abstraction 12. The synchronization semaphore is the example of which abstraction? ANS: control abstraction 13. Refinement is actually a process of ________ ANS: Elaboration 14. ________ enables a designer to specify procedure. _______helps the designer to reveal lowlevel details ANS: Abstraction, Refinement 15. Software is divided into separately named and addressable components: ______ ANS: module 16. _______ at is monolithic software ? ANS: a large program composed of a single module 17. A program structure represents the organization of program components __________ ANS: Control Hierarchy 18. It is a measure of the number of modules that are directly controlled by another module ____ ANS: fan-out 19. A module that controls another module _______ ANS: Super ordinate 20. A module controlled by another module is _______ ANS: Subordinate 21. _________will indicate the set of program components that may be invoked or used as data by a given component? ANS: visibility 22. ________ will indicate the set of components that are directly invoked or used as data by a given component? ANS: Connectivity 23. "Modules should be designed so that information contained within a module is inaccessible to other modules" this is the concept of _________ ANS: Information Hiding 24. Software with independent modules, is easier to develop because ________ ANS: function may be classified and interfaces are simplified 25. _______ is a measure of the relative functional strength of a module? ANS: Cohesion

26. ________ is a measure of the relative interdependence among modules? ANS: coupling 27. Refactoring is __________ ANS: A reorganization technique that simplifies the design of component without changing its function or behavior 29. _________ these will define all abstractions that are necessary for human computer interaction? ANS: User interface classes 30. _________ these will identify the attributes and services that are required to implement some element of the business domain? ANS: Business domain classes 31. _________ lower level business abstraction is implemented by these classes. ANS: Process classes 32. _________ these represent the data stores which persist beyond the execution? ANS: Persistent classes 33. _________these classes implement software management and control functions ANS: System classes 34. Design model can be viewed ________ dimensions? ANS: process dimensions and abstract dimension 35. _________indicates the evolution of the design model as design tasks are executed as part of software process ANS: Process dimension 36. ___________represents that each element of the analysis model is transformed into a design equivalent and then refined iteratively ANS: Abstract dimension 37. Component elements _________ ANS: Describes the internal detail of each software component. 38. _________indicate how software functionality and subsystems will be allocated within the physical computing environment that will support the software. ANS: Deployment elements 39. Structural models _______ ANS: Represent architecture as an organized collection of program components 40. Framework models _______ ANS: Increase the level of design abstraction by attempting to identify repeatable architectural design frameworks 41. Dynamic models _________

ANS: Address the behavioral aspects of the program architecture 42. Dynamic models: ______ ANS: Address the behavioral aspects of the program architecture 43. Process models: ________ ANS: Focus on the design of the business or technical process that the system must accommodate 44. Functional models: ________ ANS: Functional models can be used to represent the functional hierarchy of a system 45. _________translates data objects defined as part of the analysis model into data structures? ANS: Data design 46. KDD : knowledge discovery in databases

47. In this, a file or database resides at the center of this architecture and is accessed frequently by other components? ANS: Data-centered architectures 48. ______ will decompose function into a control hierarchy ANS: Main program or subprogram architecture 49. In this ________ the components of main or sub program architecture are distributed across multiple computers on a network? ANS: Remote procedure calls architecture 50. Communication and coordination between components is accomplished via_____ ANS: message passing 51. In this architecture number of different layers is defined, as inner layers, outer layers, intermediate layers ________ ANS: Layered architecture 52. These systems use the target system as part of some higher level processing scheme ANS: Super ordinate systems 53. These systems that are used by the target? ANS: Subordinate Systems 54. These systems that interact on a peer to peer basis ______ ANS: Peer level systems 55. These entities that interact with the target system by producing or consuming information that is necessary for requisite processing. ANS: Actors 56. _________ is a class or pattern that represents a core abstraction which is critical to the design of architecture for target system?

ANS: archetype

UNTI-V
Objective Questions 1. _________a template that specifies the properties for objects? ANS: class 2. ________ is a template, pattern, or blueprint that describes a collection of similar objects? ANS: class 3. _________ represent the basic run-time entities in an 0 0 system? ANS: Objects 4. The only way to access the attributes is _______ ANS: To go through one of the methods defined for the class 5. A ______ is a collection of classes, and a ________ is a specialized instance of a class? ANS: super class, subclass 6. An object is an instance of _______ ANS: A class 7. _________is a static model that describes other systems in the environment? ANS: System context 8. Object identification is an ________ ANS: An iterative process 9. Design models show_____ ANS: The objects and object classes and the relationships between these entities 10. _________describe the static structure of the system in terms of object classes and relationships? ANS: Static models 11. _________describe the dynamic interactions between objects? ANS: Dynamic models 12. ________that show logical groupings of objects into coherent subsystems? ANS: Sub-system models 13. _______ that show the sequence of object interactions? ANS: Sequence models

14. ________that show how individual objects change their state in response to events? ANS: State machine models 15. The UML uses _______ for interface specification ANS: class diagrams 16. _________creates an effective communication medium between a human and a computer? ANS: User interface design 17. Golden rules _______ ANS: i) Place the user in control ii) Reduce the user's memory load iii) Make the interface consistent. 18. Different models for interface design _______ ANS: i) Design model ii) User model iii) User's model iv) System image

19. ______includes data, architectural, interface, and procedural representations of the software. ANS: A design model 20. _______ establishes the profile of end-users of the system? ANS: The user model 21. ________users don't know the mechanisms of interaction? ANS: Novices users 22. _________ have a reasonable semantic knowledge of the application ANS: Knowledgeable, intermittent users 23. ______ have a good semantic and syntactic knowledge ANS: Knowledgeable, frequent users 24. User's model is a _______ ANS: It is the image of the system that end-users carry in their starting 25. System image provides ______ ANS: Look and feel interface 26. The four frame works of user interface design process----------? ANS: i) User, task, and environment analysis and modeling iii) ii) Interface design

Interface construction iv) Interface validation 27. _________will define a set of interface objects and actions that enable a user to perform all defined tasks

ANS: Interface design 28. _____ is used to complete the construction of the interface by using user interface tool kit ANS: Interface construction 29. User-cases: This describes the manner in which a person acts with the interface. 30. Use case: It is developed to show how an end user performs work related tasks 31. Use case is written in _______ ANS: informal style 32. _____ uses an elaborative approach for understanding the human nature. ANS: Task elaboration 33. In rather than focusing on the tasks, the software engineer examines the use case and other information obtained from the user ANS: Object elaboration 34. _______allows a software engineer to understand how a work process is completed when several people are involved. ANS: work flow analysis 35. Work flow can be represented effectively with a _______ ANS: UML swim lane diagrams 36. Design issues of user interface systems? ANS: i) Response time ii) Help facilities iii) Error information handling iv) Menu and Command labeling

37. _________is measured from the point at which the user performs some control action until the software responds with desired output or action? ANS: System response time 38. The characteristics of system response time ______ ANS: length and variability 39. User frustration and stress is the expected if the length of the system response _______ ANS: increases 40. ________ refers to the deviation from average response time? ANS: Variability 41. Integrated help facility: _______ ANS: This reduces the time required for the user to obtain help and increases the "friendliness" of the interface

42. We use ________ to determine whether it meets the needs of the user ANS: design evaluation

UNTI-VI
Objective Questions 1. The objective of testing is to _________ ANS: uncover the errors (defects) in the software 2. Testing begins at the component level and works ________ toward the integration of the entire computer-based system ANS: outward 3. Verification: _______ ANS: It refers to the set of activities which will ensure that software correctly implements a specific function 4. Validation: ________ ANS: It refers to a different set of activities that ensure that the software that has been built is traceable to customer requirements 5. Verification and validation encompasses ANS: software quality assurance (SQA) 6. _______

Who will be involving in the software testing? i) Developers ii) Test engineers in ITG(independent test group) SQA group(Software Quality assurance) iv) All the above

iii) ANS: D

7. ________ will remove the inbuilt problems associated with letting the builder test the thing that has been built ANS: Independent test group (ITG) 8. ______begins at the vortex of the spiral and concentrates on each unit of the software? ANS: Unit testing 9. _________ focuses on design and the construction of the software architecture? ANS: Integration testing 10. The form of the Poisson execution time model is ________ ANS: f (t) = (lip) In [10 pt + 1] (18-1) 11. ________ focuses on the software component or module? ANS: Unit testing 12. _________serve to replace modules that are called by the component to be tested?

ANS: Stubs 13. _________is a systematic technique for constructing the program structure and conducting tests to uncover errors associated with interfacing? ANS: Integration testing 14. In non-incremental integration program structure will be constructed using a ________ approach? ANS: big bang 15. In________the program is constructed and tested in small increments, where errors are easier to isolate and correct ANS: Incremental integration 16. In _________ incremental approach modules are integrated by moving downward through the control hierarchy? ANS: Top down integration 17. In Top down integration, Modules subordinate to the main control module are incorporated into the structure in either _______ or _______? ANS: depth-first, breadth-first manner 18. ________would integrate all components on a major control path of the structure ANS: depth-first integration 19. ________includes all components directly subordinate at each level, moving across the structure horizontally? ANS: breadth-first integration 20. _________testing, begins construction and testing with components at the lowest levels in the program structure? ANS: Bottom-up integration 21. _________is the activity that helps to ensure that changes that may be occurred due to testing or for other reasons? ANS: Regression testing 22. Regression testing may be conducted manually, by re executing ________ ANS: capture/playback tools 23. Smoke testing is an integration testing approach that is commonly used when ________ software products are being developed? ANS: shrink wrapped 24. White-box testing, sometimes called ________ ANS: glass-box testing 25. _________is a white-box testing technique? ANS: Basis path testing

26. Cyclomatic complexity, V(G), for a flow graph, G, is defined as, If E is the number of flow graph edges, N is the number of flow graph nodes ANS: V ( G ) = E - N + 2 27. Cyclomatic complexity, V (G), for a flow graph, G, is also defined as, If P is the number of predicate nodes contained in the flow graph G ANS: V ( G ) = P + 1 28. Black-box testing, also called _______ ANS: behavioral testing 29. _________enables the software engineer to derive sets of input conditions that will fully exercise all functional requirements for a program? ANS: black-box testing 30. _________ that describe the properties of a node and link ANS: node weights, link weights 31. If, X is required to compute Y, Y is been established between X and Z ANS: transitive relationship that describe some characteristic of a

required to compute Z, Therefore, a ________ has

32. Reflexive: Every node in the graph should have a relationship that leads back to Itself 33. Equivalence partitioning is a ________ ANS: black-box testing 34. _________divides the input domain of a program into classes of data and derives test cases based on these partitions? ANS: Equivalence partitioning 35. _________is a test case design technique that complements equivalence partitioning? ANS: Boundary value analysis 36. Software validation is achieved through a series of ______ ANS: black-box test 37. The configuration review, sometimes called an ________ ANS: audit 38. _________is a system test that forces the software to fail in various ways and verifies that recovery is properly performed? ANS: Recovery testing 39. _________is to verify that protection mechanism built into a system will in fact protect it from improper penetration? ANS: Security testing 40. _________is designed to confront programs with abnormal conditions?

ANS: Stress testing 41. _________is designed to test run-time performance of software within the context of an integrated system? ANS: Performance testing 42. ________ is designed to test the installation procedure and its supported software? ANS: Installation testing 43. ________ is the process that results in the removal of the error? ANS: debugging 44. _______category of debugging is meant for isolating the cause of a software error? ANS: brute force 45. _________ In the source code is traced backward until the site of the cause is found? ANS: Backtracking 46. _________is a list of all possible causes is developed and tests are conducted to eliminate each? ANS: Cause elimination

UNTI-VII
Objective Questions 1. Software metrics can be categorized as ______, ______ ? ANS: Direct measures, indirect measures 2. _________are derived by normalizing quality and productivity measures by considering the `size' of the software that has been produced? ANS: Size-oriented software metrics 3. FP = ______ ANS: count total x [0.65 + 0.01 X E (Fi)] 4. A function point extension calledis a superset of the function point measure that can be applied to systems and engineering software applications? ANS: feature points 5. To compute 3D function points, ________relationship is used? ANS: I n d e x = I + O + Q + F + E + T + R 6. Complexity weighted value is computed using the relation ___________ ANS: Complexity weighted value = Ni1 Wi1 + Nia Wia + Nth Wih

7. Function points, feature points, and 3D function points represent the same thing ______delivered by software ANS: functionality 8. Correctness is _________ ANS: the degree to which the software performs its required function 9. Maintainability: _________ ANS: The ease with which a program can be corrected if an error is encountered 10. Mean-time-to change (MTTC) _______ ANS: time-oriented metric 11. ________measures a system's ability to resist attacks to its security? ANS: Integrity 12. _________is the probability that an attack of a specific type will occur within a given time ANS: Threat 13. ________is the probability that the attack of a specific type will be prevented ANS: Security 14. Integrity of a system can then be defined as __________ ANS: Integrity = summation [(1 - threat) x (1 - security)] 15. _________is an attempt to calculate user-friendliness and can be measured in terms of four characteristics ANS: Usability 16. _________is a quality metric that provides benefit at both the project and process level? ANS: Defect Removal Efficiency 17. DRE is defined as _______ ANS: DRE=E/(E+D) (E = number of errors; D= defects found after delivery) 18. The ideal value for DRE is _________ ANS: 1 19. As E increases, the overall value of DRE begins to approach _______ ANS: 1 20. ________ threaten the project plan? ANS: Project risks 21. ________ threaten the quality and timeliness of the software to be produced? ANS: Technical risks 22. ______ threaten the capability of the software to be built? ANS: Business risks 23. ________ are those that can be uncovered after careful evaluation of the project plan?

ANS: Known risks 24. ________ are risks that are known from past project experience? ANS: Predictable risks 25. ________ is an efficient attempt to specify threats to the project plan? ANS: Risk identification 26. at is Performance risk ________ ANS: The degree of uncertainty that the product will meet its requirements 27. at is Cost risk _______ ANS: The degree of uncertainty that the project budget will be maintained 28. ________ degree of uncertainty that the resultant software will be easy to correct, adapt, and enhance? ANS: Support risk 29. ________ degree of uncertainty that the project schedule will be maintained and that the product will be delivered on time? ANS: Schedule risk 30. Risk projection, also called _________ ANS: Risk estimation 31. _______will rate each risk? ANS: Risk projection 32. Risk factor that has _________ of occurrence should not absorb a significant amount of management time ANS: a high impact but a very low probability 33. Nature of the risk indicates __________ ANS: the problems those are likely if it occurs 34. ________ of a risk combines the severity with its overall distribution? ANS: Scope 35. _________of a risk considers when and for how long the impact will be felt? ANS: Timing 36. at is the triplet that was established during Risk Assessment _______ ANS: [r;, l,, x;] 37. For assessment to be useful, _______must be defined? ANS: a risk referent level 38. At a condition-transition-consequence (CTC) will do ________ ANS: refine the risk into a set of more detailed risks

39. The form of CTC is: _______ ANS: <Condition> then there is concern that <consequence> 40. Risk management steps can be organized into a separate ________ ANS: Risk Mitigation, Monitoring and Management Plan (RMMM plan) 41. Each risk is documented individually using a ________ ANS: Risk information sheet (RIS) 42. _________is a problem avoidance activity, _________is a project tracking activity ANS: Risk mitigation, Risk monitoring _________

UNTI-VIII
1. With ________ we are able to compare the standards such as length, color, electrical properties, and flexibility? ANS: Quality 2. ________ refers to the characteristics of an item that were specified by designer? ANS: Quality of design 3. ______is the degree to which the design specifications are followed during manufacturing? ANS: Quality of conformance 4. _________involves the series of inspections, reviews, and tests used throughout the software process to ensure each work product meets the requirements? ANS: Quality control 5. _________is essential to minimize the defects produced? ANS: The feedback loop 6. ________consists of the checking and reporting functions of management? ANS: Quality assurance 7. _________includes all costs in performing quality-related activities? ANS: Cost of quality 8. _________include the activities like quality planning, formal technical, reviews, test equipment training ANS: Prevention costs 9. __________include activities like, in-process and inter process inspection, equipment calibration and maintenance, testing ANS: Appraisal costs 10. Failure costs may be subdivided into ________ and_________

ANS: internal failure costs, external failure costs 11. _________are incurred when we detect a defect in our product? ANS: Internal failure costs 12. _______are associated with defects found after the product has been supplied to the customer? ANS: External failure costs 13. ________address quality by applying solid technical methods and measures, conducting formal technical reviews, and performing well-planned software testing ANS: Software engineers 14. _______assists the software team in achieving a high quality end product? ANS: SQA group 15. ________ can be used to show the generation and detection of errors during design, and coding steps? ANS: defect amplification model 16. _________ reflects a growing trend throughout industry to become more quantitative about quality. It implies the fallowing things?