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1987 CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES ARTICLE XII NATIONAL ECONOMY AND PATRIMONY Section 1.

The goals of the national economy are a more equitable distribution of opportunities, income, and wealth; a sustained increase in the amount of goods and services produced by the nation for the benefit of the people; and an expanding productivity as the key to raising the quality of life for all, especially the underprivileged. The State shall promote industrialization and full employment based on sound agricultural development and agrarian reform, through industries that make full of efficient use of human and natural resources, and which are competitive in both domestic and foreign markets. However, the State shall protect Filipino enterprises against unfair foreign competition and trade practices. In the pursuit of these goals, all sectors of the economy and all region s of the country shall be given optimum opportunity to develop. Private enterprises, including corporations, cooperatives, and similar collective organizations, shall be encouraged to broaden the base of their ownership. Section 2. All lands of the public domain, waters, minerals, coal, petroleum, and other mineral oils, all forces of potential energy, fisheries, forests or timber, wildlife, flora and fauna, and other natural resources are owned by the State. With the exception of agricultural lands, all other natural resources shall not be alienated. The exploration, development, and utilization of natural resources shall be under the full control and supervision of the State. The State may directly undertake such activities, or it may enter into co-production, joint venture, or production-sharing agreements with Filipino citizens, or corporations or associations at least 60 per centum of whose capital is owned by such citizens. Such agreements may be for a period not exceeding twenty-five years, renewable for not more than twenty-five years, and under such terms and conditions as may provided by law. In cases of water rights for irrigation, water supply, fisheries, or industrial uses other than the development of waterpower, beneficial use may be the measure and limit of the grant. The State shall protect the nations marine wealth in its archipelagic waters, territorial sea, and exclusive economic zone, and reserve its use and enjoyment exclusively to Filipino citizens. The Congress may, by law, allow small-scale utilization of natural resources by Filipino citizens, as well as cooperative fish farming, with priority to subsistence fishermen and fish workers in rivers, lakes, bays, and lagoons.

The President may enter into agreements with foreign-owned corporations involving either technical or financial assistance for large-scale exploration, development, and utilization of minerals, petroleum, and other mineral oils according to the general terms and conditions provided by law, based on real contributions to the economic growth and general welfare of the country. In such agreements, the State shall promote the development and use of local scientific and technical resources. The President shall notify the Congress of every contract entered into in accordance with this provision, within thirty days from its execution. Section 3. Lands of the public domain are classified into agricultural, forest or timber, mineral lands and national parks. Agricultural lands of the public domain may be further classified by law according to the uses to which they may be devoted. Alienable lands of the public domain shall be limited to agricultural lands. Private corporations or associations may not hold such alienable lands of the public domain except by lease, for a period not exceeding twenty-five years, renewable for not more than twenty-five years, and not to exceed one thousand hectares in area. Citizens of the Philippines may lease not more than five hundred hectares, or acquire not more than twelve hectares thereof, by purchase, homestead, or grant. Taking into account the requirements of conservation, ecology, and development, and subject to the requirements of agrarian reform, the Congress shall determine, by law, the size of lands of the public domain which may be acquired, developed, held, or leased and the conditions therefor. Section 4. The Congress shall, as soon as possible, determine, by law, the specific limits of forest lands and national parks, marking clearly their boundaries on the ground. Thereafter, such forest lands and national parks shall be conserved and may not be increased nor diminished, except by law. The Congress shall provide for such period as it may determine, measures to prohibit logging in endangered forests and watershed areas. Section 5. The State, subject to the provisions of this Constitution and national development policies and programs, shall protect the rights of indigenous cultural communities to their ancestral lands to ensure their economic, social, and cultural well-being. The Congress may provide for the applicability of customary laws governing property rights or relations in determining the ownership and extent of ancestral domain. Section 6. The use of property bears a social function, and all economic agents shall contribute to the common good. Individuals and private groups, including corporations, cooperatives, and similar collective organizations, shall have the right to own, establish, and operate economic enterprises, subject to the duty of the

State to promote distributive justice and to intervene when the common good so demands. Section 7. Save in cases of hereditary succession, no private lands shall be transferred or conveyed except to individuals, corporations, or associations qualified to acquire or hold lands of the public domain. Section 8. Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 7 of this Article, a naturalborn citizen of the Philippines who has lost his Philippine citizenship may be a transferee of private lands, subject to limitations provided by law. Section 9. The Congress may establish an independent economic and planning agency headed by the President, which shall, after consultations with the appropriate public agencies, various private sectors, and local government units, recommend to Congress, and implement continuing integrated and coordinated programs and policies for national development. Until the Congress provides otherwise, the National Economic and Development Authority shall function as the independent planning agency of the government. Section 10. The Congress shall, upon recommendation of the economic and planning agency, when the national interest dictates, reserve to citizens of the Philippines or to corporations or associations at least sixty per centum of whose capital is owned by such citizens, or such higher percentage as Congress may prescribe, certain areas of investments. The Congress shall enact measures that will encourage the formation and operation of enterprises whose capital is wholly owned by Filipinos. In the grant of rights, privileges, and concessions covering the national economy and patrimony, the State shall give preference to qualified Filipinos. The State shall regulate and exercise authority over foreign investments within its national jurisdiction and in accordance with its national goals and priorities. Section 11. No franchise, certificate, or any other form of authorization for the operation of a public utility shall be granted except to citizens of the Philippines or to corporations or associations organized under the laws of the Philippines, at least sixty per centum of whose capital is owned by such citizens; nor shall such franchise, certificate, or authorization be exclusive in character or for a longer period than fifty years. Neither shall any such franchise or right be granted except under the condition that it shall be subject to amendment, alteration, or repeal by the Congress when the common good so requires. The State shall encourage equity participation in public utilities by the general public. The participation of foreign investors in the governing body of any public utility enterprise shall be limited to their proportionate share in its capital, and all the executive and managing officers of such corporation or association must be citizens of the Philippines.

Section 12. The State shall promote the preferential use of Filipino labor, domestic materials and locally produced goods, and adopt measures that help make them competitive. Section 13. The State shall pursue a trade policy that serves the general welfare and utilizes all forms and arrangements of exchange on the basis of equality and reciprocity. Section 14. The sustained development of a reservoir of national talents consisting of Filipino scientists, entrepreneurs, professionals, managers, high-level technical manpower and skilled workers and craftsmen in all fields shall be promoted by the State. The State shall encourage appropriate technology and regulate its transfer for the national benefit. The practice of all professions in the Philippines shall be limited to Filipino citizens, save in cases prescribed by law. Section 15. The Congress shall create an agency to promote the viability and growth of cooperatives as instruments for social justice and economic development. Section 16. The Congress shall not, except by general law, provide for the formation, organization, or regulation of private corporations. Government-owned or controlled corporations may be created or established by special charters in the interest of the common good and subject to the test of economic viability. Section 17. In times of national emergency, when the public interest so requires, the State may, during the emergency and under reasonable terms prescribed by it, temporarily take over or direct the operation of any privately-owned public utility or business affected with public interest. Section 18. The State may, in the interest of national welfare or defense, establish and operate vital industries and, upon payment of just compensation, transfer to public ownership utilities and other private enterprises to be operated by the Government. Section 19. The State shall regulate or prohibit monopolies when the public interest so requires. No combinations in restraint of trade or unfair competition shall be allowed. Section 20. The Congress shall establish an independent central monetary authority, the members of whose governing board must be natural-born Filipino citizens, of known probity, integrity, and patriotism, the majority of whom shall come from the private sector. They shall also be subject to such other qualifications and disabilities as may be prescribed by law. The authority shall provide policy direction in the areas of money, banking, and credit. It shall have supervision over the operations of banks and exercise such regulatory powers as may be provided by law over the operations of finance companies and other institutions performing similar functions.

Until the Congress otherwise provides, the Central Bank of the Philippines operating under existing laws, shall function as the central monetary authority. Section 21. Foreign loans may only be incurred in accordance with law and the regulation of the monetary authority. Information on foreign loans obtained or guaranteed by the Government shall be made available to the public. Section 22. Acts which circumvent or negate any of the provisions of this Article shall be considered inimical to the national interest and subject to criminal and civil sanctions, as may be provided by law.

including conciliation, and shall enforce their mutual compliance therewith to foster industrial peace. The State shall regulate the relations between workers and employers, recognizing the right of labor to its just share in the fruits of production and the right of enterprises to reasonable returns to investments, and to expansion and growth. AGRARIAN AND NATURAL RESOURCES REFORM Section 4. The State shall, by law, undertake an agrarian reform program founded on the right of farmers and regular farmworkers who are landless, to own directly or collectively the lands they till or, in the case of other farmworkers, to receive a just share of the fruits thereof. To this end, the State shall encourage and undertake the just distribution of all agricultural lands, subject to such priorities and reasonable retention limits as the Congress may prescribe, taking into account ecological, developmental, or equity considerations, and subject to the payment of just compensation. In determining retention limits, the State shall respect the right of small landowners. The State shall further provide incentives for voluntary landsharing. Section 5. The State shall recognize the right of farmers, farmworkers, and landowners, as well as cooperatives, and other independent farmers' organizations to participate in the planning, organization, and management of the program, and shall provide support to agriculture through appropriate technology and research, and adequate financial, production, marketing, and other support services. Section 6. The State shall apply the principles of agrarian reform or stewardship, whenever applicable in accordance with law, in the disposition or utilization of other natural resources, including lands of the public domain under lease or concession suitable to agriculture, subject to prior rights, homestead rights of small settlers, and the rights of indigenous communities to their ancestral lands. The State may resettle landless farmers and farmworkers in its own agricultural estates which shall be distributed to them in the manner provided by law. Section 7. The State shall protect the rights of subsistence fishermen, especially of local communities, to the preferential use of the communal marine and fishing resources, both inland and offshore. It shall provide support to such fishermen through appropriate technology and research, adequate financial, production, and marketing assistance, and other services. The State shall also protect, develop, and conserve such resources. The protection shall extend to offshore fishing grounds of subsistence fishermen against foreign intrusion. Fishworkers shall receive a just share from their labor in the utilization of marine and fishing resources. Section 8. The State shall provide incentives to landowners to invest the proceeds of the agrarian reform program to promote industrialization, employment creation,

ARTICLE XIII SOCIAL JUSTICE AND HUMAN RIGHTS

Section 1. The Congress shall give highest priority to the enactment of measures that protect and enhance the right of all the people to human dignity, reduce social, economic, and political inequalities, and remove cultural inequities by equitably diffusing wealth and political power for the common good. To this end, the State shall regulate the acquisition, ownership, use, and disposition of property and its increments. Section 2. The promotion of social justice shall include the commitment to create economic opportunities based on freedom of initiative and self-reliance. LABOR Section 3. The State shall afford full protection to labor, local and overseas, organized and unorganized, and promote full employment and equality of employment opportunities for all. It shall guarantee the rights of all workers to self-organization, collective bargaining and negotiations, and peaceful concerted activities, including the right to strike in accordance with law. They shall be entitled to security of tenure, humane conditions of work, and a living wage. They shall also participate in policy and decision-making processes affecting their rights and benefits as may be provided by law. The State shall promote the principle of shared responsibility between workers and employers and the preferential use of voluntary modes in settling disputes,

and privatization of public sector enterprises. Financial instruments used as payment for their lands shall be honored as equity in enterprises of their choice. URBAN LAND REFORM AND HOUSING Section 9. The State shall, by law, and for the common good, undertake, in cooperation with the private sector, a continuing program of urban land reform and housing which will make available at affordable cost, decent housing and basic services to under-privileged and homeless citizens in urban centers and resettlement areas. It shall also promote adequate employment opportunities to such citizens. In the implementation of such program the State shall respect the rights of small property owners. Section 10. Urban or rural poor dwellers shall not be evicted nor their dwelling demolished, except in accordance with law and in a just and humane manner. No resettlement of urban or rural dwellers shall be undertaken without adequate consultation with them and the communities where they are to be relocated. HEALTH

Section 15. The State shall respect the role of independent people's organizations to enable the people to pursue and protect, within the democratic framework, their legitimate and collective interests and aspirations through peaceful and lawful means. People's organizations are bona fide associations of citizens with demonstrated capacity to promote the public interest and with identifiable leadership, membership, and structure. Section 16. The right of the people and their organizations to effective and reasonable participation at all levels of social, political, and economic decisionmaking shall not be abridged. The State shall, by law, facilitate the establishment of adequate consultation mechanisms. HUMAN RIGHTS Section 17. 1. 2. There is hereby created an independent office called the Commission on Human Rights. The Commission shall be composed of a Chairman and four Members who must be natural-born citizens of the Philippines and a majority of whom shall be members of the Bar. The term of office and other qualifications and disabilities of the Members of the Commission shall be provided by law. Until this Commission is constituted, the existing Presidential Committee on Human Rights shall continue to exercise its present functions and powers. The approved annual appropriations of the Commission shall be automatically and regularly released.

Section 11. The State shall adopt an integrated and comprehensive approach to health development which shall endeavor to make essential goods, health and other social services available to all the people at affordable cost. There shall be priority for the needs of the under-privileged, sick, elderly, disabled, women, and children. The State shall endeavor to provide free medical care to paupers. Section 12. The State shall establish and maintain an effective food and drug regulatory system and undertake appropriate health, manpower development, and research, responsive to the country's health needs and problems. Section 13. The State shall establish a special agency for disabled person for their rehabilitation, self-development, and self-reliance, and their integration into the mainstream of society.

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Section 18. The Commission on Human Rights shall have the following powers and functions: 1. 2. 3. Investigate, on its own or on complaint by any party, all forms of human rights violations involving civil and political rights; Adopt its operational guidelines and rules of procedure, and cite for contempt for violations thereof in accordance with the Rules of Court; Provide appropriate legal measures for the protection of human rights of all persons within the Philippines, as well as Filipinos residing abroad, and provide for preventive measures and legal aid services to the underprivileged whose human rights have been violated or need protection; Exercise visitorial powers over jails, prisons, or detention facilities; Establish a continuing program of research, education, and information to enhance respect for the primacy of human rights;

WOMEN Section 14. The State shall protect working women by providing safe and healthful working conditions, taking into account their maternal functions, and such facilities and opportunities that will enhance their welfare and enable them to realize their full potential in the service of the nation. ROLE AND RIGHTS OF PEOPLE'S ORGANIZATIONS

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Recommend to Congress effective measures to promote human rights and to provide for compensation to victims of violations of human rights, or their families; 7. Monitor the Philippine Government's compliance with international treaty obligations on human rights; 8. Grant immunity from prosecution to any person whose testimony or whose possession of documents or other evidence is necessary or convenient to determine the truth in any investigation conducted by it or under its authority; 9. Request the assistance of any department, bureau, office, or agency in the performance of its functions; 10. Appoint its officers and employees in accordance with law; and 11. Perform such other duties and functions as may be provided by law. Section 19. The Congress may provide for other cases of violations of human rights that should fall within the authority of the Commission, taking into account its recommendations.

Republic Act No. 7076

June 27, 1991

AN ACT CREATING A PEOPLE'S SMALL-SCALE MINING PROGRAM AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES Section 1. Title. This Act shall be known as the "People's Small-scale Mining Act of 1991." Section 7. Ancestral Lands. No ancestral land may be declared as a people's small-scale mining area without the prior consent of the cultural communities concerned: provided, that, if ancestral lands are declared as people's small-scale mining areas, the members of the cultural communities therein shall be given priority in the awarding of small-scale mining contracts.

REPUBLIC ACT NO. 7586 AN ACT PROVIDING FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF NATIONAL INTEGRATED PROTECTED AREAS SYSTEM, DEFINING ITS SCOPE AND COVERAGE AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES SECT. 1. Title.-This Act shall be known and referred to as the "National Integrated Protected Areas System Act of 1992." SECT. 4. Definition of Terms. - For purposes of this Act, the following terms shall be defined as follows: a. "National Integrated Protected Areas Systems (NIPAS)" is the classification and administration of all designated protected areas to maintain essential ecological processes and life-support systems, to preserve genetic diversity, to ensure sustainable use of resources found therein, and to maintain their natural conditions to the greatest extent possible; "Protected Area" refers to identified portions of land and water set aside by reason of their unique physical and biological significance, managed to enhance biological diversity and protected against destructive human exploitation; "Buffer zones" are identified areas outside the boundaries of and immediately adjacent to designated protected areas pursuant to Section 8 that need special development control in order to avoid or minimize harm to the protected area; "Indigenous cultural community" refers to a group of people sharing common bonds of language, customs, traditions and other distinctive cultural traits, and who have, since time immemorial, occupied, possessed and utilized a territory;

Republic Act No. 6657

June 10, 1988

AN ACT INSTITUTING A COMPREHENSIVE AGRARIAN REFORM PROGRAM TO PROMOTE SOCIAL JUSTICE AND INDUSTRIALIZATION, PROVIDING THE MECHANISM FOR ITS IMPLEMENTATION, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES Section 1. Title. This Act shall be known as the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law of 1988. Section 9. Ancestral Lands. For purposes of this Act, ancestral lands of each indigenous cultural community shall include, but not be limited to, lands in the actual, continuous and open possession and occupation of the community and its members: provided, that the Torrens Systems shall be respected. The right of these communities to their ancestral lands shall be protected to ensure their economic, social and cultural well-being.n line with the principles of selfdetermination and autonomy, the systems of land ownership, land use, and the modes of settling land disputes of all these communities must be recognized and respected. Any provision of law to the contrary notwithstanding, the PARC may suspend the implementation of this Act with respect to ancestral lands for the purpose of identifying and delineating such lands: provided, that in the autonomous regions, the respective legislatures may enact their own laws on ancestral domain subject to the provisions of the Constitution and the principles enunciated in this Act and other national laws.

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"National park" refers to a forest reservation essentially of natural wilderness character which has been withdrawn from settlement, occupancy or any form of exploitation except in conformity with approved management plan and set aside as such exclusively to conserve the area or preserve the scenery, the natural and historic objects, wild animals and plants therein and to provide enjoyment of these features in such areas: f. "Natural monument" is a relatively small area focused on protection of small features to protect or preserve nationally significant natural features on account of their special interest or unique characteristics; g. "Natural biotic area" is an area set aside to allow the way of life of societies living in harmony with the environment to adapt to modern technology at their pace; h. "Natural park" is a relatively large area not materially altered by human activity where extractive resource uses are not allowed and maintained to protect outstanding and scenic areas of national or international significance for scientific, educational and recreational use; i. "Protected landscapes/seascapes" are areas of national significance which are characterized by the harmonious interaction of man and land while providing opportunities for public enjoyment through recreation and tourism within the normal lifestyle and economic activity of these areas; j. "Resource reserve" is an extensive and relatively isolated and uninhabited area normally with difficult access designated as such to protect natural resources of the area for future use and prevent or contain development activities that could affect the resource pending the establishment of objectives which are based upon appropriate knowledge and planning; k. "Strict nature reserve" is an area possessing some outstanding ecosystem, features and/or species of flora and fauna of national scientific importance maintained to protect nature and maintain processes in an undisturbed state in order to have ecologically representative examples of the natural environment available for scientific study, environmental monitoring, education, and for the maintenance of genetic resources in a dynamic and evolutionary state; l. "Tenured migrant communities" are communities within protected areas which actually and continuously occupied such area for five (5) years before the designation of the same as protected areas in accordance with this Act and are solely dependent therein for subsistence; and m. "Wildlife sanctuary" comprises an area which assures the natural conditions necessary to protect nationally significant species, groups of species, biotic communities or physical features of the environment where these may require specific human manipulation for the perpetuation.

SEC. 13. Ancestral Lands and Rights Over Them. - Ancestral lands and customary rights and interest arising shall be accorded due recognition. The DENR shall prescribe rules and regulations to govern ancestral lands within protected areas: Provided, That the DENR shall have no power to evict indigenous communities from their present occupancy nor resettle them to another area without their consent: Provided, however, That all rules and regulations, whether adversely affecting said communities or not, shall be subjected to notice and hearing to be participated in by members of concern indigenous communities.

REPUBLIC ACT 7611

AN ACT ADOPTING THE STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENT PLAN FOR PALAWAN, CREATING THE ADMINISTRATIVE MACHINERY TO ITS IMPLEMENTATION, CONVERTING THE PALAWAN INTEGRATED AREA DEVELOPMENT PROJECT OFFICE TO ITS SUPPORT STAFF, PROVIDING FUNDS THEREFOR, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES SEC. I Title - This Act shall be known as the "Strategic Environmental Plan (SEP) for Palawan Act." SEC. 11 Tribal Ancestral Lands. - These areas, traditionally occupied by cultural minorities, comprise both land and sea areas. These shall be treated in the same graded system of control and prohibition as in the others abovementioned except for strong emphasis in cultural considerations. The SEP, therefore, shall define a special kind of zonation to fulfill the material and cultural needs of the tribes using consultative processes and cultural mapping of the ancestral lands.

REPUBLIC ACT NO. 7942

March 3, 1995

AN ACT INSTITUTING A NEW SYSTEM OF MINERAL RESOURCES EXPLORATION, DEVELOPMENT, UTILIZATION, AND CONSERVATION Section Title This Act shall be known as the "Philippine Mining Act of 1995." 1

Section Definition of Terms

l. Ecological profile or eco-profile refers to geographic-based instruments for planners and decision-makers which presents an evaluation of the environmental quality and carrying capacity of an area. m. Environmental compliance certificate (ECC) refers to the document issued by the government agency concerned certifying that the project under consideration will not bring about an unacceptable environmental impact and that the proponent has complied with the requirements of the environmental impact statement system. n. Environmental impact statement (EIS) is the document which aims to identify, predict, interpret, and communicate information regarding changes in environmental quality associated with a proposed project and which examines the range of alternatives for the objectives of the proposal and their impact on the environment. o. Exclusive economic zone means the water, sea bottom and subsurface measured from the baseline of the Philippine archipelago up to two hundred nautical miles (200 n.m.) offshore. p. Existing mining/quarrying right means a valid and subsisting mining claim or permit or quarry permit or any mining lease contract or agreement covering a mineralized area granted/issued under pertinent mining laws. q. Exploration means the searching or prospecting for mineral resources by geological, geochemical or geophysical surveys, remote sensing, test pitting, trenching, drilling, shaft sinking, tunneling or any other means for the purpose of determining the existence, extent, quantity and quality thereof and the feasibility of mining them for profit. r. Financial or technical assistance agreement means a contract involving financial or technical assistance for large-scale exploration, development, and utilization of mineral resources. s. Force majeure means acts or circumstances beyond the reasonable control of contractor including, but not limited to, war, rebellion, insurrection, riots, civil disturbance, blockade, sabotage, embargo, strike, lockout, any dispute with surface owners and other labor disputes, epidemic, earthquake, storm, flood or other adverse weather conditions, explosion, fire, adverse action by government or by any instrumentality or subdivision thereof, act of God or any public enemy and any cause that herein describe over which the affected party has no reasonable control. t. Foreign-owned corporation means any corporation, partnership, association, or cooperative duly registered in accordance with law in which less than fifty per centum (50%) of the capital is owned by Filipino citizens.

As used in and for purposes of this Act, the following terms, whether in singular or plural, shall mean: a. Ancestral lands refers to all lands exclusively and actually possessed, occupied, or utilized by indigenous cultural communities by themselves or through their ancestors in accordance with their customs and traditions since time immemorial, and as may be defined and delineated by law. b. Block or meridional block means an area bounded by one-half (1/2) minute of latitude and one-half (1/2) minute of longitude, containing approximately eighty-one hectares (81 has.). c. Bureau means the Mines and Geosciences Bureau under the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. d. Carrying capacity refers to the capacity of natural and human environments to accommodate and absorb change without experiencing conditions of instability and attendant degradation. e. Contiguous zone refers to water, sea bottom and substratum measured twenty-four nautical miles (24 n.m.) seaward from the base line of the Philippine archipelago. f. Contract area means land or body of water delineated for purposes of exploration, development, or utilization of the minerals found therein. g. Contractor means a qualified person acting alone or in consortium who is a party to a mineral agreement or to a financial or technical assistance agreement. h. Co-production agreement (CA) means an agreement entered into between the Government and one or more contractors in accordance with Section 26(b) hereof. i. Department means the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. j. Development means the work undertaken to explore and prepare an ore body or a mineral deposit for mining, including the construction of necessary infrastructure and related facilities. k. Director means the Director of the Mines and Geosciences Bureau.

u. Government means the government of the Republic of the Philippines. v. Gross output means the actual market value of minerals or mineral products from its mining area as defined in the National Internal Revenue Code. w. Indigenous cultural community means a group or tribe of indigenous Filipinos who have continuously lived as communities on communallybounded and defined land since time immemorial and have succeeded in preserving, maintaining, and sharing common bonds of languages, customs, traditions, and other distinctive cultural traits, and as may be defined and delineated by law. x. Joint venture agreement (JVA) means an agreement entered into between the Government and one or more contractors in accordance with Section 26(c) hereof. y. Mineral processing means the milling, beneficiation or upgrading of ores or minerals and rocks or by similar means to convert the same into marketable products. z. Mine wastes and tailings shall mean soil and rock materials from surface or underground mining and milling operations with no economic value to the generator of the same. aa. Minerals refers to all naturally occurring inorganic substance in solid, gas, liquid, or any intermediate state excluding energy materials such as coal, petroleum, natural gas, radioactive materials, and geothermal energy. ab. Mineral agreement means a contract between the government and a contractor, involving mineral production-sharing agreement, co-production agreement, or joint-venture agreement. ac. Mineral land means any area where mineral resources are found. ad. Mineral resource means any concentration of minerals/rocks with potential economic value. ae. Mining area means a portion of the contract area identified by the contractor for purposes of development, mining, utilization, and sites for support facilities or in the immediate vicinity of the mining operations. af. Mining operation means mining activities involving feasibility, development, utilization, and processing. exploration,

ag. Non-governmental organization (NGO) includes nonstock, nonprofit organizations involved in activities dealing with resource and environmental conservation, management and protection. ah. Net assets refers to the property, plant and equipment as reflected in the audited financial statement of the contractor net of depreciation, as computed for tax purposes, excluding appraisal increase and construction in progress. ai. Offshore means the water, sea bottom and subsurface from the shore or coastline reckoned from the mean low tide level up to the two hundred nautical miles (200 n.m.) exclusive economic zone including the archipelagic sea and contiguous zone. aj. Onshore means the landward side from the mean tide elevation, including submerged lands in lakes, rivers and creeks. ak. Ore means a naturally occurring substance or material from which a mineral or element can be mined and/or processed for profit. al. Permittee means the holder of an exploration permit. am. Pollution control and infrastructure devices refers to infrastructure, machinery, equipment and/or improvements used for impounding, treating or neutralizing, precipitating, filtering, conveying and cleansing mine industrial waste and tailings as well as eliminating or reducing hazardous effects of solid particles, chemicals, liquids or other harmful byproducts and gases emitted from any facility utilized in mining operations for their disposal. an. President means the President of the Republic of the Philippines. ao. Private land refers to any land belonging to any private person which includes alienable and disposable land being claimed by a holder, claimant, or occupant who has already acquired a vested right thereto under the law, although the corresponding certificate or evidence of title or patent has not been actually issued. ap. Public land refers to lands of the public domain which have been classified as agricultural lands and subject to management and disposition or concession under existing laws. aq. Qualified person means any citizen of the Philippines with capacity to contract, or a corporation, partnership, association, or cooperative organized or authorized for the purpose of engaging in miring, with

technical and financial capability to undertake mineral resources development and duly registered in accordance with law at least sixty per centum (60%) of the capital of which is owned by citizens of the Philippines: Provided, That a legally organized foreign-owned corporation shall be deemed a qualified person for purposes of granting an exploration permit, financial or technical assistance agreement or mineral processing permit. ar. Quarrying means the process of extracting, removing and disposing quarry resources found on or underneath the surface of private or public land. as. Quarry permit means a document granted to a qualified person for the extraction and utilization of quarry resources on public or private lands. at. Quarry resources refers to any common rock or other mineral substances as the Director of Mines and Geosciences Bureau may declare to be quarry resources such as, but not limited to, andesite, basalt, conglomerate, coral sand, diatomaceous earth, diorite, decorative stones, gabbro, granite, limestone, marble, marl, red burning clays for potteries and bricks, rhyolite, rock phosphate, sandstone, serpentine, shale, tuff, volcanic cinders, and volcanic glass: Provided, That such quarry resources do not contain metals or metallic constituents and/or other valuable minerals in economically workable quantities: Provided, further, That nonmetallic minerals such as kaolin, feldspar, bull quartz, quartz or silica, sand and pebbles, bentonite, talc, asbestos, barite, gypsum, bauxite, magnesite, dolomite, mica, precious and semi-precious stones, and other non-metallic minerals that may later be discovered and which the: Director declares the same to be of economically workable quantities, shall not be classified under the category of quarry resources. au. Regional director means the regional director of any mines regional office under the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. av. Regional office means any of the mines regional offices of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. aw. Secretary means the Secretary of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. ax. Special allowance refers to payment to the claim-owners or surface right-owners particularly during the transition period from Presidential Decree No. 463 and Executive Order No. 279, series of 1987. ay. State means the Republic of the Philippines.

az. Utilization means the extraction or disposition of minerals.

Section Ownership of Mineral Resources

Mineral resources are owned by the State and the exploration, development, utilization, and processing thereof shall be under its full control and supervision. The State may directly undertake such activities or it may enter into mineral agreements with contractors. The State shall recognize and protect the rights of the indigenous cultural communities to their ancestral lands as provided for by the Constitution. Section Opening of Ancestral Lands for Mining Operations 16

No ancestral land shall be opened for mining-operations without prior consent of the indigenous cultural community concerned. Section Royalty Payments for Indigenous Cultural Communities 17

In the event of an agreement with an indigenous cultural community pursuant to the preceding section, the royalty payment, upon utilization of the minerals shall be agreed upon by the parties. The said royalty shall form part of a trust fund for the socioeconomic well-being of the indigenous cultural community. Section Areas Open to Mining Operations 18

Subject to any existing rights or reservations and prior agreements of all parties, all mineral resources in public or private lands, including timber or forestlands as defined in existing laws, shall be open to mineral agreements or financial or technical assistance agreement applications. Any conflict that may arise under this provision shall be heard and resolved by the panel of arbitrators. Section Areas Closed to Mining Applications 19

Mineral agreement or financial or technical assistance agreement applications shall not be allowed:

a. In military and other government reservations, except upon prior written clearance by the government agency concerned; b. Near or under public or private buildings, cemeteries, archeological and historic sites, bridges, highways, waterways, railroads, reservoirs, dams or other infrastructure projects, public or private works including plantations or valuable crops, except upon written consent of the government agency or private entity concerned; c. In areas covered by valid and existing mining rights; d. In areas expressedly prohibited by law; e. In areas covered by small-scale miners as defined by law unless with prior consent of the small-scale miners, in which case a royalty payment upon the utilization of minerals shall be agreed upon by the parties, said royalty forming a trust fund for the socioeconomic development of the community concerned; and f. Old growth or virgin forests, proclaimed watershed forest reserves, wilderness areas, mangrove forests, mossy forests, national parks provincial/municipal forests, parks, greenbelts, game refuge and bird sanctuaries as defined by law and in areas expressly prohibited under the National Integrated Protected Areas System (NIPAS) under Republic Act No. 7586, Department Administrative Order No. 25, series of 1992 and other laws.

take advantage of the benefit of this chapter: Provided, That this extension shall apply only where the area applied for does not exceed 144 hectares. Provided, further, That the several periods of time designated by the President in accordance with section forty-five of this Act shall apply also to the lands comprised in the provisions of this chapter, but this section shall not be construed as prohibiting any of said persons from acting under this chapter at any time prior to the period fixed by the President. SECTION 48. The following-described citizens of the Philippines, occupying lands of the public domain or claiming to own any such lands or an interest therein, but whose titles have not been perfected or completed, may apply to the Court of First Instance of the province where the land is located for confirmation of their claims and the issuance of a certificate of title therefor, under the Land Registration Act , to wit: (a) Those who prior to the transfer of sovereignty from Spain to the prior United States have applied for the purchase, composition or other form of grant of lands of the public domain under the laws and royal decrees then in force and have instituted and prosecuted the proceedings in connection therewith, but have with or without default upon their part, or for any other cause, not received title therefor, if such applicants or grantees and their heirs have occupied and cultivated said lands continuously since the filing of their applications. (b) Those who by themselves or through their predecessors in interest have been in open, continuous, exclusive, and notorious possession and occupation of agricultural lands of the public domain, under a bona fide claim of acquisition or ownership, for at least thirty years immediately preceding the filing of the application for confirmation of title except when prevented by war or force majeure. These shall be conclusively presumed to have performed all the conditions essential to a Government grant and shall be entitled to a certificate of title under the provisions of this chapter. (c) Members of the national cultural minorities who by themselves or through their predecessors-in-interest have been in open, continuous, exclusive and notorious possession and occupation of lands of the public domain suitable to agriculture, whether disposable or not, under a bona fide claim of ownership for at least 30 years shall be entitled to the rights granted in sub-section (b) hereof. SECTION 49. No person claiming title to lands of the public domain not possession of the qualifications specified in the last preceding section may apply for the benefits of this chapter. SECTION 50. Any person or persons, or their legal representatives or successors in right, claiming any lands or interest in lands under the provisions

November December 1, 1936

7,

1936

COMMONWEALTH ACT NO. 141*

AN ACT TO AMEND AND COMPILE THE LAWS RELATIVE TO LANDS OF THE PUBLIC DOMAIN SECTION 1. The short title of this Act shall be "The Public Land Act. SECTION 47. The persons specified in the next following section are hereby granted time, not to extend beyond December 31, 1987 within which to

of this chapter, must in every case present an application to the proper Court of First Instance, praying that the validity of the alleged title or claim be inquired into and that a certificate of title be issued to them under the provisions of the Land Registration Act. The application shall conform as nearly as may be in its material allegations to the requirements of an application for registration under the Land Registration Act, and shall be accompanied by a plan of the land and all documents evidencing a right on the part of the applicant to the land claimed. The application shall also state the citizenship of the applicant and shall set forth fully the nature of the claim and when based upon proceeding initiated under Spanish laws, it shall specify as exactly as possible the date and form of application for purchase composition or other form of grant, the extent of the compliance with the conditions required by the Spanish laws and royal decrees for the acquisition of legal title, and if not fully complied with, the reason for such noncompliance, together with a statement of the length of time such land or any portion thereof has been actually occupied by the claimant or his predecessors in interest; the use made of the land, and the nature of the inclosure, if any. The fees provided to be paid for the registration of lands under the Land Registration Act shall be collected from applicants under this chapter. SECTION 51. Applications for registration under this chapter shall be heard in the Court of First Instance in the same manner and shall be subject to the same procedure as established in the Land Registration Act for other applications, except that a notice of all such applications, together with a plan of the lands claimed, shall be immediately forwarded to the Director of Lands, who may appear as a party in such cases: Provided, That prior to the publication for hearing, all of the papers in said case shall be transmitted papers by the clerk to the Solicitor General or officer acting in his stead, in order that he may, if he deems it advisable for the interests of the Government, investigate all of the facts alleged in the application or otherwise brought to his attention. The Solicitor-General shall return such papers to the clerk as soon as practicable within three months. The final decree of the court shall in every case be the basis for the original certificate of title in favor of the person entitled to the property under the procedure prescribed in section forty-one of the Land Registration Act. SECTION 52. In cadastral proceedings, instead of an application, an answer or claim may be filed with the same effect as in the procedure provided in the last preceding two sections. SECTION 53. It shall be lawful for the Director of Lands, whenever in the opinion of the President the public interests shall require it, to cause to be filed in the proper Court of First Instance, through the Solicitor-General or the officer acting in his stead, a petition against the holder, claimant, possessor, or occupant of any land who shall not have voluntarily come in under the provisions of this chapter or of the Land Registration Act, stating in substance that the title of such holder, claimant, possessor, or occupant is open to

discussion; or that the boundaries of any such land which has not been brought into court as aforesaid are open to question; or that it is advisable that the title to such lands be settled and adjudicated, and praying that the title to any such land or the boundaries thereof or the right to occupancy thereof be settled and adjudicated. The judicial proceedings under this section shall be in accordance with the laws on adjudication of title in cadastral proceedings. SECTION 54. If in the hearing of any application arising under this chapter the court shall find that more than one person or claimant has an interest in the land, such conflicting interests shall be adjudicated by the court and decree awarded in favor of the person or persons entitled to the land according to the laws, but if none of said person is entitled to the land, or if the person who might be entitled to the same lacks the qualifications required by this Act for acquiring agricultural land of the public domain, the decision shall be in favor of the Government. SECTION 55. Whenever, in any proceedings under this chapter to secure registration of an incomplete or imperfect claim of title initiated prior to the transfer of sovereignty from Spain to the United States, it shall appear that had such claims been prosecuted to completion under the laws prevailing when instituted, and under the conditions of the grant then contemplated, the conveyance of such land to the applicant would not have been gratuitous, but would have involved payment therefor to the Government, then and in that event the court shall, after decreeing in whom title should vest, further determine the amount to be paid as a condition for the registration of the land. Such judgment shall be certified to the Director of Lands by the clerk of the court for collection of the amount due from the person entitled to conveyance. Upon payment to the Director of Lands of the price specified in the judgment, he shall so certify to the proper Court of First Instance and said court shall forthwith order the registration of the land in favor of the competent person entitled thereto. If said person shall fail to pay the amount of money required by the decree within a reasonable time fixed in the same, the court shall order the proceeding to stand dismissed and the title to the land shall then be in the State free from any claim of the applicant. SECTION 56. Whenever any judgment of confirmation or other decree of the court under this chapter shall become final, the clerk of the court concerned shall certify that fact to the Director of Lands, with a certified copy of the decree of confirmation or judgment of the court and the plan and technical description of the land involved in the decree or judgment of the court. SECTION 57. No title or right to, or equity in, any lands of the public domain may hereafter be acquired by prescription or by adverse possession or occupancy, or under or by virtue of any law in effect prior to American occupation, except as expressly provided by laws enacted after said occupation of the Philippines by the United States.

Republic Act No. 9176

November 13, 2002

AN ACT EXTENDING THE PERIOD UNTIL DECEMBER 31, 2020 FOR THE FILING OF APPLICATIONS FOR ADMINISTRATIVE LEGALIZATION (FREE PATENT) AND JUDICIAL CONFIRMATION OF IMPERFECT AND INCOMPLETE TITLES TO ALIENABLE AND DISPOSABLE LANDS OF THE PUBLIC DOMAIN, AMENDING Be it enacted by the Senate and Hose of Representatives of the Philippines in Congress assembled: Section 1. Section 45, Chapter VII of Commonwealth Act No. 141, as amended, is hereby further amended to read as follows: "Section 45. The President of the Philippines, upon recommendation of the Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources, shall from time to time fix by proclamation the period within which applications for free patents may be filed in the Community Environment and Natural Resources Office or region specified in such proclamation, and upon the expiration of the period so designated, unless the same be extended by the President, all the lands comprised within such district, chartered city, province, municipality or region subject thereto under the provisions of this chapter may be disposed of as agricultural public land without prejudice to the prior right of the occupant and cultivator to acquire such land under this Act by means other than free patent. The time to be fixed in the entire Archipelago for the filing of applications under this Chapter shall not extend beyond 31 December 2020: Provided, that the period shall apply only when the area applied for does not exceed twelve (12) hectares. The period fixed for any district, chartered city, province or municipality shall take effect thirty (30) days after the publication of the proclamation in one (1) newspaper of general circulation in the city, province or municipality concerned. A certified copy of said proclamation shall be furnished by the Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources within thirty (30) days counted from the date of the presidential proclamation to the Community Environment and natural Resources office and to the provincial board and municipal board or city council and barangay council affected, and copies thereof shall be posted on the bulletin board of the Community Environment and Natural Resources Office and at such conspicuous places in the provincial capitol. It shall moreover be announced and aired over the government station in the concerned local area." Section 2. Section 47, Chapter VIII of the same ACT, as amended, is hereby further amended to read as follows: "Section 47. The persons specified in the next following section are hereby granted time, not to extend beyond December 31, 2020 within which to

avail of the benefits of this Chapter: Provided, That this period shall apply only where the area applied for does not exceed twelve (12) hectares: Provided, further, That the several periods of time designated by the President in accordance with Section Forty-Five of this Act shall apply also to the lands comprised in the provisions of this Chapter, but this Section shall not be construed as prohibiting any said persons from acting under this Chapter at any time prior to the period fixed by the President. Section 3. All pending applications filed before the effectivity of this amendatory Act shall be treated as having been filed in accordance with the provisions of this Act.