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TRIBUNALS PASSIVE VOICE .. 4. COMMON LAW GRAMMAR: MODAL VERBS II 5. EQUITY GRAMMAR: REPORTED SPEECH 6. THE SOURCES OF THE ENGLISH LAW GRAMMAR: CONDITIONALS 7. THE BRITISH CONSTITUTION GRAMMAR: UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS 8. THE ACTORS OF THE CONSTITUTION GRAMMAR: RELATIVE PRONOUNS 9. LEGAL PROFESSIONS GRAMMAR: DETERMINERS . 10 EUROPEAN LAW GRAMMAR: GERUNND OR INFINITIVE? 11 JUDICIAL POWER IN THE UNITED STATES GRAMMAR: IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES . 12 LITIGATIONS AND ADJUSTMENT GRAMMAR: EXPRESSING FUTURE . 3 UNIT 1 MAGISTRATES IN THE UNITED KINGDOM In England and Wales there are two types ofmagistrates: lay magistrates1 known as lay justices, who havethe title of justice of the peace, and stipendiary magistrates2. The former is a body of men and women which has been inexistence since the fourteenth century and is called on to passjudgement on their fellow citizens, without any real legaltraining. The latter is a body of lawyers, called upon3 to dosubstantially the same job, hich dates from the eighteenth century. They both exercise their powers in a less formal courtthan the other courts, known as Magistrates Courts, and dealwith more cases than any other English court of law.The main job of the magistrates is to deal with4 civil and criminal cases which are too trivial to be tried by theCrown and County Courts. The courts consist of two to sevenunpaid lay magistrates, but in some cities professionalmagistrates may sit alone. The Magistrates Courts of civiljurisdiction have limited civil jurisdiction, mainly related to domestic proceedings5.In terms of their criminal jurisdiction theMagistratesCourts deal with something over 95% of all cases.The English legal system divides criminal offences into three categories: - summary offences6 is the category of minor crimessuch as minor assaults, begging, parking offences and lessminor crimes such as drinking and driving which are triedwithout a jury; - indictable offences7 are more serious offences forwhich the police are given a power of arrest and which will betried by jury; murder, manslaughter8 and serious fraud all

come within this category;4 - a number of offences called either way offenceswhich may or may not be tried by a jury at the request of thedefendant. The best example is theft9 which may involve eithervery small or very large amounts of money.The magistrates criminal jurisdiction is mainly limitedto summary and either way offences (where the defendant mayelect not to have a jury trial). Anyway, magistrates have animportant role to play in serious criminal proceedings. When aerson is charged with are indictable offence, magistrates sit asexamining justices to decide whether the prosecutions case isstrong enough to warrant10 committing the accused for trial inthe Crown Court. The procedure is known as committalproceedings. They also issue arrest and search warrants to the police.The civil jurisdiction of the magistrate is limited tominor matters including matrimonial and family matters andthe granting of licenses.Justices of the peace are chosen by the Lord Chancelloron the advice of Advisory Boards, that are concerned withrecruiting magistrates from amongst the worthy members.Many justices of the peace are chosen on the recommendation of an existing magistrate. It seems that others are chosen fortheir background in voluntary work such as in churches oryouth organisations. They are not paid a salary but receive expenses incurred11 in the performance of their judicial duties.They are assisted by clerks to the justices, solicitors orbarristers of at least seven yearsstanding, who perform the administrative work of the court.Stipendiary magistrates are to be found in most of the large towns and cities of England and Wales. They are fulltimemembers of the Court chosen by the Queen on the adviceof the Lord Chancellor. They receive wages or a stipend12 and unlike lay magistrates they may sit alone. 5 VOCABULARY 1) lay magistrate = magistrat nesalariat 2) stipendiary magistrate = magistrat salariat 3) to call upon = a chema, a mobiliza 4) to deal with = a se ocupa de, a trata despre 5) domestic proceedings = procedur legat de jurisdicia intern 6) summary offence = infraciune judecat faa Curii Magistrailor 7) indictable offence = infraciune grav judecat la Crown Court cu juraii 8) manslaughter = omucidere involuntar 9) theft = furt 10) to warrant = a autoriza, a mandata 11) to incur = a suporta, a asuma COMPREHENSION CHECK I. Answer the following questions: a) How many types of magistrates are there in Englandand Wales? b) What do you mean by lay magistrates? What aboutstipendiary? c) Which is the main job of the magistrates? d) What sort of offences do they deal with? e) What does the magistrates criminal jurisdictionconsist in? f) What is the civil jurisdiction of the magistrate limitedto?

g) Who are the justices of the peace? h) Do magistrates play any role in indictable offences? 6 II. Give the Romanian equivalents of the following English terms for different types of crimes: drunken driving kidnapping indecency assault arson theft bribery and corruption armed robbery rape parking offence III. Match each of the terms on the left with the correct explanation on the right: attempt arson burglary assault criminal damage bribery extortion 1) any physical attack on the personof another 2) entry into any secured, dwellinghouse, building, warehouse, or any other secured structure for thepurpose of committing a crime3) any offence involving the obtaining of something of value usingfalse statements, false documents,counterfeit currency, or representingoneself as an official person. 4) an action taken to commit thecriminal act intended without successor completion 5) the deliberate destruction ordamage of anothers property by fire; this may include public property 6) the use of force, fear or threat toinduce another to perform an action,not perform an action, or to acquire athing of value from another. 7) offering, giving or causing to beoffered or given to any official person 7 fraud offence acting in an official capacity anythingof value with the intention to alter or influence the persons decisions oractions. 8) the deliberate destruction or damage of anothers property, not by fire. IV. Fill in the blanks with the missing words: A _______ magistrate, otherwise known as a _______of the _______ deals with _______ and criminal cases that arenot serious enough to go as far as the Crown or County Courts.

Unlike ______ magistrates, who receive a _______ and areallowed to sit ______, they can claim only _______ that arisein the course of their _______ duties. Magistrates handle all ______ offences as well as some _______ offences, wherethe defendant prefers a ______ without ______ . They alsodecide which cases should be referred to the higher _____, during what is termed _________ proceedings. V. Translate into Romanian: The law of criminal procedure regulates the modes ofapprehending, charging and trying suspected offenders; theimposition of penalties on convicted offenders; and the methods of challenging the legality of conviction afterjudgment is entered. Litigation in this area frequently dealswith conflicts of fundamental importance for the allocation ofpower between the state and its citizensWhen a criminal offence has been reported, thecompetent authority commences the criminal process byinvestigating the circumstances. In this phase, relevant evidence is collected and preserved for a possible trial. Thesuspect also has the right to collect evidence in this favour. 8 VI. Translate into English: Nu exist nici o diferen de domeniu, natur i scoptre regula moral i cea juridic. Regula moral ptrunde drept prin intermediul concepiilor etice ale legiuitorului sau judectorului sau, cel mai bun caz, rtcete la frontiereledreptului pentru a ptrunde atunci cd se ivete prilejul.Obligaiile morale legiferate sunt: responsabilitatea civil, interzicerea bogirii fr just cauz, executareacontractelor, exercitarea neabuziv a drepturilor conferite delege. Cd legea nu mai e conform cu principiile morale va cdea desuetudine. VII. Discussion: What are the major differences between this systemand that of your country with regard, for example, to thehandling of criminal cases at first instance? FOCUS ON GRAMMAR SEQUENCE OF TENSES In English, the tense of the verb in the subordinateclause is determined by the tense of the verb in themain clause; The dependent verb shows time in relation to the mainverb. This phenomenon is known as SEQUENCE OFTENSES TIME RELATION TENSE IN THE MAIN CLAUSE TENSE IN THE DIRECT OBJECT CLAUSE 9 AT THE SAME TIME PRESENT TENSE He says PAST TENSE John knew PRESENT TENSE

he doesnt know the truth PAST TENSE everything was all right EARLIER PRESENT TENSE I know PRESENT TENSE The students dont remember PAST TENSE They didnt remember PRESENT PERFECT you have done your lessons. PAST TENSE what I taught them last week. PAST PERFECT what I had taught them the week before. LATER PRESENT TENSE She hopes PAST TENSE She hoped FUTURE TENSE he will come soon. FUTURE IN THE PAST he would change the subject. I. Change the main verb in each sentence to theSIMPLE PAST. Then change the verb in the subordinateclause according to its time relation to the main verb. a) Mr. Barton claims that he has spoken to those people.b) We know they are tired. c) Bill thinks his brother needs your help. d) I suppose Michael will finish the work next week. e) Edward thinks he won the first prize in thecompetition. 10 f) We assume the meeting will be over around sixoclock. g) I remember that the the wind blew very hard theweek before last. h) She hears that Professor Johnson is writing anotherbook. i) We guess our friends havent heard the good newsyet. j) The message indicates Dr. Evans will be back fromBucharest next Saturday. II. Use past forms for these auxiliaries after a mainverb in the past: For CAN, use COULD For MAY, use MIGHT For MUST, use MUST OR HAD TO For SHALL, WILL, use WOULD 1. Richard regretted that he ________ (not) go with us.

2. We are sure that Tom _______ help us with the homework. 3. I regret that we ________ leave now. 4. Kate thought she __________ find someone to explain everything to us. 5. They didnt know that we ________ leave at once. 6. Our friend had to promise Mike that we ________ help him. 7. We regret that we ________ stay only fifteen minutes longer. 8. Daniel said he ________ send the parcel the next day. 11 III. Put the verbs in brackets into the right tense: 1) Yesterday grandpa (take) a nap from 2.00to 3.00. I .. (get) home at 2.30. When I .. (come)in, grandpa . (sleep) 2) .2) Tom: I . (be) in your native town last month. It (look) like a nice town. I (never, be) therebefore. Ann: What .. (you, do) in that part of thecountry? Tom: My sister and I .. (drive) to Braov to seeour grandparents 3) Laura .. (start) to read a novel by Mihail Sadoveanu. She (not, finish) reading it yet. She (read) it because her Romanian teacher . (ask) her to. 4) The weather .. (be) terrible lately. It ..(rain) off and on for two days and the temperature ..(drop) at least twenty degrees. Just three days ago the sun . (shine) and the weather .. (be) pleasant. The weather certainly .. (change) quickly here. WhenI .. (wake) up tomorrow morning, maybe it (snow). 5) Last night I .. (go) to a party. When I (get) there, the room . (be) full of people. Some of them. (dance) and other . (talk). One youngwoman (stand) by herself. I .. (never, meet) her, so I .. (introduce) myself to her. IV. Translate into English a) Zburam de treizeci de minute cd mi-am dat seamac am plecat de acas fr s chid ferestrele. b) Toi s-au dus s vad filmul de dat ce profesorul le-a povestit romanul.12 c) N-am putut face excursia deoarece ploua de trei dezile. d) Cd am ajuns la cinema, filmul cepuse de mult. e) Vztorul plecase deja acas cd am ajuns noi lamagazin. f) Ne plimbm de o jumtate de or cd ne-am tnitcu Frank. g) M dusesem deja la culcare cd mi-am adus amintec nu am cuiat ua. h) Te vom atepta faa teatrului cd se va terminapiesa. i) Cd Mary va absolvi facultatea, va fi studiat aici patru ani. j) Sandra spera c se va putea duce la plimbare cuMichael dac va termina lucrarea. k) Ce-ai mai fcut de cd nu ne-am mai vzut? l) Nici nu terminase de gtit c a i sosit soul ei. m) Se gdea c dac pleac imediat o s ajung acasainte de miezul nopii. n) Soarele a rsrit, dar bate un vt rece. 13

UNIT 2 POLICE POWERS Over the past few years, the powers the police have tostop, question, arrest, search and detain1 have undergone majorchanges in the United Kingdom. The two key pieces of legislation in this field are the Police and Criminal EvidenceAct, sometimes referred to as PACE, and the Public OrderAct.Arrest means the loss of liberty, being subject torestraint2 as to ones movements. An arrest by the police willonly be lawful if the arrested person is informed that he or sheis under arrest and told the grounds 3 for the arrest.The police have the power to arrest a person without awarrant in four different sets of circumstances: - If they suspect that an arrestable offence has been committed is being committed, or is about to be committed. - If they have a statutory4 power of arrest (most statutory powers of arrest without warrant were repealed5 by the Act). - If one of the general arrest conditions is satisfied. - If they wish to fingerprint a convicted person. An arrestable offence is one which carries a sentenceof at least five years imprisonment. This includes murder,burglary, theft, criminal damage, rape, and unlawful possession of drugs. The Act also extends arrestable offences to include,for example, taking a motor vehicle, going equipped for theft,indecent assault on a female, corruption and smuggling6. Specific serious arrestable offences are treason, murder,manslaughter, rape, kidnapping, incest with a girl under the agebuggery7 with a boy under the age of 16, and indecent assault which constitutes gross indecency.In the case of serious arrestable offences the police have the power to: set up road blocks; search for evidence;14 detain a suspect for more than 24 hours and up to a maximumof 96 hours without charge; hold a suspect incommunicado8and deny access to a solicitor for 36 hours (a juvenile is still entitled9 to have an appropriate adult informed of thedetention); take non-intimate samples without the suspectsconsent (eg. hair). The statutory powers of arrest for certain offencesinclude: - offences under the Public Order Act 1986; - some offences under the Prevention of Terrorism Act; - trespass10 under the Criminal Law Act 1977; - offences under the Immigration Act 1971. The general arrest conditions give the police the powerto arrest for offences which are not automatically arrestable. Ifthere are reasonable grounds for suspecting a person, the police may arrest him or her if any one of the following conditionsapplies: - the suspects name is not known and can not be foundout; - the given name is believed to be false; - the suspect has failed to supply an address or has notsupplied an address which is satisfactory for serving asummons11. - it is believed that arrest is necessary to prevent theperson causing injury to self or others, suffering injury, causingloss or damage to property, committing an offence against

public decency, unlawful obstruction of the highway, or toprotect a child or other vulnerable person from the suspect.A person can be arrested for fingerprinting if thefollowing conditions apply: the person has been convicted of a recordable offence,that is, one defined in regulations; the person was never in police detention for theoffence and fingerprints were not taken; within one month of conviction the person was asked to go to a police station to be fingerprinted and had not done sowithin seven days. The police in all investigations should maintain aschedule12 of all material, meaning not only documents, bualso articles and information, including material held oncomputer. A list of items which are expected to be included inthe schedule should consist in: interview notes and audio-visual tape recordings; draft13 witness statements; statements taken from potential witnesses; crime reports; custody records and associated documents; other documents or other material containing a description of the suspect; any other material of information which the police officer considers to be relevant and helpful. VOCABULARY 1) to detain = a reine ( arest) 2) restraint = restricie, limitare, constrgere 3) ground = temei, motiv 4) statutory = statutar, reglementar; stabilit prin lege, legal 5) to repeal = a revoca, a abroga, a anula 6) smuggling = activitate de contraband 7) buggery = sodomie 8) incommunicado = privat de posibilitatea de comunicare cu semenii 9) to entitle = a da dreptul la, a dritui 10) trespass = clcare, violare; braconaj 11) summons = citaie pentru a comprea tribunal; mandat de aducere 12) schedule = program; inventar; anex la un regulament 16 13) draft = plan; proiect; schi COMPREHENSION CHECK I. Answer the following questions: a) When can an arrest be considered lawful? b) What do you mean by an arrestable offence? c) What can the police do in the case of seriousarrestable offences? d) Is there any difference between murder andmanslaughter? e) Can you explain what powers do the police have withregard to the detention of a person suspected of havingcommitted a serious arrestable offence? f) What is the difference between burglary and theft? g) When can a person be arrested for fingerprinting? h) What is the difference between being charged andbeing convicted?

II. Give the Romanian equivalents of the followingEnglish terms for different types of punishments: imprisonment probation fine community service order corporal punishment suspended sentence life imprisonment capital punishment III. Choose the best word to complete the followingsentences, making any necessary changes:accused, requirement, juror, unconditionally, mistrial,17 incapable, misinterpretation, promises 1) If the words of a contract are not clear and precise,there is a danger of __________ by one or both of the parties. 2) The offeree was pleased to accept the excelent offer______________ 3) The hearing was declared a ___________ becausethe court didnt have jurisdiction over the offence. 4) Ms. Grants application for shares was not acceptedon the grounds that she didnt fulfil the _________ of residencein the U. K. 5) The 12 _________ were not able to reach aunanimous decision. 6) The defendant said that he would give the car to hiscousin for nothing. In consideration his cousin, the _________,was responsible for the transport of the car. 7) A child is considered legally _________ ofcommitting a crime. IV. Look at the list of legal terms (1-8) and their definitions (A-H). Match each term with its definition. 1. illegal weapon possession 2. kidnapping 3. murder 4. rape A. an incident involving the manufacture,processing, packing, possession, transportation, sale or receiving of anyregulated drug or pharmaceutical product. B. entering onto or remaining on theproperty of another without permission orafter being advised to leave. C. the unauthorised taking of money,goods, property or services by a person orby a device, installed or initiated by aperson. D. the possession of any wepon that isillegal, or any weapon in an illegal 18 5. robbery 6. theft 7. drug dealing or possession 8. trespassing manner. E. the taking of the life of one human byanother human; fatal traffic accidents will not be included. F. the use of force, fear or threat toillegally detain or deprive a person ofher/his liberty. G. sexual intercourse against the will ofone of the parties

H. the use of force, fear or threat to takethe property of another from a person inpossession or control of the property. V. Translate into Romanian: A trial is conducted most frequently in the followingmanner. The attorneys for plaintiff and the defendant makeopening statements to the jury, outlining what each conceives to be the nature of the case and what each hopes to prove as thetrial proceeds. Next, the attorney for the plaintiff presents hiscase by calling witnesses, questioning them, and permitting them to be cross-examined by the attorney for the defence;when the former has concluded his presentation, the latterfrequently will ask for a dismissal of the suit for failure of plaintiff to establish a prima facie case (that is, a case sufficientuntil contradicted by evidence); if this is unsuccessful, he willcall and examine witnesses in order to establish his defences, and these witnesses are subject to cross-examination by theplaintiffs attorney. The attorneys for each side then make aclosing argument to the jury, putting the evidence presented in a light most favourable to their respective clients. VI. Translate the following sentences into English: 1) El este bnuit de poliie c face trafic cu droguri. 19 2) Puterile poliiei fac momentul de fa obiectul anenumrate schimbri. 3) Incendierea scopuri criminale este considerat oinfraciune la fel de grav ca i furtul. 4) Textele privitoare la arestrile fr mandat urmeaz afi modificate. 5) Poliia va interoga pe suspect mne diminea. 6) De fiecare dat cd i se pune o trebare, se face cn-a auzit i n-a vzut nimic. 7) Acest inspector este venic pe cale s cearpercheziiile la domiciliu chiar i c d nu este necesar. 8) n Anglia, amprentele digitale se iau la comisariat. 9) Violul este delict care atrage o pedeaps de cel puincinci ani. 10) Cifra cretere a delictelor penale Romiacepe s grijoreze autoritile. VII. Discussion/Essay: How do police powers of arrest without warrant aspresented in the text compare with those available to police inRomania? FOCUS ON GRAMMAR MODAL VERBS can ; could can expresses something possible: Our factory can produce 800 cars a month. Visas can be difficult to obtain sometimes could expresses possibility (ability) in the past: 20 We could understand most of what he said. I could speak French quite well when I was at school. can not or could not express something impossible: You cant get to London on time, there is a strike. You couldnt go on trips abroad ten years ago.

could + have + past participle expresses unfilled opportunity: I could have booked an earlier flight, but it left at 7 a. m. couldnt + have + past participle expresses a past impossibility: He couldnt have had any engine trouble. II. Fill in the blanks with can, could or be able to. Sometimes you have more than one possibility: a) Whenever Susan learns the lesson, she ________give very good answers. b) He ___________ be at home now. c) They took his passport so that he _________ leavethe country. d) We have been looking for John for two hours, but we__________ not find him. e) _________ you tell me the entire Commercial Code? I ________ when I was at school but I _________ not now. f) _________ I speak to Mr. Perkins, please? g) He was very strong; he ___________ work all dayand study all night. h) Your brother _________ play the piano well. i) The police were suspicious at first but I _________ convince them that they were innocent.21 II. Fill in the banks with CAN(T)/COULD(NT) + the right infinitive form of the verb: 1) Im afraid I . (help) you at the moment. 2) The negotiations broke down because we ..(agree) on the price. 3) Mother, you (cook) a better meal,everything is delicious. 4) Dont light a match in this chemical factory. It (cause) an explosion. 5) He (hear) the news on the radiobecause be was sleeping then. 6) No one (do) without water. 7) He (solve) the first problem, but thesecond one was quite a puzzle to him. 8) Im sorry I (come) to your talk 9) He (ski) really well when be was inhis twenties, but now be is out of practice. 10) What (you, do) with the money ifyou hadnt bought yourself a new watch? III. Rewrite the following sentences using could orcould not: 1) Ten years ago it wasnt possible to have hard currency on you. 2) She drove a car with the brakes out of order. An 3) It was very difficult to buy a suitable office at areasonable price, that is why we preferred to rent one. 4) She was able to speak Spanish after only threemonths on the training course. 5) From our hotel room, it was possible to see MontBlanc. 22 6) Although we tried hard, it was impossible for ourcompany to get that contract signed. 7) He didnt manage to understand what she meant. 8) It wasnt possible for us to lock the door yesterdaymorning; we had lost our keys. IV. Translate into English: 1) Nu se poate ca el s fi acceptat s vd casa. 2) John avea 12 ani cd a izbucbit rzboiul. El nu ar fiputut s fie armat. 3) Mi-a spus c s-ar putea s tzie. 4) Peter nu a putut s scrie eseul singur, aa c a rugat-ope sora lui s-l ajute.

5) Nu te duce acum la ei, s-ar putea s fie la mas. 6) Am vzut-o pe Sarah asear la concert, dar nu m-arecunoscut. Nu se poate s fi fost Sarah, pentru c este spitalde dou sptmi. 7) Presupun c a putea s fac munca asta dac ar finecesar. 8) Trebuie s pleci? Nu mai poi s stai puin? 9) Din fericire, am putut s-mi fac muli prieteni decd am venit acest ora. 10) E posibil s refuze s te ajute astfel deprejurri? 11) Am putut iei grdin dup ce a stat ploaia. 12) Sandra a spus c o s-i poat gsi o cas dac noi os-o ajutm. 23 UNIT 3 TRIBUNALS In the English judicial system two different types ofinstitutions have been set up1 to resolve legal problems: courtsand tribunals. The distinction between the two is difficult to make because there is no precise definition of these terms. Theword tribunal meaning any judicial assembly2 is widely used.This use of the word would include the courts. There is a narrower use of the word, however, which isof greater interest to the law students. These institutions fallinto two, large categories: Domestic tribunals are non state organizationsset up as part of the disciplinary procedures of professional orsporting organizations; Administrative tribunals are bodies set up by thestate in order to perform judicial functions as part of theadministration of some government scheme. A Council on Tribunals was initiated as a consultativeand advisory body. Its main task is to advise governmentdepartments in setting up administrative tribunals and to review the construction and working of these institutions. The Councilhas at present almost fifty tribunals under its jurisdiction: the Rent3 Tribunals which settle disputes betweenlandlords and tenants; the Education Appeals Committees which hearappeals against the allocation of school places by localeducation authorities; the Industrial Tribunals which settle the problemswhich may arise between employer and employee, such asredundancy payment disputes, questions of unfair dismissal and the problem of equal pay. The thorny question is whether these tribunals haveonly an administrative role or if they also have an adjudicative524 role. However government departments have a generalinfluence over decision making, so administrative tribunalsmay not be regarded as pure court substitutes. Another question is whether the tribunals should make law. The answer is no,only the decisions of the courts of law may be regarded asbinding law. In practice, tribunals have a strong tendency tofollow their previous decisions and these decisions areregularly reported.Essentially, the tribunals have been set up to relieve6 theover-burdened court system of work which may be dealt with in a less formal way by experts in the particular field. Solicitorsand barristers are being appointed as chairmen of the tribunalsand their work is growing as the public becomes more aware of them. It this way tribunals provide a speedier and more expertalternative to the court system. VOCABULARY

1) to set up = a fiina 2) assembly = adunare 3) rent = chirie, chiriere; rent 4) tenant = arenda; chiria, locatar 5) adjudicative = de adjudecare 6) to relieve = a uura, a elibera COMPREHENSION CHECK I. Answer the following questions: 1) What do you mean by a tribunal? 2) What kind of organizations are the domestictribunals? 3) What are the functions of the administrativetribunals? 25 4) Which is the main task of the Council on Tribunals? 5) How many kinds of tribunals are there under theCouncils jurisdiction? Speak about them. 6) Why have the tribunals been set up? 7) Who are appointed as chairmen of the tribunals? II. Give the meaning of the following words. Write asentence with each of them: barrister solicitor counsel judge prosecutor notary to take oath to outlook attorney general litigious advocacy III. Match each term on the left with the correctexplanation on the right: 1. forged currency 2. obstruct justice 3. disturbing public order 4. harassment 5. illegal woodcutting 6. customs offence A. any assault committed with a weapon,or which results in grievous injury to thevictim.. B. the creation, possession or distributionof any false, forged or altered officialdocument of any country or governmentagency. C. the cutting of wood without the properpermit or with a forged or altered permit. D. the creation, possession of any false,forged or altered currency of any country. E. delay, hinder or obstruct a laweuforcement official by physical act,subterfuge or statement in the executionof their official duties. F. words, gestures or actions that placeanother in fear or apprehension of death, 26 7. counterfeiteddocuments

8. grievous assaultinjury, damage to property, or interferewith the right of a person to travel freely or be secure from harm. G. any act which does or is likely tocause a breach of peace or public order H. any offence involving thetransportation or possession of goods,with the intent to cross, or having crossedthe border or boundary of a province orof a country. IV. Fill in with a preposition from the list below:upon, on, by, at, of, in, over, to, under, against, with, for a) The drunken driver was put ________ arrest. b) Offences _________ the person include murder andrape. c) The criminal is to tried ________ manslaughter. d) The suspect was held ________ custody before beingrelased _________ bail. e) The Court of Kings Bench had first instancejurisdiction _______ all wrongs. f) A good lawyer must know which rules apply both_________ common law and _________ equity. g) When a barrister is admitted to the profession, wesay that be is called _________ the bar. h) _________ common law a mistake only prevents theformation of a contract if it is a fundamental mistake of fact. i) _________ the winding up of a firm a liquidator isappointed. j) The judges used to sit __________ the Assizes. 27 V. Translate into English: 1) n ultimii cinsprezece ani s-au efectuat multe reformejuridice. 2) n iunie 1998 guvernul a supus la vot 12 proiecte delege cu privire la educaie. 3) n anii 60 comisia parlamentar a tocmit un raportasupra sistemului tribunalelor. 4) Avocaii joac un rol important societatea actual. 5) n 1875 sistemul juridic englez s-a schimbat i au fost abolite common injunctions. 6) Trebuie totui s remarcm c numai o parte a uneijudeci este luat considerare. 7) Nu exist dec trei circumstane care se poateface abatere de la judecile precedente. 8) Pe parcursul acestui text: s-au ridicat multe problemejuridice. 9) ntr-adevr, legea englez se bazeaz pe principiul destare decisis (ceea ce a fost decis ainte trebuie respectat). 10) Judectorul a fost constrs s-i pronune verdictuldup modelul unui caz care fusese deja judecat. VI. Fill in the table below, using a dictionary if necessary: verb noun compensation to settle to foresee application to dismiss solution to allege approval to injure 28

to allow VII. Translate into Romanian: Most Bills (Acts of Parliament) are measures relating topublic policy. The great majority of these are governmentmeasures introduced by a Minister, but certain days are set aside for debating Private Members Bills (public Billsintroduced by members of the House not holding office in theGovernment). In addition, some private Bills relating solely to matters of individual corporate or local interest are promoted ineach session by persons or bodies outside Parliament.Bills may be introduced by either House unless theydeal with finance or representation (when they are introducedin the Commons). Those that pass through all the necessarystages in both Houses receive Royal Assent and become law asActs of Parliament. The House of Lords may not alter afinancial measure, nor may it delay for longer than one year any Bill passed by the Commons in two successive sessions. VIII. Comment on the following proverbs: A good judge conceives quickly, judges slowly. A fault confessed is half redressed. FOCUS ON GRAMMAR PASSIVE VOICE To make the passive we have to use a form of the verb to be and a past participle. ACTIVE PASIVE The government raised interest rates by 1% Interest rates were raised by1% . 29 Our supplier is shipping thegoods next week The goods are being shippednext week We can arrange a loan withinsix days A loan can be arrangedwithin six days Sometimes, the doer of the action is not mentioned. It might be: unimportant, clear from the situation or unknown. Instead, the important information is either the actions or the things affected by the action: A very large proportion of world oil is generated in theMiddle East. These incentives will be offered to retail investors inEU countries who make an early subscription. Have/get something done: When a professional person, a technician or anaccountant, does some work for us, we can use have/getsomething done: We had our offices redecorated last year. You must have your computers checked for viruses. We got the contract checked by our lawyers. I. Put the following sentences into the Passive: 1) They have chosen the new design. 2) We cannot ship your order until we receive payment. 3) They will not finish the project by the end of themonth. 4) We are spending more than a million dollars onadvertising this year. 5) Somebody damaged the goods in transit. 30 6) They have closed fifty retail outlets over the lastyear.

7) The Accounts Department may not authorise thispayment. 8) One of our best young designers created this line. 9) Our department has discovered a promising newdrug. 10) He was asking me some difficult questions. II. Offer explanations or reasons for the following. Use the passive voice: eg: Mother looks happy. She has (just) been offered flowers. 1) I cant drive my car today. 2) There was a long queue in front of the box-officeyesterday. 3) When Mr. Johnson returns to his native town nextyear, be will not recognize it. 4) Alice has got a perfect score on her test. 5) Jane likes going to parties. 6) When the seven dwarfs returned home they werevery surprised. 7) The letters were very urgent but nobody posted themyesterday. 8) Jenny is feeling better today. III. Change into the Active Voice: a) A course in Civil Law is delivered once a week. b) The thief was arrested yesterday. c) The burglar will be convicted. d) Courts of Quarter Session are presided over by abench of justices. 31 e) Cases had been heard by a judge sitting with a jury. f) Appeals may be heard in the High Court. g) All trials at quarter sessions are held with a jury. h) The ordinary civil actions will be heard by theCounty Court. i) In England magistrates are appointed by the LordChancellor. j) In Ireland the police have been controlled by anInspector General. IV. Translate into English using Passive constructions: 1) Astzi este 10 aprilie. Telefonul ar fi trebuit pltitp acum. 2) n multe din oraele rii se construiesc biblioteci. 3) Ai prul prea lung. Ar trebui s te tunzi. 4) Paul a fost externat din spital la dou zile dup ce afost internat. 5) S-au fcut multe cercetri pentru a descoperi cauzeleacestei boli molipsitoare. 6) A dori s-mi fac o fotografie pentru paaport. 7) Publicului nu i se spusese ce se tpla spatelecortinei. 8) Domnul Brown dorea s tie dac se servete micul dejun la hotel. 9) Mi s-a spus c eti bolnav. 10) Florile acestea ar crete mai bine dac ar fi udatemai des. 11) Telegrama va fi mat generalului c mairepede posibil. 12) Ni se dau o mulime de teme zilnic. 32 UNIT 4 COMMON LAW Common law1, also called Anglo-American law, is thebody of customary law, based upon judicial decisions andembodied in reports of decided cases, which has een administered by the common-law courts of England since theMiddle Ages. From this has evolved the type of legal systemnow found also in the United States and in most of the memberstates of the Commonwealth of Nations. Common law standsin contrast to rules developed by the separate acts of equity2, tostatute law (i.e., the acts of

legislative bodies), and to the legalEurope and elsewhere.The term of common law is used in a number ofdifferent ways each emphasizing various aspects of thiscomplex idea. There are three basic uses of the term: As a description of the general system of law withina national jurisdiction; As a specific description of a historical development in England and Wales; As a description of a particular set of rules in contrast to the rules of equity and of statute law. First, common law is used to distinguish one type ofgeneral legal system from other legal systems. It is most oftenused to distinguish common law jurisdictions from civil law jurisdictions. Those states whose laws are derived from theEnglish system such as the U. S. A., Canada, Australia, HongKong, etc. are therefore known as common law jurisdictions. The second way in which the term is often used is todescribe a historical situation in which the jurisdiction of thekings courts of justice was extended throughout all the regions of England and Wales, creating systems of law common to all33 England in contradistinction to local law and custom whichvaried from area to area. After the Norman conquest it was Williams successorswho managed to diminish 4 the opportunity for corruptionamong their officials by creating a more centralized andspecialized form of government. This was achieved in part bythe delegation of royal judicative power to itinerant justices, organized on circuits, who would travel round the countryholding sittings5 (Assizes) to hear and settle6 cases waiting tobe tried in the country towns and enforce7 the kings rights. At the same time as this development of the itinerantcourts was taking place, the impetus8 for more efficient andeffective government created three static, royal courts locatedat Westminster: the Court of Exchequer9, specialized in royalfinance; the Court of Common Pleas, which had jurisdiction inordinary litigation; and the Court of Kings Bench which hadjurisdiction over all wrongs with the Court of Common Pleasand had an appellate10 and supervisory jurisdiction over allroyal justice. The jurisdiction of these courts was extendeduntil what had originally been an exceptional jurisdictionbecoming common to the whole kingdom. The law created by this jurisdiction was therefore known as the common law.The third and most modern use of the term commonlaw comes into opposition to the notions of equity and statute law. The common law means the rules, standards andprinciples created by the judges which are not equity. Lawyersmust simply learn what the rules at common law are and whatthe rules in equity are. In many situations the rules overlap11and although the rules in equity will prevail12, it is of greatimportance that the lawyer be aware of what the positions isboth at common law and in equity. VOCABULARY 1) common law = drept comun, drept cutumier34 2) equity = drept natural; lege nescris 3) widespread = rspdit; tins 4) to diminish = a diminua; a micora, a slbi 5) sitting = edin, adunare, trunire 6) to settle a case = a soluiona, a rezolva un caz, ocauz 7) to enforce the rights = a valorifica drepturi 8) impetus = imbold, impuls 9)Court of Exchequer = Curtea Ministerului de Finane( Anglia)

10) appellate (jurisdiction) = jurisdicie de apel 11) to overlap = a suprapune; a coincide ; a tretia12) to prevail = a predomina; a triumfa COMPREHENSION CHECK I. Answer the following questions: a) Describe with your own words what common lawmeans. Write a short composition about it. b) What are the basic uses of the term common law? c) What does the first use consist in? d) What are the itinerant courts? Did they contributeto the development of the judicial system? e) What were the Royal Courts that were located atWestminster? f) What does the third use of the term common lawcome into opposition to? g) What happens if the rules at common law and thosein equity should overlap? II. Fill in the blanks with the suitable prepositions: 1. Magistrates are appointed __________ behalf of theCrown, _________ the lord Chancellor. 35 2. There is substantial identity ____________ manypoints ___________ the Scottish system and those of the rest________ Britain. 3. The sources _________ law also include a largeamount ___________ unwritten or common law gathered_________ numerous decisions _________ the courts. 4. Central responsibility ____________ theadministration to _________ the judicial system lies partly________ the Home Secretary. 5. The police system is organized __________ anumber ____________ separate forces linked _________ localGovernment and subject _________ the influence and control ___________ the Home Secretary. III. Give the Romanian equivalents of the followingwords; Try to write a sentence with each of them: counterespionage to infringe poaching to disclose to distort traffic regulation to misuse receiver proviso grievance IV. Try to match the legal terms (1-8) with the proper definitions (A-H): 1. discharge offirearm 2. theft of motorvehicle 3. illegal bordercrossing A. the recruitment, transportation, transfer or receipt of persons by means ofthreat, use of force, coercion, fraud or the abuse of authority for the purpose ofexploitation. B. crossing the border or boundary of aprovince without proper documents C. traffic incidents involving theoperation of a motor vehicle while under 36

4. trafficking inperson 5. licensing, permitand localordinanceviolations 6. speeding 7. improperregistration 8. driving underthe influencethe influence of any intoxicatingsubstance. D. any offence relating to the speed ofoperation of a motor vehicle. E. any incident involving the unlawfuldischarge of a firearm. F. the theft of a passenger vehicle, truck,bus or other vehicle intended for usetransporting persons or goods upon theroadway. G. violation of any local ordinance,permit or licensing requirementsestablished by local authorities. H. any offence relating to false, altered,forged display or exhibition of documents evidencing the registration of a motorvehicle.. V. Translate into English: 1) Tribunalul poate impune o sentin care s privezepe acuzat de libertate. 2) Se iau toate msurile pentru a respinge orice avantajal acuzrii asupra aprrii. 3) Dup ce o persoan a fost arestat, el/ea esteacuzat() i adus() faa instanei. 4) Intervievarea martorilor acuzrii este foarteimportant tr-un proces penal. 5) n general, infraciunile care sunt judecate pe bazaunei proceduri sumare sunt pedepsite cu o amend. 6) Nu trebuie subestimat depoziia vreunui martor anchetarea cazului. 37 7) La intrarea Marea Britanie, ofierul de la imigrrirecomand ca s nu se depeasc perioada permis de edere ar. 8) Dei parlamentul voteaz legile, judectorii sunt ceicare le aplic, ind cont i de specificul cazurilor. 9) Dac el ar fi mrturisit totul de la ceput, vina lui arfi fost mai mic. 10) n caz c este arestat, suspectul are dreptul s consulte un avocat. VI. Ask questions to the following statements: 1) Most legislation applies to Great Britain or theUnited Kingdom as a whole. 2) The great majority of Bills are government measuresintroduced by a Minister. 3) The main opportunities offered in the House ofCommons for detailed examination of government policy areprovided through parliamentary questions and answers. 4) Some private Bills relating to matters of individualor corporate interest are promoted in each session. 5) On some matters, separate Acts are passed forEngland and Wales and for Scotland. 6) Bills may be introduced by either House, unless theydeal with finance or representation. VII. Translate into Romanian: The sovereignity has the duty of prosecuting those whocommit crimes; its attorney for the purpose is the prosecutor.The prosecutor, who performs the function of trial lawyer for sovereignity, has extensive resources at his disposal forinvestigation and preparation purposes. He is not at liberty todistort or misuse this information. He must discloseinformation tending to relieve the accused of guilt. Anyconduct of a prosecutor or judge that hinders the fairness of a trial to the extent that the outcome is adversely affected is inviolation of the defendants right of due process. The efforts ofthe prosecutor and the court should be directed toward fairness and justice.

VIII. Write a short composition in which to show thephases of a trial in Romania. You can as well discuss a casethat you studied about. FOCUS ON GRAMMAR MODAL VERBS must is used to express an obligation given by the speaker: You really must come and visit our shop next week. must also expresses a necessity or a deduction: They must go to work every day. That must be Jane, she always comes late.. mustnt expresses an interdiction: Pedestrians mustnt cross the road when the light is red. have to expresses an obligation given by some external authority: You have to wear this badge, thats our regulation dont have to and neednt express the absence of obligation: You dont have to speak so loudly, I can hear you. should expresses moral obligation or advice, suggestion: She should pay more attention to her spelling. 39 I. Patrick and Susan are colleagues attending a conference. Complete the dialogue. Use must, mustnt or have to: Patrick: Well, its been good talking, but Im really tirednow, and I must go end get some sleep. Susan: Really? you go so soon? Lets haveanother drink at the bar. Patrick: No, really. I If I stayed for anotherdrink, I know Id be useless tomorrow. And I start work at 6.00 in the morning. Susan: At 6.00?! Why do you start so early? Patrick: Because my head of department wants me to runa breakfast seminar, and I still have somepreparation to do I . make anymistakes! Susan: Why the seminar . so early? Patrick: I dont know. Stupid, isnt it? Susan: The things we do for this company!I think we all work far too hard! II. Fill in the blanks with must or the present, future, or past form of have to: 1. Little Simon got lost and ask apoliceman the way. 2. If you buy a radio set you buy a licence for it. 3. Passengers be in possession of a travelticket. 4. I never remember his telephone number; I always... look it up. 5. Children take an important exam at sixteen. 6. Mr. Brown was in a hurry, so he take a taxi. 7. My grandpa is hard of hearing; he wear ahearing aid all the time. 40 8. Mr. Barton . cook his own meals next weekbecause his wife will be away. 9. You see this film. Its really very good. III. After reading the following sentences, express animpression or an opinion about the ideas they contain,using modal verbs followed by a perfect infinitive:

eg, I didnt see Harry at the conference (might)He might have been absent. a) Jennys pronunciation has improved considerably(must). b) Mary didnt get on with her examination as well asshe was expected to (could). c) The doctor didnt return yesterday as he hadpromised his patients (should). d) They were very tired when they came home (must). e) He seemed terribly excited when I saw him (might). f) Well, I suppose be has failed (should). g) They had an appointment in his office yesterday, butMr. Roberts didnt come (might). h) His journey didnt last more than an hour (could). i) They looked for the child everywhere except in thesick mans room (might). IV. Translate into English: 1) Trebuie s fie destul de tziu, fiindc strzile suntpustii. 2) N-am eles lecia, aa c Dan a trebuit s mi-oexplice din nou. 3) Va trebui s stai aici p se toarce secretara. Cineva trebuie s rspund la telefon.41 4) Ieri diminea a trebuit s m duc dup cumprturipentru c aveam musafiri la cin. 5) Nu crezi c-ar trebui s te duci la doctor dac nu tesimi bine? 6) De ce ai cumprat fructe? Am luat trei kilograme demere, nu mai trebuia s cumperi i tu. 7) E nevoie s art legitimaia de serviciu ori de ce orivin aceast instituie? 8) Mike nu rspunde la telefon. Probabil c a plecatfoarte devreme de acas. 9) Trebuie s predau proiectul de diplom ainte desfitul sptmii. 10) N-a fost nevoie s-i traduc articolul fiindc tie bineenglezete. 42 UNIT 5 EQUITY In Anglo-American law, the custom of courts outsidethe common law is called equity. In origin equity providedremedies in situations in which precedent or statutory law might not apply or be equitable. By the end of the 13th centurythe English kings common-law courts had largely limited therelief available in civil cases to the payment of damages and to the recovery of the possession of property.The disappointed litigants 1 petitioned the king, who was the fountain of justice. The king, through his Chancellor,eventually set up a special court to deal with these petitions.The rules applied by the Court of Chancery hardened2 into law and became a regular part of the law of the land. The mostimportant branch3 of equity is the law of trusts4, but equitableremedies such as specific performance and injunction5 are also much used. In case of conflict or variance between the rulesof common law and equity, equity come to prevail.Equity thus worked behind the scenes of the commonlaw action; the common law principles were left intact, butthey were superseded6 by equitable rules in all cases.This system went on until 1875 when the old courts ofcommon law and the Court of Chancery were abolished, and intheir place was established a single Supreme Court ofJudicature, each branch of which had full power to administerboth law and equity.When one says that a particular rule of modern law is arule of equity, one means that it has to be read in the light of a whole complex of rules developed by the Chancellors. One of43them was (and is) to the effect that he who comes to equitymust come with clean hands. This rule will apply wheneverthe plaintiff7 is relying upon an equitable right, but notnecessarily

when he is relying on a common law right. To saythat a particular right is an equitable right means that all thesubsidiary rules of equity apply to it. On the other hand, aparticular right is to be interpreted in a common law atmosphere, leaving out of account such equitable rules asapply only to equitable rights.Although the rule is that when law and equity conflict,equity prevails, there is always the possibility that a litigantwho relies on an equitable rule may for some reason findhimself outside the limits of that equitable rule and when thishappens the contradictory common law rule, which may generally seem to be a dead letter, becomes very much alive.Courts of equity also developed early in the UnitedStates, but in the late 19th and early 20th centuries most U. S.courts similarly abolished the distinctions between actions atlaw and suits in equity and fused8 their administration in oneprocedural system, with but one civil action, in the same court.Modern equity has been much assisted by legislation. The oldnotion that equity protects only property rights has beenvirtually abandoned. Now an employee9, for example, can bebarred from competing10 with his employer after discharge orresignation. An injunction may now be had, where other factors of appropriateness permit, against threatened injury tointerests of personality, such as civil liberties, privacy,reputation and domestic relations VOCABULARY 1) litigant =.pricinat, parte litigant, acuzator 2) to harden = a (se) consolida, a (se) tri 3) branch = ramur, domeniu; cp de activitate 4) trust = tutel, procur 44 5) injunction = ordonan, hotre judectoreasc 6) to supersede = a locui; a (se) substitui 7) plaintiff = reclamant (tr-un proces civil; parte vtmat tr-un litigiu civil) 8) to fuse = a se contopi, a fuziona 9) employee = angajat, salariat 10) to compete with = a concura, a intra competiie COMPREHENSION CHECK I. Match each of the following words to the correctdefinition: 1. to sue 2. damage 3. defender 4. case of first instance 5. to dismiss an appeal 6. to deliver judgement 7. to hold 8. to be entitled 9. plaintiff A. to have a right to something. B. a person who defends a civil or criminal action. C. money given as a legal compensation. D. to take legal action against someone in a civil case. E. to give a judicial decision.

F. to reject, or not accept an appeal. G. a person who brings an action in civil law H. to decide in legal proceedings. I. the first hearing of a case, not an appeal. II. Give the Romanian equivalents of the followinglegal terms; Write a sentence with each of them: injunction forfeiture appeal breach of the law liable hereditary peerage mens rea (lat) remedy 45 to move a motion prima facie (lat) III. Fill in the blanks, using the words in the table below: arrest, the police, arrestable offence, general, attempting, serious arrestable offences, suspecting, offence, restraint 1) Some offences are considered as _________ inwhich case the police have additional powers. 2) An __________ is one which carries a sentence of atleast five years of _________ 3) ___________ means the loss of liberty, being subjectto _________ as one movements. 4) The _____________ arrest conditions give _______the power to arrest for offences which are not automatically arrestable. 5) If the police have reasonable grounds for _________a person for committing or _______ to commit any ________they may arrest that person. IV. Give the Romanian for the following branches oflaw: Criminal law Law of Tort Administrative law Land law Roman law Constitutional law Property law Law of contract Commercial law Labour law Try to explain which branch of our law is concernedwith the respective field if there is no exact termV. Translate the following sentences into English: 46 1) Acuzatul trebuie s fie condamnat la chisoare pevia, truc a comis un omor. 2) Infractorii sub vsta de 21 de ani pot fi trimii lainstituii de reeducare.

3) S-ar putea ca el s fie nevinovat. 4) ntruc el dorete s mai lase o parte din averea sa iunei alte persoane, el trebuie s adauge o clauz testament. 5) Inculpatul trebuie s plteasc reclamantului oamend mare truc i-a avariat grav maina. 6) S-a instituit procedur judiciar potriva oferuluivinovat. 7) Judectorul i-a impus inculpatului s plteascamend plus cheltuielile de judecat. 8) Ca urmare a atacului comis asupra unui om de ctrecei doi tineri, s-a emis mandat de aducere faa instanei acelor vinovai. 9) Dup audierea tuturor martorilor, juriul a ceputdeliberrile. 10) n Marea Britanie sindicatele protejaz intereseleangajailor prin negocierea salariilor cu organizaiile patronilor. VI. Translate into Romanian: The legal systems rooted in the English common lawhave diverged from their parent system so greatly over timethat in many areas the legal approaches of common-law countries differ as much along themselves as they do with thecivil-law countries. Indeed, England and the United States haveso many legal differences that they are sometimes described astwo countries separated by a common law. The most strikingdifferences are found in the area of public law: England has nowritten constitution and no judicial review, whereas every court in the United States possesses the power to pass judgmenton the conformity of legislation and on other official actions toconstitutional norms. VII. Put the following statements concerning theservice of a writ into chronological order. 1. The court officer stamps the writ and gives it anumber. 2. The writ is issued. 3. The plaintiff indorses the nature of his claim againstthe defendant. 4. The defendant decides to contest the claim. 5. The writ is sent by first-class post to the defendant. VIII. Comment on the following proverbs: The man who goes to law often loses an ox to win acat. No physician like a true friend. FOCUS ON GRAMMAR REPORTED SPEECH When we report what someone else has said orthought we use reported (or indirect) speech: Eg. He said that he couldnt swim. She insisted that she had to see us. DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH a. Johnny, youve passed your exam. I told Johnny hed passed his exam. b. Ill telephone today this He said hed telephone that day 48 evening that evening c. Mr. Smith will be back tomorrow.

They told me Mr. Smith would be back the next/the following day. d. Your parcel arrived yesterday Jane I told Jane her parcel had arrived the day before. e. It happened two hours ago. They told me it had happened two hours before. I. Rewrite the sentences in Reported Speech: a) Ive read the report and I dont understand section 4, he said. He said b) When I finish my presentation, Im going to have a drink, he said. He said c) I like playing tennis, but I dont do it very often, she said. She said d) Im preparing the figures but I wont be long, she said She said e) Im going to visit our French subsidiary, but Im not sure when, she said. She said f) We received your order last week, they said. They said g) Im sorry about the delay, Ill deal with this now, he said. He said II. Turn the statements, questions and orders below into reported speech: 49 a) These shoes are too small. I am returning them to the shop and I hope I will be refunded, said my aunt. b) I have just opened a savings account. I want to go to Bahamas next summer, my friend said. c) You must take out a mortgage. We can no longer share this tiny flat , their parents said. d) Can I buy oil and sugar on credit? My husband will only get the unemployment benefit next week asked the house wife. e) I wont pay the bill. Its simply a rip-off, said the customer. f) Why did they sell this wonderful painting at such a small price? asked Mrs. Smith. III. Change the following sentences from indirectinto direct speech: 1. Linda wanted to know whether George had reallyshot that bear. 2. Mother asked me whether I had finished my work. 3. Doris inquired whether he would bring his brotheralong. 4. Mike asked his girl-friend whether she liked her newjob. 5. Mary wanted to know what she was supposed to do.

6. They asked whether Jack had been heard of lately. 7. I asked Peter whether be had ever eaten cookedbananas. 8. Jimmy asked me yesterday whether I had returnedthe book. IV. Translate into English: 50 a) El spunea c dac pleac imediat o s ajung acasainte de miezul nopii. b) Mi-a spus s-l scuz dac va tzia puin. c) Ea spunea c a trecut o sptm i jumtate decd a venit oraul acesta. d) Spera c dac totul va merge bine va pleca iunie. e) Mi-a spus ieri c astzi plinete 30 de ani. f) Mi-a scris c se afl la Cluj de dou sptmi. g) Ea mi-a spus c vor pleca la mare de dat cediscut cu cumnatul lor. h) L-am tnit pe strad, dar n-am putut sta de vorbcu el fiindc mi-a spus c e foarte grbit. i) El ne-a trebat de ce ori am fost strintate. j) Mi-a spus c dac va citi cartea p luni mi-o vaapoia chiar ziua aceea. 51 UNIT 6 THE SOURCES OF THE ENGLISH LAW According to the solemnity of the form in which theyare made, laws are traditionally divided into two maincategories: written or unwritten. Written law signifies any law that is formally enacted1, whether reduced to writing ornot, while unwritten law signifies all enacted law.On the Continent the volume of written law tends topreponderate over the volume of unwritten, but in Englandunwritten law is predominant, for more of their law derives from judicial precedents2 than from legislative enactment. Twomain and two subsidiary sources of law are to be mentioned.The principal sources are Legislation and Judicial Precedent;the subsidiary sources are Custom and Books of Authority.The principle of justice is enforced in English law bythe rule of stare decisis (referring to what has been decidedpreviously) and this rule has a coercive 3 or binding4 nature inthe English system. The rules of common law have beenevolved inductively from decision to decision involving similarfacts, so that they are firmly grounded upon 5 the activities oflitigation and the reality of human conduct. New cases leadonwards6 to reach forward new rules. In contrast, the Europeancivil law supposes the task of the courts to be deductive: tosubsume the present case under a generalized and codified rule.So, a distinctive feature of the English system is that, becausethe English judge has through precedent power to makenew law, his position in the legal system is central. The judge may be obliged to consider the formerdecision as part of the material on which his present decisioncould be based, or he may be obliged to decide it in the same52 way as that in which the previous case was decided. In thelatter case the precedent is said to be binding. A court whichis inferior in authority to another court is obliged to follow a court of superior authority if called upon to decide upon factssimilar to facts already tried by the superior court. On thecriminal side of the Court of Appeal the Court could depart7from its previous decisions in the interest of justice. On thecivil side it may depart from its previous decisions in threesituations: when there are two earlier conflicting decisions;when the Courts earlier decisions cannot stand with asubsequent decision of The House of Lords; and when the Courts earlier decision was given per incuriam8. Theseexceptions of the rule of stare decisis underline the fact that,although the rules of precedent are important in

English law,they are not as important as the judges obligation. The judgeshave a field of choice in making their decisions, they rest theirjudgements upon the general principles exercised in case law as a whole.Customs are social habits, patterns of behaviour, whichall societies seem to evolve. Custom is not solely9 important asa source of law, for even today some customary rules areobserved in their own right and they command almost as muchobedience as rules of law in that their observance10 is notenforced by the organs of the State. In modern times mostgeneral customs have either fallen into desuetude or becomeabsorbed in rules of law.The European writings of legal authors form animportant source of law. In England, in accordance with thetradition that the law is to be sought in judicial decisions, theirwritings have in the past been treated with comparatively little respect. They have been cited in court, rather by way ofevidence of what the law is than as independent sources fromwhich it may be derived. 53 VOCABULARY 1) to enact a law = a promulga o lege 2) precedent = precedent, decizie judectoreasc ce facejurispruden 3) coercitive = de constrgere, coercitiv 4) binding = obligatoriu 5) to ground upon = a (se) baza pe, a (se) temeia pe, a(se) sprijini pe (fig.) 6) onwards = ainte; mai departe 7) to depart = a se abate 8) per incuriam (lat) = prin neglijen sau omisiune 9) solely = numai 10) observance = respectare; observan; regul COMPREHENSION CHECK I. Answer the following questions: a) How many categories of law do you know? b) What are the main sources of law? c) What are the subsidiary sources of law? d) What is the principle of justice in English lawenforced by? e) How have the rules of common law been evolved? f) Which is the judges position in the English legalsystem? g) Are customs important as sources of law? Why? h) Do the English legal writings have any importance asa source of law? II. Match the following terms with the definitions below: 54 a) accident personal injury b) defective equipment c) dangerous driving d) impeding e) riot f) road block g) booting 1) the offences of theft, burglary or criminal damageduring time of civil unrest, disturbance or natural disaster 2) the assembly of more than two persons whosemalicious actions cause death, injury or property damage 3) the assembly of more than two persons for thepurpose of blocking a roadway; the blockage may be by use of

an object, group of objects or any substance 4) any motor vehicle accident causing injury, but notdeath, to a person 5) offences relating to the operation of motor vehicleswith altered, broken, defective, damaged or missing equipment. 6) operating a motor vehicle so as to endanger life orproperty 7) offences relating to the illegal or improper parking,stopping or standing on, in or adjacent to a roadway III. Add suffixes to form nouns: to appoint; to assess; to attend; to convict; to defend; to dispose; to establish; to evaluate; to hear; to immigrate; to imprison; to proceed; to propose; to prosecute; to withdraw IV. Ask questions to the following statements: a) The basic powers and responsibilities of localauthorities shall be prescribed by the constitution or statute.55 b) The principle of local self-government shall berecognised in domestic legislation. c) Public responsibilities shall be exercised by thoseauthorities which are closest to the citizen. d) Allocation of responsibility to another authorityshould weigh up the extent and nature of the task andrequirements of efficiency. e) Powers given to local authorities may not beundetermined, or limited by another central or regionalauthority. V. Choose the correct answer: 1) In the legal profession, men ___________ women byfive to one. a) outclass c) overcome b) outnumber d) supersede 2) The _________ sentenced the accused to 15 years inprison a) barrister c) judge b) counsel d) solicitor 3) After a close cross-examination, the barrister was________ . His client was telling the truth. a) content c) happy b) glad d) satisfied 4) I _________ to say anything unless I am allowed tospeak to my solicitor. a) deny c) refuse b) neglect d) resist 5) All __________ barristers are expected to study atthe Inns of Court. a) hopeful c) willing b) prospective d) wishful VI. Translate into English: 56 1) n Marea Britanie nu exist numai un singur organ allegii. 2) n ce privete diferenele dintre sistemul juridicscoian i cele din restul Marii Britanii, acestea sunt mai extinse. 3) O trstur comun tuturor sistemelor juridice dinMarea Britanie este aceea potrivit creia sursele de drept includlegislaia,precum i o mare cantitate de cutum (unwritten law) care provine din numeroasele hotri ale instanelor de-alungul timpului sau din alte surse. 4) Majoritatea urmririlor penale Anglia suntconduse de ctre poliie, dar punerea sub acuzare este decompetena procurorului public.

5) Este necesar ca avocaii s caute toate informaiilerelevante pentru cazul respectiv la poliie. 6) Fiecare acuzat are dreptul s apeleze la un avocatpentru aprare. 7) Dac acuzatul nu poate s-i permit s angajeze unavocat pentru aprare, atunci i se acord asisten juridic pecheltuiala public. 8) La ceputul secolului curile de apel au fost obligates-i respecte judecile precedente. VII. Translate into Romanian: The plaintiff begins his action by way of a writ ofsummons, which is a formal document containing details of theparties, the plaintiffs claim, an instruction to the defendant to acknowledge the writ within a specified time and a warning tothe defendant that he must acknowledge and indicate anintention to contest the case or risk the plaintiff proceeding directly to a judgment.On the back of the writ the plaintiff must set out (indorse) the nature of his claim against the defendant either57in a brief, general statement (a general indorsement) or in afull statement (a special indorsement). If the writ contains only a general indorsement and the defendant wishes to contestthe case, a full statement of claim will become a necessary partof the pleadings which will follow in due course. VIII. Make up your own definition of the doctrine ofprecedent in about 50100 words (with your coursebookclosed). All the definitions should then be read out in class, and a jury should decide which is the most accurate,complete and grammatically correct. FOCUS ON GRAMMAR CONDITIONALS Type 1 a) possible, probable/real condition referring to something which may or equally may not happen:
If Clause Present Tense, Present perfect Main Clause Future, Imperative

eg. If it rains, we wont go to buy the newspaper. b) tentative, possible condition referring to something which is rather unlikely to happen, but still do so:
If Clause Should+Infinitive Main Clause Imperative

eg. If you should be interested, please, let me know. Type 2 - improbable condition referring to something to which the speaker can imagine happening in theory: 58
If Clause Past Tense/Past Subjunctive I Main Clause Present Conditional

eg. If I were you, I wouldnt change my job.

If she became a reporter, she would work very hard. Type 3 - impossible condition referring to something in the past which cannot by definition happen:
If Clause Past Perfect Tense/Past Subjunctive II Main Clause Perfect Conditional

eg. If she had known English, she would have translated the text.. Note: In negative sentences, if not is replaced by unless: eg. He will not understand the lesson unless he learns the new words. I. Match the two parts of the following statements: 1) If I were a young manager and I received a number of complaints from my customers about unfriendly service, .. 2) If my suppliers workforce kept going on strike, ... 3) If my employees refused to work overtime, 4) If I inherited a fortune and opened my own business and a close relative asked me to give him/her a well paid job, a) I would use alternative suppliers and make sure I had emergency stocks. b) I would offer her/him the job only when the business becomes profitable. 59 c) I would think of some ways to encourage my staff to be helpful. d) I would give them bonuses for extra hours. II. Underline the correct words: 1) I wouldnt/wont worry if I am/were you. 2) If you phoned/had phoned me yesterday, I had told/would have told you. 3) If you took/would have taken more exercise, you might feel/had left better. 4) If Tim would have listened/had listened more carefully, he wouldnt have made/didnt make that mistake. 5) If we would found/found suitable premises, we would have moved/had moved earlier. 6) If people kept/had kept their offices more tidy, it might present/presented a better image to our visitors. 7) If I had known/would know about their financial problems, I wouldnt do/wouldnt have done business with them. 8) If our side had been/was better prepared, we succeeded/could have succeeded in the negotiations. III. Translate into English: 1) Dac nu l-a fi eles, l-a fi rugat s vorbeasc mairar. 2) A alege rochia aceasta dac n-ar fi at de strt. 3) Dac compania noastr ar fi vrut s vd sau scumpere valut, ar fi putut contacta un agent de burs.

4) Dac nu pleci imediat, vei pierde mod sigur trenul. 5) i-a fi recunosctor dac mi-ai da mai multeinformaii legtur cu folosirea cardului. 6) Dac nu te trezeti devreme, n-o s poi s ajungi laserviciu la timp. 60 7) Dac a fi observat accidentul, a fi notat numerelemainilor. 8) Cum ai reaciona dac ai afla c firma lui va da faliment?9) Cnele meu latr todeauna dac aude vreunzgomot neobinuit. 10) Kate ar fi vat c dou ore, dac ar fi tiut cexamenul fusese amat. 11) Dac mne a avea zi liber, a pleca excursie lamunte. 12) Dac a fi tiut c facei comer cu aceast firm de ata ani, a fi luat legtura cu voi imediat. IV. Put the verbs in brackets into the right form: a) They (not to be) angry with her if they had knownthe truth. b) What you (to do) if you found a burglar in yourhouse? c) Someone (to steal) your car if you leave it unlocked. d) Jim (to be ruined) if the bought his wife everythingshe asked for. e) If she were sent to prison, you (to visit) her? f) He would have forced his way into the house if I (notto call) for help. g) If I (to change) my job would it affect my pension? h) If father had been at home, he (to answer) the phone. i) Mike wouldnt have believed it if he (not to see) itwith his own eyes. j) He (to buy) shares in your company if he had somemoney. 61 UNIT 7 THE BRITISH CONSTITUTION The British Constitution is not written in a basicdocument or group of documents. It has evolved over thecenturies with several dramatic changes and high degree of historical continuity has been maintained as the constitutionhas been brought up to date. The constitution is regulated1 to a large extent by ruleswhich do not belong to the normal legal categories and whichare called constitutional conventions. They are rules of politicalconduct or binding usages, most of which are capable of being varied or of simply disappearing as political conditions andideas change. Sometimes it is convenient to contrastconstitutional convention with strict law2. Ths, in strict law (by virtue of the royal prerogative) the Queen can dismiss herMinisters at pleasure. By convention this legal power isexercisable nly in very extraordinary circumstances. As theQueen must act in accordance with ministerial advice,Parliament still adopts the form of conferring discretionary powers on Her Majesty. This dichotomy3 of law andconvention pervades4 much of the constitutional law.The absence of a cumbersome5 procedure for altering rules of constitutional importance, the omnicompetence6 ofParliament and the pliability7 of many constitutionalconventions tend to make the British constitution flexible andeasily adaptable.62The upper House of Parliament, the House of Lords, still constituted on a hereditary basis, is of minor importance;the lower House, the elected House of Commons, is the focusof political attention. The political arm of the executive branchof government is recruited from and located within Parliament,and the Cabinet is collectively responsible to Parliament ingeneral and the House of Commons in particular. A Government would either have to resign or go to the country ifit were to forfeit 8 the support of a majority in the Commons.Because of the structure of modern British politicalparties, and the operation of the electoral system and certainconstitutional

rules the Government is normally able tocommand parliamentary support for the implementation ofalmost any policy that it is in practice likely to adopt. TheGovernment has indeed to be responsive9 to parliamentaryopinion, as well as to the weight of opinion in the electorate atlarge, but one must not imagine that it is in any real sense adelegate or agent of Parliament. Parliamentary government is not governed by Parliament. The Government governs in andthrough Parliament. At the same time, it would be erroneous tospeak in terms of Cabinet dictatorship. A Government operates within a complex network10 of constraints restricting its freedom of manoeuvre.The constitutional principles, rules and practices of the United Kingdom have never been codified. They derive fromstatute law, from common law, and from conventions of theconstitution, which are not laws at all, but political practices which have become considered as indispensable to the smoothworking of the machinery of government. VOCABULARY 1) to regulate = a pune la punct, a potrivi; a regla, aajusta 2) strict law = lege necondiionat, fix63 3) dichotomy =dihotomie, diviziune cu dou pri 4) to pervade = a cuprinde; a ptrunde () 5) cumbersome = obositor, incomod, greoi 6) omnicompetence = puternicire deplin 7) pliability = pliabilitate, flexibilitate 8) to forfeit = a pierde prin confiscare 9) responsive = elegtor; corespunztor 10) network = reea COMPREHENSION CHECK I. Answer the following questions: a) What do you mean by constitutional conventions? b) Can you explain the term strict law? c) Is the British Constitution a flexible and easilyadaptable one? Why? d) What happens if the Government should forfeit thesupport of a majority in the Commons? e) Can one speak about the British Government interms of Cabinet dictatorship? f) How does a Government really operate? Explain it ina few words. II. March the following terms with the definitions below: 1. demonstration 2. missing person 3. natural or accidental death 4. suicide 5. deportation 6. civil disputes 7. domestic disputes A. incidents or disputes concerning agreements, propertyownership, land use etc.; they are concluded by referring theparties to judicial officers, social department or other agencies 64 B. the official government action of expelling a person from acountry or from a province C. the assembly of more than two with a common purposewithout causing death, injury or property damage

D. family disputes in which there is absolutely no criminalconduct E. cases of persons who intentionally terminate their lives F. the report that a persons location is unknown and, shouldreasonably be known; this report must be made by aresponsible party G. deaths reported to the police that are caused by natural bodyfunctions or by unintentional but legal actions III. Choose the right answer: 1) The judge _______ the pedestrian for the accident. a) accused c) charged b) blamed d) sued. 2) A _______ is a trial lawyer or litigator. a) barrister c) solicitor b) judge d) coroner 3) The judge will hear the next _______ after lunch. a) case c) lawsuit b) charge d) trial. 4) His legal training enables him to put his case ______ very convincingly. a) down c) over b) out d) up 5) The ________ sentenced the convicted man. a) judge c) barrister b) counsel d) prosecutor IV. Give the Romanian equivalents of the following legal terms. Write a sentence with each of them: 65 assent to hold office adjournment to reverse a sentence liability to take precedence misconduct to be empowered to vest retirement V. Reduce each of the following complex sentences to make a more condensed one: 1) Passengers must go through the Customs before theyembark. 2) He promised he would buy me a present. 3)Dont forget you must deposit your key at the reception desk when you leave the hotel. 4) We are sorry we are so late. 5) I regret I spoke to the boy so rudely. 6) The meeting that was arranged for tomorrow willnow be held a week from tomorrow. 7) Can you find something that will stop the doorbanging? 8) I hope I shall hall see you on Tuesday. VI. Translate into English: 1) El ar fi putut obine o not mai mare la Drept Civil,dar nu a studiat deajuns.

2) El ar fi trebuit s plteasc o amend mai marepentru avarierea destul de serioas a mainii reclamantului. 3) Nu putea s fure el ceasul, toat lumea considerun om onest. 4) Este necesar ca aceast lege s fie votat parlament. 5) Avocatul insist ca inculpatul s fie eliberat pecauiune. 6) Judectorul a hotr c trul infractor s fie trimisla o coal de reeducare. 7) Pot fi jurisconsuli absolvenii facultilor de tiinejuridice. 8) Funcia jurailor este de a declara dac acuzatul estevinovat sau nevinovat. VII. Translate in to Romanian: When the governments manifesto commitment tointroduce compulsory trade union recognition is finallyimplemented, an increasing number of employers may comeunder pressure to reach collective agreements on such mattersas the procedure for selection in the event of redundancy. TheCourt of Sessions decision in the case assumes particularsignificance against that backcloth. The employer had agreedwith the GMB a selection procedure on he basis of last in, first out, but decided instead to apply an alternative scheme.An employee who was thereby placed in the firing line soughtan order prohibiting the employer from making a selection on any basis other than last in, first out. VIII. Comment on the following proverbs: Much law, but little justice. Of two disputants, the warmer is generally in the wrong. FOCUS ON GRAMMAR UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS An uncountable noun has only one form. We cannot use numbers with it: 67 Eg. - substances, materials: water, air, oil, coffee, money, steel, food, electricity. - abstract ideas: freedom, progress, health, trouble, fun. - activities: sleep, music, work, football, research - human qualities/feelings: sadness, respect,courage, honesty, patience. The following nouns are uncountable in English: advice, business, cash, furniture, health, homework, luggage,machinery, money, accommodation, traffic, weather. A few uncountable nouns and in s: athletics,diabetes, economics, gymnastics, measles, news, politics. Uncountable nouns cannot be counted directly; however, we can count them using phrases like: a piece of, a bit of, an item of, a cup of, a glass of, a bottle of, a kilo of, a barrel of etc: eg. a piece/two pieces of advice a bottle/two bottles of water a bit/two bits of information a kilo/two kilos of rice an item/two items of news a barrel/two barrels of oil. Singular or Plural? Some singular nouns can be followed by either a

singular verb or a plural verb: army, audience, board, committee, family, group, management, staff, team, union: eg. The company is/are doing very well at themoment. Some nouns have only a plural form and take aplural verb: eg. clothes, contents, earnings, expenses, feelings, goods, police, scissors, remains, surroundings, trousers. 68 I. Underline the correct words: a) How much/How many pages are there on yourwebsite? b) Is/Are there many/much traffic in Geneva? c) How much/How many information have we gotabout this company? d) Where is/are the goods we ordered? e) There is/are some people waiting for you inreception. f) We bought some new equipment/equipments last month.g) He gave me an/some advice which was/were reallyuseful. h) Im afraid we havent got much/many time. i) The news is/are on at nine. They may be an/someinformation about Davos. j) You can choose some/any colour you want. II. Fill in the blanks with the correct form, singular or plural, of the verb (use simple present or past tense): 1) The United States .. a great politicaland economic power. 2) The youth everywhere .. eager to livean interesting life. 3) The headquarters located in adeveloped area. 4) A lot of information .. necessary forthe new project. 5) The equipment that we ordered . here. 6) Economics studied in all business schools. 7) The ecological farm produce in greatdemand. 69 8) The news about the closure of the company really depressing. 9) How much money left in your account? III. Singular or plural? Underline the correct form of the words in italics in each pair there is one singular and one plural: a) 1. The large content/contents of the lorry madeit possible to carry all those goods. 2. The content/contents of the book seemedinteresting enough. b) 1. The premise/premises may have been good,but the final result was a failure. 2. The companys premise/premises had to beredecorated. c) 1. They had to wait a lot before they passed thecustom/customs. 2. They admired the unique custom/customspeople keep in that village. d) 1. The sales targets for the first term/termscould not be achieved. 2. The term/terms of the contract will be drawnup by the lawyers. e) 1. The compass/compasses broke, so that theexplorer lost himself in the rain forest. 2. I borrowed his compass/compasses to finishmy diploma design. f) 1. I need the minute/minutes of the lastmeeting. 2. They didnt find out the result of the contestuntil the last minute/minutes. g) 1. The girls tried on a lot of cloths/clothes fortheir holidays. 70 2.She bought some cloths/clothes to have a fewdresses made.

h) 1. The manager has asked us to collect thefigures and submit him the statistic/statistics. 2. Students have passed their exams instatistic/statistics. IV. Translate into Romanian: a) All Dacians rose in arms when the Romans invadedDacia. b) The letter burnt to ashes. c) Clothes do not make theman. d) Have a look at the table of contents. d) Goods are usually transported in goods trains. e) They couldnt finish the project for lack of funds. f) He is a man of means, he can afford it. g) Youll find the information you need in the minutes of the meeting. h) We are all at pains to please her. i) There is a suspect on the premises. j) Ive put all my savings in the savings bank. k) She is always in good spirits. l) I cant drink spirits. m) She is sitting on the stairs n) The standard of living in the Middle Ages was very low. V. Translate into English: 1) Etajera aceasta poate ine multe cri. 2) Sunt muliclieni magazinul din col. 3) Pojarul este o boalcontagioas. 4) Cine i-a adus tirea? 5) Tplarul, pe care l-ai cunoscut la mine, face mobil frumoas. 6) Am vzut mulipeti otd sub pod. 7) Mrfurile acestea au venit din China.8) Vrei s-mi dai foarfecele o secund? 9) A tiat dou pni i a pus feliile pe mas. 10) Cu mintea ta i cu puin hrnicie pois reueti. 11) Au m cat orez loc de cartofi. 12) Oameniiacetia s-au adunat pentru a rezolva o problem important. 13) Trebuie s te duci ora s cumperi nite pahare. 14)71 Acoperiurile caselor erau acoperite cu zpad. 15) A cumpratceva ge. i place carnea de gc? 16) Turitii au tnitceva cprioare. 17) De ce se pune petrol lamp? 18) Pnea aceasta este proaspt, aceea este veche. 19) Dac clzeticeara, ea se moaie. 20) Oamenii acetia sunt din nord. UNIT 8 THE ACTORS OF THE CONSTITUTION The British monarchy must seem to outsiders acaricature of the traditional conceits: the participants are trustedto play the game, though its rules are undefined, and, if they do not abide1 by the rules, nobody knows what the sanctions mightbe. Most political business in Britain is conducted in thename of the Crown. Parliament does not govern; the Queen inParliament governs. When Parliament reassembles 2 at the beginning of a session, the Queen herself reads out the list oflaws the government hopes to pass. Every bill that passesthrough Parliament needs to have royal assent3 before it passes into law. The Queen appoints bishops, judges and the top brass4of the army, but always on the advice of the Prime minister.When one party wins a majority in the House of Commons, the monarch has no difficulty in nominating the leader of the partyto be prime minister. The Queen has to work on two principles:she must appear impartial, and must find a government capable of surviving in the House of Commons.The House of Lords is made up of hereditary and life

peers5 and peeresses, including the law lords appointed toundertake the judicial duties of the House, the archbishops ofCanterbury and York, the bishops of London, Durham and72 Winchester and 21 senior bishops of the Church of England.The main function of the House of Lords is to bring the wideexperience of its members into the process of lawmaking. The House of Commons is elected by universal adultsuffrage and consists of 650 members of Parliament (MPs).General elections are held after a Parliament has been dissolved and a new one summoned6 by the Queen. When anMP dies or resigns or is given a peerage7, a by-election8 takesplace.For electoral purposes the United Kingdom is dividedinto constituencies9, each of which returns one member to theHouse of Commons. Elections are by secret ballot. Britishcitizens and citizens of other Commonwealth10 countries, together with citizens of the Irish Republic, may vote providedthey are aged 18 or over, resident in the United Kingdom,registered in the annual register of electors for the constituency and not subject to any disqualification.People not entitled to vote include members of the House of Lords, patients detained under mental healthlegislation, sentenced prisoners and people convicted withinthe previous five years of corrupt or illegal election practices. The Representation of the People Act 1985 extends thefranchise11 to British citizens abroad for a period of five yearsafter leaving the United Kingdom and extends the right to apply for an absent vote to all those who cannot reasonably beexpected to vote in person at the polling12 station. Acandidates nomination for election must be signed by two electors as proposer and seconder, and by eight other eectorsregistered in the constituency. He or she does not require anyparty backing. A candidate must also deposit 500, which isforfeited if his or her votes do not exceed 5 per cent of thosevalidly cast. VOCABULARY 73 1) to abide by = a respecta, a se conforma (unei legi,unui regulament) 2) to reassemble = a re-convoca o trunire 3) royal assent = acordul regal; consimmtul 4) brass = ofieri superiori 5) peer = pair, nobil 6) to summon = a convoca 7) peerage = rang de pair; pairii, Lorzii Regatului 8) by-election = alegere local/parial 9) constituency = circumscripie electoral; corpelectoral 10) Commonwealth = republica englez, statul englez 11) franchise = privilegiu, scutire; concesiune 12) polling station = centru de votare COMPREHENSION CHECK I. Find the meaning of the following words and phrases: member of the House of Lords to conclude a debate

repugnance to supply to put off schedule hereditary peer to eradicate to plunge spokesman II. Answer the following questions: a) What role does the Queen play in the process oflegislation? b) What are the two principles the Queen has to workon? c) Who are the members of the House of Lords?74 d) Who undertake the judicial duties of the House? e) What does the House of Commons consist of? f) When does a by-election usually take place? g) What are the basic requirements for someone wishing to vote in a United Kingdom election? h) Is the system different from the one in our country? III. Match the English terms on the left (1-14) with their equivalent Romanian expressions (A-N) on the right: 1. ballot 2. by-election 3. constituency 4. to be entitled to vote 5. franchise 6. to lose/forfeit ones deposit 7. party baking 8. to poll 9. polling station 10. by proxi 11. to resign 12. seat 13. sentence 14. suffrage A. sufragiu B. loc, fotoliu C. a demisiona D. alegeri (legislative) pariale E. circumscripie electoral F. scrutin G. a avea drept de vot H. a condamna I. birou electoral J. prin procur K. drept de sufragiu L. a obine/primi voturi M. a-i pierde cauiunea/garania N. susinerea unui partid IV. Do not begin sentences with and, so, or but. Which words can be used to replace them? Complete thefollowing table:

Romanian English totui, cu toate acestea however moreover aadar, consecin 75 therefore pe cd, timp ce unless consecin, prin urmare aa c in order to V. Make up sentences using the following legalphrases used in law courts: to bring an action against smb. a aciona judecatpe cineva to bring a prosecution a pune sub acuzare to comply with a decision a se supune unei hotri to commit an offence a comite o infraciune to conduct an enquiry a conduce o anchet to deprive smb. of liberty a priva pe cineva delibertate to discharge a defendant a pune libertate unacuzat to give evidence a depune mrturie to grant legal aid a acorda asisten juridic VI. Translate into English: 1) Dreptul european devine din ce ce mai operantdatorit Curii de Justiie. 2) Curtea de Justiie rezolv cazuri litigioase Europa. 3) Uniunea economic i monetar a Europei este unprogres imens. 4) Judectorii fac totul pentru ca dreptul britanic srm conform cu dreptul european. 76 5) Tribunalul Primei Instane, care va trata cazurileminore, nu exist dec de ceva luni. 6) Guvernele verific deja legislaia european i suntsuspicioase cu privire la modul de scrutin. 7) Parlamentul va vota luna viitoare amendamentele laActul din 1987. 8) Patrioii pretind c Marea Britanie nu ar trebui s seplieze faa legilor europene i nici faa exigenelor CuriiEuropene. VII. Translate into Romanian: After a regulation has been adopted, there will be an expost assessment of whether the regulation actually realizes itsobjectives. This may be a formalized assessment, but most often it is an informal process through public discussion, presscomments, court decisions, etc. The result may be that oneinitiate a revision process, which generally will take the form of a report that concludes whether amendments should beintroduced, and which is subject to a political decision. If thedecision is positive, a draft of the new regulation is developed and is made subject to an ex ante review, both with respect towhether political objectives will be realized and to the morelegal technical details of the drafting. The draft be then adopted. VIII. Discussion:

Use the following quotation as a basis fordiscussion Modern societies still need myth and ritual. A monarch and his family supply it; there is no magic about a mud-stained politician (Sir Ian Gilmour) 77 FOCUS ON GRAMMAR RELATIVE PRONOUNS The words who, which, that, whom and whose canbegin a relative clause. They are called relativepronouns. For people both who and that are used, but who is more common. eg: The candidate who they chose for the job has a finance background. For things or ideas both which and that are used, butthat is more common, especially in speech. The products that you ordered were sent today. They won the contest which made us quite happy. The relative pronoun whose shows that somethingbelongs to someone or some thing. The European Union is an organization whose policieschange quite slowly. In formal English it is possible to use whom instead ofwho where who is the object of the sentence. But inmodern English most speakers only use who. The candidate who/whom we chose has a financebackground. We must keep the relative pronoun in non-definingclauses. We can not leave it out (it makes no differencewhether it is followed by a noun or a verb). The technician, who my colleagues know well, said thenetwork was working fine. The salad, which had avocado in it, was superb. That is never used in a non-defining relative clause. I. Complete the sentences with who, whose or that: 78 1) They promoted the manager ...sales team was most successful. 2) Do you know Catherine works for? 3) The consultant, ... seems very young, isspeaking to Martin. 4) I cant remember . I invited to the meeting. 5) The contract . you showed me beforewas different to this one. 6) Your colleague, I met this morning, hadthe same opinion. 7) I dont remember .. I spoke to when Icalled yesterday. 8) Its difficult to say . this fax was sent by. 9) The manual .. they sent explainseverything. 10) The customer company I visited isphoning this afternoon. II. Decide whether the words in italics are defining or non-defining relative clauses: 1) The train, which leaves at 8 a. m., doesnt stop atBath. 2) The train which leaves at 8 a. m., doesnt stop atBath. 3) The projector which has a new bulb is over there. 4) The projector, which has a new bulb is over there. 5) The food, which was very nice, was served at thebar. 6) The man who is in reception has been waiting forten minutes. 7) The technician who spoke to Tony was ourneighbour. 8) The technician who spent over on hour here, saidthe network was working fine.

79 III. Combine the following pairs of sentences bymeans of relative pronouns: who, what, which, whose, thatmaking any necessary changes. Some relative pronouns canbe omitted. 1) You sent us a letter. Thank you very much for it. 2) A receptionist answered the phone. She said thefinance manager was not available. 3) The office clerk introduced me to the visitors. Mostof them were from abroad. 4) The lecturer announced he would arrive sooner. Thisdidnt suit me at all. 5) This is Mr. Roberts, His company was among themost successful businesses last year. 6) Our company has recently launched a range of newproducts last month. Many of them are already in greatdemand. 7) The firm is sending me to New York. I work for thisfirm. 8) She wanted to be shown around the new mall. Shehad been told about the mall. IV. Translate into English: 1) De la cine a cumprat George maina? 2) De obicei nu spune cu cine se tnete. 3) Cui dorea s-i plteasc Petre? 4) Mi-a spus cui a dat cartea. 5) Tot ceea ce mi-a spus m-a impresionat profund. 6) El este un scriitor ale crui opere sunt binecunoscute. 7) Tom poart o hain care este prea larg pentru el. 8) Revista pe care mi-ai prumutat-o este foarteinteresant. 9) Fata pe care tocmai ai tnit-o este nepoata mea. 10) Biatul care a aruncat piatra va fi pedepsit. 11) Acesta este omul cruia i-am dat pachetul. 12) E acelai volum pe care mi l-ai dat sptmatrecut. 13) Bibliografia pe care mi-ai recomandat-o m-a ajutatmult s-mi fac lucrarea singur. 14) notul, care este un sport minunat, face oameniiputernici i sntoi. 81 UNIT 9 LEGAL PROFESSIONS Of the public roles played by members of the legalprofession, that of judge is most visible, but the status of judgeand the mode of entry into this branch vary considerably from country to country. The traditional independence, prestige andcreativity of the AngloAmerican judge contrasts with therather ordinary civil servant status of most continental judges. The English judiciary consists of judges of the HighCourt and appellate1 courts and comprises the Lord Chancellor,the lord Chief Justice, the Master of the Rolls 2, 11 Lords of Appeal, 18 lords justices of appeal, the Vice-Chancellor, thePresident of the Family Division of the High Court and 80other judges of the High Court. The Circuit 3 judges

try criminalcases in the Crown Courts and civil cases in the County Courtsand they are less than 400. By contrast, the American judiciaryis enormous: the federal judiciary (over 700), District judges,who are trial judges (over 545) and the judges of the state courtsystems exceeding 7, 500 though many of these may havelimited jurisdiction. Besides, American judges operate in a far less centralized system. Not only does each state have its ownjudicial system within its own borders, distinct from the federal82system which covers the whole country, but even the federal system itself is decentralized to a significant degree.In England there are two distinct kinds of legaladvisors: barristers4 and solicitors5, whereas America has oneprofessional status of lawyer, attorney or counsel. The Englishbar is exceedingly small profession. There are today about 5,300 practicing barristers which is only about one-tenth thenumber of practicing solicitors. An important factor that strengthens the cohesiveness6of this tightly knit profession is that the majority of barristerspractice in London and nearly all have chambers 7 in a very limited number of areas. The English bar is almost theapprenticeship8 for becoming a judge. Senior barristersappearing daily in court become so acquainted with the role of the judge that they can move from bar to bench9 overnight,doffing10 the role of advocate and adopting that of judge.The disappearance of the civil jury means that oral argument in English Courts tends today to encourage skill inarguing strict points of law in a way which matches theapproach of English judges. The English barrister actsas a filter through whom assertions and arguments have to be made. In this respect, he is not just a hired retainer11, but a publicofficial with important responsibilities for the working of thelegal system as a whole.According to the American Bar Foundation Research Study released in 1985, there are more than 675,000 lawyers inAmerica. About two thirds of all American lawyers are inprivate practice, with some ten per cent in government service.Unlike an English barrister who is a specialist in advocacy bua generalist in law, many American lawyers are likely tospecialize in a narrow area, and may have little sense of thegeneral values and ideas influencing judges in other areas.Unlike English barristers, most American lawyers do notregularly appear before judges anyhow, and those who do,found themselves before a wide variety of judges, state andfederal, trial and appellate. Like judges, lawyers in America are often more political than awyers in England, and in a variety ofways they play a larger role in the formulation of policy.The prosecutor, who performs the function of trial lawyer for sovereignity has extensive resources at his disposalfor investigation and preparation purposes. He is not at libertyto distort or misuse this information. He must disclose information tending to relieve the accused of guilt. The effortsof the prosecutor and the court should be directed towardfairness and justice. But it is as much his duty to refrain from improper methods calculated to produce a wrongful convictionas it is to use every legitimate means to bring about a just one. VOCABULARY 1) appellate court = curte de apel 2) Master of the Rolls = eful baroului 3) circuit judges = judectori de circumscripie 4) barrister = avocat pledant

5) solicitor = avocat, consilier juridic 6) cohesiveness = coeziune 7) chamber = sediu profesional al avocailor pledani 8) apprenticeship = ucenicie 9) bench = scaun judectoresc 10) to doff = a scoate, a schimba 11) retainer = angajat, consilier COMPREHENSION CHECK I. Answer the following questions: a) What representatives does the English judiciaryconsist of? b) What does the American judiciary consist in?84 c) How do the American judges operate? d) What factor really strengthens the cohesiveness ofthe English legal advisors? e) How does the English barrister act like? f) What is the difference between an English barristerand an American lawyer? g) What is a prosecutor? h) What way should a prosecutors efforts be directedtowards? II. Give the Romanian equivalents of the followinglegal terms; write a sentence with each of them: to caution bail to submit adviser under arrest treason tax evasion to squash a decision levy chattels III. Try to match the legal terms (1-10) with theircorrect definitions (A-J): 1. Intestate succession 2. A fine 3. Tenants in Chief 4. Tenure of land 5. The Assizes 6. Appellate jurisdiction 7. Forfeiture 8. An itinerant court 9. First instance jurisdiction 10. Equity. A. Ownership of property B. A court that moves from town to town85 C. Loss of property or a right as a result of an offence. D. The law concerning the transmission of a dead persons estate to the beneficiaries when no will has beendrawn up. E. Norman noblemen given their land directly by theking. F. The power of a court to hear and judge a new case. G. A system of law complementary to the common law. H. A sum of money that an offender must pay when ordered to do so by a legal authority as a punishment for theoffence.

I. Sittings of courts presided over by judges who wouldtravel around the country. J. The power of a superior court to review the decisions IV. Make up sentences using the following legal phrases used in law courts: to grant bail = a acorda cauiune to infringe smbs right = a clca drepturilecuiva to institute proceedings = a introduce o aciune to impose a fine = a impune o amend to issue a writ for damages = a dispune plataunor daune to make an appeal = a face recurs to pass sentence = a pronuna sentina to plead guilty = a pleda pentru vinovie to set aside = a infirma o judecat to vote down a proposal = a refuza prin vot opropunere V. Put the following actions in the correct order: 86 tried committed a crime accused interrogated charged paroled arrested thought about committing acrime interrogated sent to prison convicted arrested suspected. VI. Translate into English: Activitatea avocatului se realizeaz prin: - consultaii i cereri cu caracter juridic, asisten ireprezentare juridic faa organelor de jurisdicie, deurmrire penal i de notariat; - aprarea cu mijloace juridice specifice a drepturilor iintereselor legitime ale persoanelor fizice i juridice raporturile cu autoritile publice, instituiile i orice persoanrom sau strin; - redactarea de acte juridice, cu posibilitatea atestriiidentitii prilor, a coninutului i a datei actelor; - orice alte mijloace i ci proprii exercitrii dreptuluide aprare condiiile legii. VII. Translate into Romanian: Practitioners will need to familiarize themselves withthe rules about internal appeal procedures. A tribunal will havethe power to reduce the compensatory award for unfair dismissal where an employee has, at the time of the dismissal,been told about any appeal procedure provided by theemployer but has failed to make use of that procedure. The amount of the reduction shall be such amount (if any) as theentirely one-sided. A tribunal will also be able to make asupplementary award of compensation where an employer does not allow an employee to use an appeal procedure provided byhim. The tribunal must take account of what would have beenthe likely outcome of any appeal under the procedure in 87assessing the amount of the reduction or supplementary award,but in no case will its amount exceed two weeks pay. VIII. Comment on the proverbs: Adversity makes a man wise, not rich. It is not the coat that makes the gentleman. FOCUS ON GRAMMAR DETERMINERS

A determiner is a word used in front of a noun toshow which thing you mean, or to show the quantity ofsomething. Determiners include: a/the, my/your, this/that,all/most/some/any, no/none, much/many/a little/a few,each/every, both/either/neither. no, none We can use no with a singular noun, plural noun oruncountable noun. eg. No employee has more than 25 days paidholiday. No new ideas were put forward at the meeting. There was no useful information in the report. To emphasize the idea of none we can use none at all or not one or not a: eg. A: How many people came? B: None at all!/Not one!/Not a single person! each, every - we use each when we think of the members of a group as individuals, one by one. It is more usual with smaller groups and can mean only two. eg. Make sure that each parcel has a label. - we can use each of : 88 eg. Each of the parcels needs a label. - each can be used after the subject, or at the end of a sentence: The parcels each need a label. or The parcels need a label each. both, either, neither - we use both, either and neither to refer to two things.. both means the one and the other: Both emails/Both the emails/Both of the emails/Both of them are important. The emails are both important. Ive read them both. either means the one or the other. Neither means not the one or the other: Monday or Tuesday? Yes, either day/either of the days is fine. Monday or Tuesday? Im sorry, but neither day/neither of the days is convenient. I. Underline the correct words: 1) Every option has been/Every options have been explored. 2) The flight and hotel are booked. All/Everything is organized. 3) I cant see no/any solution to the problem, Im afraid. 4) All of/Every of the files are corrupted by the virus. 5) I cant come at the week-end. Im busy both days/every day. 6) Each our customers/Our customers each have a separate file on the database. 7) Sorry, but I cant hear either/neither of you properly. 8) Some of/Some restaurants have service included in

the price. 89 9) Not one/Not no question has been answered. 10) The key account managers each/every have their own list of clients. 11) There were none/no messages on the answering machine. 12) O K, I think that covers all/everything on that point. Shall we move on? II. Complete the sentences with a word or phrase from the list below: all, any, no, not one, none, each, every, both, either, neither. 1) I cant go There are only two flights, and there are.. seats left on .. of them. 2) I cant go. There are only two flights, and of them has any seats left. 3) We sent letters to sixty customers, but replied! 4) .. I want is a bit of peace andquiet to finish writing this report. 5) Ive phoned store in the Yellowpages and they are out of stock. 6) We have three models, and .. onehas its own special features. 7) I was nervous at the start of my talk, but after that Ienjoyed .. minute. 8) I got three letters, but there were .. foryou, Im afraid. 9) I got three letters, but there werent .. foryou, Im afraid. 10) The Trade Fair is important. We need ..Sue and Mike on the stand. 11) Both roads lead to the city center. You can take.. one 90 12) Youve been six of the best trainees that weve everhad on this course. The best of luck to .. ofyou in your future careers. III. Rewrite the second sentence so it has a similarmeaning to the first sentence and contains the word inbrackets: 1) We only have a week left (all). ..................................................... a week. 2) All the participants will be sent an agenda (every). ....................................................will be sent an agenda. 3) This idea wont work, and the other one also wont work (neither). ................................................................will work. 4) Not one of my colleagues speaks German (none). .................................................... speak German. 5) No documents were inside this parcel (any). There ................................................inside this parcel. 6) We only want a weaker dollar (all). ..................................................... a weaker dollar. 7) The hotels were both unsuitable (neither). .................................................... suitable. 8) The two proposals are interesting (both). ..............................................interesting. 9) Not all the audience understood his talk (some). .................................................. understand his talk. 10) These items arent expensive (none).

................................................. expensive. IV. Translate into English: a) El nu este nici atent, nici disciplinat. b) Nici unul dintre noi nu avea idee a cui e vina. 91 c) At poliia c i ofierul de la imigrri pot aresta un suspect care a comis o infraciune legat de imigrare. d) Oricine poate da un asemenea sfat. e) Nici oferul i nici conductorul camionului nu au fost vinovai. f) Anul acesta noi studiem at Dreptul Civil c i Dreptul Penal. g) Mi-a cerut nite plicuri, dar n-am avut nici unul. h) Infractorul va fi ori amendat, ori condamnat la un an chisoare. i) Nici Peter i nici Jane nu au fcut progrese studiul limbii engleze. j) Regretm cu toii timpul fericit al studeniei noastre. k) At Robert c i Dan au obinut note bune la examen. l) n vara aceasta el vrea s fac o excursie Frana ori Italia. 92 UNIT 10 EUROPEAN LAW The European Court of Justice in Luxembourg, the finalarbiter of European Economic Community (EEC) law, is inspired by the French Conseil dtat. The system of dividingthe court into chambers, and the role of the advocates-generalwho assist the 13 judges, are derived from the French legalsystem. If the courts model is French, its functions arefrequently compared to those of the United States SupremeCourt. Just as the supreme court settles disputes1 in the federalstructure of the United States, so the Court of Justice settlesthose in the EEC. Its judgments are final, there is no further appeal. The Courts task is to see that EEC law is properlyapplied throughout the Community. Unlike the Supreme Court, its judgments have to beunanimous. There is no dissenting2 minority, at least outsidethe judges private deliberating chamber. EEC members have no choice but to respect the rulings3 of the court: its powers areset out4 in the Treaty of Rome, which they have all accepted. Inthis, the European Court of Justice differs from two other courts with which it is sometimes confused, the InternationalCourt of Justice in the Hague (the World Court) and the93 European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg. EEC memberstates have no treaty obligation to accept rulings of the WorldCourt or of the European Court of Human Rights. All community countries are also members of the Council ofEurope and have chosen to recognise the jurisdiction of itscourt in human-rights cases.No member country has refused to accept a ruling of

the European Court of Justice on a large issue of principle. Insome instances, however, they have dithered5 for a long timebefore complying. France delayed opening its market to imports of mutton and lamb from Britain to protect its ownhigh-cost producers for several months after a courtcondemnation. Four years later Britain put into practice aruling that it should accept imports of long-life milk from thecontinent (mainly France).When France delayed applying its ruling, the courtcame under pressure to issue a second condemnation under its emergency procedures. The courts refusal to do so was at firstseized upon by some British commentators as evidence of thecourt bowing6 to political pressure. But its reasoning-that to issue a second ruling would devaluate the validity of the firstwaswidely accepted as wise. The same reasoning prevailed when the idea of penalsanctions to back up7 court decisions was rejected by EEC legalexperts looking into reforms of the Treaty of Rome designed to help speed the 1992 project along. The reforms, in the shape ofthe 1987 Single European Act, created a junior court, to easethe workload in Luxembourg. This court, called Court of First Instance, will deal with minor cases and is due to begin worklater.The most important cases concern the respect by EECcountries of their treaty obligations and, for private companiesthe application of Community competition and trade policy.American multinationals turn to the court if they feel thecommissions have fined them unfairly for breaches of EECantitrust8 law. The new rules resulting from the Single European Actand the 1992 project will add to the courts work. EEC legalexperts complain privately that the act, which was drafted 9 in less than six months, contains a number of ambiguities andeven contradictions. The court will no doubt have to sort someof them out. It will also be called upon more and more by national courts for rulings on how they should apply thegrowing number of EEC rules. And it will have to arbitrate incases where member-states contest some of the Communitys new powers. Governments are carefully checking each majoritem of 1992 legislation to see whether it requires a majorityvote or a unanimous one in the Council of Ministers or whether the EEC is competent to decide at all. Britain is beingparticularly vigilant. VOCABULARY 1) to settle a dispute = a soluiona un diferend 2) dissenting = care este dezacord sau opoziie 3) ruling = decizie (a unui tribunal), sentin 4) to set out = a pune ordine, a stabili 5) to dither = a ovi, a ezita 6) bowing = care se supune 7) to back up = a face s dea apoi 8) antitrust law = lege antitrust 9) to draft = a schia, a tocmi un plan/proiect COMPREHENSION CHECK I. Find Romanian equivalents to the following words and phrases: 95

to act indecisively complaint to yield punishable executive due process pursuant to assault and battery to threaten thereby II. Answer the following questions: a) Outline the role of the European Court of Justice. How does it differ from the other institutions? b) Do the EEC member states have any treaty obligation to accept rulings of the World Court? c) Why do the EEC legal experts complain about the Single European Act? d) Will the role of the European Court of Justice change in a more united Europe? Why?/Why not? III. Select the most appropriate answer: 1) The European Court of Justice is widely respectedbecause. A . unlike the Supreme Court, its judgments have to beunanimous. B. countries have to deffer to European law should their own legislation be at variance with it. C. an Italian refused to pay his electricity bill in 1964. D. it is the only court in the Community. 2) The European Court of Justice A. functions in exactly the some way as the French system. B. conducts all its cases in French. C. has similar powers to the U. S. Supreme Court. D. is modelled on the U. S. Supreme Court. 3) Rulings of the European Court of Justice. 96 A. have sometimes to be enforced by threatening penal sanctions B. are always accepted by member countries C. tend to be biased in favour of the French D. are always implemented immediately and without question. 4) The Court of First Instance A. was created to take some of the work pressure off the court in Strasbourg. B. will handle trade policy for private sector companies. C. will deal only with staff disputes among Eurocrats. D. was created because of the growth in the number of cases. 5) The Court of Justice. A. may well have to arbitrate on cases that arise as the result of a hastily drafted act.

B. will have less work now because of Britain. C. has received less criticism recently out of deference for its growing powers. D. is composed of exactly the same number of judges from each member country. IV. Make up sentences using the legal phrases below: to plead non-guilty = a pleda pentru nevinovie to quash a decision = a casa o decizie to resolve a conflict = a soluiona un conflict to reverse a sentence = a revoca o sentin to state the cause = a-i apra cauza to sue smb. = a da judecat pe cineva to try a case = a judeca un caz/proces to punish with imprisonment = a pedepsi cu chisoarea 97 to bring in a verdict of guilty/non guilty = a pronuna un verdict sau o decizie de achitare/condamnare (de ctre juriu). V. Match the sentences on the left with theappropriate sentences on the right: 1) The Department of Employment Productivity in Great Britain provides employment services to help men a) unless they are guilty of serious misconduct 2) Working conditions in Great Britain are regulated by legislation b) is available to be disabled 3) Much is done on a voluntary basis by employers c) which is enforced by public inspectors 4) Special help includes industrial rehabilitation d) who are seeking suitable work to get suitable jobs 5) Employees are protected by the Contracts of Employment Act 1963 against dismissal without notice e) who try to maintain good working conditions in places of employment VI. Translate into English:

Martorul: Am vzut acuzatul la locul crimei acum o lun. Procurorul: V elai, pentru c acea perioad v aflai vacan Italia. Martorul: Cum putei afirma aa ceva? Procurorul: Este foarte simplu. Am plecat cu dou sptmi aintea dumneavoastr pentru a-mi petrece vacana Italia. n ultima zi, drum spre aeroport, nu-mi gseam 98 portofelul i m-am gdit Probabil c l-am lsat camer la hotel. M-am tors la hotel unde noul locatar al camerei de hotel mi-a apoiat portofelul. Acest domn nu era nimeni altcineva dec dumneavoastr persoan. Cunoatei pedeapsa pentru mrturie mincinoas? VII. Translate into Romanian: The Equal Opportunities Commission has publishedsignificant proposals to amend the Sex Discrimination andEqual Pay Acts. The main proposal is to replace the two laws by a single statute based on the principle of a fundamental rightto equal treatment between men and women. In addition, theEOC proposes a fundamental shift in emphasis from individual to collective remedies. Pregnant workers should, it is argued,enjoy a simplified and enhanced framework of rights andbenefits and should be complemented by a proactive approachto equal pay systems and adopt equal pay policies.The EOC notes that it would continue to have a crucial role as the unique and independent agency responsible forupholding the principle of equal treatment between the sexes,but acknowledges that a number of its proposals could not be implemented realistically without a corresponding increase inits resources. VIII. Discussion: Use the following quotation as a basis for discussion: The Romanian people have no more monarch from 1947, but not only does their elected President live in a palace, he takes virtually no part in the day-today government of the country. 99 FOCUS ON GRAMMAR GERUND OR INFINITIVE? After certain verbs, either the infinitive or thegerund may be used with a difference in meaning: MAIN VERB + INFINITIVE MAIN VERB + GERUND The Infinitive refers to an action that happens after the action of the main verb. The Gerund refers to an action that happens before the action of the main verb. eg. 1. I remembered to lock the door before we left.

2. I forgot to take my camera to the mountains last weekend. 3. I regret to tell you that youve failed the test. 4. Jane stopped in the street to talk to Bob. eg. 1. Dont worry. I remember doing it. 2. Ill never forget taking those beautiful pictures on our holiday last month. 3. I regret telling you the bad news. 4. Well, but she stopped talking to Bob a month ago. I. Complete these sentences putting the verb in brackets into either the infinitive or gerund: 1. He pretended .. (not/understand)the new regulations. 2. Have you finished (study) those statistics? 3. Bank managers tend .. (be) cautious whengranting loans to small firms. 100 4. Would you mind .. (cover) me whileIm on leave? 5. Susan avoided . (upset) her boss aboutthat issue although she was right. 6. Have you ever considered .. (emigrate)? 7. The negotiating team threatened ..(break off) talks until December. 8. They denied (get) involved in such illegaltransactions. 9. We refused (accept) the terms of thecontract because they were incomplete. 10. Mike risked .. (borrow) a large sum ofmoney with the aim of setting up his own business. II. Rephrase these sentences replacing the words initalics by a gerund or an infinitive construction: a) I definitely recall that I put the envelope here on mydesk. b) I dont deny that I havent understood that part ofthe lesson. c) Fred admitted that he had read very little about thesubject d) The doctor advised Paty that she should take thepills on an empty stomach. e) Did you forget that you had given Mr. Brad thatmessage? f) She couldnt bear that be should think of her in thatway. g) He preferred that I should say nothing about it atpresent. h) Can you doubt that he will win the competition? i) I suggested that he should call a specialistimmediately. 101 j) The law requires that all the cars should beregularly tested for safety and efficiency. III. Complete the following sentences with either an infinitive or a gerund: 1. My parents have been married for twenty years;however, my father continues .. 2. For their honeymoon, my father proposed

3. While my parents were driving to the mountains ontheir honeymoon, they stopped 4. They had a nice drive, but when they arrived at thechalet, they discovered that they had forgotten 5. Have your parents ever regretted ..? 6. Have they ever tried .? IV. Translate into English using Gerund or Infinitive constructions: a) Nu-mi pot permite s cumpr o main at descump. b) Nu te-am auzit niciodat plgdu-te c ai mult delucru! c) Poate am s reuesc s-i contactez sptmaviitoare. d) Nu sunt sigur dac aceast carte merit s fie citit. e) Ei ne vor permite cu siguran s vizitm expoziia ainte de deschiderea ei oficial.. f) Te-ar deranja s m atepi p la ora 5? g) S nu uii s-l suni pe Mark i s-i mulumeti pentrucadou. h) Nu am s pierd toat ziua ateptd sosirea lor! i) Poliistul a oprit maina pentru a verifica actele. j) La ce bun s ai un ciocan dac nu ai cuie?102 k) A prefera s nu-i spui lui Jim despre noua measlujb. l) Te-am vzut traversd strada, dar nu te-am vzuturcd autobuz. m) Te sftuiesc s mai atepi puin ainte s accepiaceast slujb. n) Jane se plge c nu are pe nimeni cu care s discute. o) El a insistat s m ajute, dei tot spuneam c mdescurc. UNIT 11 JUDICIAL POWER IN THE UNITED STATES Constitution of the United States of America We the people of the United States, in order to form amore perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domesticTranquility1, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Librty toConstitution for the United States of America.Article 111 Section 1 (1) The Judicial Power shall extend to allcases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, theLaws of the United States, the Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority; - to all cases affectingAmbassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls; - to all casesof Admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction; - to controversies to which the United States shall be a party; - to controversiesbetween two or more states; - between a State and Citizens ofanother State; - between Citizens of different States; - between Citizens of the same State claiming lands under Grants3 ofdifferent States, and between a State, or the Citizens thereof4,and Foreign States, Citizens or Subjects. (2) In all cases affecting Ambassadors, other publicMinisters and Consuls, and those in which a state shall be aParty, the Supreme Court shall have original jurisdiction. In allthe other cases before mentioned, the Supreme Court shall haveappellate Jurisdiction, both as law and fact, with suchExceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress shallmake. (3) The Trial of all Crimes, except in cases ofimpeachment5, shall be by Jury; and such trial shall be held inthe state where the said Crimes shall have been committed; butwhen not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at suchPlace or Places as the Congress may by law have directed.() section 3 (1) Treason against the United

States,shall consist only in levying6 War against them, or in adheringto their Enemies, giving them Aid7 and Comfort. No person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of twowitnesses to the same over Act, or on Confession in openCourt. The Congress shall have Power to declare thePunishment of Treason, but no Attainder8 of Treason shllwork Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the lifeof the Person attained. Congress shall make no law respectingan establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercisethereof; or abridging 9 the freedom of speech, or of the press.No person shall be held to answer for a capital, orotherwise infamous crime unless on a presentment10 or indictment11 of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the landor naval forces, or in the Militia12, when in actual service intime of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb;nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witnessagainst himself; nor be deprived13 of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be takenfor public use, without just compensation. VOCABULARY 1) tranquility = linite, pace; calm 2) to ordain = a meni, a soroci, a predestina 3) grant = subvenie, donaie; dar 4) thereof = de aici; din aceasta 5) impeachment = punere sub acuzare, acuzaie 6) to levy = a recruta, a rola, a mobiliza; a percepe a strge (impozite) 7) aid = sprijin, support, ajutor 8) attainder = privare de drepturi civile i de proprietate (pentru o crim deosebit de grav) 9) to abridge = a scurta, a reduce, a limita 10) presentment = prezentare, fiare 11) indictment = acuzare, punere sub acuzaie, trimitere judecat, incriminare 12) Militia = rezerviti ( SUA); armat, oaste 13) to deprive = a priva, a lipsi COMPREHENSION CHECK I. Find synonyms for the following words: expedient to rely on to assume default vested in incidental appropriate to appoint to refrain from promptly to occur duty 105

II. Fill in the blanks with the correct word: 1) The House of Commons consists of 650 Members ofParliament who each represents a a) state b) house b) county d) constituency 2) A Bill becomes on Act of Parliament when it hasreceived the of both Houses of Parliament andthe Sovereign. a) enactment c) ratification b) consent d) assent 3) The President of the House of Lords is called the .. a) Speaker c) Prime Minister b) Lord Chancellor d) peer 4) The .................. met urgently at 10 Downing Street to decide Government policy on the new economic crisis. a) civil service c) Cabinet b) ministries d) Parliament 5) The three parts of the Parliament are the monarch, lords and ................... a) people c) commons b) government d) bishops 6) No .................... can become law until it has been sanctioned or read three times by both houses and received the royal assent. a) bill c) code b) act d) ratification III. Match the English terms with their Romanian equivalents: 1) bench 2) assize 3) prosecution 4) probation a) amare, suspendare b) cuviinare, aprobare c) vmuire, formalitate vamal d) provocare, somare, sfidare 106 5) clearance 6) to trample 7) to summon 8) adjournment 9) assent 10) challenge e) magistratur, instan de judecat f) anchet, urmrire judiciar g) libertate supravegheat h) a clca i) edin a tribunalului j) a convoca IV. Complete the following: 1) If he is guilty, _______________________________ 2) There would have been a car accident if __________ 3) He would be sent to prison if ___________________

4) If the criminal were caught, ____________________ 5) He would have been granted bail if ______________ 6) If the negotiations break down, _________________ 7) The heat would be unbearable if ________________ 8) If he had not damaged the mans car so badly, _____ 9) The trade unionists will refer the dispute to arbitration if __________________ 10) If you had not made so many mistakes, __________ V. Give the nouns corresponding to the verbs below: to perceive to qualify to retrieve to authorize to conclude to develop to rely to specify to amend to initiate to state to maintain to describe to quote to declare VI. Translate into English: 107 1) Conform dreptului European o societate ar trebui saleag tre trei opiuni. 2) P prezent, conducerea i muncitorii n-au pututs se pun de acord asupra sistemului de adoptat. 3) Comisia european a trebuit s modifice articolele cuprivire la participarea muncitorilor. 4) Acest proiect de lege ar fi putut fi adoptat 1970. 5) Este posibil ca multe treprinderi s aleag dreptuleuropean mai degrab dec propriul lor sistem juridic. 6) Crearea unei societi dup normele dreptuluiEuropean s-ar putea s devin chiar obligatorie. 7) n consecin, ar fi necesar o curte constituit din 19judectori. 8) Regatul Unit i-a modificat mult politica monetar cursul ultimelor patru luni. VII. Translate into Romanian:

The individual responsibility of ministers for the workof their departments means that they are answerable toparliament for all their departments activities. They bear the consequences of any failure in administration, any injustice toan individual or any aspect of policy which may be criticized inParliament, whether personally responsible or not. Since mostministers are members of the House of Commons, they mustanswer questions and defend themselves against criticism inperson. Departmental ministers in the House of Lords arerepresented in the Commons by someone qualified to speak ontheir behalf, usually a junior minister. Departmental ministers normally decide all matterswithin their responsibility. A decision by a departmentalminister binds the Government as a whole. On assuming officeministers must resign directorships in private and public108companies, and must ensure that there is no conflict betweentheir public duties and private interest. VIII. Comment upon the following proverbs: He that will lie will steal Laws catch flies but let hornets go free. FOCUS ON GRAMMAR IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES The following adjectives have an irregular comparison. good better the best bad, ill worse the worst much more the most many more the most little less the least far farther, further the farthest, the furthest old (older), elder (the oldest), the eldest late (later), the latter (the latest), the last near (nearer) (the nearest), the next Farther means mai deprtat. Further means suplimentar, adiional, plus, e. g. a further question means one more question. Older means 1. mai btr, 2. mai vechi. In referring to comparative ages in a family group, use elder, eldest, but attributively only. Later means mai tziu. The latter means (cel de) al doilea, acesta din urm, e. g. Dan and Peter are brothers. The former (Dan) is a teacher, the latter (Peter) is a doctor. The latest means cel mai recent, cel mai nou, e. g. This is his latest novel. (speaking of a living writer). 109 The last means ultimul, final e. g. Shakespeares last play was The Tempest. I. Translate into Romanian: 1) He has made a step further in his researches. Thelatest news Ive got is that he is drawing near to the end. 2) The manager did not find the report satisfactory; heasked for further information. 3) This street is the least noisy in the district. 4) Two boys entered the room, John and Bill. Theformer is my brother, the latter is my cousin. 5) It has been raining for two days; today the weather iseven worse than yesterday. 6) In September the days are not so short than inDecember. II. Translate into English:

1) Casa mea este mai departe de facultate dec a ta. 2) Partea proast este c nu-l pot gsi nicieri, niciacas, nici la slujb. 3) Starea bolnavului a fost mai rea astzi dec ieri. 4) Dintre cei doi martori la accident, primul era untr, al doilea era un btr jur de 75 de ani. 5) Elefantul este mult mai mare dec leul, dar mult maipuin slbatic. 6) Cele mai plcute momente vin pe neateptate. 7) Se socotea cel mai fericit om din lume cd s-acstorit cu ea. 8) Strzile capitalei sunt mai largi dec cele din oraulnostru.9) Care capital european are cei mai muli locuitori?110 10) N-am vzut niciodat un om mai grbit. III. Put the adjectives in brackets into the correct form: a) A personal loan is often a _________ (good) ideabecause the repayments are structured over a pre-arrangedperiod. b) Your homework is ________ (bad) than hers. c) Your _______ (old) sister is my ______ (old) friend. d) Yesterdays weather was ________ (bad) thantodays. e) These books are not _________ (expensive) as theother ones. f) _______ (many) people who have a problem withcash flow phone the bank and ask for on overdraft. g) This car is _____ (good) than mine. h) Certain regions produce _______ (much) petroleumthan they consume _______ (much) than they produce. i) The farmer said that it was the _______ (fat) turkeyhe had. j) This is one of the _______ (successful), _______(cheap) and ________ (practical) products of the century. k) The more, the ______ (merry) _____ says anEnglish proverb. l) This hotel manager was ________ (polite) we hadever met.111 UNIT 12 LITIGATIONS AND ADJUSTMENT Complaints1 (UK) or claims (US) to purchases2 mayarise from a delay in delivery, lost goods, damaged goods orthe delivery of wrong goods. Complaints in connection withpurchases may also arise from the non-fulfilment of the clausesin the contract of sale (default3 in carrying out the clauses in thecontract of sale) by the supplier or of those in the carriage contract by the carrier.1. Whatever the cause of your claim you should firstrefer clearly to the type of the items concerned by referring toyour own order number or to that of your suppliers invoice4 and then state the nature of your complaint in detail.1122. You may point out what difficulty the mistake hascaused to you. A reference to the reputation of the firm mayhelp your complaint in being taken into consideration moresympathetically.3. You should ask to have your complaint investigatedand specify what action you want the supplier to take: you a buyer, are entitled to refuse any goods that are not inaccordance with your order, except as the result of alterations5made in agreement with your supplier.4. You should not use warnings of cancellation orthreats of legal action too liberally. Try to reach an amicable adjustment. Replies to Complaints On receiving a complaint, you, as vendor, shoulddecide whether it is well-founded or not. Then you must write areply to the complaint. If the complaint is well-founded,

youwill first admit the error and offer a sincere apology assuringyour correspondents that you are taking measures to avoid therecurrence of such a mistake. If you feel that the complaint isunfounded you should carefully explain why his complaintcannot be accepted and endeavour to convince him that he is wrong. Legal Problems In small firms, matters such as legal action to be takenin the case of non-payment of debt, default in carrying out acontract or a dispute of any kind, are dealt with by the secretary on the instructions of, and after discussion with the directors. Inlarger firms, they are handled by the Accounts Department6,also after discussion with the directors, who will not actwithout the advice of the firms solicitors. Non-fulfilment of Contract The failure by one party to a contract to perform hispart is called a breach of contract. Breach of contract may beby: renunciation, making performance impossible or merely failing to perform his part. The aggrieved7 party may either sue113for damages or apply to the court for specific performance ofcontract. D amages Damages are the estimated reparation in money forinjury sustained. The court awards nominal damages as anacknowledgement of a breach, even if no loss has been incurred, while for actual loss suffered it awards substantialdamages. The party breaching a contract shall be under anobligation to take all required steps to mitigate8 the loss thathas taken place, providing that he can do so without undue9inconvenience or cost. Penalties10 Penalties are round sums which are stated in thecontract (penalty clause) and must be paid by any partybreaching the contract, but they should not be an attempt to assess the possible damage.Customarily, they may be stated in the contract by the way of compensation where it is difficult to estimate damagesin advance. Bribery Bribery and kickbacks11 have become common practicein former communist countries. The spread of democracy mayitself create new incentives for corruption, given the need to fund political parties and election campaigns.If Third World countries are often blamed for the spread of corruption, developed nations must take their share ofthe responsibility and blame, as the corruptors are alsocorporations fighting for contracts in military supplies, aircraft, civil works and communications.Today, international bodies are beginning to take steps to curb corruption, and the World Bank has instituted rules thatempower it to investigate corruption complaints and toblacklist12 companies and governments guilty of large scalecorruption. 114 VOCABULARY 1) complaint = plgere, reclamaie 2) purchase = achiziie, cumprare 3) default = nedeplinire a unei obligaii, a unui angajament; neplat 4) invoice = factur 5) alteration = modificare

6) Accounts Department = departamentul de registrri contabile 7) to aggrieve = a vtma; a rni 8) to mitigate = a atenua, a micora 9) undue = nepotrivit, exagerat 10) penalty = penalizare, daun penalizatoare 11) kickback = mit, sprijin bnesc 12) to blacklist = a trece pe lista neagr COMPREHENSION CHECK I. Answer the following questions: a) What do you mean by complaints or claims topurchases? b) What should one do when making a complaint? c) What is a reply to a complaint? d) What circumstances should legal action be taken in? e) What is a breach of contract? What should theaggrieved party do? f) What is the party breaching a contract to do? g) What is a penalty? Where may a penalty be stated? h) How do international bodies take steps to curbcorruption? II. Match the following terms with their definitions below: 115 1) malpractice 2) plea-bargaining 3) to subpoena 4) estoppel 5) defalcation 6) escrow 7) due course of law 8) case-law a) course of proceedings that must comply with the lawof the land and allow the defendant to benefit from all the legalprocedures and protection aimed at providing a fair trial. b) the entrusting of money, goods or a document to athird party pending fulfilment of some condition. c) a legal system such as the British or US ones based on rules and principles acted on by judges in givingdecisions in previous cases. d) neglect of professional duty, unethical or illegalprofessional conduct. e) changing ones plea by agreeing to confess to a lessercrime against the promise that the sentence will be lighter thanthe one for the main crime one is initially prosecuted for, but without clear evidence. f) a legal principle whereby one is prevented fromalleging something he or she has previously denied or viceversa. g) to order someone to appear in a law court, forinstance to summon a witness to court. It is also used in thesense of demanding that documents should be presented orsurrendered. h) the improper appropriation of funds in ones keepingbut does not involve the notion of fraud. III. Find the meaning of the following words andphrases; then make up sentences with each of them: to adjourn

to bequeth breach of trust to bring an action against smb. claimant concealment extenuating circumstances felony to go to law jail delivery maliciously probate IV. Use the following translations of a intenta un proces in sentences of your own: to take legal action to file a lawsuit to sue to bring an action (against) to go to law to go to court to undertake/to institute (legal) proceedings to institute an action at law to prefer a complaint/a charge/charges against someone V. Translate into English: 1) El va intenta proces dac nu-i va casa banii tr-osptm. 2) Vei fi surprini cd vei vedea pe martorii citaide aprare. 3) Va putea el s obin despgubire cazul clcriicontractului? 4) Sperm c vei evita neplcerile i cheltuielile uneiaciuni justiie. 117 5) Conform actului de acuzare, ei au conspirat pentruprelungirea acreditivului fr garanie. 6) Nu exist nici o clauz (prevedere) pentru pagubeleproduse prin foc. 7) El a fost achitat din lips de probe. 8) El nu este recidivist i ar fi trebuit eliberat pecauiune. 9) Prile vor cerca s ajung la o soluionareamiabil a tuturor dificultilor care pot aprea din sau legtur cu prezentul contract. 10) Dup acest termen, vom ainta problema juritilornotri. VI. Translate into Romanian: Class-action suits combine many people with the samecomplaint into a single legal action. A contingency- fee systemawards the winning partys lawyer a share of the damages collected, usually one-third. The Sherman Act provides forawards of three times actual damages. If my mother buys a local loaf of bread for 20 cents,and then finds out that all bakers in the country, including hers,have raised their prices to 22 cents, its tough to find an

attorney to bring an action against the corner bakery for 2 cents... But an attorney can put together a class-action suit on behalfof all buyers of bread, and then collect a contingency-fee based on treble damages. VII. Imagine you have to write a paper in order toinform a client that he has to pay you a sum of money. Write this paper for: a) a person who can barely read b) a corporation with a sophisticated board of directors c) a lawyer 118 VIII. Comment on the proverbs: Everybodys business is nobodys business. Few words to the wise suffice. FOCUS ON GRAMMAR EXPRESSING FUTURE There are different ways of talking about futureevents in English and they have different meanings: Predicting future events: It will probably be difficult to evaluate the losses. By next year our costs will have risen by 40%. Making a promise: Ill give you the book as soon as I finish reading it. Describing a plan or an arrangement: She is leaving at noon tomorrow. Mr. Smith will be driving into London next week. Referring to timetables or schedules: We start for Sinaia tomorrow. The train leaves at 8.30. Saying what you intend to do: Im going to finish my work next week. Referring to something that is going to happen very soon: He is just about to phone at the office. I. Underline the correct words: a) We will have moved/will be moving to our new premises in July. b) Tomorrow Ill interview/Ill be interviewing candidates all morning. 119 c) What time does your train/will your train leave? d) We cant send the goods until weve received/we will receive a firm order. e) We shall be repaying/shall have repaid the bank loan by November. f) I was going to write/was writing to them, but I forgot. g) When the contract is/will be ready, Ill let you know. h) Will we/Shall we break for coffee now? i) Sorry, I cant speak now, Ill just have/Im just about to have a meeting. j) Dont forget to turn off the lights before you are

leaving/ you leave. II. Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the verbs in the brackets to express future: 1) Mr. Roberts is not at the office right now. I (let) him know you called when he comes back. 2) They .. (start) the meeting. If youdo not come in 10 minutes youll probably miss it. 3) Please, dont call after 12.30, Mrs. Johnson.. (have) an interview then. 4) My plane for London (leave) at 7.30. 5) Prices .. (rise) if the exchange rate changes. 6) They . (take on) temporary new stafffor this project. 7) What you (do) this time next Monday? 8) I .. probably (finish) my paper tomorrow. III. Choose the appropriate way to express futurewith the verbs given in brackets: a) By this time tomorrow I _____ (travel) for ten hours. b) Where you ______ (go) for your winter holidays?120 c) Mary _______ (cook) dinner by the time her husbandcomes back home. d) By seven oclock he _____ (get) home for a half anhour. e) She said she ______ (not, sing) at the next concert. f) In a fortnights time we _____ (take) our exam. g) Peter said he ______ (ski) in the mountains at thattime on Sunday. h) You ______ (listen) to this song this time tomorrow? i) I _______ (finish) may work when you come backfrom New York j) Boys _____ (be) boys! IV. Translate the following into English, paying attention to the verb forms used to express future time: 1) Dac va treba cineva de tine voi spune stelefoneze mai tziu, 2) Cd vei sosi, ne vei gsi lucrd la raport. 3) Vom atepta aici p se toarce Paul. 4) Cerul e tunecat. Ploaia va fi toi cd vom fi gatade plecare. 5) Te vom atepta faa teatrului cd se va terminapiesa. 6) Anul viitor pe vremea aceasta ei vor locui tr-unapartament nou. 7) Profesorul v va explica din nou lecia dac veicere acest lucru. 8) Ei au de gd s-i cumpere o main nou anulviitor. 9) Cd Robert va absolvi facultatea, va fi studiat aicicinci ani. 10) Peste o lun se vor plini zece ani de cd lucrez aceast fabric. 121 IRREGULAR VERBS
Infinitive Past Tense Past Participle 1. to abide abode abode = a locui, a sta 2. to arise arose arisen = a se ridica, sui, aparea, a se ivi 3. to awake awoke/awaked awoke = a (se) trezi 4. to be was were been = a fi, a exista 5. to bear (to be born) bore/borne born = a purta, aduce,produce a da natere 6. to beat beat beaten = a bate a lovi a vinge 7. to become became become = a deveni a ajunge 8. to begin began begun = a cepe 9. to bend bent bent =a (se) doi 10. to bereave bereft/bereaved bereft /bereaved = a lipsi de, a priva de 11. to beseech besought besought = a cere cu insisten a implora 12. to bid bid/bade bid/bidden = a ordona, porunci,oferi 13. to bind (to be bound) bound bound = a uni, lega, a fi constr s 14. to bite bit bit /bitten = a muca, epa 15. to bleed bled bled =a sgera, a lsa s curg, a

stoarce 16. to blow blew blown = a sufla a arde

17. to break broke broken = a sparge, a rupe,a sfara 18. to breed bred bred = a crete, a educa, a nate, a regenera 19. to bring brought brought = a aduce, a produce 20. to build built built = a cldi, a construi, a furi 21. to burn burnt /burned burnt /burned =a arde, a praji, a calcina, a ataca 22. to burst burst burst = a rupe a izbucni, a exploda. 23. to buy bought bought = a cumpra 24. to cast cast cast = a arunca, a turna, a (se) mula 25. to catch caught caught = a prinde, a capta, a (se) bloca. 26. to chide chid (chidden) chid = a mustra, a certa a se pl ge 27. to choose chose chosen = a alege, a selecta 28. to cleave cleft /clove cleft /cloven = a (se)despica, a scinda, a separa. 29. to cling clung clung = a se ine strs de 30. to come came come = a veni, a ajunge 31. to cost cost cost = a costa 32. to creep crept crept = a (se) t a aluneca. 33. to cut cut cut = a tia, a seciona. 34. to dare dared /durst dared /durst = a drzni 35. to deal (with) dealt dealt = a se ocupa (cu) trata, a repartiza 36. to dig dug dug = a spa, a excava. 37. to do did done = a face 38. to draw drew drawn = a desena, a schia, a atrage. 39. to dream dreamt/dreamed dreamt/dreamed =a visa, a-i chipui. 40. to drink drank drunk = a bea. 41. to drive drove driven = a pune micare, a conduce. 42. to dwell dwelt dwelt = a locui, a rme, a insista. 43. to eat ate eaten = a mca, a coroda. 44. to fall fell fallen = a cdea, a da la rebut 45. to feed fed fed = a alimenta, a hrni, a aprovizion 46. to feel felt felt = a (se) simi, a testa 47. to fight fought fought = a combate, a (se) lupta 48. to find found found = a gsi, a descoperi, a explora / constata 49. to flee fled fled = a fugi, a disprea, a se scurge, a evita 50. to fling flung flung = a lansa, a arunca, a izbucni, a se npusti 51. to fly flew flown = a zbura, a lansa, a se la, a se intinde 52. to forbid forbade forbidden = a interzice, a opri 53. to forget forgot forgotten = a uita 54. to forgive forgave forgiven = a ierta 55. to forsake forsook forsaken = a prsi 56. to freeze froze frozen =a ghea, a congela a refrigera, a solidifica 57. to get got got = a obine, a primi, a deveni, a ajunge 58. to give gave given = a da, a acorda, a transmite, a aviza, a preda.

59. 60; 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. to go went gone = a merge, a funciona, a circula, a rula to grow grew grown = a se mri / dezvolta. a crete, a deveni to hang hung hung = a suspenda, a atna, a aeza receptorul. to have (to have to) had had = a avea, a poseda, a obine, a trebui s. to hear heard heard = a auzi, a asculta, a audia to hew hewed hewed/hewn = a ciopli, a tia, to hide hid hidden = a ascunde to hit hit hit = a lovi, a ciocni, a izbi, a da o lovitur to hold held held = a ine,a reine, a bloca, a opri, a fixa. to hurt hurt hurt = a rni, lovi, a avaria, a strica to keep kept kept = a ine, a reine, a menine a treine to kneel knelt knelt = a genunchia to knit knit knit = a noda, a pleti, a tricota, a bina to know knew known = a cunoate, a ti to lay laid laid = a pune, a aeza, a tinde to lead led led = a conduce, a avansa a comanda, to lean leant/leaned leant/leaned = a clina, a apleca, a se sprijini

76. to leap leapt/leaped leapt/leaped = a sri, a slta 77. to leave left left = a prsi, a pleca, a ceda, a lsa urm 78. to lend lent lent = a prumuta, a acorda. a prti 79. to let let let = a lsa, a permite 80. to lie lay lain = a consta din, a zace, a se afla, a fi 81. to lose lost lost = a pierde 82. to make made made = a face, a fabrica, a produce, a conecta 83. to mean meant meant = a vrea s spun, a se referi la, a inteniona. 84. to meet met met = a tni, a intersecta, a satisface (cerine) 85. to mow mowed mown = a cosi 86. to pay paid paid = a plti, a achita, a cinsti a onora 87. to put put put = a pune, a aeza 88. to read read read = a citi, a face lectur 89. to rend rent rent = a sparge, a rupe 90. to rid rid rid = a elibera, a debarasa 91. to ride rode ridden = a clri, a cltori 92. to ring rang rung = a suna, a telefona, a cercui 93. to rise rose risen = a (se) ridica/urca, a izvor a rsri 94. to run ran run = a alerga, a curge, a rula, a conduce. 95. to saw sawed sawn = a tia cu ferstrul 96. to say said said = a spune, a afirma 97. to see saw seen = a vedea, a elege, a consulta. 98. to seek sought sought = a cuta, a cerceta 99. to sell sold sold = a vinde 100. to send sent sent = a trimite, a emite 101. to set set set = a pune, a stabili, a monta, a regia, a ajusta. 102. to sew sewed sewn = a coase 103. to shake shook shaken = a bate, a scutura, a vibra 104. to shear sheared shorn = a tia, a mrgini, a tivi, a forfeca, a tunde 105. to shed shed shed = a arunca, a difuza, vrsa,

106. to shine shone shone = a sclipi, a strluci 107. to shoe shod shod = a potcovi, a cala 108. to shoot shot shot = a puca, a filma 109. to show showed shown = a arata, a manifesta 110. to shrink shrank shrunk = a se contracta, a se strge, a intra la ap. 111. to shut shut shut = a include 112. to sing sang sung = a cta, a fluiera, a uiera 113. to sink sank sunk = a (se) scufunda 114. to sleep slept slept = a dormi 115. to slide slid slid = a aluneca, a glisa 116. to sling slung slung = a arunca, a lansa 117. to smell smelt smelt = a mirosi 118. to smite smote smitten = a izbi 119. to sow sowed sown = a planta, a semna 120. to speak spoke spoken = a vorbi, a enuna 121. to speed sped sped = a accelera, a grbi 122. to spell spelt spelt = a scrie liter cu liter, a silabisi 123. to spend spent spent = a cheltui, a consuma, a petrece, a trebuina 124. to spill spilt spilt = a vsa, a prtia, a risipi, a turna, 125. to spin spun spun = a centrifuga, a toarce, a roti, a presa 126. to spit spat spat = a rosti, a scuipa 127. to split split split = a scinda, a despica, a fr ge, a despri. 128. to spread spread spread = a tinde, desfura, rspdi, acoperi. 129. to spring sprang sprung = a sri, a izvor a se arcui, a se trage 130. to stand stood stood = a rezista, a sta (vertical), a suporta, a se ridica 131. to steal stole stolen = a fura, a se strecura 132. to stick stuck stuck = a (se) lipi, a se fixa 133. to sting stung stung = a epa, a rni 134. to stink stank stunk = a mirosi ur 135. to strew strewed strewn = a aterne, a presra, a prtia 136. to stride strode stridden = a pi cu pai mari 137. to strike struck struck-stricken = a lovi, a izbi, a atinge. 138. to string strung strung = a ira, a lega, a tinde, a corda 139. to strive strove striven = a se strdui, a se lupta 140. to swear swore sworn = a jura 141. to sweep swept swept = a baleia, a explora, a strbate, a mtura 142. to swell swelled swollen = a (se) umfla, a crete a (se) ridica

143. 144. 145. 146. 147. 148. 149. 150. 151.

to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to

swim swam swum = a ota, a pluti swing swung swung = a oscila/balansa, a pendula/legna take took taken = a lua, a capta, a necesita teach taught taught = a preda, a vaa pe cineva tear tore torn = a rupe, a smulge tell told told = a comunica, a relata, a spune think thought thought = a reflecta, a gdi, a crede, a socoti. thrive throve thriven = a prospera, a-i merge bine, a reui throw threw thrown = a arunca, a deplasa a devia, thrust thrust thrust = a pinge, a fige a apsa tread trod trodden = a clca, a rula, a bate (un drum) understand understood understood = a elege, a deduce wake waked/woke waked/woken = a (se) trezi, a stni wear wore worn = a uza (prin frecare), a toci, a purta weave wove woven = a ese, a urzi weep wept wept = a curge/picura, a plge. win won won = a tia, a extrage, a recupera, a c iga wind wound wound = a vti, a rsuci, a bobina wring wrung wrung = a stoarce, a rsuci, a smulge write wrote written = a scrie, a registra broadcast broadcast broadcast = a transmite, a difuza grind ground ground = a mcina learn learnt learnt = a va (ceva) light lit lit =a aprinde,a lumina shed shed shed = a vrsa shave shaved shaven = a se barbieri, a tunde sit sat sat = a sta jos, a se aseza spoil spoilt spoilt = a strica, a alinta

152. 153. 154. 155. 156. 157. 158. 159. 160. 161. 162. 163. 164. 165. 166. 167. 168. 169. 170.