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14th Telecommunications forum TELFOR 2006 Serbia, Belgrade, November 21-23, 2006

Abstract This paper presents a unified symbolic analysis


of immittance inverters and revisits their realizations with
lumped and/or distributed elements. Various equivalent
realizations are symbolically analyzed with Mathematica to
generate the exact representation by means of the ABCD
parameters. Matrix representation of an immittance inverter
is used to get better insight into its operation when used as a
building block in bandpass or bandstop filter design.
Keywords immittance inverters, symbolic analysis, filter
design
I. INTRODUCTION
MMITTANCE inverters are reciprocal four-terminal two-
port linear time-invariant electrical networks that are
typically used to convert a ladder network, which uses
both series and shunt immittances, to equivalent forms that
use only series or only parallel immittances [1-6].
An idealized impedance inverter operates like an ideal
quarter-wave lossless transmission line of characteristic
impedance K Z =
c
at all frequencies. If it is terminated in
an impedance Z on one end, the impedance seen looking
in at the other end is Z K Z
2
inv
= .
An idealized admittance inverter operates like an ideal
quarter-wave lossless transmission line of characteristic
admittance J Y =
c
at all frequencies. If an admittance Y
is attached at one end, the admittance seen looking in at
the other end is Y J Y
2
inv
= .
The general inverter parameters, also referred to as the
cascade or ABCD parameters, Fig. 1, can be derived from
the equations
) (
) (
2 2 1
2 2 1
I D V C I
I B V A V
+ =
+ =
assuming standard (associated) voltage-current reference
directions. The immitance inversion property implies
0 , 0 = = D A
The immittance inverter is a reciprocal network, so the
following holds:
1 1 = = C B C B D A
In this paper we present symbolic analysis of inverter
realizations with ideal lumped elements, or transmission
line sections, or both. In addition, we illustrate the analysis
with portions of the corresponding Mathematica code [7].
D. V. Tosic and M. Potrebic are with the School of Electrical
Engineering, University of Belgrade, Bulevar kralja Aleksandra 73,
11120 Belgrade, Serbia; (e-mail: tosic@etf.bg.ac.yu).
(

=
(

2
2
1
1
I
V
D C
B A
I
V
1
V
2
V
+ +
K
(J)
1
I
2
I

Fig. 1. General inverter parameters also referred to as the
cascade or ABCD parameters.
II. LUMPED ELEMENT REALIZATION OF IMMITTANCE
INVERTERS
Immittance inverters can be realized with ideal lumped
elements if negative element values are allowed. Inductive
inverter realizations are shown in Fig.2 and the capacitive
realizations are presented in Fig. 3. The parameters L and
C are assumed to be positive. The realizations are
approximately frequency independent in a narrow
frequency range e A e .
-L -L
L -L -L
L
(
(

e
0
j
j 0
L
L
(
(

e
e
0
j
j 0
L
L
Fig. 2. Inductive realizations of immittance inverters;
matrices above the schematics are the ABCD matrices.
-C -C
C -C -C
C
(
(

e
e
0 j
j
0
C
C
(
(

e
e

0 j
j
0
C
C
Fig. 3. Capacitive realizations of immittance inverters;
matrices above the schematics are the ABCD matrices.
Symbolic analysis of immittance inverters
Dejan V. Tosic and Milka Potrebic
I
584
III. DISTRIBUTED REALIZATION OF INVERTERS
Ideal quarter-wave lossless transmission line, Fig. 4, is a
distributed element realization of the immittance inverter.
It approximates the desired frequency behavior within a
narrow range of frequencies around the frequency at
which the electrical length of the line is 2 t .
J Y =
c
K Z =
c
2 t = O 2 t = O
(
(

0
1
j
j 0
c
c
Z
Z
(
(

0 j
1
j 0
c
c
Y
Y
Fig. 4. Distributed realizations of immittance inverters;
matrices above the schematics are the ABCD matrices.
IV. LUMPED-DISTRIBUTED REALIZATION OF IMMITTANCE
INVERTERS
Networks with ideal lumped elements and ideal lossless
transmission line sections of negative electrical length can
be used to realize immittance inverters, Figs. 5 and 6. The
networks approximate the desired frequency behavior
within a narrow range of frequencies around the frequency
at which the electrical length of the line is O .
L Z
c
Z
c
O O
e
O
=
2
) 2 tan(
c
Z L ) tan(
c
O = Z K
(
(

O
0
) tan(
j
) tan( j 0
c
c
Z
Z
Fig. 5. Lumped-distributed realization of the impedance
inverter; matrix above the schematic is the ABCD matrix.
V.SYMBOLIC VERIFICATION OF INVERTER REALIZATIONS
Symbolic algebra system (CAS), such as Mathematica,
can be efficiently used to verify different realizations of
the immittance inverters. Here is a set of functions that
compute the ABCD matrix of shunt admittance, series
impedance, and transmission line section.
ParallelAdmittanceABCD[Y_] := {{1, 0}, {Y, 1}};
SeriesImpedanceABCD[Z_] := {{1, Z}, {0, 1}};
LineABCD[Z_, _] := {{Cos[], I Z Sin[]},
{I Sin[]/Z, Cos[]}}
C
Y
c
Y
c
O O
e
O
=
2
) 2 tan(
c
Y C ) tan(
c
O = Y J
(
(

O
O

0 ) tan( j
) tan(
j
0
c
c
Y
Y
Fig. 6. Lumped-distributed realization of the admittance
inverter; matrix above the schematic is the ABCD matrix.
First, let us verify the capacitive H-network from Fig. 3.
We can represent the network as a cascade of three
simpler networks, shunt capacitor, series capacitor, shunt
capacitor, and multiply the corresponding ABCD matrices
to compute the overall matrix.
PiC = Fold[Dot, IdentityMatrix[2],
{ ParallelAdmittanceABCD[I (-C)],
SeriesImpedanceABCD[1/(I C)],
ParallelAdmittanceABCD[I (-C)] }
];
TraditionalForm[PiC]
L
N
M
MM
0

C Z
CZ 0
\
^
]
]]
Similarly, the realization of Fig. 6 can be derived as
follows:
ThetaC = Fold[Dot, IdentityMatrix[2],
{ LineABCD[1/Yc, -],
SeriesImpedanceABCD[1/(I C)],
LineABCD[1/Yc, -] }
] // Simplify
Cos#2 4'
Yc Cos#4' Sin#4'
C Z
,

Cos#4' +Yc Cos#4' 2 C Z Sin#4'/


C Yc Z
,

Yc Sin#4' +2 C Z Cos#4' Yc Sin#4'/


C Z
,
Cos#2 4'
Yc Cos#4' Sin#4'
C Z

Diagonal elements of the ABCD matrix should be zero,


so we solve the equation
CRule = Solve[ThetaC[[1, 1]] == 0, C]
// First // Simplify
C
Yc Tan#2 4'
2 Z

The overall ABCD matrix of the realization is


ThetaCJ = ThetaC /. CRule // Simplify;
TraditionalForm[ThetaCJ]
L
N
M
M
M
M
0
cot+4/
Yc
Yc tan+4/ 0
\
^
]
]
]
]
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VI. IMMITTANCE INVERSION APPLICATION
Impedance inverters, for a real positive inversion factor
K, are described by a general ABCD matrix of the form
(
(

=
0
j
j 0
K
K
K
ABCD
Similarly, for real positive J, admittance inverters are
characterized by
(
(

=
0 j
j
0
J
J J
ABCD
Consider a series impedance and a shunt (parallel)
admittance as shown in Fig. 7.
Y Z
(

=
1
0 1
Y
Y
ABCD
(

=
1 0
1 Z
Z
ABCD
Fig. 7. Series impedance and shunt admittance networks.
Immittance inverters can be used to transform a series
impedance into a shunt admittance, Fig. 8, and vice versa,
Fig. 9.
Z J Y
2
=
Z J J
1:1
Fig. 8. Transformation of series impedance.
Y K Z
2
=
Y
K K
1:1
Fig. 9. Transformation of shunt admittance.
The ideal resistive transformer with unit turn ratio and
phase inversion, in Figs. 8 and 9, is required, which can be
verified by symbolic analysis. For example, for the
transformation of Fig. 8, the overall ABCD matrix of the
cascade inverter-impedance-inverter is as follows
JZJ = Fold[Dot, IdentityMatrix[2],
{ {{0, I/J}, {I*J, 0}},
SeriesImpedanceABCD[Z],
{{0, I/J}, {I*J, 0}} }
];
TraditionalForm[JZJ]
L
N
M
M
1 0
J
2
Z 1
\
^
]
]
which is of the form
Y JZJ
ABCD ABCD
(

=
1 0
0 1
where Z J Y
2
= .
The ABCD matrix of the ideal resistive (frequency
independent) transformer with a turn ratio of n and phase
inversion is
(
(

=
n
n
n
1
0
0
ABCD
so we obtain
1 =
=
n
Y n JZJ
ABCD ABCD ABCD
The ideal resistive transformer is a network, but it can
be approximately realized with an ideal lossless
transmission line section of the electrical length t = O ,
Fig 10.
O ,
c
Z
(

O O
O O
=
O
) cos( ) sin( j
) sin( j ) cos(
c
c
Y
Z
ABCD
Fig. 10. Ideal lossless transmission line section.
(

=
t = O
1 0
0 1
ABCD ,
c
c
1
Z
Y =
The transmission line section approximates the desired
behavior within a narrow range of frequencies around the
frequency at which the electrical length of the line is t.
At microwave frequencies, the ideal resistive
transformer cannot be implemented, so the transmission
line section approximation is a practical issue. Similar
reasoning applies for implementation of practical
inverters.
Many excellent books [1-4] that develop theory and
applications of immittance inverters do not clarify the
inversion mechanism detailed in this section. Even good
textbooks [5,6] drop out the ideal resistive transformer
when explaining the operation of the inverters.
Typical application of immittance inverters is to
transform a ladder LC bandpass filter realization of Fig.
10 to realizations with only series resonators, Fig. 12, or
only shunt resonators, Fig. 13.
586
V
g
R
g
R
load
L
1
L
2
C
2
C
1
L
3
C
3
L
4
C
4
. . .
Fig. 11. Ladder LC realization of a bandpass filter.
V
g
R
0g
R
0,load
L
01
C
01
K
1
L
02
C
02
. . .
K
2
K
n+1
Fig. 12. Impedance inverter realization of the bandpass filter from Fig. 10.
V
g
R
0g
R
0,load
L
01
C
01
J
1
L
02
C
02
. . .
J
2
J
n+1
Fig. 13. Admittance inverter realization of the bandpass filter from Fig. 10.
VII. CONCLUSION
We revisited definition, operation, and realization of
immittance inverters. By using Mathematica as a
computer algebra system we symbolically analyzed the
inversion mechanism and presented exact equivalent
networks for transformation of series impedance to shunt
admittance and vice versa. The equivalent networks are
important for understanding practical implementations of
bandpass and bandstop filters, particularly their phase
response, when starting from the realizations that use
immittance inverters.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
We thank Ministry of Science and Environmental
Protection of the Republic of Serbia for partial support of
our research on this topic (Project TR6154).
REFERENCES
[1] G. L. Matthaei, L. Young, and E. M. T. Jones, Microwave Filters,
Impedance-Matching Networks, and Coupling Structures, McGraw-
Hill, New York, 1964. Reprinted by Artech House, Norwood, MA,
1980.
[2] J. A. G. Malherbe, Microwave Transmission Line Filters, Artech
House, Dedham, Massachusetts, 1979.
[3] R. W. Rhea, HF Filter Design and Computer Simulation, Noble
Publishing, Norcross, GA, USA, 1994.
[4] Jia-Sheng Hong, M. J. Lancaster, Microstrip Filters for
RF/Microwave Applications, John Wiley, New York, 2001.
[5] R. E. Collin, Foundations For Microwave Engineering, 2
nd
Ed.,
McGraw-Hill, New York, 1992.
[6] D. M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering, 3
rd
Ed., John Wiley, New
York, 2005.
[7] S. Wolfram, The Mathematica Book, Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge, 2003.
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