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IS : 2026( Part III ) - 1981

Reaffirmed 1984 1 (Reaffirmed 2001)

Indian Standard
SPECIFICATION FOR POWER TRANSFORMERS
PART Ill INSULATION ( LEVELS AND DIELECTRIC TESTS

Second Revision)
Fourth Reprint MAY 1993

UDC

6213142226

621317333

BUREAU
MANAK

OF
BHAVAN,

INDIAN

STANDARDS
ZAFAR MARG

9 BAHADUR SHAH NEW DELHI 110002

Cc

February 1982

IS:2026(PartIII)-1981

Indian Standard
SPECIFICATION FOR POWER TRANSFORMERS
PART III INSULATION LEVELS AND DIELECTRIC TESTS

(Second Revisionj
Transformers Sectional Committee, ETDC 16
Chairman Representing

SHRID. V. NARKE Members .

Bharat Heavy Bkctricals Ltd, Bhopal

sHRI D. PaeM ~~ } ( Alternates to Shri D. V. Narke ) Smu P. GUPTA SHIUR. S. ARORA Directorate General of Supplies & Disposals ( Inspection Wing ), New Delhi SHIUD. R. CHANDRAN ( AItctnate ) Smu A. V. BHE~MARAO Gujarat Electricity Board, Vadodara SHRIS. H. MAKHIJANI ( Alternate ) SHRI A. CHATIZSUBB Calcutta Blectric Supply Corporation Ltd, Calcutta SHR~ T. K. G~osa ( Alternate ) SHP.IS.D. CHOTRANEY Bombay Electric Supply and Transport Undertaking, Bombay SHRIY. K. PALVANKAR ( Afterttate ) SHRID. DHAR The General Electric Co of India Ltd, Allahabad SHRIB. A. SUBIU~UNYAM ( Alternate ) Central Electricity Authority, New Delhi DIRECTOR ( SUBSTATIONS ) DEPUTY DIRECTOR ( SUFISTATZONS ) ( ACemate ) JOINTDIRECTOR TI ( SUBSTATION ) Rese;rc~c~;igns and Standards Organization, DEPUTY DIRECTOR STANDARDS
( ELJX ) ( Afternate )

DR M. V. Josm SHIUP. K. JOSHI( Alternate )


SHRID. B. MEHTA

Electrical Research and Development Association, Bombay Power Supply Co Ltd.

Tata Hydro-Electric Bombay SHRIR. cI3ANDRAMOULI ( Alternate )

( Continued on page 2 ) @ Copyright 1982 BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS This publication is protected under the Indian Copyright Act ( XIV of 1957 1 and reproduction in whole or in part by any means except with written permission of the publisher shall be deemed to be an infrigement of copyright under the said Act.

IS : 2026( Part III ) - 1981 ( Continued from page 1 )


Members SHRI V. R. NAR~~IMHAN Stiar C. S. SARMA( Alternate ) SI-IRI T. OMKUMAR SHRIP. S. RAMAN( Afternate ) SHIUI. S. PATF% &rat U. K. PATWARDHAN DR G. M. PHADKE SHRI P. K. PHILIP ( Alternate ) SHRIV. N. PRAHLAD SHRI T. B. SEN ( Alternate ) NDRAK. ROHAT~I Representing Central Power Research Institute, Bangalore NGEF Ltd. Bangalore Hindustan Brown Boveri Ltd, Bombay Prayog Electricals Pvt Ltd, Bombay Indian Electrical Manufacturers Association, Bombay Volt;ok;ty ( Motor and Transformer Plant ),

Pradip Lamp Works, Patna Delhi Electricity Supply Undertaking,

New Delhi

Rural Electrification Corporation Ltd, New Delhi SHRI G. L. DUA ( Alternate ) Bombay Suburban Electric Supply Ltd. Bombay SI-IRI R. K. SEH~AL St-rat H. S. NA~ARAJAN ( Alternate ) Siemens India Ltd, Bombay SHIUV. T. DSILVA S~IRIR. G. PARDHANANI ( Alternate ) Andbra Pradesh State Electricity Department SUPE&NTENIXNO ENGINEER ( Electricity Projects and Board ), Hyderabad ( TECHNXAL P~olECrs ) SUPEIUNTENDING ENGINEER ( GRID OPERATION ) ( Alternate ) Direc;eEtkneraI of Technical Development, DR VAKILAHMED SHRIS. K. PALHAN ( Alternate ) Crompton Greaves Ltd, Bombay SHRI C. R. VARIER SHRI S. V. MANERIKAR ( Alternote ) Kirloskar Electric Co Ltd, Bangalore SHRI T. V. VIDYARATNA RAJ SHRI M. D. KALLIANPUR ( AIternate ) Director General, BIS ( Ex-oficio Member ) SHRIS. P. SACHDEV, Director ( Elec tech ) Secretory SHRI K. M. BUTIA Deputy Director ( Elec tech ), BIS

Panel for Insulation


Convener SHRID. V. NMembers

Levels and Dielectric Tests for Power ETDC 16/P9

Transformers,

Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. Bhopal

gt s&&N~b~R} ( Altern+ to Shri D. V. Narke ) Punjab State Electricity Board, Patiala SW A. K. CHOPM * SHN K. L. BHATlA( Afternate ) ( Continued on prqpc42 )

I!3:2026(PartIU)-1981

Indian Standard
SPECIFICATION FOR POWER TRANSFORMERS
PART III INSULATION LEVELS AND DIELECTRIC TESTS

0. FOREWORD
0.1 This Indian Standard ( Part III ) was adopted by the Indian Standards Institution on 26 May 1981, after the draft finalized by the Transformers Sectional Committee had been approved by the Electrotechnical Division Council.

0.2 This standard was first issued in 1962 and was revised in 1977 with a viewto align it with the revision of IEC Publication76 Power transformers issued by the International Electrotechnical Commission and issued in the following four parts: ., General Part I Temperature-rise Part II Insulation levels and dielectric tests Part III Terminal marking, tappings and connections Part IV 0.3 The second revision of this standard ( Part III ) has been undertaken with a view to bring it in line with the latest thinking at the IEC level. The most significant modiScation in this revision is that the line of demarcation to have lightning impulse test as a routine test, has been shifted from > 145 kV to > 300 kV. 0.4 This second revision also clarifies some anomalies noticed in the first revision with regard to induced overvoltages and impulse withstand tests. 0.5 This standard ( Part III ) is to be read in conjunction with IS,: 2026 ( Part I )-1977*, IS : 2026 ( Part II )-1977t and IS : 2026 ( Part IV )-1977$ 0.6 This standard ( Part III ) is based on IEC Pub 76-3 ( 1980 ) Power transformers : Part III Insulation levels and dielectric tests and IEC *Specification for power transformers : Part I General (fist revision ). flpecification for power transformers: Part II Temperature-rise (first revision ). $Speciiication for power transformers: Part IV Terminal marking, tappings connections (first revision ).
3

and

IS : 2026 ( Part III) - 1981

Document 14 ( Central Office ) 51 Draft Amendment No. 1 to Pub 76-3, issued by the International Electrotechnical Commission. 0.7 For the purpose of deciding whether a particular requirement of this standard is complied with, the final value, observed or calculated, expressing the result of a test, shall be rounded off in accordance with IS : 2-1960*. The number of significant places retained in the rounded off value should be the same as that of the specified value in this standard.

1. SCOPE 1.1 This standard ( Part III ) specifies the requirements relating to insulation levels and dielectric tests for power transformers.

2. GENERAL
2.1 The dielectric tests ( see Table 1 ) shall generally be carried

manufacturers temperature.

works

with the transformer

approximately

out at the at ambient

2.2 The transformers shall be completely assembled as in service, except that for liquid-filled transformers the fitting of external cooling and supervisory equipment shall not be necessary. 2.3 Transformers for cable box connections or direct connections to metal enclosed SF 6 installations shall be so designed that the temporary connections can be made for dielectric tests, using temporary bushings, if _ necessary. 2.4 When the manufacturer proposes to use non-linear elements or surge divertors ( built into the transformer or fitted externally ) for the limitation of transferred overvoltage transients, this shall be brought to the attention of the user.
NATE - The insulating requirements for power transformers and the corresponding insulation tests are given with reference to specifk windings and their terminals. For liquid-filled transformers the requirements apply to the internal insulation only, and are not related to the properties of external bushing insulation under different weather conditions or contamination. Any additional requirement or tests regarding external insulation which are deemed necessary shall be subject to agreement between the purchaser and the supplier. When an od-filled transformer is specified for operation at an altitude higher than 1 000 m, it may then be necessary to select bushings designed for higher insulation levels than those specified for the internal insulation of the transformer windings. Bushings are subjected to separate type and routine tests in accordance with IS : 2099-1973t which also verify their phase-to-earth insulation, *Rules for rounding off numerical values ( revised). tSpecification for bushings for alternatiog voltages above 1 000 volts ( firsf revision ).

external as well as internal. It is presupposed that bushings and tap-changers are specified, designed and tested in accordance with IS : 2099-1973 and IS : 846%1977t. The insulation tests on the complete transformer, however, check the correct application and installation of these components.

2.5 If a transformer fails to meet its test requirements due to a fault in a bushing, to facilitate continuation and completion of the test without delay, the replacement of the faulty bushings shall be permissible. A particular case arises for tests with partial discharge measurements, where certain types of commonly used high voltage bushings create difficulty because of their relatively high level of partial discharge in the dielectric. When such bushings are mounted on the transformer it shall be permissible to exchange them for bushings of a partial discharge free type during the testing of the transformer ( see Appendix A ). 3. HIGHE;ST VOLTAGE FOR EQUIPMENT AND INSULATION LEVEL 3.1 Highest Voltage for Equipment - Each winding of a transformer shall be assigned a value of highest voltage for equipment denoted by U, which is the maximum value of the highest voltage of a system to which the winding may be connected in respect of its insulation. The rules for coordination of transformers insulation with respect to transient overvoltages are formulated differently depending on the value of When rules about specific tests fori different windings in a transformer u ar?in conflict, the rule for winding with the highest Urn value shall apply. Rules for a number of special cases are given in 4. 3.1.1 The standard values of U,,, are listed in Tables 2 to 4. The value to be assigned to a transformer winding shall be the one equal to or nearest above the rated voltage of the winding.
NOTE 1 -Single-phase

three-phase

bank

transformers intended for connection in star to form a are designated by phase-to-earth rated voltage, for example, value determines the choice of U, ( in this case, wn-

%!!- kV. The phase-to-phase z/T sequently, U, = 420 kV ).

NOTE 2 - It may happen, particularly for tapped windings, that for some reason the rated voltage of a winding is chosen slightly higher than a standard value of U,,, but that the system to which the winding will be connected has a system highest voltage which stays within the standard value. The insulation requirements are to be coordinated with actual system conditions, and therefore the standard value shall be accepted as U, for the transformer, and not the nearest higher value.

3.1.2 The value U, assigned to each winding in the transformer is part of the information to be supplied with an enquiry and order. *Specification for btishingsfor alternating voltages above 1 000 volts (first revision ).
tspecification for on-load Cap-changers. 5

TABLE 1 REQUIREMENTS

AND TESTS FOR DIFFERENT

CATEGORIES

OF WINDINGS

(Clauses 2.1, 3.2.1, 3.2.2 and5.1 ) CATEOORY OF


WINDINGS WJTHSTAND

VOLTAGES CONSTITUTING INSULATION LEVEL,RELEVANT CLAUSES AND TABLET

TESTSAND TEST Cuums

1.

2.

3.

4.

a) Separate source AC ( routine ) ( 10 ) a) Power frequency ( 5.2 and Table 2 ) b) Lightning impulse ( 5.2 and Table 2 ) b) Lightning impulse (type ) ( 12 ) on line ( optional for dry type transformers ) terminals c) Lightning impulse for neutral, if c) Modified impulse test on neutral ( special ) specified ( 5.5.3 ) d) in%%l)overvoltage ( routine ) ( 11.2 ) source AC ( routine ) a) Power frequency for line terminal a) Separate U, < 300 kV ( IO ) ( 5.3 and Table 2 ) ( corresponding to insulation level of neutral ) non-uniform b) Lightning impulse for line terminals b) YIgtning impulse on line terminals ( type ) insulation ( 5.3 and Table 2 ) c) Modified impulse test on neutral ( special ) c) Power frequency for neutral ( 5.5 ) ( 12.3.2 ) d) Lightning impulse for neutral, if d) Induced overvoltage ( routine ) ( 11.3 ) specified ( 5.5.3.) source a) Power frequency for l& terminals a) Separate AC ( routine ) ( 10 ) U,,, > 300 kV ( 5.4.1 and Table 3 ) ( correspondirrg to insrlation level of neutral ) non-uniform b) Lightning impulse for line termin& b) y;;mng Impulse on lme termrnals ( routme ) insulation specified ( 5.4.1 and Table 3 ) according to c) Modified impulse test on neutral ( special ) c) Power frequency for neutral ( 5.5 ) Method 1 ( 5.4.1 ) ( 12.3.2 ) \- .__- , d) Lightning impulse for neutral, if d) Induced overvoltage ( routine ) ( 11.3 ) specified ( 5.5.3 > source AC (routine ) a) Lightning impulse for line terminals a) Separate ( IO ) Um,3OOkV ( corresponding to insulation level of neutral ) non-uniform insula( 5.4.2 and Table 4 ) tion snecified accord- b) Switching impulse for line terminals b) ~f$t~ing impulse on line termmals ( routine ) ( 5.4.2 and Table 4 ) ing lo Method 2 c) Modified impulse test on neutral ( special ) c) Power frequency for neutral ( 5.5 ) ( 5.4.2 ) ( I.2.3.T ) . d) Lightning impulse for neutral, if d) T;Fy Impulse on line terminals ( routine ) specified ( 5.5.3 ) e) Induced overvoltage ( routine ) ( 11.4 ) ( with partial discharge indication ) Um c 300 kV uniform insulation

IS:2026(PartIII)-1981 3.2Insulation Level - The rated withstand voltages for the winding which
constitute its insulation level shall be verified by a set of dielectric tests, and the set of tests is different depending on the value of U, ( see 5 ).

33.1Two alternative
level:

definitions

are used to describe rated insulation power frequency

a) The rated lightning impulse and short duration withstand voltages.

NOTE -Definition ( a ) applies for all windings with highest voltage Urn lower than 300 kV, and for windings with U, equal to or greater than 300 kV that are specified according to Method 1 ( see 5 and Table 1 ).

b) The rated lightning and switching ( phase-to-earth ).


NOTE Definition

impulse withstand

voltages

than 300 kV that are specified according to Method 2 ( see 5 and Table 1 1.

( b ) applies for windings with U,

equal to or greater

3.2.2 If there is a winding with non-uniform insulation, the insulation level of the neutral terminal shall also be specified by the purchaser ( see also 5.5.3 ). If there is a winding with non-uniform insulation and U, > 300 kV, it shall be tested according to Method 1 or Method 2 (see 5,Table 1 ), and in the case of Method 2 further information shall be given about the choice of certain alternative procedures in the iminced overvoltage withstand test ( see 11.4 ).
3.2.3 The insulation level assigned to each winding of a transformer is part of the information to be supplied with an enquiry and order. 3.2.4 Abbreviated Notation for Insulation Levels - The rated withstand voltages for all windings rated 3-6 kV and above shall appear on the,rating plate. The principles of the standard abbreviated notation are shown by the following examples. The values of rated lightning impulse ( LI ) switching impulse ( SI ) and power frequency withstand voltage ( AC ) shall be taken from Tables 2,3 or 4.
Example 1 : A transformer

having windings 12 kV, both uniformly insulated.

with U, = 72.5 and

Insulation Levels : LI 325 AC 14O/LI 60 AC 28 Data for different windings are separated by a stroke, and the impulse level is put first. 7

IS:u)%i(PartrII)-1981
Example 2 : A transformer

having a non-uniformly insulated starconnected high voltage winding with U, = 245 kV and neutral to be non-directly earthed. The next winding is also star-connected with uniform insulation and U, = 72.5 kV, and further a tertiary, delta-connected winding with U, = 24 kV.

Insulation Levels : LI 850 AC 360-LI 250 AC 951 LI 325 AC 14O/LI 125 AC 50 For a non-uniformly insulated winding, tine terminal data are given tit, and then, after a separating dash, neutral terminal data. Exmple 3 : An autotransformer with U, = 420 and 145 kV specified according to Method 2 ( see 5.4 ) and with neutral for direct connection to earth, and a tertiary with u, = 24 kV. -Insulation Levels : SI 1050 LI 1300 -AC LI 550 -AC LI 125 AC 38/ 381 50

In this example the specification of Method 2 determines the testing of the 145 kV winding as well, and this means that there is no separately specified power frequency withstand voltage for the line terminals of this winding. The induced overvoltage withstand test in accordance with 11.4 applies to both autoconnected windings. 4. RULES FOR SOME SPECIAL CLASSES OF TRANSFORMERS 4.1 In transformers where uniformly insulated windings having different U,,, values are connected together within the transformer ( usually autotransformers ), the test voltage for separate-source power-frequency withstand test shall be determined by the winding with the highest Urn value. 43 For transformers with a high voltage winding having U,) lightning impulse tests are routine tests for all windings. 300 kV,

4.3 In transformers which have one or more non-uniformly insulated windings the test voltage for the induced overvoltage withstand test, and for the switching impulse test, ifused, are determined by the winding with the highest Urn value, and the windings with lower Urnvalues may not receive their appropriate test voltages. This discrepancy should normally be 8

IS: 2026(PartIII)-1981

accepted. If the ratio between the windings is variably by tappings, this should be used to bring the test voltage for the winding with lower U, voltage as close as possible to the appropriate value. 4.4 During switching impulse tests, the voltages developed across different windings are approximately proportional to the turns ratios. If rated switching impulse withstand voltages are assigned to several windings, the problem shall be solved as specified in 4.3. A tapped winding of lower U, without assigned switching impulse withstand voltage shall be connected on its principal tapping during the switching impulse test. 45 Series windings in booster regulating transformers, phase shifting transformers, etc, where the rated voltage of the winding is only a small fraction of the voltage of the system, shall have a value of Urn corresponding to the system voltage.
NW - It is often impracticable to test such transformers in formal compliance with this specification and it should be agreed between manufacturer and the u&r which teats have to be omitted or modified. 5. Y#NSULATION REQUIREMENTS TESTS AND DIELECTRIC WITHSTAND

5.1 The requirements and tests for different categories as given in Table 1.

of windings shall be

Nom - The extension of the lightning impulse test to include impulses chopped on the tail is sometimes specified, particularly for cases where the transformer is not protected by surge arresters. This modification is dealt with in 13.

5.2 Insulation requirements abd dielectric withstand tests for windings with Urn < 300 kV, uniform insulation. 5.2.1 The rated withstand voltages of the winding shall be as follows: a) A rated short-duration accordance with Table 2. power-frequency withstand voltage in

b) A rated lightning impulse withstand voltage for the line terminals inaccordance with Table 2. c) If specified, a rated impulse withstand voltage for the neutral terminal, with the same peak value as for the line materials. 5.2.1.1 For values of Urn lower than 52 kV there are two lists of alternatives impulse withstand voltages in Table 2. For U, = 123, 145, 170, and 245 kV there are different altetitives power frequency and impulse withstand voltages in Table.2. 9 of

TABLE 2 RATEJXWITHSTAND VOLTAGES FOR TRANSFORMER WINDINGS WITH HIGHEST VOLTAGE FOR EQUIPMENT U, < 300 kV (CrnuseJ3.l.l, ~G~WTVOLTAC~E pon&mw3~~ urn (1) kVrms 5.2.1,5.2.1.1,5.3.1, 5.5.3.1,7.1 und11.2) RATEDLIOHTNING bfFVLSEh?IliSTAND VOLTAGE (3) kV peak -----Yz List 1 1-l g 12 ii-5 24 36 3 725 123 1% 20 103 28 38 50 70 12 fl85 1230 230 { 275 230 275 { 325 :$ { 395 20 40 60 ;: 145 250 325 450 -550 550 650 550 650 750 750 850 950 40 60 75 1;; 170

RATEDSHORTDURATION POWERFREQUENCY WITHSTAND VOLTAGE (2) kV rms

170 -245 -

No,re - The underlined values are preferred in IS : 585-1962 Specification for voltages and frequency for ac transmission and distribution systems ( revised 1.

The choice between List 1 and List 2 for U, < 52 kV and the choice between alternative rated withstand voltages for Urn = 123, 145, 170 and 245 kV depends on the severity of overvoltage conditions to be expected in the system and on the importance of particular installation. Guidance may be obtained from IS : 2165-1977*. The values chosen should be clearly stated in the enquiry. *Specification for insulation coordination ( secmd revision ).

10

IS:2026(PartIII)-1981 5.2.2 The rated withstand dielectric tests: voltages shall be verified by the following

4 A separate-source power frequency voltage withstand test ( see 10 )


( routine test ). This test is intended to verify the power-frequency withstand strength of the winding under test to earth and other windings.

3 An inducedo vervoltage withstand test ( see 11.2 ) ( routine test ).


This test is intended to verify the power frequency withstand strength along the winding under test, between its phases, and to earth and other windings. ( type test ). This test is intended to verify the impulse withstand strength of each line terminal to earth and other windings, and along the winding under test.

4 A full-wave lightning impulse test for the line terminals ( see 12 )

NOTE- This test becomes a routine test when the winding considered forms part of a transformer of which at least one winding has the highest voltage for equipment U, > 300 kV.

An impulse test for the neutral terminal ( see 12.3.2 ) ( special test ), if a rated impulse withstand voltage for the neutral terminal has been specified. This test is intended to verify the impulse withstand strength of the neutral terminal to earth and other windings. NATE - Distribution transformers for suburban or rural installations are in some cases severely exposed to overvoltages. In such cases, higher test voltages or additional tests, which are not mentioned here, may be agreed to between the manufacturer and the user.

5.3 Insnbtion Requirements and Dielectric Withstand Tests for Windings with U, < 300 kV, Non-uniform Insulation 5.3.1 The rated withstand voltages of the winding shall be as follows: a) A rated short-duration power-frequency withstand voltage for the line terminals in accordance with Table 2, b) A rated lightning impulse withstand voltage for the line terminals in accordance with Table 2, c) A rated short-duration power-frequency withstand neutral terminal in accordance with 5.5, and d) If specified, a rated impulse withstand terminal in accordance with 5.5.3.
NOTE - Concernirg List 1 and List 2 in Table U= > 123 kV in Table 2, see 5.2.

voltage -%r the

voltage for the neutral


2, and alternative values for

11

I!3 : 2026 ( Part III ) - 1981 5.3.2 The rated withstand dielectric tests:

voltages shall be verified by the following

a)

induced overvoltage withstand test ( see 11) ( routine test ). This test is intend-o to verify the power frequency voltage withstand strengtk of the lin Lerminals to earth and other windings and the withstand strength : :r ;ueen the phases and along the winding under test. The test is carried Jt according to 11.3.
An ( type test ).

b)

A full-wave lightning im&se test for the line terminals ( see 12 ) The purpose of the test is as specified under 5.2.2 ( c ).

NoTE - This test becomes a routine test when the winding considered forms part of a transformer of which at least one winding has the highest voltage for equipment U, > 300 JcV.

4 A separate-source power-frequency

voltage withstand test for the neutral terminal ( see 10 ) (routine test ). This test is intended to verify the power-frequency voltage withstand strength of the neutral terminal to earth. if a rated impulse withstand voltage for the neutral terminal has been specified. The purpose of the test is as specified under 533(d).

4 An impulse test for the neutral terminal ( see 12.3.2 ) ( special test ),

5.4 bulation Requirements and Dielectric )Ilithstand Tests for Windii with Urn > 300 kV, Non-uniform Insulation - There are two alternative

methods, Method 1 ( see 5.4.1 ) and Method 2 ( see5.4.2 ) for the specification and testing of transformers which have! winding belonging to this category. Which method has been selected is part of the information to be supplied with an enquiry and with an order, and if Method 2 has been selected it is also necessary to indicate the choice between alternative procedures in the induced overvoltage withstand test ( see 11.4 ). Method 1 - For specifying and testing this method makes use of rated lightning impulse withstand voltage and a rated short-duration powerfrequency withstand voltage. The latter is also intended to represent a su5cient withstand strength against switching impulse voltages ( see 5.4.1). Meihod 2 - For specifying and testing this method makes use of a rated switching impulse withstand voltage and a rated lightning impulse withstand voltage. The induced power-frequency overvoltage test is related only to stresses under normal operating conditions and temporary overvoltages. The induced voltage test procedure specified differs from that of Method 1 in that the duration is longer, the test voltage phase-to-earth is lower, and the test criterion is based on the measurement of partial discharges in the transformer ( 8ee 5.42 ). 12

IS:2026(PartIII)-1981 5.4.1 Method 1 5.4.1.1 The rated withstand voltages of the winding shall be as follows:

a) A rated short-duration power-frequency terminals in accordance with Table 3;

withstand voltage for line

b) A rated lightning impulse withstand voltage for line terminals, in accordance with Table 3; c) A rated short-duration power-frequency withstand neutral terminal, in accordance with 5.5; and d) If specified, a rated lightning impulse withstand terminal, in accordance with 5.5.3. 5.4.1.2 The withstand dielectric tests: voltages shall be verified voltage for

voltage for neutral by the following

a) An induced overvoltage withstand test ( see 11) ( routine test ). The test is carried out in accordance with 11.3. The purpose of this test is as specilkl under 5.3.2 ( a ). b) A full-wave lightning impulse test for the line terminals ( see l2) ( routine test ). The purpose of this test is as specified under 5.2.2( c ).
TAB= 3. TEST VOLTAGES FOR LINE TERMINALS OF WINDINGS WITH &, 2 300 kV, SPECIFIED IN ACCORDANCE WITH METHOD 1 ( Clauses 3.1.1, 3.2.4 and 5.4.1.1 ) HIVOLTAOE KBREQIJIPMENT ulu RATEDSHORT-DURATION POWER-FREQUENCY RATED hXiTlWW rm~:LE7~

WITHSTAND VOLTAGE (2) kVrms 395 { 460 460 { 510 570 { 630

(1) kV rms 300 362 420 -

(3) kV peak 950 1050 1050 1 175 1300 1 425

Non 1 - The underlined value is the preferred value in IS : 585-1962 Specitication for voltages and frequency for ac transmission and distribution systems ( revised ). NOTESGuidance for the choice between alternative rated withstand ~01tagt combinations may be obtained from IS : 2165-1977 Specification for insulation Coordination ( seeold revisfon ).

IS : 2026 ( Part III ) - 1981

4 A separate-source

power-frequency voltage withstand test for the neutral terminal ( see 10 ) ( routine test ). The purpose of this test is as specified under 5.3.2( c ). An impulse test for theneutral terminal ( see 123.2 ) ( special test,) if a rated impulse withstand voltage for the neutral terminal has been specified. The test is carried out on all units of lot. The purpose of the test is as specified under 5.2.2( d ).

d)

5.42 Method 2 5.4.2.1 The rated withstand voltages of the winding shall be as follows:

a) A rated switching impulse withstand voltage for line terminals, in


accordance with Table 4.

b) A &ed

lightning impulse withstand voltage for line terminals, in accordance with Table 4. withstand voltage for

4 A I rated short-duration

power-frequency neutral terminal, in accordance with 5.5.

If specified a rated lightning impulse withstand voltage for neut@ terminal, in accordance with 5.5.3.

5.4.2.2 The rated withstand voltages shall be verified by the follc dielectric tests:

a) A switching impulse test for the line terminals (see 14 ) ( routilie

b)

test ). This test is intended to verify the switching impulse withstand s&en&h of the line terminals to earth, and between line terminals on three-phase transformers. _. A full wave lightning impulse voltage withstand test for line terminals ( see 12 ) ( routine test ). The purpose of this test is as specified under 5.2.2( c ). power-frequency voltage withstand test for the neutral terminal ( see 10 ) (routine test ). The purpose of this test is as specified under 5.3.2( c).

cl A separate-source

A lightning impulse test for the neutral terminal ( see 12.3.2 ) ( special test ) if a rated impulse withstand voltage for the neutral terminal has been specified. The test is carried out on all units of the lot. The purpose of the test is as specified under 5.2.2( d ). measurement in accordance with 11.4 (routine test ). There are alternative procedures specified in this clause, and the choice \
i

4 An induced power frequency overvoltage test with partial discharge

14

between these should be decided at the time of the order. The test procedure applies to all windings of the transformer having nonuniform insulation. This test shall be carried out after completion of the other dielectric tests. This test is carried out from the point of view of stresses under normal operating conditions and temporary overvoltages.
TARLR 4 TEST VOLTAGES FOR LINE TERMINALS OF WINDINGS WITH U, > 300 LV SPECIFIED IN ACCORDANCE WITH METHOD 2 (Clauses
HIGHEST VOLTAGE FOREQUIPMENT u*

3.1.1, 3.2.4 and 5.4.2.1 )


RATED LIGHTNINO IMPULSE WITHSTAND VOLTAGE

RATED SWITCHING IMPULSB WITHSTAND VOLTAGE ( PHASEm-Newr~~~) (2)

(1)
kVrms 300 { 362 { 420 525

(3) kV peak 850 and 950 950 and 1050 950 and 1 050 105Oandlk75 1 050 and 1 175 1175,13OOand1425 1 175,l 300 and 1 425 1 425 and 1 550 155Oand1800 18OOand1950

kV peak 750 850 f:X

950 { 1 050 : z

765

1 425 1 550

Ncm 1 - During the switching impulse withstand test on a three-phase transformer the line-to-line test voltage shall be approximately 15 times the phase-t&neutral voltage ( see 14.3 ). Nom2 - The underlined value is the preferred value in IS : 585-1962 Specification for voltages and frequency for ac transmission and distribution systems ( rev&d ). NOTE 3 - Guidance for the choice between alternative rated withstand voltage combinations may be obtained from IS : 2165-1977 Specification for insulation coordination ( second revision ).

5.5 Insulation Requirements and Tests for the Neutral Terminal of a Winding with Non-uniform Insulation 5.5.1 General - The necessary insulation level depends on whether the neutral terminal is intended to be directly earthed or not. In the latter case \ 15

IS:2026(

Part III)-1981

an overvoltage protective device should be installed on the neutral terminal in order to limit transient over voltages otherwise non-uniform insulation of the winding is not recommended.
NOTE - 55.2 and 5.5.3 deal with determination of the necessary minimum withstand voltage for the neutral terminal. An increase of the value may sometimes easily be arranged and can improve the interchangeability of the transformer in the system. It may also be necessary to design the winding with higher neutral insulation level because of the test connection to be used for the induced power-frequency test of the transformer ( see 11.3 ).

5.5.2 Neutral Terminal Intended to be Directly Earthed - This i neutral terminal which is permanently connected to earth directly or through a current transformer but without any intentionally added impedance in the connection.

5.5.2.1 In this case the short-time shall be at least 38 kV.

power-frequency

withstand

voltage

5.5.2.2 No impulse test on the neutral terminal is recommended. During impulse tests on a line terminal the neutral terminal shall be connected directly to earth. 5.53 Neutral Terminal not Intended to he Directly Earthed - This is neutral terminal which is not permanently in direct connection to earth. This may be connected to earth through a considerable impedance ( for example, arc-suppression coil earthing ). Separate phase-winding neutral The rated voltage terminal may be connected to a regulating transformer. of the surge arrester which is to be installed for neutral protection.shall be selected at least equal to the maximum power-frequency voltage under such conditions of system faults as are considered. 5.5.3.1 It is the responsibility of the user to select the overvoltage protective device, to determine its impulse protection level, and to specify the corresponding impulse withstand voltage for the neutral terminal of the transformer; A suitable standard value should preferably be selected from Table 2. The corresponding rated power-frequency withstand voltage from the table shall also apply. It should be checked that the power-frequency withstand voltage is greater than the above mentioned system-fault voltage. 553.2 The rated impulse withstand voltage of the neutral terminal is verified by either of the two tests described under 12.3.2. A chopped-wave impulse test on the neutral is not recommended.
6. TESTS ON A TRANSFORMER WiTH A TAPPED WINDING

6.1 If the tapping range is rt5 percent or less, the dielectric test shall be done with the transformer connected on the principal tapping.

16

IS : 2026 ( Part III ) - 1981 4~2 If the tapping range is larger than f5 percent, the choice of tapping cannot\be prescribed universally. Testing conditions determine the choice of tappmg required for induced power-frequency test and for switching impulse test ( see 4 ).

6.3 Under lightning impulse test the dielectric stresses are distributed differently depending on the tapping connection and general design of the transformer. Unless impulse testing on a particular tapping has been agreed, the two extreme tappings and the principal tapping shall be used, -one tapping for each of the three individual phases of a three-phase transray or the three single-phase transformers designed to form a three-phase 7. INSULATION REQUIREMENTS AND TEST CONDITIONS
DRY TYPE TRANSFORMERS FOR

7.0 Pending preparation of a separate standard for dry type transformers the provisions of 7.1 shall apply.

7.1 Dry type transformers are not a uniform category with respect to insulation requirements and tests. The clauses of this standard are applicable when dry type transformers are intended for general power distributio% in public or industrial systems. They are then designed in accordance with 5.2 and Table 2 ( List 1 or 2 ). However, for application in particular systems where the insulation requirements are lower than in general, and where this has been proven by experience, dry type transformers not designed for impulse type tests and with even lower power frequency test voltage may be applied. No definite . figures are recommended here.
8. REPEATED DIELECTRIC TESTS 8.1 lf a transformer has already withstood complete dielectric acceptance tests according to this standard, in accordance with 5.2, 5.3 or 5.4.1, and subsequently. acceptance tests are to be repeated, the test voltage levels shall be reduced to 75 percent of the original values, unless otherwise agreed, and provided that the internal insulation has not been modified in the meantime.
NOTE- The rule does not apply to the induced power freqbency overvoltage test ( see 11.4 ) on transformers specified in accordance with 5.4.2.

9. INSULATION OF AUXILIARY WIRING

specified, the wiring for auxiliary power and control circuitry shall be subjected to a one-minute,power-frequency withstand test with 2-O kV rms to earth. Motors and apparatus for auxiliary equipment shall fulfil insulation requirements to the relevant 17

9.1 Unless otherwise

IS,:2026(PartIII)-

1981

zhdian Standards ( which are generally lower than the value specified for the, wiring alone and which may sometimes make it necessary to disconnect them in order to test the circuits ).
NATE- Auxiliary e uipment for large transformers is usually dismantled for shipment. After camp f etion of erection on site a 1 000 V megohm meter test is recommended.

10. SEPARATE-SOURCE

VOLTAGE WITHSTAND

TEST

voltage jest shall be made with single-phase alternating voltage as neaily as possible to the sine-wave form and of any convenient frequency not less than 80 percent of the rated frequency. 10.2 The peak value of voltage shall be measured. by l/r shall be equal to the test value. The peak value divided _

10.1 The separate-source

10.3 The test shall be commenced at a voltage not greater than one-third of the specified test value and shall be increased to this value as rapidly as is consistent with measurements. At the end of the test, the voltage s-1 be reduced rapidly to less than one-third-of the test value before switching off. 10.4 The full test voltage shall be applied for 60s between the winding uhder test and all terminals of the remaining windings, core, frame and tank or casing of the transformer, connected together to earth. 10.5 The test shall be successful if no collapse of the test voltage occurs.
No-m - On windings with non-uniform insulation the test shall be carried out with only the test voltage specified for the neutral terminal, The line terminals therefore receive a modified induced overvoltage test in accordance with 11.3 or 11.4.

11. INDUCED OVERVOLTAGE

WITHSTAND

TEST

11.1 General - The test shall be carried out in three alternative ways in accordance with 11.2, 11.3, or 11.4 for different categories of windings. 11.1.1 An alternating voltage shall be applied to the terminals of one winding of the transformer. The voltage shall be, as nearly as possible, to the sine-wave form and of a frequency suitably increased above the rated f&quency to avoid excessive excitation current during the test.
+

11.1.2 The peak value of the induced test voltage shall be measured. peak value divided by d2-shall be equal to the test value.

The

11.13 The test shall_ be qommenced at a voltage not greater than one- third of the test value and Wall be increased to the test value as rapidly as is consistent with measurement. At the end of the test, the voltage shall be reduced rapidly to less than one-third of the test value before switching off.
18

11.1.4 Unless otherwise specified in the subsequent clauses, the duration of the test at full test voltage shall be 60s for any test frequency up to and including twice the rated frequency. When the test frequency exceeds twice the rated frequency, the duration of the test shall be

120 x rated frequency test frequency but not less than I5 seconds.

seconds,

11.2 Induced Overvoltage Withstand Test for Transformers with UoiformIy Insulated High-Voltage Winding - The test voltage across an untapped winding of the transformer shall be equal to twice the ratedvoltage, but the line-to-line test voltage of any three-phase winding shall not exceed the rated withstand voltage as given in Table>2, co1 2. 11.2.1 A three-phase winding shall preferably be tested with symmetrical three-phase voltages induced in the three winding phases. If the winding has a neutral terminal, this may be earthed during the test. 11.2.2 The test shall be successful if no collapse of the test voltage o&irrs.
11.3 Iodnced Phase-@Ear&b Overvoltage Withstand T&for Transformer with Non-uniformly Insulated High-Voltage Windings - Urn -c 300 kV ( see 5.3 ),

or U,,, ) 300 kV, specified according to Method 1 ( see 54.1).


113.1 The line terminals shall receive the test voltage value specified in the appropriate table.

11.3.2 On single-phase transformers the test is normally carried. out with, the neutral terminal earthed. If the ratio between the windings is variable by tappings, this should be used to satisfy test voltage conditions on differtnt windings simultaneously as far as possible. In exceptional cases ( see 4 ) the voltage on the neutral terminal may be raised by, connection to an auxiliary booster transformer. Another winding of the transformer under test may also be connected in series with the high voltage winding. 11.3.3 The test,sequence for a three-phase transformer consists of three single-phase applications of test voltage with different points of the winding connected to ewh at each time. Recommended test cdnnections which avoid excessive overvoltage between line terminals are -shown in Fig. 1. There are also other possible methods. Other separate windings shall generally be earthed at the neutral ifthey are star-connected and at one of the terminals if they are delta-connected. 11.3.4 The voltage per turn during the test reaches different values The choice of a suitable test connection depending on the test connection. is determined by the characteristics of the transformer and of the test plant. 19

IS : 2026( Pait III ) - 1981


NOTE - In the case of transformers with domplicated windings arrangements it is recommended that the complete connection of all windings during the test should be reviewed between manufacturer and user at the contract stage so that the test represents a realistic service stress combination as far as possible.

113.5 The test is successful if no collapse of the test voltage occurs.


u/3

IHIIJCO , II=4
w
al

UlTi
u
0 0

I@

u/J

L!uT
a3 1-W =

00

a-t

Un,

Un2

t =

U2. Unl-U.

Unr

Un,- Un2

I%.

1 CONNECTIONS FOR SINGLE-PHASE INDUCED OVERVOLTAGE


WITHSTAND TESTS ON TRANSFORMERS WITH NON-UNIFORM INSULATION

NOTE 1 - Connection ( a ) may be used when the neutral is designed to withstand at kast one-third of the voltage U. Three different generator connections to the low voltage winding are shown. Only ( al ) is possible, if the trapsformer has unwound magnetic return paths ( shell form or five-limb core form ). NOTE 2 - Coonectioo (b ) is possible and recommended for three-phase transformers having unwound magnetic return paths for the flux in the tested limb. If there is a delta-connected winding, it has to be open during the test. Connection ( c ) shows an auxiliary booster transformer, which gives a Nore3bias voltage XJ, at the neutral terminal of an auto-transformer under test. Rated voltages of the two auto-connected windings are U,,, U,,, and the corresponding test voltages, VI, u,. This connectioo may also be used for a three-phase transformer without unwound magnetic return paths having the neutral insulation designed for less ,th@one-third of the voltage II.

20

IS : 2026 ( Part III) - 1981 11.4 Induced Overvoltage Withstand Test for Transformers with Nonuniformly Insulated High-Voltage Windings, 17, > 300 kV, Specified According to Method 2 ( 5.4.2 ) 11.4.i The test applies to all non-uniformly insulated windings_ of the transformer, regardless of whether they are auto-connected or separate.

11.4.2 The- neutral terminal of the winding under test shall be earthed. For other separate windings, if they are star-connected they shall be earthed at the neutral, and if they are delta-connected they shall be earthed at one of the terminals. A three-phase transformer shall be tested either phase by phase in a single-phase connection that gives voltages on the line terminals as shown in Fig. 2, or in symmetrical three-phase connection. The choice shah be agreed between the parties at the time of placing the order.
U -o*su -0.50

iii

IFIG.

CONNECTIONS FOR INDUCED OVERVOLTAGEWITHSTAND TESTON NON-UNIFORMLY INSULATEDI-~GH VOLTAGE WINDING ACCORDING TO METHOD 2

11.4.3 The time sequence for the application of test voltage shall, be as shown in Fig. 3. The voltage shall be switched on at a level not higher than one-third of U,, raised to Uz, held there for a duration of 5 min, raised to U,, held there for a duration of 5 seconds, immediately reduced again without interruption to U,, held there for a duration of 30 min, and reduced to a value below one-third of U, before switching off.

14.4.3.1 The duration frequency.

of the test shall be independent

of the test

11.4.4 During the whole application of test voltage partial discharge shall be monitored as described below. The apparent charge shall not be higher than a specified value q. 21

IS:2026(PartIII)-1981

FIG. 3 TIME SEQUENCE MIR THE APPLICATION OF TEST VOLTAGE


11.4.4.1The test voltages between line and neutral terminals shall be expressed in per unit ( PU ) of U,,J@ as follows:

Uz shall be either l-5 Um/l/j with q = 500 PC or 1.3 Urn/q5with q = 300 pC


11.4.4.2,The choice shall be as agreed to between the manufactureradd the user at the time of placing the order.
NOTE - The values of q are provisional experience. and Sttbje4 te Tevidw ~h the lit of

11.4.4.3The partial discharges shall be observed andevahrated as A, which, follows. , Further information may be obtained from Appendix -_ in turn, refers to IS : 6209-1971*. -

a) Measurements shall be carried out at the line terminals of all nonuniformly insulated windings , which means that the higher and lower voltage li,ne terminals of an autoconnected pair of windings will be used simultaneously. b) The measuring channel from each terminal used shall be calibrated with repetitive impulses between the terminal and earth, and this calibration is used for the evaluation of readings during the test. 4 The apparent charge measured at a specif?c terminal of the transformer, using the appropriate calibration as described in ( b ) shall refer to the highest steady-state repetitive impulses. Occasional higher kicks should be disregarded. d) Before and after the application of test voltage, the background noise level shall be recorded on all measuring channels.
*Methods for partial discharge measurements.

22

IS:2026(PartIII)-1981

e) The background

noise level shall be lower than half the specified limit for apparent charge q.

f-l During the raising of voltage up to level U, and reduction from U, g) h) 3


down again, possible inception and extinction voltages shall be noted. A reading shall be taken and noted during the first period at voltage U,. Observations during the short application of voltage lJz shall not be required. During e whole of thes econd period at voltage U,, the partial discharg 2h level shall be continuously observed and readings at intervals noted or recorded.

11.4.4.4 The test shall be successful, if:

4 No collapse of the test voltage occurs, W The continuous level of apparent charge q during the last 29 of the

3Q min application of voltage U, stays below the specified limit in all the measuring channels, and does not show a sign&ant, steadily rising trend near this limit. If the apparent charge reading rises above the specified limit for a significant time and then returns below this level again the test may continue without interruption until acceptable readings have been obtained for 30 min. Occasional high kicks should be disregarded.
NOTE - As long as no breakdown occurs, and unless very high partiaI&charges aresustained for a long time the test shall be regarded as non-destructive. A failure to meet the partial discharge acceptance criterion shall, therefore, not warrant immediate rejection but lead to consultation between user and manufacturer about further investigation. Suggestions for such procedures are given in Appendix A. Difliculties concerning the bushings are mentioned in 2.

12. LIGHTNING rir;rPULSE TEST 12.1 General - The impulse generator circuit, impulse shape measuring equipment and calibration method shall be in accordance with IS : 2071 ( Part I)-1974*, IS : 2071 (Part II)-1974t and IS : 2071 (Part III )-1976#. 121.1 For oil-immersed transformers the test voltage chosen shall normally be of negative polarity, because this reduces the risk of erratic external flashover in the test circuit.
*Methods of hi
( firsf revision ).

voltage testing: Part I General detbritions and test requirementa

*Methods of high voltage testing: Part II Test procedures (first revision ). $Methods of high voltage testing: Part III Measuring devices ( first revision ).

23

IS : 2026 ( Part III ) - 1981


12.1.2 Bushing spark gaps may be removed or their spacing increased to prevent sparkover during the test. 12.1.3 When non-linear elements or surge diverters - built into the transformer or external - are installed for the limitation of transferred overvoltage transients, the impulse test procedure shall be discussed in advance for each particular case. If such elements are present during the test, the evaluation of test records may be difficult ( see 12.5)

12.1.4 The test impulse shall be a full standard l-2 f 30 percent/50 f 20 percent microseconds.

lightning

impulse

12.1.5 There are cases, however, where this standard impulse shape can not reasonably be obtained, because of low winding inductance or high capacitance to earth. The resulting impulse shape is then often oscillatory. Wider tolerances may, in such cases, be permitted by agreement between the parties. The amplitude of opposite polarity of an oscillatory impulse should not exceed 50 percent of the first amplitude. The impulse shape problem may also be treated by alternative methods of earthing during the test ( see 12.3 ). 12.1.6 The impulse circuit and measuring connections unchanged during calibration and full voltage tests. shall remain

12.2 Test Sequence - The test sequence shall consist of one impulse of a voltage between 50 percent and 75 percent of the full test voltage, and three subsequent impulses at full voltage. If during any. of these applications an external flashover in the circuit or across a bushing gap should occur, or if the oscillographic recording should fail on any of the specified measuring channels, that application shall be disregarded and a further application made. 12.2.1 Additional impulses at amplitudes not higher than 50 percent may be used but need not be shown in the report of the test. 123 Termind Comtections
123.1

Terminal Comiectiom During Tests on Line Terminah

12.3.1.1 The impulse test-sequence is applied to each of the line terminals of the tested winding in succession. In the case of a three-phase transformer, the other line terminals of the winding shall .be earthed directly or through a low impedance, such as a current measuring shunt. 123.13 If the winding has a neutral terminal, the neutral shall be earthed directly or through a low impedance, such as a current measuring shunt. The tank shall be earthed. 24

123.13 In the case of a separate-winding transformer, terminals of windings not under test are likewise earthed directly or through impedances so that under all circumstances the voltage appearing on them is limited to less than 75 percent of their rated withstand voltage.

12.3.1.4 In the case of an auto-transformer, when testing the line terminals of the high-voltage winding, it may happen that the standard impulse wave-form can not reasonably be obtained if the line terminals of the common winding are earthed directly or through a current measuring shunt. The same applies to the testing of the line terminals of the oommon winding if the line terminals of the high-voltage winding are earthed. It is then permissible to earth the non-tested line terminals through resistors not exceeding 400 ohms. On the other side the voltages appearing on the nontested line terminals to earth should not exceed 75 percent of their rated lightning impulse withstaad voltage. 12.3.15 With impulse testing windings with low impedance it is difficult to obtain correct impulse shape on the tested terminals. In this case wider tolerances may be applied by agreement between the parties ( see 12.15 ). It is also possible to simplify the problem by earthing the no&tested terminals of the winding through resistors. The resistance value shall not be higher than 500 ohms and shall be chosen so that the voltage appearing on the terminals- is limited to not more than 75 percent of their rated withstand voltage. Alternatively by agreement at the time of placing the order the transferred surge method in accordance with 12.3.3 may be employed. Exceptions from this main procedure are given under 12.3.2 and 12.33. 123.2 Impulse Test on a Neutral Terminal 12.3.2.1 When the neutral terminal of a winding has a rated impulse withstand voltage it may be verified by an impulse test applied through any one of the line terminals or through all three line terminals of a three-phase winding connected together. The neutral terminal is connected to earth through an impedance, and the voltage amplitude developed across this impedance when a -standard lightning impulse is applied to the line terminal shall be equal to the rated withstand voltage of the neutral terminal. The amplitude of the impulse applied to the line terminal is not prescribed but shall not exceed 75 percent of the rated lightning impulse withstand voltage of the line terminal. 12.3.2.2 As an alternative an impulse test corresponding to the rated withstand voltage of the neutral may be applied directly to the neutral with al1 line terminals earthed. In this case. however, a longer duration of the front time is allowed-up to 13 microseconds.
25

12.33 Tran.$erred Surge Method 12.3.3.1 When the low voltage winding cannot in service be subjected to lightning overvoltages from the low voltage system, this winding may by an agreement between the manufacturer and the user, be impulse-tested with surges transferred from the high voltage winding. A guidance for this purpose is provided in Appendix B. 1233.2 This method is justified when the design is such that an impulse directly applied to the low voltage winding could result in unrealistic stressing of higher voltage windings, particularly when there is a large tapping winding physically adjacent to the low voltage winding. 12.333 In applying the transferred surge method, the tests on the low voltage winding are carried out simultaneously with the impulse tests on the adjacent higher voltage winding. The line terminals of the low voltage winding are connected to earth through resistances of such value that the amplitude of transferred impulse voltage between line terminal and earth or between different line terminals or across a phase winding is as high as possible but not .exceeding the rated impulse withstand voltage. The resistance shall not exceed 5 000 ohms. The wave at the low voltage winding terminals may have any shape and shall be acceptable. 12.3.3.4 The details of the procedure shall be agreed before the test. 12.4 Records of Test 12.4.1 The oscillographic recordes obtained during calibrations and tests shall clearly show the applied voltage impulse shape ( front time, time to half value ). 12.4.2 At least one more measurement channel shall be used. In most cases an oscillogram of the current flowing to earth from the tested winding will present the best sensitivity for fault indication. The current flowing from tank to earth, or the transferred voltage in a non-tested winding are examples of alternative suitable measuring quantities. 12.5 Test Criteria - The absence of significant differences between voltage and current transients recorded at reduced voltage and those recorded at full test voltage constitute evidence that the insulation has withstood the test.
detailed interpretation of the oscillographic test records and NOTE1 -The discrimination of marginal disturbances from true records of failure require a great deal of skill and experience. No.1732- If there is doubt about the interpretation of possible discrepancies between o~~ill~~arns,three subsequent impulses at full voltage shall be applied, or the wfiole impulse test on the terminal shall be repeated.

Is:2026(PartIII)-.19&I
NOTE3 -Additional obs&iitions during the test (smmd effect, etc) may be used to confirm the oacilIogra~hic rawrds, but they do not cotwitutc evidawe ia
thCUlSdVeS.

13. TEST WITH LIGHTNING IMPUISE, CHOPPED ON ITIETAIL 13.1 General of a winding. combined with The peak value impulse. This test is a special test to be carried out on line terminals When it has been agreed to carry out this test it shall be the full lightning impulse test in the manner described below. of the chopped impulse shall be the same as for the full

Usually, the same settings of the impulse generator and measuring equipment are used, and only the chopping gap equipment is added. The standard lightning impulse sl.$l have a time to chopping between 2 to 6 microseconds. 13.2 Chopping Gap md Characteristics of the Chopping - The use of a triggered-type chopping gap with adjustable timing is recommended although a plain rod-rod gap is allowed. The chopping circuit shall be so arianged that the amount of overswing to opposite polarity of the rded impulse will be limited to not more than 30 percent of the amplitu z? of the chopped impulse. 13.3 Test Sequence and Test Criteria - As indicated under 13.1, this test is combined with full impulse test in a single sequence. The recommended order of the different pulse applications is: a) one reduced full impulse, b) one 100 percent full impulse, c) one or more reduced chopped impulses, d) two 100 percent chopped impulses, and e) two 100 percent full impulses. 13.3.1 The same types of measuring channels and oscillograms as for the full impulse test ( see 12 ) shall be used. 13.3.2 In principle, the detection of faults during a chopped impulse test depends essentially on a comparison of the oscillographic records of 100 percent and reduced chopped impulses. The neutral current record ( or any other supplementary recording ) presents a superposition of t&sient phenomena due to the front of the original impulse and from the chopping. Account should therefore be taken of the possible variations, even slight, of the chopping time delay. The latter part of the oscillation pattern is then modified, and this effect is difficult to separate from the record of a fault. 27

1333 The recordings of successive 100 percent full impulse tests con&itute a supplementary criterion of a fault, but they do not constitute in themselves a quality criterion for the chopped impulse test. 14. SWITCHING IMPULSE TEST 14.1 General 14.1.1 Measuring equipment and calibration methods shall be in accordance with 1s : 2071 ( Part I )-1974*. The test is a routine test for windings with & > 300 kV specified according to Method 2 ( see 5.4.2 ). 14.13 The impulses shall be applied either directly from the impulse voltage source to a line terminal of the winding under test, or to a lower voltage winding so that the test voltage is inductively transferred to the winding under test. The specified test voltage shall appear between line -and neutral terminals and the neutral shall be earthed. In a three-phase transformer the voltage developed between line terminals during the test shahbe approximately 1.5 times the voltage between line and neutral termi,nals ( see 143 ). 14.13 The test voltage should normally be of negative polarity because this reduces the risk of erratic external Sashover in the test circuit. 14.1.4 The voltage developed across different windings of the transformer are approximately proportional to their effective numbers of turns, and the .$est voltage shall be determined by the winding with the highest U, value #*e 4). .X4.1.5 The voltage impulse shall have a virtual front time of at least 20 croseconds, a time above 90 percent of the specified amplitude of at least z&l microseconds, and a total duration from the virtual origin to the first zero passage of at least 500 microseconds. NOTE1 - The impulse form is purposely different from the standard waveshape of 25012 500 microseconds.
NOTE 2 - TKe front time shah be selected by the manufacturer so that the voltage distribution along the winding under test will be essentially uniform. Its value is usually less than 250 microseconds. During the test considerable flux is developed m the magnetic circuit. The impulse voltage can be sustained up to the instant when the core reaches saturation and the magnetizing impedance of the possible impulse duration can be increased by introducing remanence of opposite polarity before each full voltage test impulse. This is accomplished by lower voltage impulses of simflar shape but opposite polarity or by temporary connection to a dc voltage source. *Methods of high voltage testing: Part I General de&&ions and test requjrements ( jirst rfrvtiorr ).

28

IS:2026(PartIII)-1981 14.2 Test Seqaence and Records - The test sequence shall consist of one impulse ( calibration impulse ) of a voltage between 50 percent and 75 percent of the full test voltage and three subsequent impulses at full voltage. If the oscillographic recording should fail, that application shall be disregarded and a further application made. Oscillographic records shall be obtained of at least the impulse wave-shape on the line terminal under test. 143 Terminal Connections 14.3.1 During the test the transformer shall be in a no-load condition in order to present &Sent impedance. Windings not used for the test shall be suitably earthed at one point but not short-circuited. For a single-phase transformer the neutral of the tested winding shall be earthed. 143.2 A three-phase winding shall be tested phase by phase with the neutral terminal earthed and with the transformer so connected that a voltage of opposite polarity and about half amplitude appears on the two remaining line terminals ( see Fig. 2 ). 1433 Bushing spark gaps and additional means for limitation of overvoltages shall be as specified for the lightnipg impulse test ( see 12.1 1. 144 Test riteria - The test is successful if there is no sudden collapse of voltage indFcated on the oscillograms. NOTE - However, the successive osdosrams may be different because of the influence of magnetic saturation on impulseduration. 14.4.1 Additional observations during the test ( abnormal sound effects, etc ) may be used to confirm the oscillographic records, but they do not constitute evidence in themselves. 15. INFORMATION REQUIRED WITH ENQUIRY AND ORDER 15.1 The technical information on insulation and dielectric supplied with the enquiry and order is given in Appendix C. tests to be

29

IS:24mi(PartIu)-198l

APPENDIX

( Clauses 2.5, 11.4.4.3 and 11.4.4.4 )


APPLICATION GUIDE FO PARTIAI, DISCHARGE MEASUREMENTS DURING &D UCED OVERVOLTAGE WITHSTAND TEST ON TRANSFORMERS A-l. INTRODUCIION A-l.1 A partial discharge ( PD ) is an electric discharge that only partially bridges the insulation between conductors. In a transformer such a partial discharge causes a transient change of voltage to earth, at every externally available winding terminal. A-l.2 Measuring impedances are connected effectively between the earthed tank and the terminals, usually through a bushing tap or through a separate coupling capacitor as described under A-2. A-1.2.1 The actual charge transferred at the site of a partial discharge cannot be measured directly. The preferred measure of the intensity of a partial discharge is the apparent charge, q, as defined in 23.1 of IS : 62091971*. A-1.22 The apparent charge, q, related to any measuring terminal is determined by a suitable calibration ( see A-2 ). A-l.23 A particular partial discharge gives rise to different values of The comparison apparent charge at different terminals of the transformer. of simultaneously collected indications at different terminals may give information about the location of the partial discharge source within the transformer ( see A-5 ). A-$2.4 The acceptance test procedure specified in the standard measurement of apparent charge at the winding line terminals. calls for

This is considered to give sufficiently good sensitivity to arbitrary discharge sources irrespective of location, provided that the recommenda-_ tions below are observed. The specified, tentative acceptance values of apparent charge are based on practical experience from partial discharge measurements on transformers which have in addition passed traditional ac dielectric tests.
*Methods for partial discharge measuremqnts. 2

30

rs;2026(PartIII)+m A-2. CONNECTION OF MEASURING AND CAtiBRATION CIRCUIIS - CALIBkATION PROCEDURE A-2.1 The measuring equipment is connected to the terminals by matched coaxial cables. The measuring impedance in its s plest form is the matching impedance.of the cable which may, in turn, be i he input impedance of the measuring instrument. A-2.2 In order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of ,the complete measuring system, it may be convenient to make use of tuned circuits, pulse transformers; and amplifiers between the test object terminals and the cable. The circuit shah represent a reasonably constant resistance, when viewed from the test object terminals, throughout the frequency range used for the partial discharge measurement. A-2.3 During the measurement of partial discharge between a line terminal of a winding and the earthed tank, the preferred arrangement is to instal the measuring impedance effectively between the condenser bushing capacitance tap and the earthed flange ( fig. 4 ). If a capacitance tap is not provided it is also possibte to insulate the bushing flange from the tank and

FIG. 4

Cr~curr FOR PARTIAL DISCEURGE MEASIJRBMBNT WHEN CONDENSER BURG CAPA~TAN~B TAP LS AVAILABLB 31

IS:2026(PartIlI)-1981 use it as the measuring terminal. The equivalent capacitances between the central conductor, the measuring terminal and earth work as an attenuator for the partial discharge signal. This is, however, covered by the calibration which takes place between the top terminal of the bushing and earth. A-2A If measurements have to be taken at a live terminal without any available condenser bushing tap ( or insulated flange ), the method with a high-voltage coupling capacitor shall be used. A partial discharge-free capacitor shall be used, and its capacitance value shall be suitably large in comparison with the calibration genemtor capacitance C,. The measuring impedance ( with a protective gap ) shall be connected between the lowtension terminal of the capacitor and earth ( see Fig. 5 ).

FIG. 5

Cnuxrr

POR PARTLU DISXARGB MU~UREMENT USINGA HIGH-VOLTAGE COUPLING CAPACITOR

A-23 The calibration of the complete measurir$ system is made by injecting known charges between the calibration terminals. A calibration generator in accordance with IS : 6209-1971* consists of a step voltage pulse generator with short rise time and a small series capacitor of known capacitance C,. The rise time should be not more than 0.1 microsecond and C, should be *Met&d8 for putid discharge mcasurcments. 32

Is:2026(PartlII)-1981 around 50 pF. When this generator is connected between two calibration terminals presenting a capacitance much greater than C,,, the injected charge from the pulse generator will be
qcJ= L. c,

where U is the voitage step ( usually 2 to 50 V ). A-2.5.1 It is convenient if the calibration generator has a repetition frequency of the order of one impulse per half cycle of the power frequency used for the test on the transformer. A-2.5.2 If the calibration terminals are spaced far apart, there is a risk that stray capacitances from connecting leads may cause errors. One method for calibration between earth and another terminal is shown in Fig. 4. Capacitor C shall then be placed at the high-voltage terminal and a coaxial cable with a matching resistor shall be used from the step voltage generator. A-2.53 If neither of the calibration terminals is earthed, capacitance from the pulse generator itself will also be a source of error. The generator shall preferably be battery-operated and have small physical dimensions. A-36 INSTRUMENTS AND FREQUENCY RANGE in conA%33 The instruments used shall have response characteristics formance with IS : 6209-1971*. -

A-3.2 Oscillographic monitoring of the test is generally useful, particularly because it offers possibility of discriminating between true partial discharge in the transformer and certain forms of external disturbances. This is based on rate of repetition, point on the wave, polarity differences, etc. A-33 The indications shall be observed continuously or at frequent intervals throughout the test period. Continuous recording by oscillograph or tape recorder is not obligatory. A-3.4 Measuring systems for partial band or wide-band systems. discharges are classified as narrow-

A-3.4.1 A narrow-band system operates with a band width of about 10 kHz or less at a certain tuning frequency ( for example radio noise meters ). A wide-band system utilizes a relatively large ratio between upper and lower limit of the frequency band, for example, 150 to 50 kHz or even 400 to 50 kHz. A-3.4.2 By using a narrow-band system, interference from local broadcasting stations may be avoided by suitably adjusting the mid-band frequency, but a check has to be made to show that winding resonances near the
*Methods for partial discharge measurements.

33

measuring frequency do not greatly affect the measurement. The narrowrband instrument should be operated at a frequency not higher than 500 kHz, and preferably less than 300 kHz. There are two reasons for this -first the transmission of the discharge pulse entails a high attenuation of the higher frequency components and second when applying a calibration pulse to the line terminal, the pulse is likely to excite local oscillations at and near the terminal, and this will complicate the calibration when mid-band frequencies greater than 500 kHz are used. A-3.4.3 A wide-band measuring system is less critical to attenuation and response to different pulse shapes and more receptive to disturbances in test locations without electromagnetic shielding. Band-stop filters may be used against radio transmitters. Identification of partial discharge sources by comparison of shape and polarity of individual. pulses may be possible. A4. ;;ES& CRITERIA-PROCEDURE AFTER AN UNSUCCESSFUL

A-4.1 At the end of 11.4 acceptance criteria are given. The steady state partial discharge level, expressed as apparent charge measured between the prescribed measuring terminals shall not be above the specified limit, and there shall not be a significant, rising trend in the vicinity of this limit. If there has been no voltage collapse; but the test has been unsuccessful because of too high but still moderate partial discharge reading ( within a : few thousand PC or less ) then the test is regarded as non-destructive. The test object shall not be rejected immediately upon such a result but further investigations shall be undertaken. The testing environment should first be investigated to find any obvious sign of irrelevant sources of partial discharges. This should be followed by consultations between the manufacturer and purchaser to agree to further supplementary tests or other action to show either the presence of serious partial discharge, or that the transformer is satisfactory for service operation. Below are some suggestions which may be useful during the above courses of action:
a) Investigation

whether the indications are truly correlated to the test sequence or just represent coincident, irrelevant sources. This is oftenfacilitated by oscillographic monitoring of the test-disturbances may, for example, be identified by their being asynchronous with the test voltage.

b) Investigation whether the partial discharge may be transmitted from the supply source. Low-pass lilters on the supply leads to the transformer under test can help in such cases. 34

IS : 2026 ( Part III ) - 1981 c) Investigation to determine whether the partial discharge source is within the transformer or outside (spitting from objects at floating potential in the hall, from live parts in air, or from sharp edges on earthed parts of the transformer ). As the test concerns the internal insulation, provisional electrostatic shielding on the outside is permitted and recommended. d) Investigation of the probable location of the source ( or sources ) in terms of the electrical circuit diagram of the transformer. There are several known and published methods. One is based on correlation of readings and calibrations at different pairs of terminals ( in addition to the obligatory readings between live terminal and earth ). It is described in A-5. It is also possible to identify individual pulse shapes during the test with corresponding calibration wave forms, if records from wide-band circuits are used. A particular case is the identification of partial discharge in the dielectric of the condenser bushings ( see A-5 ). e) Investigation by acoustic or ultrasonic detection of the geographical location of the source or sources within the tank. f) Determination of the probable physical nature of the source pj conclusions drawn from variation with test voltage level, hysteresis effect, pulse pattern along the test voltage wave, etc. g) Partial discharge in the insulation system may be caused by insufficient drying or oil impregnation. Re-processing of the transformer, or a period of rest, and subsequent repetition of the test may, therefore, be tried. It is also well known that a limited exposure to a relatively high partial discharge may lead to local cracking of oil and temporarily reduced extinction and reinception voltages, but that the original conditions may be self-restored in a matter of hours. h) If the partial discharge indications are above the acceptance limit but are not considered as very important, it may be agreed to repeat the test, possibly with extended duration, and even with increased voltage level. Relatively limited variation af the partial discharge level with voltage increase, and absence of increase with time may be accepted as evidence that the transformer is suitable for service. j) Traces of partial discharges, visible.after untanking are usually not found unless the transformer has been exposed for a considerable duration of time to levels which are very high in comparison with the acceptance limit. Such a procedure may be the last resort if other means of improving the behaviour of the transformer or identifying the source have failed. . 35

IS:2026(PartIII)-1981 A-5. LOCATION OF PARTIAL OF MULTI-TERMINAL COMPARISON DISCHARGE SOURCES BY MEANS MEASUREMENT AND PROFILE

A-5.1 An arbitrary partial discharge source will deliver signals at all accessible measuring terminal pairs of the transformer, and the pattern of these signals is a unique fingerprinp. If calibration pulses are fed in at alternative calibration terminal pairs, these pulses also deliver characteristic combinations of signals at the measuring pairs.

If there is an evident correlation between the profile of the test readings at different measuring terminal pairs and the profile obtained at the same measuring terminals for pulses fed in at particular pair of calibration terminals, then it is assumed that the actual partial discharge source is closely associated with this calibration pair. This means that it is possible to draw a conclusion as to the location of the partial discharge source in terms of the electric circuit diagram of the transformer. The physical location is different concept - a partial discharge source which is electrically~ located in the vicinity of a particular terminal may be physically located at any place along the terminal conductors associated with this terminal or at the corresponding end of the winding structure.
A-5.2

The procedure for obtaining the profile comparison

is as follows:

While the calibration generator is connected to a specific pair of a calibration terminals, the indications at all pairs of measuring terminals are -observed. The procedure is then repeated for other pairs of calibration terminals. Calibrations are made between winding terminals and earth, but may also be applied between the live terminals of the high voltage bushings and their capacitance taps ( simulating partial discharge in the bushing dielectric ) between high voltage and neutral terminals, and between highvoltage and low-voltage winding terminals. All combinations of calibration and measuring pairs form a calibration matrix which gives the interpretation reference for the readings in the actual test. The example, Fig. 6, shows an extra high-voltage single-phase autoconnected transformer with a low voltage tertiary winding. Calibrations and tests are made with reference to the terminals as indicated in the informal table in Fig. 6. The line with results at 1.5 Urn is compared with different calibrations and it is easy to see, in this case, that it corresponds best to calibration 2*1-earth. This suggests that there are partial discharges with apparent charge of the order of 1 500 pC, associated with terminal 2.1, and probably from live parts to earth. The physical location 36

IS : 2026( Part III ) - 1981

may be at any place along the connecting leads between the series winding and the common winding, or at the adjacent winding ends. The method as described is successful mainly in those cases where one distinct source of partial discharge is dominant, and the background noise is low. This is certainly not always the case.
3.1

,~----A---_--1.1 Calibration l*l-earth 2 000 pC Pl-carth 2 000 pC 2*2-earth 2 000 pC 31-eartb2000pc Test UP0 u- u, u = 1.5 u, < 0.5 < 0.5 6 50 5 2 3

Channel 2.1 2.2 arbitrary units 20 50 10 2 5 30 350 35 3.1

10 8 4 25

< 0.5 < 0.5 40

< 0.5 0.5 25

< 0.5 0.5 8

FIG. 6

IDENTIFICATION OF PD SOURCES

37

IS:2026(PartIII)-1981

A particular case of interest is to determine whether observed partial discharges may originate in the high-voltage bushing dielectric. This is investigated by a calibration between bushing line terminal and bushing capacitance tap. This calibration gives the closest correlation to the profile of partial discharges in the bushing.

APPENDIX

( Clause 12.3.3.1 )
OVERVOLTAGE TRANSFERRED FROM THE HIGH-VOLTAGE WINDING TO A LOW-VOLTAGE WINDING B-l. GENERAL R-l.1 The problem of transferred overvoltage is treated from a system viewpoint in IS : 2165-1977*. The information given below concerns only

problems associated with the transformer itself under particular conditions of service. The transferred overvoltages to be considered are either transient surges or power frequency overvoltages. B-2. TRANSFER OF SURGE VOLTAGE B-2.1 General - A study of a particular transformer installation with regard to transferred surge overvoltages is in general justi8ed only for large generator transformers - which have a high turns ratio and for large highvoltage system transformers with a low voltage tertiary winding. It, is convenient to distinguish between two mechanisms of surge transfer, namely, capacitive transfer and inductive transfer. B-2.2 Capacitive Transfer
B-2.2.1 The capacitive transfer of overvoltage to a low voltage winding may in the first approximation be described as a capacitive voltage division. The simplest equivalent circuit as seen from the low voltage winding consists of an emf source in series with a transfer capacitance Ct ( see Fig. 7 ).

B-2.2.2 The equivalent emf is a fraction of the incoming surge on the high voltage side. Ct is of the order of lOWe F. Cs and Ct are not welldefined quantities but dependent on the shape of the surge front. They can be determined together by oscillographic measurements. Pre-calculation is uncertain. l Speci6cation for insulation coordination
( second rev&on ).

38

IS:2026(PartIII)-1981

FIG. 7

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT FOR CAPACITIVB TRANSFJSR OF OVFIRVOLTAGE

B-2.2.3 A loading of the secondary terminals with switchgear, short cables or added capacitors ( a few nF ), which act as lumped capacitance C, directly on the terminals ( even during the first microsecond ), will reduce the transferred overvoltage peak. Longer cables or busbars are represented by their wave impedance. The resulting shape of secondary overvoltage will peak, corresponding normally have the character of a short ( microsecond) to the front of the incoming surge. R-2.3 Inductive Transfer - The inductive transfer of surge voltage depends on the flow of surge current in the high-voltage winding. If no external loading is applied to the secondary winding, the voltage transient usually has a super-imposed damped oscillation with a frequency determined by leakage A reduction of the inductively inductance and winding capacitances. transferred overvoltage component can be effected either by resistive damping through a surge diverter or by modification of the oscillation with capacitive loading. If capacitors are used, the capacitance value has usually to be of ( They will therefore automatically the order of tenths of microfarads. eliminate the capacitively transferred component so long as the circuit inductance is low. ) The transformer parameters which are involved in inductive surge transfer are better defined and less dependent on rate of rise ( or frequency ). 39

Js:2026(Partrn)-1981 B-3. POWER FREQUENCY TRANSFERRED OVERVOLTAGE B-3.1 If a low voltage winding, which is physically adjacent to the high voltage winding, is left without connection to. earth or with only a highimpedance co~ection to earth while the high voltage winding is energized, there is a risk of power frequency overvoltage by capacitance division. R-3.2 The risk is obvious for a single-phase winding, but it can also exist for a three-phase winding if the primary winding voltage becomes asymmetric, as occurs during earth faults. Under particular circumstances resonance conditions may arise. R-3.3 Tertiary winding and stabilizing windings in large transformers are also subjected to the same risk. It is the responsibility of the user to prevent a tertiary winding being accidentally left with too high an impedance to earth. A stabilizing winding should normally be arranged for permanent connection to earth ( tank ) either externally or internally. The overvoltage is determined by capacitances between windings and between windings and earth. These can be measured at low frequency from the terminals of the transformer in different combinations, and they can also be calculated with sufficient accuracy.

APPENDIX ( Clause 15.1 )

INFORMATION ON TRANSFORMER INSULATION AND DIELECTRIC TESTS TO BE SUPPLIED WIlTI AN ENQUIRY AND WlITIA TENDER C-l. For all windings: a) Value of U,. b) Rated withstand voltages terminals. constituting
40

the insulation,level

for line

Is:2026(Partrn) -1Y81 , c) Whether the winding is to have uniform or non-uniform insulation and in the case of non-uniform insulation, the power frequency withstand voltage of the neutral. d) Whether a rated impulse withstand level is assigned to the neutral, and, in such case, the appropriate withstand voltage. e) Whether the lightning impulse test on the line terminals extended to include a chopped impulse test. shall be

C-2. For Transformers Having a High-Voltage Winding with Urn > 300 kV : a) Whether the transformer shall be specified and tested according to Method I or Method 2 ( see 5.4 ). b) If the transformer shall be specified according to Method5 a, choice shall be made between alternative procedures for the induced overvoltage withstand test in accordance with 11.4. C-3. It is further recommended that test connections and procedures should be discussed before the time of testing5 particularly with regard to the connection for induced overvoltage test on complicated transformerS; with non-uniformly insulated _high-voltage winding ( see 11.3.4, Note ) and the method to be used for impulse tests on high-power low-voltage windings and neutral terminals ( see 123 ).

41

IS -: 2026 ( Part III ) - 1981


( Contirudfiom Members SHRI S. D. CHOTRANEY page 2 ) Representing
Bombay Electric Supply taking, Bombay and Transport Under-

SHRI Y. K. PALVANKAR( Alternate ) Central Electricity Authority, New Delhi DIRECTOR( SUBSTATIONS ) Nati$,li Thermal Power Corporation Ltd, SHRI P. K. DWWEDI

New

SHRI A. K. GUEA UP State Electricity Board, Lucknow SHRI MOINUDDIN( Alternate ) Bhakra Beas Management Board, Chandigarh SHRI INDERJIT SINGH KALRA Crompton Greaves Ltd, Bombay SHRI S. V. MANERIKAR Hindustan Brown Boveri Ltd, Howrah SHRI I. S. PATEL SHRI M. S. DHARWADKAR ( Alternate ) Transformers & Electricals Kerala Ltd, Ernakulam SHR~P. K. PHILIP Voltas Ltd ( Motor and Transformer Plant ), SHRI V. N. PRAHLAD Bombay s HRI J. R. MAHAJAN ( Alternate ) Kirloskar Electric Co Ltd, angalore SHRI S. G. RAMACHANDRA Maharashtra State Electricity Board, Bombay SHRI N. J. RONGHE SHRI A. J. KHAN ( Alternate > Tata;&I&;zy Electric Power Supply Co Ltd, SHRI A, M. SAHNI SHRI R. CHANDRAMOULI ( Alternate ) Rural Electrification Corporation Ltd, New Delhi SHRI P. K. SAXENA NGEF Ltd, Bangalore SHRI K. G. SHANMUKHAPPA SHRI K. V. JAYADEV( AIternnte ) Rescarr;inFsigns and Standards Organization, SHRI R. SJUNIVASAN SIW B. A. SUBRAMANYAM The General Electric Co of India Ltd, Allababad

42

BUREAU

OF

INDIAN

STANDARDS

Headquarters: Mansk Bhavan, 9 Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg, NEW DELHI 110002 Telegrams : Manaksanstha Talephones : 331 01 31, 331 13 75 ( Common to all offices ) Telephones Regional Oflces: Central : Manak Bhavan, 9 Behadur Shah Zafar Marg, 331 01 31 [ 3311375 NEW DELHI-1 10002 l Ee6tem : 1 /14 C.I.T. Scheme VII M, V. I. P. Road, 36 24 99 Maniktola, CALCUTTA 700054 Northern : SC0 445-446, Sector 35-C, 21843 E31641 CHANDIGARH 160036 41 24 42 Southern : C. I. 1. Campus, MADRAS 600113 41 25 19 { 41 2916 tWostern : Manakalaya, E9 MIDC, Marol, Andheri (East), 6329296 BOMBAY 400093 Branch Ofpces: 26349 Pushpak Nurmohamed Shalkh Msrg, Khanpur, [ 28349 AHMEDABAD 380001 *Peonya industrial Area, 1 st Stage, Bangalore Tumkur Road 38 49 55 1 38 49 56 j BANGALORE 560058 Grngotri Complex, 6th Floor, Bhadbhada Road, T. 1. Nagrr, 66716 BHOPAL 462003 Plot No. 92/93, Lewis Road, BHUBANESHWAR 751002 53627 3 31 77 63/5, Ward No. 29, R. G. Barua Road, 5th Byelane, GUWAHATI 781003 23 1083 6-956C L. N. Gupta Marg ( Nampally Statlon Road ), HYDERABAD 500001 63471 R14 Yudhlrter Marg, C Scheme, JAIPUR 302005 E6 98 32 21 68 76 117/419 B Sarvodaya Nagar, KAN PUR 298006 [ 21 82 92 62305 Patiiputra Industrial Estate, PATNA 800013 6 21 04 T.C. No. 14/1421, University P.O., Palayam 1621 17 TRIVANDRUM 695035 lnspecflon Oftlce (With Sale Point) : Pushpanjaii, 1st Floor, 205-A West High Court Road, Shankar Nagar Square, NAGPUR 440010 Institution of Engineer6 ( India ) Building, 1332 Shivajl Nagsr. PUNE 411005 2 51 71 52435

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AMENDMENT IS 2026 ( Part 3 )


PART 3
:

NO. 1 MARCH 1994 TO 1981 SPECIFICATION FOR POWER TRANSFORMERS

INSULATION LEVELS AND DIELECTRIC TESTS (SecondRevision)

(Page 27, clause 13.1, line 3 ) -

Add the words test as per clause 12

at

the end of the second sentence.

Reprogmpby Unit, BIS,NewDelhi,Iadi