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# Theory of turbo machinery / Turbomaskinernas teori

Chapter 4

## Note direction of 2 FIG. 4.1. Turbine stage velocity diagrams.

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## Axial-flow Turbines: 2-D theory

Assumptions: Hub to tip ratio high (close to 1) Negligible radial velocities No changes in circumferential direction (wakes and nonuniform
outlet velocity distribution neglected)

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## Axial-flow Turbines: 2-D theory

Continuity equation for uniform steady flow:
1 A1cx1 = 2 A2 cx 2 = 3 A3cx 3

## Assuming constant axial velocity

cx1 = cx 2 = cx 3 = cx

1 A1 = 2 A2 = 3 A3

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## Axial-flow Turbines: 2-D theory

Work done on rotor by unit mass of fluid
 m  = h01 h03 = U ( c2 y + c3 y ) W = W

## Please note: No work done in nozzle row:

h01 = h02
2 2 h0 = h + c 2 2 = cx + cy

With

## And using above equations:

2 2 h02 h03 = h2 h3 + cx + cy

2 = U ( cy 2 + cy3 )

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## Axial-flow Turbines: 2-D theory

Rewriting this in terms of relative velocity
c y 2 U = wy 2 c y 3 + U = wy 3 c y 2 + c y 3 = w y 2 + wy 3

cy 2 wy 2
U

## Combining above equations:

2 2 h2 h3 + wy 2 + wy 3

( (

2=0

2 2 2 with wx 2 = wx 3 = cx and wx + wy = w 2 2 h2 h3 + w2 w3

2=0

## Relative stagnation enthalpy, h0,rel , does not change across rotor

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## Axial-flow Turbines: 2-D theory

Nozzle row (1 to 2): Static pressure: Stagnation enthalpy: Stagnation pressure: (isentropic: p01 = p02 )
p1 p2 h01 = h02 p01 > p02

## FIG. 4.2. Mollier diagram for a turbine stage.

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## Axial-flow Turbines: 2-D theory

Rotor row (2 to 3):
p2 p3

## Static pressure: Stagnation enthapy: Stagnation pressure:

h02 > h03 p02 > p03

## However: Relative Stagnation enthapy,

2 h02,rel = h02 + w2 2 = h03,rel

## FIG. 4.2. Mollier diagram for a turbine stage.

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## Axial-flow Turbines: 2-D theory

Turbine stage total to total efficiency:
tt =
h h Actual work output = 01 03 Ideal work output when operating to same back pressure h01 h03 ss

For a normal stage, no changes in are made in velocities from inlet to outlet: c1 = c3 and 1 = 3 . Further assuming c3ss = c3 the efficiency becomes:
tt =
h01 h03 h h = 1 3 h01 h03ss h1 h3ss

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## Axial-flow Turbines: 2-D theory

Defining enthalpy loss coefficients for the nozzle and rotor respectively:
N =
h2 h2 s h3 h3s and = R 2 2 2 2 c2 w3

Neglecting rotor temperature drop, the stage efficiencies may be expressed as:
2 2 R w3 + N c2 tt = 1 + h h 2 ( ) 1 3 1

2 2 R w3 + N c2 + c12 ts = 1 + h h 2 ( 1 3)

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## Axial-flow Turbines: 2-D theory

Soderbergs correlation: Large set of data compiled Design assuming Zweifels criteria for optimum space axial chord ratio
T =
Y = 2 ( s b ) cos 2 2 ( tan 1 + tan 2 ) 0.8 Yid

Result: Turbine blade losses are a function of Deflection Blade aspect ratio Blade thickness-chord ratio Reynolds number

H b tmax l

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## Axial-flow Turbines: 2-D theory

Deflection Blade aspect ratio: Blade thickness-chord ratio
Re = 2 c2 Dh

= 1 + 2
H b=3 tmax l = 0.15 0.3

## Dh defined at exit throat Dh = 2 sH cos 2 ( s cos 2 + H ) = 105

l
tmax
H is height of blade (radial direction)

b
s

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## Axial-flow Turbines: 2-D theory

For turbines: Deflection, = 1 + 2 , is large, but Deviation, = 2 2 ' , is small
2 2 ' = 1 '+ 2 '

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## Axial-flow Turbines: 2-D theory

FIG. 4.3. Soderbergs correlation of turbine blade loss coefficient with fluid deflection (adapted from Horlock (1960).
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## Axial-flow Turbines: 2-D theory

Corrections for Reynolds number Re 105
* cor

105 * = Re

14

## Blade aspect ratio Nozzles: Rotors:

* 1 + cor = 1 + * ( 0.993 + 0.021b H ) * 1 + cor *

( ) = (1 + ) ( 0.975 + 0.075 b H )

## Tip clearance losses and disc friction not included

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## Axial-flow Turbines: 2-D theory

Design considerations Rotor angular velocity (stresses, grid phasing) Weight Outside diameter Efficiency (aircraft) (aircraft) (almost always)

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## Axial-flow Turbines: 2-D theory

Consider a case with given Blade speed Specific work Axial velocity

U
W = U ( c y 2 + c y 3 )

cx
cy3 = W cy 2 U

The only remaining parameter to define is c y 2 since Triangles may be constructed Loss coefficients determined from Soderberg Efficiencies computed from loss coefficients

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## Axial-flow Turbines: 2-D theory

Stage loading factor: flow coefficient: Aspect ratio: H b cx U W U2

FIG. 4.4. Variation of efficiency with cy2/U for several values of stage loading factor W/U2 (adapted from Shapiro et al. 1957).

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## Axial-flow Turbines: 2-D theory

Stage reaction, R Alternative description to c y 2 U Several definitions available Here:

R = ( h2 h3 ) ( h1 h3 )

E.g: R = 0.5

0.5 = ( h2 h3 ) ( h1 h3 ) h2 h3 = h1 h2

R = 0.5
LTH / Kraftverksteknik / JK

## Axial-flow Turbines: 2-D theory

For a normal stage, c1 = c3

R = ( h2 h3 ) ( h01 h03 )
2 2 Using eq. 4.4: h2 h3 + ( w2 w3 ) 2 = 0 and Euler

2 2 w3 w2 R= 2U ( c y 2 + c y 3 )

w ( R=

2U ( c y 2 + c y 3 )

w2

)( w

+ w2

)=w

w2 2U

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## Axial-flow Turbines: 2-D theory

Relative tangential velocity

wy = cx tan
R= w3 w2 c = x ( tan 3 tan 2 ) 2U 2U c y 2 = wy 2 + U

Or using

w3 w2 w3 + U wy 2 R= = = 2U 2U 1 c = + x ( tan 3 tan 2 ) 2 2U
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## Axial-flow Turbines: 2-D theory

Zero reaction stage
R= cx ( tan 3 tan 2 ) = 0 if 3 = 2 2U

FIG. 4.5. Velocity diagram and Mollier diagram for a zero reaction turbine stage.
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## Axial-flow Turbines: 2-D theory

50% reaction stage
R= 1 cx + ( tan 3 tan 2 ) = 0.5 if 3 = 2 2 2U

FIG. 4.7. Velocity diagram and Mollier diagram for a 50% reaction turbine stage.
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## FIG. 4.8. Velocity diagram for 100% reaction turbine stage.

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## Axial-flow Turbines: 2-D theory

FIG. 4.4

R = 1+

W C y 2 2 2U U

FIG. 4.9. Influence of reaction on total-to-static efficiency with fixed values of stage loading factor.
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## FIG. 4.6. Mollier diagram for an impulse turbine stage.

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## Axial-flow Turbines: 2-D theory

Alternative representation for specified reaction:
= f ( , ) where =
W is the stage loading and 2 U c = x is the flow coefficient U

FIG. 4.10. Design point total-to-total efficiency and deflection angle contours for a turbine stage of 50 percent reaction.
LTH / Kraftverksteknik / JK

## Axial-flow Turbines: 2-D theory

FIG. 4.11. Design point total-to-total efficiency and rotor flow deflection angle for a zero reaction turbine stage.

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Centrifugal stresses
dFc = 2 rdm dm = Adr
d c

dFc = 2 rdr A

## With constant cross section this may be integrated

U tip r c 2 = rdr = r 2
t h

rh 1 rt

## FIG. 4.15. Centrifugal forces acting on rotor blade element.

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## Axial-flow Turbines: 2-D theory

Tapering: Reduction of cross sectional area in radial direction, in order to reduce stresses Pure fluid dynamics would recomend the opposit

FIG. 4.16. Effect of tapering on centrifugal stress at blade root (adapted from Emmert 1950).

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## Axial-flow Turbines: 2-D theory

FIG. 4.17. Maximum allowable stress for various alloys (1000 hr rupture life) (adapted from Freeman 1955).
LTH / Kraftverksteknik / JK

## Axial-flow Turbines: 2-D theory

FIG. 4.18. Properties of Inconel 713 Cast (adapted from Balje 1981).

LTH / Kraftverksteknik / JK

## Axial-flow Turbines: 2-D theory

Turbine blade cooling. Why is the efficiency of the gas turbine comparable to that of a Rankine cycle?
(given that we do have to pay a considerable amount of energy to the compressor, whereas compression of water in the Rankine cycle is cheap)

LTH / Kraftverksteknik / JK

## Axial-flow Turbines: 2-D theory

FIG. 4.20. Turbine thermal efficiency vs inlet gas temperature (adapted from le Grivs 1986).
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