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ENGLISH QUIZZES SOLUTION SETS

PARTS OF SPEECH AND GENERAL GRAMMAR RULES


1. b We are looking for pronoun that will function as an object of the preposition to in the prepositional phrase To the preoccupied Rose and ____________ . Therefore, we must choose the pronoun in the Objective Case. Among the choices, only me is in the objective case. The proper pronoun to use is its, which is singular, because crowd is a collective noun and is singular in this case. Its is also in the third person, which is the person of the noun crowd, which its replaces. We must fill the blank with a pronoun in the Nominative Case because it would be the Subject of the verb phrase must learn. Among They and We, which are both in the nominative case, we choose We because of the possessive pronoun our near the end of the sentence, which indicates that the speaker or speakers belong to the group Filipinos. Choose letter d because both blanks are Objects of the preposition to. We know that when a pronoun is the object of the preposition, it must be in the Objective Case. Generally, nouns ending in f are pluralized by removing the f and adding -ves instead. So elf and shelf become elves and shelves, respectively. However, dwarf is an exception. It becomes plural by the addition of s. In the first blank, we are looking for a pronoun that would replace each of the alumnae. The rule for proper pronoun use says that a pronoun must agree with its antecedent in person, number and gender. Each of the alumnae is singular, feminine, and is in the third person. So among the choices, only her fits the first blank. In the second blank, we are looking for a verb that would agree with the subject scissors. Scissors is a special noun that is always plural. Therefore, the verb following must be plural as well. Among choices a and b, both of which have her for the first word, only b has the plural verb were. Since John and Susie jointly own the yacht, the rule for joint possession applies. To indicate joint possession by John and Susie of the yacht, add an apostrophe s (s) to the last name. The presence of the word among indicates that the subject she is being compared to many. Thus, the superlative degree of comparison must be used. All the blanks need a preposition of time. In is the answer to the first blank because its object is a month; at is the answer to the second blank because its object is an exact and specific time of the day; and on is the answer to the third blank because its object is the specific date or day. For specific addresses (#312 Mahabagin Street), we use the preposition at. For landareas (Quezon City), we use the preposition in. To indicate a difference of opinion or belief with another person, you use the phrasal verb differ with. To indicate the difference of one thing from another ( difference of ones thoughts to anothers), use differ from. The subject is the plural members. Therefore, use a plural verb. Between cut, which is in the present tense, and have cut which is in the present perfect tense, choose cut because the word always in the sentence indicates that the action keeps on occurring. The sentence is therefore a general statement of fact. Tag questions require the verb used in the main statement, plus the pronoun that refers to the subject of the same main statement. Indices here is used as a word in itself, and should thus be singular. it must also be in the present tense because it is a general statement. Money is always considered as a singular subject. Whereas the second person you is always considered to be plural. Procter and Gamble is the name of one company, and is therefore a singular subject. One, which is also singular, is the subject of the second sentence.

2. 3.

b d

4. 5. 6.

d b b

7. 8. 9.

a a c

10. a 11. b 12. a

13. c 14. a 15. c 16. d

17. d 18. d 19. a 20. c 21. a

22. c 23. a 24. a

25. c 26. c 27. a 28. b

29. a 30. a 31. c

32. b 33. a 34. c 35. a 36. c 37. d

Since the satin remained, much or many cannot be used. Little is the answer because bleach, which the missing adjective modifies, is a non-countable (cannot be counted) noun. The whole sentence is expressing the sentiment aside from but also. Thus, the answer is the correlative conjunction not only but also. Grammatically speaking, only letter a fits the blank. Its is an abbreviation for It is, which is inappropriate for the blank. It has and It was are also incorrect. The context is not clear on whether the aquarium contains different types of fish (whence you use fishes) or just one type (whence you use fish). Thus, any of the two will do. We need the noun advice rather than the verb advise. Advisory is inappropriate for the context, as it means some kind of periodic report or warning. One may argue for advising which may be a gerund, and thus a noun form. But since a better word (advice) is among the choices, one must not choose the inferior advising. Further is used for explaining more or elaborating on a subject matter. Farther is for going forward (pertaining to distance). We do not use the superlative because theres no comparison among many things. Use the adjective good instead of the adverb well when it comes after a linking verb that pertains to sense. Using well would make the sentence mean you have a well-honed sense of smell, not the compliment to you that it was supposed to be. Use the adjective bad instead of the adverb badly after a linking verb that pertains to sense. Using badly would mean theres something wrong with the speakers sense of feelings, not what it was meant to be, which is that the speaker was saddened by the circumstances. Alternative may be a noun or an adjective. As an adjective, it means different which is what we need for the blank. We use besides, which means aside from. We use the plural verb here because of the word dishes at the end of the sentence. This tells us that macaroni and cheese are considered as two separate dishes by the speaker. We use the singular form of the verb because in fractional expressions, we follow the object of the preposition of, in number. Here, the object of the preposition of in the prepositional phrase that follows the fractional expression, is the collective noun class. Collective nouns are generally considered singular. We do not use be which is in the subjunctive mood because the statement is in the indicative mood (just stating a fact). Use be which is in the subjunctive mood because the dependent clause that a ruler____ good is stating a requirement or condition. we know that for such cases, we must use the subjunctive mood. Use were, which is in the subjunctive mood. The dependent clause If I ____ a horse is expressing a wish. Thus it ought to be in the subjunctive mood. Use the past perfect tense had studied because in this statement, the studying is a precursor to passing the UPCAT. Therefore, two actions (as the sentence indicates that the chance for both have already passed) would have occurred in succession (had they occurred). Use the past perfect for the earlier action. In such sentences, use There are if the subjective complement is plural. In this case, the complement of there is mountains, which is plural. We do not use the past tense because this is a general statement. Use the future perfect tense will have finished because the finishing will occur before a definite time in the future. We need the intransitive (that which does not need an object) verb and in the past tense (because of last month). Thus the answer is lay, which is the past tense of the verb lie. We need the transitive verb (since the missing verb has an object issue) and we need it is the past or past perfect tense. The transitive verb is lay and its past tense is laid. Thus, the answer is laid. We need the intransitive rise up because the missing verb needs no object. Incorrect pronoun case. Replace him with the nominative he because this underlined pronoun is being compared to the nominative I.

38. a 39. c 40. d 41. b 42. b 43. a 44. d 45. e 46. a 47. c 48. b 49. a 50. e 51. b

This underlined word is the subject of the sentence. therefore, this form of the who must be in the nominative case. Replace it with Whosoever. Incorrect pronoun case. This pronoun is being compared to the negated indefinite pronoun No one, which is in the nominative case. Therefore, this underlined pronoun must also be in the nominative case. Replace than her with than she. Letter d is a case of misplaced modifier. As it is, the sentence means that the bonus will arrive during the meeting yesterday. This is plainly illogical. Unique is one of the adjectives that do not take to comparison. One is either unique or not unique. Theres no more unique or most unique. This is one expression where the adjective always comes after the noun it modifies. Replace apparent heir to heir apparent. Wrong use of idiomatic preposition. Since the speaker is angry with a person, the preposition with must be used instead of at. The latter is used only if the object of anger is a thing, and not a person. Wrong use of idiomatic preposition. Since the argument is between groups of people, the preposition with should be used instead of about. Incomplete idiomatic expression. Looking forward goes with the preposition to, which is missing here. Wrong verb tense. The adverb of time today indicates that the verb should be in the present tense. Replace were with are. Use the past perfect tense because the past action of giving up occurred before the other past action of coming back. The second person pronoun You is quite unnecessary in this imperative sentence. Remove it. The subject of the sentence may be compound but one of the subjects is affirmative or positive (The committee members) while the other is negative (not the chair). In such positive and negative conjugations, the verb follows the positive subject in number. The committee members is plural. Therefore, we must change has agreed with have agreed. Letter c has the right progression of verb tenses. For the earlier past action, the past perfect was used (had walked). For the later past action, the simple past tense is used (gave out). The limiting adverb only is also correctly placed before fifteen miles. This sentence follows the general order of adverbial phrases that are of different kinds. First comes the adverb of manner (enthusiastically), then the adverb of place (to the park), then the adverb of frequency (every morning), then the adverb of time (before breakfast), and finally the adverb of purpose (to exercise his heart). This sentence follows the prescribed order for adverbial phrases of different kind and of same kind. The adverb of place comes before the adverb of time. And between the adverbs of place, the more specific (to Italy) comes before the more general adverb of place (in Europe). Then comes the more specific adverb of time (in June) followed by the more general adverb f the same kind (next year).

52. e 53. c 54. a

55. b

SYNTAX AND MECHANICS


1. 2. 3. b c d The comma belongs inside quotation marks, even the comma that is separating a direct quotation from a narration. Parenthetical expressions like this one as well as my fatherare usually preceded and concluded by a comma. Use a comma in a series. Even if the conjunction and separates the last element from the rest, parallelism requires that a comma still precede it. Note though that it is acceptable for the comma to be omitted. However, the best answer is still the one with a comma.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

b d d b a a

10. a 11. b 12. b 13. d 14. a 15. b 16. a 17. e 18. a 19. c 20. c 21. d 22. a

To separate two independent clauses that are not joined by a coordinating conjunction like and, but, yet, and so on, us the semi-colon instead of the comma to avoid a run-together sentence or a comma splice. However (or therefore, thus, moreover, nevertheless, etc.) is not a very strong connective. Thus when it joins two clauses, we must use a semi-colon before it, and a comma after it. When namely introduces an enumeration, use a semi-colon before it and a comma after it. Use a comma before not to be clear on which this adverb of negation is modifying. Use a comma after Ever since so as to avoid making the sentence into a fragment. A colon is appropriate because following the direct quotation is a comment on the quotation. The colon comes after the close quotation mark, because the rules of mechanics say that a colon belongs outside quotation marks. To show possession, add s to the end of a noun, may it be simple or compound. Lord should be followed by an exclamation mark, seeing as it is followed by an interjection. The word and is used in itself (that is, and is used as a word and not a connective). To make it plural, it is appropriate to add an apostrophe before s. Use the colon instead of the semi-colon because an enumeration follows. This is a dangling prepositional phrase. It is dangling because the prepositional phrase In examtaking has nothing to modify in the sentence. This is an indirect quotation and should not therefore be enclosed in quotation marks. This is the title of a book. Thus, the significant words must all begin in capital letters. The small caps prince should be changed to Prince. At the beginning of sentences, numerical expressions should be spelled out. Change P250 to Two hundred fifty pesos. The pronoun he has an ambiguous reference, as it may refer to either father or Jim. Use a comma to separate the appositive clause that I can give you all my best to the word it modifies thing. A comma should come after rapidly because it prevents this adverb from becoming a squinting modifier; that is a modifier that may either modify running or throbbed (running rapidly, or rapidly throbbed). This is the sentence that has the most parallel structureSubject-Verb-Noun Clause. The first clause has philosophers for a subject, and the second clause has Plato, another philosopher, as its subject. The use of the verb believed in both clauses makes the sentence consistent in content. The right punctuation (the comma) was also used before the subordinating conjunction while. This is in accordance with rules of mechanics. The modifier only is properly located immediately before the preposition through, which only modifies. All the other sentences are fragments There is no verb after the word debris. Letters b and d are fragment infinitive phrases. Letter a has an inappropriate punctuation, the colon. Letter c is properly punctuated and is not a fragment. Letters a and b unnecessarily repeats right hand. Letter d incorrectly capitalizes Right. Letter c is within the bounds of correct sentence construction. Letter a unnecessarily shifts from the third person to the second person when it replaced the third person academic spirit with the second person your. Letter b incorrectly capitalizes Academic. Letter c unnecessarily shifts from the second person your to the third person academic spirit. Letter b has a dangling participial phrase and an unclear reference in Calling out to anybody who would listen, seeking out her lost sons. Letter c incorrectky uses a semi-colon instead of a comma. Letter c uses the pronoun She without naming its antecedent first. Letter a has none of these outlined problems. Letters a and b have inappropriately placed modifiers For getting the first prize which seems to modify the school. Letter d has an unnecessary shift in subject from Gregory to Most Outstanding Student Award. Letter c clearly indicates that Gregory got the first prize and thus was given an award by the school for this accomplishment. Letter a contains a dangling infinitive phrase To get what is dreamed of because it doesnt modify anything in the sentence. It cannot logically modify avenues. Letter c incorrectly uses the comma to separate the independent clause you must fight all fights from the rest of the sentence. Letter d

23. d 24. c 25. c 26. d 27. a

28. c

29. b

30. c 31. b

32. c

33. c

34. a 35. d 36. a 37. a

38. a

39. b

40. c

41. b

42. b

unnecessarily shifts from the third person one to the second person you. Letter b, on the other hand does not contain a dangling modifier, does not shift in person, and is rightly punctuated. Letters a and b have misplaced elliptical clauses When a young girl which seems to modify Grandfather. Letter d uses she which has an ambiguous reference as it may refer to either the girl or her grandmother. Letter c has no ambiguity and does away with the elliptical clause. Letter a has an illogical coordination as it uses and and makes the rest another independent clause, thereby weakening the whole sentence. It could have been simply The Institute for the Blind stood in the plaza grounds through the efforts of the city officers . Letter c is lacking a comma after officers to mark the end of the parenthetical expression. Letter d incorrectly capitalizes Plaza. Letter b correctly subjugates the prepositional phrase Through the efforts of the city officers to the rest of the sentence, and uses proper punctuations besides. :Letter a uses pronoun it which is ambiguous in reference as it may refer to either DepEd or ABCD school. Letter b is an illogical sentence because it lacks the word respectively and thus does not properly allocate who had no business registration and who had no license to teach. Letter d is unnecessarily wordy and therefore weak. Letter c is the best sentence as it has no ambiguity and unnecessary wordiness. Letter a improperly uses a comma instead of a semi-colon before however which connects two clauses. Letter b places only before the prepositional phrase at my face, thus making only incorrectly modify this aforementioned phrase. You may very well ask the question: Where else does the speaker want his forgiveness thrown back? Letter d incorrectly places all my pride between the phrasal verb gave up, and misplaces only, too. Letter c has none of the abovementioned problems. It notably places only in an acceptable place. The sentence clearly expresses an enumeration of the automobiles. In such cases, one might very well use the dash. Letter c makes it seem as if there was a truck, a sedan an SUV, and another three automobiles. Letter d misplaced the enumeration and used the wrong punctuation. These sentences have monster constructions which ought to be separated by semi-colons. The non-use of these semi-colons in the other sentences make them confusing and open to misunderstanding. Letter a has a parallel construction, has the proper use of punctuations, and correct sentence order and construction. Letter a does not misplace the modifying clause which I had brought from the library and thus, this clause clearly modifies the book. This cannot be said for letters b and c. Letter d, on the other hand uses an awkward word order by placing the adverbial phrase from the library between the phrasal verb brought back and its object a precious book. Letter d also lacks the relative pronoun that between book and I. This is the sentence which correctly places the modifying clause which had been uninhabited for years after the word it modifies cabin, and which has an elegant sentence construction by following the natural order of sentences: Subject-Verb-Complement. Letter b has an awkward sentence construction, as it uses an ineffective transposed order. It also uses the preposition on instead of the correct preposition in. Letter c misplaces the modifying clause as this clause comes after cliff. Letter d is missing a comma after years. This sentence is consistent in the use of the imperative mood all over the sentence. Letter a unnecessarily shifts from the imperative to the advising tone. Letter c shifts from the advising to the imperative tone. Letter d is an example of primer sentences. It divides a perfectably acceptable single construction into two very elementary sentences. Letter c is clearly and effectively constructed, as well as being a parallel construction when and joined similar constructions (infinitive phrases). Letter a is an unclear construction, carelessly using the pronoun them which in the same clause refers first to nurses and then to patients. Letter b lacks a comma after patients. Letter d suffers from weakness due to an awkward construction. Letter a shifts from one subject to another, from answer to child. Letter c is an awkward construction by unnecessarily using It as the subject when the appositive the answer to your question would do as well. Letter d has a misplaced modifier when it places being obvious after question. It seems here that the question, not the answer, is obvious. Letter b does not shift in subject, and is clear and effective in construction, too. Letter a is confused in tenses, using the present and the past tense simultaneously without any clear cause and effect or progression from the past to the present. Letter cs first sentence has no

43. b

44. d

45. b

46. a

47. b

48. d 49. a

50. b

subject and is thus a fragment. Letter d is another fragment. Only letter b is consistent in tense, and contains no fragment elements. Letter a is an incomplete construction. After has should have been the past participle form of the verb to be been because the present or base form be in the compound verb has and always will be will not do. Letter b, however, is correctly constructed because the verbs is and will be are both complete in themselves. Letter c lacks the preposition to which must have come before Anyone. Letter d has no sentence construction problems but has wrong capitalization. It capitalizes the first letter of a common noun education. Letter a uses an incorrect punctuation, the semi-colon when no punctuation or a comma would have been more proper. Letter b is an incomplete construction, as it lacks the preposition of after disapproved. This sentence is actually saying disapproved with me, which is an error in idiomatic prepositions. Letter c uses the present form disapproves when the past participle form disapproved would have been more appropriate. Letter d uses all the correct verb forms, punctuations, and prepositions. Letter a is an incomplete comparison because it omitted as in the comparative construction asas. Another as should have been placed after stubborn to make this sentence correct. Letter c uses the comparative more stubborn, instead of the correct superlative most stubborn. Letter d is missing a comma after the second as. Letter b, as you can see, is a complete comparison with both as present. It also has a comma after the second as. Furthermore, it uses the superlative most stubborn. Only this sentence logically compares the speakers pride with the pride (replaced by the pronoun that) of those who sail manufactured boats. The rest of the sentences illogically compares the speakers pride with those who sail manufactured boats. These sentences use illogical comparison because they compare an abstract idea (pride) to people (represented by the pronoun those). Letter a is a mixed construction because it uses a modifying phrase With large numbers in a class as a subject. Letter c places the modifying clause in a very weak position, at the end of the sentence. Letter d makes large numbers in class a party to the discussion that the teachers and students are supposed to be having. Letter b correctly makes the phrase With large numbers in a class function as the modifying phrase it is, placing it at the beginning of the sentence, to be immediately followed by it which it modifies. Letter d is the only sentence that does not weaken itself with an excess of trailing subordinate constructions, thereby retaining its clarity and effectiveness. This sentence is composed of two independent clauses joined by the coordinating conjunction but, which is correctly preceded by a comma. The number of years One hundred fifty is also properly spelled out since it comes at the beginning of the sentence. Letter b contains a mechanical error because it begins the sentence with a numerical expression. Letter c uses a singular verb is when the subject is plural A twinkle to a star and three lifetimes. Letter d lacks a comma before but. Letters a and c are mixed constructions. Letter a uses The reason because construction which is an unacceptable construction. The presence of The reason necessitated that a substantive (a noun or a noun form) fulfill it, not because. Letter a may have been modified to be The reason the population is increasing very rapidly is the fact that people are no longer dying like flies, not the supposition that they are reproducing like rabbits. Letter c uses another unacceptable construction Because thats why. Because makes the clause it belongs to a subordinate one. But in this construction, this subordinate or dependent clause Because people are no longer dying like flies, not because they reproduce like rabbits actually has no principal or independent clause to depend upon. It is a redundant construction since Thats why the population is increasing very rapidly does not need the aforementioned clause. This sentence may be restated to say The population is increasing very rapidly because people are no longer dying like flies, not because they reproduce like rabbits. Letter d is actually grammatically okay. Compared to letter b, however, the latter comes out the better construction.

DICTION AND VOCABULARY


1. c Obstreperous is a formal word meaning noisy and unruly. The context indicates that this is the correct word since the noise would have induced the teacher to yell to be heard. discreet = cautious, prudent; subtle morose = bad-tempered and unhappy; sullen truculent = aggressive and defiant The context indicates we need a verb, an action, that is similar to telling the team to try harder in the face of overwhelming odds. We need a word that is similar to urge. The answer is exhort because it means to urge strongly. emulate = a formal word meaning to try to do as well or better by imitation flout = to defy or to show contempt (for the law) instigate = to bring about; to provoke, especially to a wrongdoing The context indicates that some kind of flowers are being discussed. Thes flowers are apparently something to New England. This being so, the speaker hasnt seen them before. The answer could only be indigenous which means native or belonging naturally to an area. exigent = a formal word for urgent fluent = able to speak or write a foreign or second language with ease and competence ingenuous = clever, inventive or resourceful. The sentence says that Roberto pretended to know a lot about the opera. The blank is looking for a word that restates Robertos quality of pretending about the opera. The answer is dilettante which is a name for a dabbler in a subject, usually the arts. catalyst = anything that speeds up change chimera = an impossible or fanciful idea or image supernumerary = a formal word for someone or something extra The sentence provides these clues: forceful expression of opinions which apparently put off the professors students for them to begin leaving the course. The answer is dogmatic which means the quality of asserting opinions arrogantly. credible = believable and convincing dormant = inactive lucid = clear and enlightened The clue word in the sentence is trouble. What word do we usually associate with this word? And the answer is instigating which is synonymous to provoking (trouble, usually). This, among all other words, is the best word because the sentence also suggests that the child has calmed down later in life. Thus, appeasing, curtailing, and mortifying hardly fit. appeasing = pacifying curtailing = restricting, limiting mortifying = shameful, humiliating We get in trouble for making pejorative remarks. Pejorative means insulting or unpleasant. benign = kind blithe = happy, gay, cheerful; insensitive (because cheerful and gay remarks in inappropriate situations are deemed insensitive) pensive = deeply or sadly thoughtful A person who has never been to an art museum may be a person who has no knowledge about the fine arts. A person thus, is described as a philistine, which is a name appropriate for a person who doesnt understand or admire music, art, or literature. hedonist = self-indulgent; a word that describes a man concerned with his pleasures martyr = a person who would rather suffer death than renounce a faith or belief patrician = refined, aristocratic; an aristocrat The whole sentence provides the context. There is a jury, indicating that a man is on trial for supposed wrongdoing. The only word appropriate for the context is exonerated, which means freed from blame or obligation. augmented = increased, supplemented

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10. c

11. c

12. d

13. d

14. b

15. c

16. b

17. a

18. c

exiled; a word which describes a man who left his own country and resides in another. subjugated = conquered or controlled When people hear horrid news, they are usually disturbed and negatively affected by it. Malaise is the answer, as you would have known had you looked at its prefix mal, which means bad. Malaise is actually a feeling of discomfort, uneasiness or depression. blasphemy = impious or disrespectful statement about sacred things largess = gifts or money generously given The word became in the sentence clues us in to the fact that we are looking for a word that signifies a change. The answer, therefore, is metamorphosis, which means a change of form or character. accolade = an award or honor; much praise and approval epithet = an adjective or descriptive phrase substituted for a persons name milieu = social surroundings or environment When a subject could not be understood by anyone, it must be a complex subject that must require much study and expertise to be deciphered. The answer is esoteric, which describes a subject matter that is likely to be understood only by those with a special knowledge or interest. auspicious = favorable, promising austere = severe, harsh (conditions); serious, stern, self-disciplined (person) equitable = fair, just, impartial The clause no one is sure hell be working there next month indicates uncertainty. and as this uncertainty pertains to Shermans hold on his job, the context indicates that Shermans hold on his job is quite weak for his job to so uncertain. Thus, the answer to this item is tenuous, which means delicate, flimsy, slight, and weak. eminent = distinguished, famous (person); outstanding, remarkable (thing or characteristic) putative = supposed or assumed serendipitous = accidental; a chance discovery The answer is culminated, which means reached the highest proportion or conclusion. This can only be the answer because of the reference to perfect season that ends in a championship win. alleviated = lessened or eased fomented = aroused or stirred up (trouble or discontent) fulminated = protested loudly and bitterly The expression see-through implies that a lie or a front must have been put up that could be seen through. And since the lawyers are doing the lying, their lies must have sounded genuine. The word we are looking for is specious, which means superficially plausible but actually wrong or false. onerous = troublesome; requiring much effort palpable = able to be seen or felt; obvious stoic = a description for someone who shows great self-control, especially in times of trouble When one couldnt follow even the most simple of directions, one must obviously be stupid. The answer is obtuse, which means dull-witted, simple-minded, and stupid when used in reference to a person. candid = frank, outspoken, honest officious = too ready to offer services or advice; bossy and interfering opulent = luxurious or showy wealth When is it not a good idea to take balloon rides? When the weather, of course, is bad or stormy. The answer is adverse, which means unfavorable, hostile, or contrary. affable = friendly and amiable, polite malleable = easily influenced or changed; able to be hammered or pressed into shape The whole sentence, is obviously an expression of wonder. The answer is enigma, which means a puzzling person or thing, a mystery. antipathy = a feeling of strong dislike or hostility, an aversion archetype = the ideal or original form; model or prototype

expatriated

19. b 20. a 21. a

22. d

23. b

24. d

25. a

26. b

27. d 28. b

29. c

a manner of thought or behavior peculiar to an individual; a quirk or eccentricity. Replete with means full of and is thus the answer. resolute = firmly determined; steadfast virulent = dangerous, harmful (disease); bitterly hostile (attack or action) The actions bowed and scraped indicate extreme humility on the part of the prime minister. This great humility may be appropriately given by a man of power the Prime Minister to a Queen. The sentence indicates that the bad situation was made worse, due to the presence of the words only and an already bad situation. The answer is exacerbated, which means made a problem, disease, pain, etc., worse. It is also synonymous to aggravated. obfuscated = made confusing or difficult to understand; clouded or darkened preempted = prevented something by taking advance action; forestalled The tone of the sentence is subtly hostile or negative. Admittedly, disdain is a negative word. However, temerity is more appropriate for the blank. The answer therefore is temerity, which is a formal word for rashness, audacity, and effrontery. discretion = freedom to act according to ones own judgment disdain = scorn, contempt, or dislike surfeit = too much of something, especially of food and drink. When everyone falls asleep within five minutes of a lecture, only one thing can be said for that lecture. It must be very boring. The answer, therefore, is banal, which means not interesting, dull, or trite. ascetic = self-denying and austere, with severe self-discipline; a person leading such a life especially for religious reasons astute = shrewd, having keen insight ineffable = a formal word for too great or too scared to be expressed in words. When a couple decides to get married, the parties concerned usually think deeply about it. The sentence implies that the Darwin couple took months to think about their future before deciding to get married. Among the choices, the word we are looking for is ruminated, which means pondered or meditated (upon something). Note too, that only letter d can be used in the blank without committing an error in the use of idiomatic prepositions. You dont say deferred upon but deferred to; incited upon but incited to; precluded upon but just precluded or precluded from. deferred = yielded to a persons knowledge or wishes incited = urged to action; provoked or agitated precluded = prevented ; made impossible The task, to be challenging, must be either difficult or large. Among the choices, enormity is the only possible answer, as it means the quality of being large or huge. hiatus = a break in continuity; an interruption lethargy = an extreme lack of energy and/or interest, feeling, etc. omen = an event supposedly predicting future good or evil The presence of the word mysterious and a comma before the blank means that we are looking for a word that is similar in meaning to or compatible with mysterious. Furthermore, we need a word that may describe music that charms the listeners. The answer is ethereal, which means eerie, otherworldly, and delicate. sanguine = confident, optimistic; cheerful viable = feasible; practical The answer is salient, which means most noticeable, or most important and significant. gratuitous = unwarranted or uncalled for; given or done free of charge perfunctory = unthinking, automatic, mechanical; dutiful The teachers job is to educate his or her pupils. The answer is edify, which means to improve the mind or to educate. comprise = include, encompass; contain stipulate = to specify, to lay down (rules or conditions); to require or to demand Farmers plant a second crop to try to counteract the effects of a bad farming year. The answer is mitigate, which means to alleviate, to lessen, or to ease. Remember that you cant destroy the effects of a bad year, you may only try to ease it. thats why the answer remains to be letter c. censure = to criticize or to reprimand

idiosyncrasy

30.

31.

32.

33.

34.

35.

decimate = to destroy or to annihilate obliterate = to wipe out or to destroy c Lying on the couch and watching TV all day speaks of a very lazy person and inactive lifestyle. From a previous item, we know that lethargy means extreme laziness or inactivity. Thus, lethargy is the answer. animosity = hostility or hatred futility = uselessness or pointlessness reticence = reserve or uncommunicativeness c Cacophony and harmony are mean opposite things. Cacophony means harsh, unpleasant discordant sounds. From the choices, only miniscule (small or minute) and gargantuan (gigantic) are antonyms and thereby show the same relationship as cacophony and harmony. education and edification = both lead to improvement of the mind or learning equality and order = maybe related because equality (fairness) may lead to order (peaceful arrangement) subjugation and labor = subjugation means defeat, and labor means work. These are not antonyms. b Vacillating and indecisive are synonymous to each other. Vacillating and indecisive may describe a person who keeps changing his or her opinions. Impecunious and impoverished are also synonyms. Both mean poor or the state of being low in funds or money. capricious and predictable = are antonyms. Capricious means unpredictable, which is exactly the opposite of predictable. inept and competent = are another set of antonyms. Inept means incompetent. vacant and brilliant = may also be thought of as antonyms. Vacant may mean stupid or dull-witted. Brilliant, as we know, means exactly the opposite. d Disparage and commend are antonyms. Disparage means to belittle, whereas commend is a formal word that means to praise. Surreptitious and candid are also antonyms. Surreptitious means secretive or stealthy, whereas candid means open and honest. auspicious and favorable = are synonyms. obscure and hidden = are also synonyms, as they both mean not obvious or not apparent. relegate and send away = are quite similar as well. Relegate means to demote or to move down to a lower rank or position. Send away clearly indicates a movement away from a focal point. a or b Condone and overlook are synonyms. To condone means to overlook or to disregard, especially wrongdoings and misbehaviors. Assiduous is the formal word for persevering or diligent, and it is synonymous to ambitious. Erudite is a word describing a learned, or scholarly man. frenetic and serene = are antonyms. Frenetic means frantic and hectic. being such, it is opposite to serene, which means tranquil or peaceful. sagacious and obtuse = are also antonyms. Sagacious is a formal word for shrewd. This is opposite to obtuse, which means stupid and dull-witted. c Innate and inherent are synonyms. Both pertain to natural characteristics. Exigent (the formal word for urgent) is similar in meaning to demanding. corporal and spiritual = are not synonyms. Corporal means of the body. Spiritual means of the spirit. ephemeral and eternal = are antonyms. Ephemeral means short-lived or temporary, while eternal means permanent and everlasting. spurious and authentic = are antonyms. Authentic means genuine or true, whereas spurious means not genuine, not real, or false.

36. b

37. d

Scrupulous and lackadaisical contradict each other. Scrupulous may mean very careful or exact (diligent), whereas lackadaisical means without determination or enthusiasm, or just plain lazy. Immutable and impermanent also oppose each other in meaning. Immutable means cannot be changed, or permanent. Impermanent is obviously not permanent. extraneous and irrelevant = are synonyms. Extraneous (from the word extra) means unrelated or irrelevant to the matter at hand. impetuous and impulsive = are also synonyms. They both describe a person who acts rashly and without much thought. inane and senseless = are synonyms, too. Inane means absurd, foolish, or senseless. Abstemious and ascetic are similar in meaning. Being abstemious means one is being moderate, especially in eating and drinking. Ascetic describes a person who denies himself of excesses and pleasures (self-denying). Virulent and deadly are also synonyms. Virulent, when used with disease, means harmful or deadly. amorphous and distinct = are antonyms. Amorphous means shapeless and indefinite, and therby indistinct. dubious and positive = are antonyms. Dubious means doubtful or uncertain. Positive may on usage mean certain. are antonyms. One who is negligent fails to give proper attention or care. One who is conscientious has a clear sense of obligation, and is thereby diligent. Assuage and provoke oppose each other. To assuage means to ease or to take the edge off (of an explosive situation, for example). To provoke means to incite or to aggravate (make worse). Abstruse and straightforward show the same relationship as the aforementioned. Abstruse means difficult to understand, or obscure. Straightforward, of course, is the opposite. belligerent and quarrelsome = are synonyms. A belligerent and quarrelsome person is hotheaded and is always ready to fight and quarrel. lugubrious and morose = are synonymous, too. Lugubrious and morose both mean mournful and doleful. mercurial and unpredictable = are synonymous. Mercurial means lively or changes very quickly. An unpredictable person also quickly changes his mind and desires from one moment to another. Cryptic and definite are quite antonyms. Something is cryptic when the meaning is hard to decipher because it is hidden or obscure. Thus, it cannot be definite (explicit or clear) at the same time. Arduous and easy are antonyms. Arduous means hard, which is the opposite of easy. diffident and timid = are synonyms. Diffident means hesitant or timid. circumspect and severe = have no relationship. Circumspect means cautious and prudent. Severe means harsh or stern. purported and supposed = are synonyms. To purport something is to suppose or to allege something. Vilify and malign are synonyms. To vilify someone is to speak evil of this person. To malign someone is to slander or to speak evil of this person, too. Exuberant and ebullient are synonyms, as both mean in high spirits. surrogate and original = are not synonyms. Surrogate means substitute or replacement (as in surrogate mother), whereas original is the real thing, that which is replaced. vitiate and purify = Vitiate is the formal word that means to weaken, spoil, or harm. It is not synonymous to purify, which means to cleanse or sanitize. negligent and conscientious =

38. a

39. a

40. a

41. b 42. d 43. d 44. b 45. b 46. c 47. c 48. a 49. e 50. e

are also not synonyms. Zealous means enthusiastic or eager. Indifferent means lacking interest, care, or concern. Change crabby (which is a slang word) with irritable. This is too full of jargon. Replace it with cake or bread or whatever the product of the baking skills maybe. This is pretentious language, as it unnecessarily uses a foreign phrase for something that could be stated in English. replace entre nous with between the two of us. Unnecessary and awkward repetition of the word matter. Inappropriate diction. Do not use domicile which connotes legal action and the courts. Use house, instead, which connotes structure and building materials. Wrong choice of word. replace affect with effect. Wrong choice of word. Replace further with farther as the sentence is talking about distance. Wrong gender. Rebesa, from the sentence, is a female. She is therefore an alumna, not an alumnus.

zealous and indifferent

READING COMPREHENSION
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. b d b b a b c d d Idyllic is the answer since the whole passage describes a restful, peaceful, and countrified scene. From the passage, the old newspaper soared above the rooftops. Only a particularly strong gust of wind could have lifted it as high as that. This main idea can be found at the topic sentence, which is the last sentence of the passage. The first paragraph is a specific illustration of the passage. The illustration came first before the generalization. Self-explanatory. The actual comparison is between Preparation for fighting a war and preparation for taking a cruise in a small boat. Therefore, remove preparation for and we see that fighting a war is compared to taking a cruise or sailing a small boat, letter b. The fifth sentence of the passage is the answer to the question. The first sentence is the clue to this question. We know that as summer ends and winter approaches, the nights lengthen and the days shorten. The lengthening nights therefore symbolize a transition in seasons, and thus, the passing of time. From the sixth sentence onwards, the whole passage becomes a recurring admonition to move. Thus this implies that the author is advising decisiveness. In the second life, his replaces and refers to love found in the first line. The poem tells the reader to follow and yield. This means that the reader may choose to follow or yield or concede. One is therefore not helpless (as letter a supposes). Letter c wont do as well. Yielding and following intimate surrender, not a fight. The fact that the reader will suffer (letter d) might be true, but that is not at all the point of the author. Look at the fourth sentence for the answer. Inference, remember, is resolving something using the details provided in the passage. The fact that people are moving in large numbers to developed countries is not actually a response to liberalized policies in these countries. The liberalized policies only took away the stopper that inhibited the movement of people from developing to developed countries. People, of course, would like to move to the developed countries because of the higher wages. Look at the first sentence for the answer. Self-explanatory. The whole passage is about the problem brain-drain. Region IV indeed has the largest population among all the regions. Theres no population data differentiated for gender so the reader has no basis for saying if this statement is true or not. This statement is false. If we arrange the regions according to population size, well find out that Regions VIII and I actually have median, and not extreme, population.

10. a 11. b 12. b

13. d 14. c

15. 16. 17. 18.

b b a c

19. b

20. c 21. c 22. b 23. c

24. d 25. c

26. b 27. c 28. d 29. d 30. d 31. b 32. a 33. d 34. a 35. c

36. c 37. a 38. d 39. d 40. c

As theres no data for the population of children, theres really no basis for saying whether this statement is true or not. As this is data for the year 2000 only, we cannot say whether the population of the Philippines has increased through time. The difference between the population of Southern Tagalog and the population of National Capital Region is 1,861,000. The difference between the population of Central Luzon and National Capital region is 1,891,615. Obviously, the latter is greater. This makes the statement false. The tongue and pen stand for saying aloud and writing down, respectively, both of which are ways of expressing feelings. The feeling in It might have been is regret and longing for what did not come about. The figurative expression is therefore saying, the saddest feeling that can be expresses is the longing for lost opportunities. The misunderstanding does not come because of the greatness. Nor does being misunderstood the mark of being great. What the statement wants to say is that few people can understand the sentiments of great persons. Most people misunderstand the great person. By we cannot insure our own prosperity except by insuring that of everyone else , the figurative expression is saying that in order to personally succeed, he must help other people succeed, too. This is another way of saying that a person must have concern for other people. The line Mankind has become so much one family simply means that men are interdependent. Of course man owns his body. The product of his hands can only refer to the result of his labors. Mans property then is determined by his labors. The examination is used in lieu of what was actually meant, reflection. When a life is not worth living, it must lack meaning. Thus, if the unexamined life is not worth living, Socrates is cautioning us that Reflection is the key to a truly meaningful life. We mean here that mans personality affects and influences what he knows and learns. Thats letter d. A man is the center of his own universe means that man is self-centered and self-focused. There are as many universes as there are men means that all people think of himself first before thinking of others. If love increases with convenience and decreases with inconvenience, then the factor that determines the love a person feels is convenience. This statement is obviously the opening sentence. It is supported by the rest of the sentences which outline the confession. The presence of Aside from which makes this sentence the natural successor to sentence letter d. It adds to the confession made in sentence d. After cleaning the area to be painted (c) and before applying the first coating of paint (b), one should prime the brush and dip it into pre-treated paint. This is the sentence that naturally follows the third sentence (b). The recurrence of the word coating rounds it off nicely. C is the first sentence. A is next because of eyes, repeated from the first sentence. The use of they and those rounds the transition to sentence d. They and those both refer to eyes which have been roaming inside the room. Sentence d comes after. The word mirror reinforces the connection to sentence d. The rest of the sentences are an academic discussion of birth. Sentence c is a personal comment. The rest of the sentences had a recurring theme: feeling of belonging. Letter a is quite far removed from this themes and talks about the opening of a play. The rest of the sentences discuss what are necessary if one is to pass a college entrance exam. Letter d is irrelevant to the topic as it discusses review centers that offer UPCAT review services. This sentence is about opportunities. The rest of the sentences are about regrets. This group of sentences may take two directions: the fathers happiness over the speakers graduation, or what exactly happened at the graduation rites. Since the first direction is supported by a, b, and d, while the latter direction is supported only by letters a and c, we take the first direction. We throw over sentence c and declare it irrelevant to the direction we have taken.