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# Electron Orbitals

## Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom

Mathematical laws can identify the regions outside of the nucleus where electrons are most likely to be found. These laws are beyond the scope of this class

## Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

One cannot simultaneously determine both the position and momentum of an electron.

The more certain you are about where the electron is, the less certain you can be about where it is going. Werner Heisenberg

The more certain you are about where the electron is going, the less certain you can be about where it is.

Quantum Numbers
Each electron in an atom has a unique set of 4 quantum numbers which describe it. Principal quantum number Angular momentum quantum number Magnetic quantum number Spin quantum number

## Electron Energy Level (Shell)

Generally symbolized by n, it denotes the probable distance of the electron from the nucleus. n is also known as the Principle Quantum number Number of electrons that can fit in a shell: 2n2

Electron Orbitals
An orbital is a region within an energy level where there is a probability of finding an electron. Orbital shapes are defined as the surface that contains 90% of the total electron probability. The angular momentum quantum number, generally symbolized by l, denotes the orbital (subshell) in which the electron is located.

s Orbital shape
The s orbital (l = 0) has a spherical shape centered around the origin of the three axes in space.

p orbital shape

There are three dumbbell-shaped p orbitals (l = 1) in each energy level above n = 1, each assigned to its own axis (x, y and z) in space.

d orbital shapes

Things get a bit more complicated with the five d orbitals (l = 2) that are found in the d sublevels beginning with n = 3. To remember the shapes, think of double dumbells
and a dumbell with a donut!

Shape of f (l = 3) orbitals

## Energy Levels, Sublevels, Electrons

Energy Level (n ) 1 2 3 Sublevels in main energy level (n sublevels) s s p s p d s p d f Number of orbitals per sublevel 1 1 3 1 3 5 1 3 5 7 Number of Electrons per sublevel 2 2 6 2 6 10 2 6 10 14 Number of electrons per main energy level (2n2) 2 8 18

32

## Magnetic Quantum Number

The magnetic quantum number, generally symbolized by m, denotes the orientation of the electrons orbital with respect to the three axes in space.

## Orbital filling table

Electron Spin
The Spin Quantum Number describes the behavior (direction of spin) of an electron within a magnetic field. Possibilities for electron spin:

1 2

1 2

## Pauli Exclusion Principle

Two electrons occupying the same orbital must have opposite spins

Wolfgang Pauli

Element

Configuration notation
1s22s1 ____ 1s

Orbital notation

## Noble gas notation

[He]2s1 ____ [He]2s2

Lithium

____

Beryllium

Boron

[He]2s2p1

Carbon

[He]2s2p2

Nitrogen

[He]2s2p3

Oxygen

[He]2s2p4

Fluorine

[He]2s2p5

Neon

## 1s22s2p6 ____ 1s ____ ____

[He]2s2p6

Exclusion Warning!
Assigning quantum numbers to electrons has been exluded and will not be tested!
The following slides are purely for your entertainment

## Assigning the Numbers

The three quantum numbers (n, l, and m) are integers. The principal quantum number (n) cannot be zero. n must be 1, 2, 3, etc. The angular momentum quantum number (l ) can be any integer between 0 and n - 1. For n = 3, l can be either 0, 1, or 2.

The magnetic quantum number (ml) can be any integer between -l and +l.
For l = 2, m can be either -2, -1, 0, +1, +2.

Quantum numbers for the first four levels of orbitals in the hydrogen atom n 1 2

l
0 0 1

Orbital designation 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p 4d 4f

ml 0 0 -1, 0, 1 0 -1, 0, 1 -2, -1, 0, 1, 2 0 -1, 0, 1 -2, -1, 0, 1, 2 -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3

# of orbitals 1 1 3 1 3 5 1 3 5 7

0 1 2

0 1 2 3