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4

The axiomsof PeanoArithmetic

1eN.

aeN.J .u* 1eN. a,bt.N.):u:b.:.a*l

aeN.).a*l--1.

ktK.'.lek.'.xeN.xek'.'J,x *

=b+ 1 .

Iek :J. NJk.

Giuseppc

Peano, Arithmetice.s prittc'i1tiuttouu

tnctl'totlo e'uposilct, 'furin:

Boccir, lUfi9.

The quotationsat the headof thischapteris how Peurnostateclhisfamous five axiomsof arithmetic.(His notationlooks surprisinglymodem. In particularhis useof J for implicationand set-inclusionhas becomethe

modern-day r

writtenthe otherwayround,asc!) Essentially,Peano'Saxiomsarethose

of PA- tosetherwith the seconcl-orderinductionaxiom,

and :r, althoughthe 'subset' relationsymbolJ

is now

VX(0eXAVx(xeX--nx+ 1eX) -Vy(yeX))

(")

whereX rangesover all subsetsof the domainof the stuctttreuncler consicleration,andx, y rangeoverelementsof thisdomain. Peano(and, indepenclently,Dedekind) realizeclthat these axioms

acttrallycharacterizethestandardmodelN,

i.e. up to a canonicalisornor-

phismih"t.

namelyN,

N, t.e., induction,andtellsus a grezrtdealaboutthe

inductionanclrecursiveclefinitions.It also,however,begsmany difficttlt

featureof

(seeExercise4.4).Thisobservationisolatesthemostimportant

is only one suchstructuresatisfyingPA- togetherwith ("'),

natureof

pSilosophicalandset-theoretic questionsaboutthenatureof subsetsof N'

The ipproachtakenin the

stuclyof

the theorythat is variouslyknown

'Peano

arithrnetic'or simply

'PA'

subsetsX thatareclefinedin

Xdeflnedby afirst-orcler9o-f.ormula.The resultisa weakertheorywhich

no longercharacterizesN,

on whichmuchof our

supplyof interestingmodelsis

be ratherweak, hJwever,it

surprisinglystronganclencapsulatesalmostall

would be unipteresting. Fortr-rnately PA is

of whatareknowntoclayas

nowaOaysns

'first-order Peanoarithmetic',

l'typzrssesthesequestionsby

restrictingthe irrdtrctionaxiom (''') to

a ratherconcreteway,namelyto thosesubsets

but a theorythatis extremelynattlral,ancione

un{erstandingof N is based.Irl fact,havilg a large

actuallya bonusheretlf PA turneclor'rtto

theory'ancl 'finite

combinatorics', etswe shallsee'

,elementary nurb.r

+L

Alternatiueincluc'tionsc:hentas 43

1'zl, then, is the ftrst-orclertheorywe get wherrwe aclclto our bitse theory,Ptl-, as muchof thc Peano-Declekinclinductiorrttxiotn(") as possitrle,br-rtremainin the realmof the frrst-orclerlarrgtrage-7*.'l'o be spc:ci{re, i[ c1,(x,y),isan/o-forrrruler,tlte uxirtrnof intlut:tiottottx irtg,(x,y), 1,cp,is thesentence

Vy(cp(0,y)AV x(cp(*,y) -*, cp(x+ 1, t)) ---> Vxq(x,y)).

Flere x is the wl!_tt-ct4t-1-pgriuA-e ancly 'are the p_q.r.e!19!gll In

most ctlses,

however,it will be clearfrom the contextwhichvariableis the inclltctii'tt.t

variable,anclwhenthisisthecasewe clenote1.cpmoresimplyztsIcp.PA is

the first-ordertheoryaxiornatizeclby PA- togetherwith incluctiorraxioms

I,cpfctrall 7o-formulas E. More generally,if f

tlrenthe theory1f is the first-orclertheoryaxiomatizecltty P.4 - together with allI,cptor E l. ForexamplethisclefiniticlngivesustheorieslA,,,l)', and 1I1,whenf : A,,,.I' or If,, respectively. Therearetwo importantrernarksto makeat thispoint.The firstisthat, whilstthePeano-Declekinclseconcl-orderaxiornof inclr.rctionis givenby it singlesentence,PA is givenby an axiomscheme.(We shallseelaterthzrt no finitesetof .9a-sentencescanaxiomatizePA.) The seconclis that PA is

recursiuelyzrxiomatizecl(albeit not

recursiveprocedureto decideif a givenSentenceo is an axiomof P,21.It follows by Godel'sincompletenesstheoremthat PA is not complete. Incleecl,by Corollary3.11,PA has2R'completeextensions,only one of whichisTh(N). In tlrenextchapterweintendto backup our claimthlt PA issufficiently strongto provemostof elementarynumbertheory,anclindeeclthatthere are nzrturalwaysof expressingnumber-theoreticiind finite-combinatorial statementsin PA. The restof this chapteris clevoteclto preparingthe ground,andto introclucingthereaderto thestyleof argumentwe shalluse insiclePA. Oneparticularlypleaserntconclr.rsionfrom thischapter'sdisctts- sionisthattheothernzrturiilinductionschemes(suchastotolincluctirtnand theleast-nttmberprinciple)turn out to be a conseqLlenceof PA aswe have clefinedit above.

is a clitssof !/7o-formulas

finitely

axiomatized)that is, there is a

4. I

ALTE,RNATIVE INDUCTION

SCI-IEIVIES

This sectionaclclressesthe protrlemof clevelopingtechrricluesfor proving theoremswithin Prl. In particr-rlitrwe will be interesteclin zllterrative incluctionschemesthatcanbe justifiedin PA. The firstvery simple (bLrt veryuseful)examplesetsthe scenenicely. SrrpposerrN, E(.r) is a formula,ancl1vei,vishto showNFVx<rtcp(x).

44

Then it isclearlysutficientto showthat

Theaxiomsof PeanoArithmeti.c

Nrq(0)AVx <n(cp(x)->q(x+ 1)),

anclincleeclthe strongerstatemetrt,NFrp(0)AVx(E(;r) -->cp(x + not be true.We canexpressthisprincipleby the scheme

l)) miglit

t

i Vy,z(cp(0,y)AVx < z(cp(x, il --

l

cp(xt 1, t)) -+V.r < zcp(x,.v)) \1 ( + )

over all y'o-formulas cp(x,y). Does PA prove all instancesof (+)? 'yes'.

Fortunatelythe answeris

@PAprovesa|linstancesoftheschenre(+)of.induction uptoz.

Proof. Let M be an arbitrary model of.PA, and let cp(x,y) be any 9o-formula.We shallshow that M satisfies( + ) and concludefrom the cornpletenesstheoremthat the sentence( + ) is provablein PA- Sosupposetl, be M and

MFE(O,b)AVx <b(E@,a)---> EQ + 1,,?));

we must show MFVx<bq(*,a).

(x< z AE(,v,'1)) 5,2 (x ii):.Th"n clearlyMFtp(x,a,b) f.orallx > b, and

,Le.t,:l/Q.,y,z)

be.the

9n-formula

tulrttrt(0,d,b)AVx< b(E(x,a,b) ---> 1p(x+ I, a,b))

SO

MFtp(0,d,b) AVx(tp(x,a,b) ---> tp(x+ l, a,b))

hence by

ltl,t in

M,

MFVxtlt(x,c7,b),hence MEVx<bcp(x,a), as

required.

!

Notice in particularthe use of the

completenesstheorem and our

argument 'inside the modelM'. Thiswill be our usualmethoclof showing that PA provesa givensentenceo, and from now on we shallomit the explicitreferenceto the completenesstheorem.This method has two advantages:firstly, the notation is much more conciseerndthe proof shorter;and seconclly,the importantideaor icleasin the proof are much

moreclearlyexpressed.It is an instructiveexerciseto write out a proof of

in one'sfavouriteformalproof-systemfor thepreclicatecalculus!

The next resultwill be useda lot: it showsthzrtPA provesthe least- ntLntberprinciple.lf.cp(x,l)is an 9a-formula,L,g denotesthe sentence

PAI (+

)

Yy(axcp(x,y) -32(cp(2, y)AVw < z-lcp(w,y)))

anclwe clropthesubscript'x'ifit is clearfromthecontext.

AltcrruttiLteincluctionscltemes'

Ll5

PrrorosrrroN4.2. PA principle.

proves alI instancesL,cp of thc lcitst tttttntrcr

Prrsof.

Lct lvlFPA

be arbitrary, let u, lt e lvl ,

uncl lct q(x, f)

bc

iln

9ln-formulasuchthzttMFcp(b,cl).If the conclusiortof the lcast-nttmtrcr

lrrinciple isfalsein NI,i.e.,if

MFY z(cp(2,d) --->Aw 1

zcp(w. A))

(:i:)

we shallcleclucea contradiction,The fortnula 0(x,)i) is clcfineclto be

Yz(z '-x-'>-lcp(2. y)).

Noticethat(since0 isthesmallestelementof M) MF0(0,ri).Now suppose

xeM

anclMV0(x,a);we showthzrtlvlF0(x+1,A).

It zefulFzlx*

I theneitherz(x

soMFlcp(z,ri)(sinceMF0(x,A))or

Z:x,

MF-1cp(z,a).HencelvlE0(x+1,a),asrequired.Thus

but then MFYtulx-1cp(w,ri),so by our supposition(:f) we have

M F0(0,rz)A Vx(O(x, ct) -- > 0(x+ l, a))

soby I0 in M wehaveIVIFVx7(x,a),i.e. , MFVz -lcp(2, ri),contraclicting the tr

existenceof beMFEQ,A).

Tlre other important incltrctionschenteis tl-rep_rq1c.i12!_t*g[ JoJd_inductic,trt. If cp(x,y)isan 9n-formula T.,cpis the sentence

l

i

Vt(Vx(Vz lxE(2, y) -

E@, y)) -

Yxcp(x,y)).

Pnoposrrror.r4.3. P,zl proves all instzrncesZ,.rpof the principle of total indtiction

Proof. Let MFPA,

aeM,

an<l E(x,y) be ttn -9o-formttla.Suppose

M EYx(Y z < xcp(z , d) "-> cp(x , a)) .

(o)

Then if b eME-\cp(b,u), by L-|E irr&1anciProposition

such b elvl

M FVxcp(x,ri),asrequired.

4.2 thereis a Iaust

hcnce

satisfying -lcp(b, a).

Bgt

this

contraclicts (C);

n

In closipgthissectionwe rcmarkthatthercarecoltverscsto Proposittt>ns tt.L.4.2. ancl4.3:overP.zl-the axiomschcmcsof incluctiollLlpto z, the

tl('t

Theuxiom.tof PeunoArithmetic

least-nurnbcrprinciple,the principlcof totalinductiorr,anclthe orclinary schemeoi inclLrctionareall equivalent;thatisif a moclelfulFPA- satisfies oneof thcseschemesit satisfiesthernall.(SeeExercisesfor Section4.1.)

Exercises for Sectiort4.I

4.1 Provethe remark in the last paragraph,by showing

eitherttre principleof total incluction,or tlte schemeof

IVIFPA.

4.2 Recall the theory O

-f.',r-fornrula).Prove that PA-

of

Exercise 2.14, itncl let mily lre replaced by Q in

that, if NIFPA- satisfies

incluctiortup

tcl z, then

lncl denote

{l, cplcpzrrt

the clefinitionof Ptl

l:y

proving that the following sentenceshold in all nrodels

Incl+BFPA-.

of Ind * Q, ancllrelrce

Vt.y, z((y+ z)+ x: St + (z* x))

V-r(x+0:0*r)

V.r(x+l:l*x)

Vx,y(x*y:y*x)

Vx, l, z((y+ z)' x :(.v' t) + (z'x))

Vx(0 ';:0)

Vx(1'x:x)

Vx,y(;u ' 1t:Y ' x)

Vx,y,z((z'y)' x : z' (y' *))

Vr,y(1+y+ x*x)

Vx,yAz(x -t | * z :

lY

x :

YVY + | + z :

x)

(Hint: In eachcase,useincluctionon x.)

4.3 Showthatthe axiom Q3 of Q followsfronrlncl

of Q. Constrttcta modelof the least-nttmbcrprinciple, LNP:

togetherwith the otheraxioms

{ L, rplEan .//a-fornrr-rIa},

togetherwith all axiomsof B except Q3.

tnint;

Let lvl be a non-stanclarclmoclel of Th(N)'

a>

N

in

M

itncl cotlsider

/(:N u\xeMllvlFx>u\')

4.4

Provethat anystructule (M,0,S)

(where0 is a constantancl'Sis a unelry

S(y) --),r= y), VxlS(,r) = (), andthesecond-

furtctionon iV1)sati.sfyingVx,y(S(.r) =

orclerinductionaxiom('1)on

andthattheisornorphismh: (NI,0,S) + (N,0,S) isunique'

p.42is isomorphicto (N,0,S) (whereS(x):x+l)i

(Hint:Consiclerrheset {uelVlllvl Fa:SS

4.5*

clefine*

S(0)

(rrSs)somer?€N}.)

Finclseconcl-orclerfonlulas involvingnon-logicalsymbols0,S only tl-rat

in (N,0,S). (YountayLrsecltrantihcationoversubsetsXcNA anclthe

lntroclucing

new relotion.s an.cl f'unctiotts

47

relations

clefinablein (N,0,5) by first-orclcrfttrmultts. (Llirtt:For the secondpart, consiclerExercisesI .2, 1.3.)

,.rr,)e X' for variottshxecl/ceN.) Show that *,' are not

4.2 INTRODUCINGNEW I{ITLATIONSAND FUNCTIOI\S

Supposethat,workingPA, we haclprovecl

YilyE@, y) AVx, y , z(cp(i,y) Acp(i,z) -u y : z)

where cp(i,y) is an 9a-formula with all free-variablesamongstx,y. Normalmathematicalpracticewoulclthenindicatethzrtwe coulclaclcla new fLrrrctionsymbol/(x) togetherwith theclefiningnxiom

Yiq(i, l'(i))

(r)

to PA, obtaininga newtheoryin anexpatnclecllanguage.Similzrrly,givena formula q(i) we coulclintroclucezrnew relationsymbolR togetherwith defininsaxiom

vi(1p(i) <-R(t)).

(2)

In this sectionwe will addresstl-requestionof what the relationshipis betweentheserrewtheoriesand the olcl,and in particuletrthe problemof justifyingthe schemeof inductionin the expandecllanguage' Becausewe may want to iterateour results(so that we can consider expansionsof -?^byseuerulnewfunctionanclrelationsymbols),we fixthe foflowingnotation:9'o wlll clenotean exp?lnsionof go by functionand

relationsymbols,andPA(9')

suitableclefiningaxiomsfor the newfunctionandrelzrtionsymbols(of the

form (l)

J4i-formulas.

wrlldenotean9's theoryconsistingof PA- ,

or (2) above), zrndthe axiom schemeof incltrctionfor alL

No* suppose!/nancl PA(g'^) areasin the lastparagrarph,anclthat

PA(,Y'^)FVt3 lycp(i " Y)

whereq(i, y) is an 9i-formula. Let f be a newfunctionsymbol (o1'arity

equll to /c:the lengthof x.)

ona we

gi-formLrlas 6(O)by incluctionon termsanclforrnulas.(Thereadershoulcl

notethat,despitethe notationalcomplexity,the idea behindthe follorv-

We clefirre9'ito

be the lzrnguage g'"U{f},

J4[-formulas 0@)

to

following 'translation' of

clefine the

ing definition is very sirnple,

is just that

replacing every

., z, )) for a suitzrblenew

of

lncl

., f(t), . ) by 1z(cp(i,z)A0('

.

variablez.)

(l)l

If 0(r;) is an atorrrrcS'o-f.orrnula (so cloesnot containany occur-

renceof /') thcn0(r,)is just0(rl).

48

Theoxiotrlsof Peunctrlrithmetic'

(2)t Slppose0,(u,y)is

t,(r)

s;(d):y for I <i</c, anclt1t(tt,y)is r(D):y'

wheretn

tl(0 , y) havealrezrclybeenclefinecl.Then:

anclit(D)are9'[-tet'rnsancleachof 0,(A,y)(1<i </c) ancl

,s1(rl))

i.r1(rl)):l(r;) thcrr

(u)

iL0(A)is r(t):.f(^t,(o), fi (u) ts

ly,,.,ik.z(.W@.2)A A'i=,0,(o,y)AcP(1t,.'',lr,z))

(b)

forsuitablenewvariables lt,

or (p.

if g(r;) isr(D)</(r'(r),

,!k, z notalreadyoccurringin 11,',0,,

.

.

,s^(t)) then0(D)is

ay,,.,

Jk, z, w(t1t(0,z)AAf=' 0,(a,y,)Arp(!,w)Az<w)

(c)

forsuitabley, z, w;

sirnilarly,if g(d) is/(s1(r),

,sr(D))<t(D)then0(D)is

Q\r

ay,,.

,!k, z, w(tp(a,z)A Af='6,(a,y,)AE0,w)Aw<z).

The definitionsin

(1)/ and (2)r above of

0(D) for

atomic

9fi-fornrqlas g(D) areextendedto all9'[-f.ormulas0(D)in theobviousway:

-trs(o)

is

-t 0(u)

0 | A02@)

is

0 ,(D) A9r(D)

0,y 0r(0)

is

0 '(D)Y 0'(D)

Jy)(a,y)

is

aY9@, Y)

Vfu6J

is vy1Qt,y).

Thefollowinglemmasaysthatthistranslationis 'correct'

LEvrpre4.4. Let-E'^,PA(!'o),

q(i, y),l', g'^:9'eu

{/} be asabove'Then

all

any moclel lvlEPA(9',)+Yicp(x,f(X)) for g';,

for

9[-formLrlas0(rl)and all ae M

we have: for

M E0(t7)elvtFlU).

Proof. By incluctionott the complexityof formulas.We shallprovethe

incluctionstepcorresponclingto

(2)tabove;allothercasesare justaseulsy' ,(.t*(t)),0,(a,y) is's;(r)):v(t<i <k)

true for the formulas0,

anclrp(r.r,y) is it(r;)-y, anclsupposethe lemmais

Introclucingnew relutionsand functiorts

anrlr/. Then if ae M we have

tvtF0@)

e [4Ft(u) :/(s'(rz),

., sp(ri))

e

lvlFcp(s,(a) s o@), t(a))

49

(sincetulFYxatyrp(i,y)anclMFYicp(i,/(t))

eMFfy',

,lk,

.Ayr:sr(n) Az:r(ri)A cp(y,z))

c

M Fay,z(l(1:, 0 1Q1, y,)Aq(a, z)AEQ, z))

C

M Fay , z(A!=,6,(ct,y,)ArP(a,z)AEQ , z))

(by the inductionhypothesis)

cMF1(a),

asrecluirecl.

Thereis alsoa versionfor relations:if 9'o andPA(g'^) areasbeforeand

n

r/(i) is an 9'o-f.ormula,we may define9'i:!'oU{R}

whereR is a new

k-aryrelationsymbol(wherek is the lengthof x

again)andwe may define

a 'translation' of Sf,-formulasto 9!-formulas by (1)tt fi 0(0) is atomicanddoesnot containanyoccurrenceof R, then

6(o)is just g(u). (2)o If r,(o) 1

then0(t) is rp(r,(o)

,r*(D)

are9!-termsand 0(D)is R(r,(t),

,t0@))

t^(t)).

(3)"

rc@)

is

10(D)

6,n-orfal is

o,(a)Air(a)

0,y 0r(o)

is

0,(D)Y0r(o)

fi6:fr

is ay1@,y)

Vy0(a,y)

is

Vy0(D , y).

We thenhavethe lnalogueof Lemma4.4 tor thistranslzrtion'

Levrvrn4.5. Let Y'^, PA(:t'),

for anymoclelM FPA(9!) + Vt(R (*) <+4t(t))we have:for any9f-formula

rlr(i), R, g';,:9'n

u {R} be asabove'Then

0(D)and all a e M

MF0(a)eMF0(a).

Theaxiomsof PeanoArithmetic

Proof. By incluctionon thecomplexityof formulasin zisimilarway to the

proofof Lemma4.4.

Frornthiswe candeclucethemaintheoremof thissection.

Tueonevr4.6. Let 9'o anclPA(Y'^)be asbefore,let fuIFPA(g'^),and let 9'1,be an expansionby definitionof 9'o (whereeither9'i:9'oU{f}, f being defineclby the axiom Vicp(i,f(t)), q(i,y) an /'s-formula and PA(9'^)FVi3,.yrp(*,y)or 9'^--9'oU {R}, rvhereR is the relationwith definingaxiom Vi(R(t) <>t1t(i))and tp(i) is an 9'o-formtrla).Then the ur-riqueexpansionof M satisfyingthe definingaxiomfor thenewsymbolof S?'ialsosatisfiesall incluctionaxiomsI0 for formulas0 in 9'[.

50

n

Proof. Clearlythis uniqueexpansionM* f: Mu--M is givenby

of M is either (tVI,f) where

f(tt):the uniquebeM

s.t. MFcp(a"b)

or is (M, R) whereR q Mk is the relation

R: {a eMultulFrp(a)}.

We mustshow Mn satisfiesall inductionaxioms1,,0for all 9'i-f.otmulas 0(u,A).But if a eM and

M* F0(0,a)AV u(0(u,a) ---> 0(u+ I, a))

then

M E0(0 , a)AVu(0(u,a) "-> )Qt+ 7 ,4)

byLemma4.4or Lemma4.5,soby (3)ior (3)R,

M F6(0,ct)AVu(6(u,a) -> 6(u+ 1,ri)),

henceusingPA(g'^)in NI,MFYu1(u,ci)hence(byLemmas4.4 and4.5

again)M* FVu|(u."A),asrequired.

n

CoRor-lnnv4.7.With g'^, PA(f'o), 9"oasin Theorem4.6,let PA($'ir)be

PA(9')

definingaxiomfor the newsymbolof 9'!. Then PA(f'L) tsa conserutttiue extensiortof PA(9'n), i.e., for each9'o-sentenceo

+ all incluctionaxiomsfor formulas of 9'i

togetherwith the

PA(Yi';)ro€ PA(9')r o.

Introdttcingnew relationsancl function,s

51

Proof. The '' clirectionis trivial. SupposePA(y';)l-o. Then for each n"roclelNIFPA(9') ttrereisa uniqLreexPansiorlM+ FPA(.!l',i),ltyTheorem 4.6.SoM* Fo anclsinceo isan-/'asentenceandM* anexpansionof &/ lve havcfulFrr.ThusPA(!/|';)l-ciby the conrpletcnesstheorem. n

There is a specialcaseof theseexpansiollsof the langudge9o

by

clefinitions,namelyr,vhenthe newfunctionor relationtsprouablyrecttr'siue

in PA or PA(9'o). To explainthiswe firstextendthe ideaof 11,ancl:r formulasto a langtlageY'^ extendingJ(o.

DeptNtrtoN.If 9l

quantifiersoccurasIlu</(t)(

9'o. qt(i) isZ, in

is II, in 9'^iff it isVz7(i, Z) for sorneL,1,/'s-formula0.

DentNtrtorv.A function f rsprouablyrecursiuein PA(.T'^)iff it is defined

in allmodelsof PA(tt')by

)1 in !t'sand PA(Y'^)FViStyI(i,y). A rclationRisprouubLyrecttsiuein

extendsI6,'an,Jf'o-fotmtLla6(x)isA1lln Y'^iff allof its

g'^iff

it

) or Vu<r(t)(

)

for sometermr(x)of

is3yg(x,y) for someL,, /'o-formula0, andtlt(i)

f(i):

theuniqueys.t.0(i,y), where0(i,y)is

PA(g'^)

iff it is definedin all modelsby R(;)<>0(i) where0(x) is a )1

that is I11in 9'o witlt PA(Y'^)|

9j1-forrnulas.t. thereis a formula q(t)

vi(0(i).'?(i)).

Definingprovablyrecursive functions

andrelation.lin thiswayisreallya

'recipes' for functionsor relationsthat

misnomer,sincethey are simply

applyto an arbitrarymodelof PA(9'). This will be convenientabtrseof

linguage

functionsand relationson N that are obtainedfrom theserecipes.For

example,if

formula andPAI-vt3lyT(x,y), then,by Theorem3.3,.f(at definedon N usingthis recipe)is actuallyrecursive,sinceit is totaland has.I1graph' Similarlya provablyrecursiverelzrtionR (considereclasa relationon N) is actuallyrecursive,by Corollary3.5. (Not all recursivefunctionsare

though, as we will be particularlyinteresteclin the actual

/(t):the

uniqr.rey s.t. 0(i,y) holds,where0(x.y) is a .I1

provablyrecursivethough:seeExercise4.8.).

The

ipecial featureof expzinsionsof

lzrnguagesby provablyrecursive

functionsandrelationsisthat,in an expansionfrornSt'oto9'f,,say,'I1and

nt formulas of 9|,

reipectively.For

and we are consideringexpanding9'o I'o

definingaxiorn Ytrp(s,f(i)).

Then everyA11formu_la0 of

can be translated to -I, and If1 formulas of Y'^,

by aclclilga new function

in 9|and a translaton0n,that

')

with

either

example,supposePA(9'^)FVtlt'y'p(i,y), E is Elin 9|

g'A

syrnbol /with

9|U{/itras

is f1,"'in

ay(p(r,y)A0(. ,t, ))

know that Vjf \,cp(i,y)

replzrcementsareequivalent,anclhencethat

neeclto know that

botha trJnslatiorr6:, thatis.I,

9'o. The

E

iclea is to

or

replace 0(' ' ' ,f(t),'

Yy(cp(t,y)'g( -.,.v,'''))' We needto

is provablein PA(y,^).tcl shclwthat thesetwo

6:, 0'are equivalent,andwe

that 0r isI, in 9'n zrnd6'/is 1-/'in

is-I, in f';toshow

9i. sirnilarlyif PA(?'^)Fvt(a("t) ,.v(i)), where0 is.I, in 9'; andr/ is['

52

TheuxionrsofPeuno Arithmetic

in ,!|'n,then everyA,,formr-rlacpof S|tl

are I, ancl 11 1i1 9's, by replacingn(f eitherby 0(.t)or t'tytp(t), as appropriate.ln l'rothcasesa 11,forrnulaVy0(f ,t) of theextenclecilarlguage tizrrrslirtesto the ll, J:",r-lormulaV_y1il(i,y),ancla )1 fortnula3y0(.r,y) translatesto the2, !|'o-formLrla3yd)(;,1). (But uotealsothatA,,formulzrs

of the extenclecllanguagemaynot translateto A,,formr:lasof 9'p.)

{Rl hastranslations gt ancl grr thzrt

A particr.rlarconseclLlenceof thisis thatif MIc,,N aremodelsof ['A(9'ot)

ancl /' is a provzrblyrecursivefunction of PA(9',r),thenM and N agrceon

theirclefinitionsof /(since

a, h e lvlFcp(a,b), then

Corollary2.8(a) anclthe fact that cpis I,).

expandecllanguage9',rU {fl

remarksholclfor

A,,formulasin languagesthat areexpansionsof 9's by provablyrecursive

if /is definedby the2,9'o-formulacp(i,y) and

NFcp(a,b) sinceN ->,,M,usingthe anzrlogueof

Thr"rsA,, formulasof the

are alsoabsolr-rtebetweenN and M. Similiir

expansions of 9'oby provablyrecursiverelationstoo,and

relationsarealsoabsolutefor end-extensions.

Exerc:ises for Section4.2.

4.6* Show that the argttmentsin Section4.1 apply to show that, if . '11is ztt'ty expansiol of the langr-rage9n, then PA(Y'^) proves all instancesof the least- number principle,total incluction,and inductionup to z, in the leastexpanded

language54i.

4.7 Write down the preciseclefinitionsof the I/1 anclf1 translatiorts6t7and It

A,, fornrula g irr a language9'i

provable recursivein PA(.?'). Verify that your 6n and At areequivalentto each other in all 6roclelsof PA(9'), and are equivalentto I in the canonicalexpansion

of a nrodel of PA(t') to the language St'i'

4.8 Use the Church-Turingthesisto showthat the followingfunction isrecursivc:

of a

extending9'o by functions and relations that are

l(x)

:

maxa{(7.r2)V Y <

xaw< zo(Y, w)l

where max, is taken over all )1 formttlas9(rr,u) with Goclel-number tO(ru, u)1<x

Ytt3tt7(u,u)

Godel-nLrrnberlessthan x.

suclr that there is a

proof of

in

PA,

this proof

also having

Show that if g(;)

is provablY

Decluce

recursivein PA, thenfor someke N,8(r)< that not all recursivefunctionsare provably

l'(max(ri)) for all 11>k. recursive.