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PYTHAGORAS THEOREM

Py thagoras T heorem

T P OR PASS

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Fill in these spaces with any other interesting facts you can find about Pythagoras. In the world of Mathematics, Pythagoras is a legend. He lived from 580BC 500BC.

One of his most recognised discoveries was the relationship between the side lengths of all right-angled triangles.

is Give th

a go!

The numbers 3, 4, 5 have the following relationship: 32 + 42 = 52 9 + 16 = 25 Find another group of three whole numbers that includes the number 14 and has the same relationship.
psst! the other two numbers are somewhere between 45 and 55!

Work through the book for a great way to do this

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Right-angled triangles

Pythagoras Theorem

These special triangles all have a right-angle (angle of size 90o) as one of the internal angles.

Short side

Hypotenuse (Longest side)


opposite Perpendicular = 90
o

Right angle

Other short side The two shorter sides are always perpendicular to each other. For each of these right-angled triangles, name the hypotenuse and then draw in the right-angle. (i) (ii)
Sides are lower case and corners are CAPITALS

b a c The hypotenuse is the longest side ` hypotenuse = side c The hypotenuse is the longest side ` hypotenuse = side XZ X Z

The right-angle is the angle opposite the hypotenuse The hypotenuse is always opposite the right-angle b
opposite

Y a X
hypotenuse opposite

hypotenuse

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Right-angled triangles
1

Your Turn

Pythagoras Theorem

For each of these right-angled triangles, name the hypotenuse and draw the right-angle in the correct position.
a b

y x z Hypotenuse is side: Hypotenuse is side: k j Hypotenuse is side: l

P Hypotenuse is side:

R
T A RI NG LE S

ED GL AN TGH RI

N -A

GL

ED

HT

G RI

a b Hypotenuse is side:

L N Hypotenuse is side:

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Name the hypotenuse for each of these badly drawn triangles:

NG

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How does it work?


Squares and right-angled triangles

Pythagoras Theorem

When squares are drawn using each side length of a right-angled triangle, something interesting happens. For the triangle below: (i) Use the side lengths in the triangle to create three squares.

4 units

5 units

3 units

5 units 4 units

3
4 units

1
5 units

3 units

2
Area of a square = (side length)2

3 units (ii) Calculate the area of each square formed and write a relationship between them. Area 1 = 4 # 4 = 42 = 16 Area 2 = 3 # 3 = 32 = 9 Area 3 = 5 # 5 = 52 = 25 Area

1 + Area 2 = Area 3
= 25 units2

16 units2 + 9 units2

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Your Turn

Pythagoras Theorem

Squares and right-angled triangles


LE S

GL

Show that the relationship between the areas of the squares formed using each side length works for these right-angled triangles:
1

NG

SQ UA RE S

TR

AN D

- AN

ED

RI GH T

IA

- ANG L

5 units

13 units 12 units

Area 1 =

5 units

Area 2 =

Area 3 =

12 units

10 units 8 units

6 units

Area 1 =

3
10 units

Area 2 =

1
6 units Area 3 =

2
8 units

Try the jigsaw puzzle at the back of this booklet to see another way of showing this property.

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13 units

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How does it work?


Pythagoras Theorem for right-angled triangles

Pythagoras Theorem

The squares and right-angled triangles section showed that a relationship exists between the side lengths of right-angled triangles. This relationship is called Pythagoras Theorem.

hypotenuse

other short side

short side (short side)2 + (other short side)2 = (longest side)2


always the hypotenuse

a2 + b2 = c2

If the rule does not work, then it is not a right-angled triangle. Use Pythagoras Theorem to determine which of the following triangles are right-angled or not. (i) 8 4 1.7 6 Substitute lengths into Pythagoras Theorem (short side)2 + (other short side)2 = (longest side)2 0.8 (ii) 1.5

42 + 62 = 82 16 + 36 = 64 52 ! 64 ` not a right-angled triangle

0.82 + 1.52 = 1.72 0.64 + 2.25 = 2.89 2.89 = 2.89 ` is a right-angled triangle

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Pythagoras Theorem

Pythagoras Theorem for right-angled triangles


1 Use Pythagoras Theorem to calculate which of the following triangles are right-angled or not.
a b

25

15 14 20

12

Right-angled

Not right-angled

Right-angled

Not right-angled

3.4 7.1

1.2 3.5 3.7

9.6

Right-angled

Not right-angled

Right-angled

Not right-angled

20

21
FOR RIGH T-AN GLED TRIA NGLE S

24 29 25

PYTH AGOR AS T HEOR EM

FOR

c 2=

a 2+

b2

Right-angled

Not right-angled

Right-angled

Not right-angled

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PYTH A G O R AS T HEOR EM

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RIGH T A N GLED TRIA NGLE S

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Your Turn

Pythagoras Theorem

Pythagoras Theorem for right-angled triangles


2 Name all the right-angled triangles pictured below and mark where the right-angle is with the  correct symbol. J A

16 20 K 12 J 24 B I

10

10.5 H 14.5 M 29 K

Remember, triangles are named by their vertices. D = DEF F E

52 20 L 21 A 15 C N H 20 48 48 G

The right-angled triangles are:

Earn an awesome passport with this one! Name all the right-angled triangles in this image and mark where the right-angles are with the correct symbol. R 15 T 36 24 3280 52 The right-angled triangles are: P 5 15 Q 16 V
Diagram not drawn to scale.

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Pythagoras Theorem
M BY RE ME O AS HE T UR S EM A R EN O G T HA T PY
B EM Y M OR EA HE SU T R E AS ME OR NT AG TH PY

Pythagoras Theorem by measurement


For each of these right-angled triangles:

(i) Use a ruler to carefully measure the length of each side to the nearest whole millimetre. (ii) Use the measurements to complete the table at the bottom of the page.

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c a
1

c
2

b b c c
3

a
5

c c
6

a
1 2 3 4 5 6

a2

b2

c2

a2 + b2

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Calculating the length of the hypotenuse

Pythagoras Theorem

 e can use Pythagoras Theorem to calculate the length of the hypotenuse if the W two shorter sides of the right-angled triangle are already known. The order that we put the short side values into the formula does not matter. Calculate the length of the hypotenuse for this right-angled triangle.

c2 = a2 + b2

7 24

Hypotenuse2 = short side2 + other short side2 Lets label the hypotenuse c ` c2 = 72 + 242 c2 = 49 + 576 c2 = 625 `
Stop here if asked for answer in exact form To calculate the length c, square root this value or c = 24 + 7 short side order does not matter
2 2 2

c =

625
Write the positive answer only because its a length

c = 25 units

Rounded off decimal values are approximate answers only, so the '' symbol should be used. Calculate the length of the hypotenuse for this right-angled triangle accurate to 2 decimal places. m 8.16 units Hypotenuse2 = short side2 + other short side2 ` m2 = 8.162 + 3.142 m2 = 66.5856 + 9.8596 m2 = 76.4452
exact form To calculate the length m, square root this value Answer in square root form Write full calculator reading before rounding Approximate answer rounded to 2 decimal places Label the hypotenuse for easy referencing

3.14 units

m =

76.4452 units

m = 8.743294574... ` m . 8.74 units

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Pythagoras Theorem

Calculating the length of the hypotenuse


1 Complete these Pythagoras Theorem calculations to find the length of the hypotenuse in  each triangle. a b

15

c g 8 c2 = 62 + ` c2 = ` c2 = +
2

g2 = 82 + ` g2 = ` g2 =
exact form units

exact form

` `

c = c =

` g = ` g =
units

Use Pythagoras Theorem to calculate the length of the hypotenuse in each of these triangles.
a

1.6 1.2

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Your Turn

Pythagoras Theorem

Calculating the length of the hypotenuse


3

Calculate the length of the hypotenuse in each of these triangles, leaving answers in exact form.
a

6.0 1.1 h

35 n

12

Calculate the length of the hypotenuse in each of these triangles, rounding answers to 2 decimal places.
psst! Remember to use the for rounded answers.
a

c 10 units 9 units

5.9 units p 3.4 units

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Pythagoras Theorem

Calculating the length of the hypotenuse


5 Calculate the total length of the 3-stage flight path over the hills shown below accurate to 1 decimal place. 

psst! You need to do 3 hypotenuse calculations first.

Flight path Stage 3 Stage 2 36m 39m

Stage 1

198m

Launch pad 40m 252m 360m

CAL CU

TING THE LA 2
2 c =

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Where does it work?


Calculating the length of a short side

Pythagoras Theorem

To calculate a short side length in a right-angled triangle, the formula needs a little adjusting.
a2 = c2 - b2

Subtract the given short side squared away from the hypotenuse squared. Calculate the length of the missing side for this right-angled triangle.

15 units

12 units Short side2 = hyponenuse2 - other short side2 or a2 = c2 - b2 Lets label the short side a ` a2 = 152 - 122 a2 = 225 - 144 a2 = 81 ` a = 81 units
Write the positive answer only because its a length To calculate the length of a, square root this value Always (longest side)2 (smaller side)2

` a = 9 units

Answers left in square root form are not approximations, so the = can still be used. Calculate the length of side k for this right-angled triangle, leaving answer in exact form. 7.3 k 1.9

Hypotenuse2 = short side2 + other short side2 ` k2 = 7.32 - 1.92 k2 = 53.29 - 3.61 k2 = 49.68 ` k = 49.68 units

or

k2 = c2 - a2

Label the hypotenuse for referencing To calculate the length k, square root this value Answer in exact form

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Your Turn

Pythagoras Theorem

Calculating the length of a short side


1 Fill the gaps in these calculations to find the length of the missing short side in each triangle.  a b

a 24

26

1.3 8.5

a2 = 262 ` a2 = ` a2 = ` a = ` a = -

b2 = ` b2 = ` b2 = ` b =
units

- 1.32

` b =

units

Use Pythagoras Theorem to calculate the length of the missing short side in each of these triangles.
a

18 units

70

56

18.1 units

CALCU L

T ING HE L AT
c 2 a =
2

-b

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GTH OF TH EN
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Where does it work?

Your Turn

Pythagoras Theorem

Calculating the length of a short side


3

 Calculate the length of the missing short side in each of these triangles, leaving answers in square root form.
a b

11.75 w

b 11 14.25

17

 Calculate the length of the missing short side in each of these triangles, rounding answers to 1 decimal place.
psst! Remember to use the . for rounded off answers.
a b

23.42

y x 41.08

13.8 8.3

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Pythagoras Theorem
O TIME MB

Combination of hypotenuse and short side calculations


Match the triangles with the correct side length on the right to reveal the missing answer.

CO

The special name given a right-angled triangle which is exactly one half of an equilateral triangle: = 1 2 3 4 5 6 15 c 14.12 20 545 2 a 544 4 42 42.1 I b M 73.4 E 2.9

triangle

41.9

5 Q

25

53.2 e 68 1 h 20 14.16 g 67
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67.7

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Where does it work?


Applications of Pythagoras Theorem

Pythagoras Theorem

Distances that are difficult to measure can be solved using Pythagoras Theorem. Calculate how far a 15m support will reach up a wall if standing 9m away from its base.

Support

15m

Walls and buildings are perpendicular to the ground

9m Lets label the height up the wall h ` h2 = 152 - 92 h2 = 225 - 81 h2 = 144 ` h = 12 m


Square root this value to find h Write the positive answer only because its a length This is a short side of a right-angled triangle

Pythagoras Theorem is often used to calculate unknown lengths in perimeter and area calculations. Calculate the perimeter of the garden shaped like a right-angled triangle shown below.

Remember: Perimeter is the total distance around the outside

12m

35m ` c2 = 352 + 122 c2 = 1225 + 144 c2 = 1369 ` c = 1369 m


Square root this value First need the distance along the hypotenuse

` c = 37m ` Perimeter of the garden = 35 m + 12 m + 37 m Add all the side distances together = 84 m

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Pythagoras Theorem
EM OR HE T S RA GO A TH PY
NS IO AT IC PL AP

Applications of Pythagoras Theorem


One end of a 13m straight wire is attached to a flag pole 12m above the ground. How far away from the base of the flag pole (x) will the other end be attached to the ground as a support?
1

F SO ON I AT IC PL P A

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19

OF

13m

12m

x Gini has made a pudding in a large 42cm by 34cm tray. If she first cuts the pudding diagonally from one corner to the other, how long was the cut Gini made to the nearest whole cm? 42cm

34cm

To avoid going through a muddy swamp, Mila walks 1.7km west and then 3.9km South. (i)  How far is Mila away from where she started at the end of this walk? Round answer to 2 decimal places.
psst! West and South directions are perpendicular (90o) to each other.

1.7km

Start

3.9km

Finish (ii)  How much further did Mila have to walk to avoid the swamp?

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Your Turn

Pythagoras Theorem

Applications of Pythagoras Theorem


(i) Calculate the base length of the painted triangle below. (ii) Use the base length to calculate the area of the triangle. psst! The area equals (base # height) ' 2 (i)
4

2.6m

17m (ii)
Base length

 The mouse wants to run the shortest path from point A to point C across the floor shown. Calculate the shortest path between these two points if corner B blocks the direct path. C
5

B 3.3m A 18m

54.4m

Diagram not drawn to scale.

(i) Calculate the length of the side marked y. (ii) Calculate the perimeter of the trapezium. 172cm (i)

120cm (ii) 137cm

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Pythagoras Theorem
E SOM * E W

Applications of Pythagoras Theorem


*
Give these two trickier applications a go to earn an awesome passport stamp!
7

psst! Find the difference between WY and WX

65

34 W

16

 Calculate the length of the cable support BD on the crane picture below if CD = 9.5m, AB = 6m and BC = 18.5m.
8

B 6m

18.5m 9.5m

D A

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Use Pythagoras Theorem twice to find the distance between points X and Y.

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What else can you do?


Pythagorean triads

Pythagoras Theorem

A Pythagorean triad is the special name given to a set of three positive integers that work in Pythagoras Theorem. Pythagorean triad integers represent the side lengths of a right-angled triangle. The integers 3, 4 and 5 form the best known Pythagorean triad.
" 3,4,5 ,
Remember: integers are just whole numbers. Braces are used to display a set of integers

" 3 , 4 , 5 , is a Pythagorean triad because 32 + 42 = 52 Integers work in Pythagoras Theorem

5 4

They form a right-angled triangle

Because each integer is a side length for a right-angled triangle, negative values are not allowed. Pythagoras Theorem is used to show if a set of three integers form a Pythagorean triad. Show whether these sets of integers form a Pythagorean triad or not. (i) " 8 , 22 , 24 , (ii) " 9 , 12 , 15 ,

Test to see if: (largest value)2 = (smallest value)2 + (middle value)2 Largest value Middle value = 24 = 22 Largest value Middle value = 15 = 12

Smallest value = 8 Test: does 242 = 82 + 222 ? 576 = 64 + 484 ? 576 ! 548

Smallest value = 9 Test: does 152 = 92 + 122 ? 225 = 81 + 144 ?


You can use the LHS = RHS test approach here too

225 = 225

` Is " 8 , 22 , 24 , a Pythagorean triad? Yes

` Is " 9 , 12 , 15 , a Pythagorean triad?

No

Yes

No

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Pythagorean triads
1

Your Turn

Pythagoras Theorem
N
A TRI DS
3

THAGOREA PY

THAGOREA PY

Write the side lengths of these right-angled triangles as a Pythagorean triad set. 20 12 24 16
" 12 ,16 , 20 ,
psst! Note that they are written in order of size.
c b

26 10

35 12

37

41 40

} { , , }

Show whether these sets of positive integers form a Pythagorean triad or not.
a

" 7 , 24 , 25 ,

" 14 , 48 , 50 ,

" 12 , 34 , 36 ,

Yes
d

No
e

Yes " 16 , 60 , 63 ,

No
f

Yes " 12 , 30 , 31 ,

No

" 15 , 36 , 39 ,

Yes

No

Yes
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No

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AD TRI S

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Euclids formula for Pythagorean triads

Pythagoras Theorem

Euclid of Alexandria (a Greek mathematician) developed this method to find most Pythagorean triads: Step 1: Choose two positive integers p and q. When you pick these integers, make p larger than q i.e. p > q Step 2: Substitute values for p and q into these to make a Pythagorean triad:
" p2 - q2 , 2pq , p2 + q2 ,
small integer other small integer largest integer

Use the values p = 3 and q = 2 to make a Pythagorean triad. For the values p = 3 and q = 2
" p2 - q2 , 2pq , p2 + q2 , " 32 - 22 , 2 # 3 # 2 , 32 + 22 , " 9 - 4 , 12 , 9 + 4 , " 5 , 12 , 13 ,
Calculate final values Substitute in p and q values

Lets check that it works

52 + 122 = 132 ? 25 + 144 = 169? 169 = 169


Integers form a Pythagorean triad

Here is another example with a specific request. Use Euclids formula to make a Pythagorean triad that contains the number 8.
" p2 - q2 , 2pq , p2 + q2 ,

Let 2pq = 8

This will be the easiest to use this time p > q and ensures a value of 8 Substitute in p and q values

` p = 4 and q = 1
" 42 - 12 , 2 # 4 # 1 , 42 + 12 , " 16 - 1 , 8 , 16 + 1 , " 15 , 8 , 17 , " 8 , 15 , 17 ,

Calculate final values Put values into ascending order for triad

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Pythagoras Theorem

Euclids formula for Pythagorean triads


1

Complete this table for the given values of p and q to make Pythagorean triads. p q p2 - q2 2pq p2 + q2 Triad

2 3 5 7 11 21

1 1 2 6 3 18

Make Pythagorean triads matching each of these specific requests. (i) Find a Pythagorean triad in which p = 7 and p2 - q2 is equal to 33.
EU

AIDS TR

* " p - q , 2p
2 2

IDS FOR CL
q , p2

(ii) Find a Pythagorean triad in which q = 6 and p2 + q2 is equal to 61.

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AGOREAN TH

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FOR P LA Y MU

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Your Turn

Pythagoras Theorem

Euclids formula for Pythagorean triads


3 Find a group of three integers that includes the number 14 and forms a Pythagorean triad.

er m Rememb

e?

Use the space below to show why the value of p must be greater than the value of q when using Euclids formula to find a Pythagorean triad. Use your own values of p and q to help show your answer.

* AWESOM

hint: Pythagorean triads can be made using positive integers only.

This is definitely worth an awesome stamp!!

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Wheel of Theodorus

Pythagoras Theorem

When squares are drawn using each side length of a right-angled triangle, something interesting happens. 1 1 4 3 1 2 7 1
Starting with this isosceles triangle, each new right-angled triangle is built using the hypotenuse of the previous one.

1 1 6 1

8 9 10 11 12 1 1 1 1

The length of the longest sides form a nice square root number pattern.

How does this work? Using Pythagoras Theorem: a b ` for the first triangle: 1 1 ` for the second triangle: 1 c 2 c = = = 1 +( 2) 1+ 2 3 2
2 2

c2 = a2 + b2 ` c = a2 + b2

c = =

12 + 12 2

1 1 1

The pattern continues in this fashion always using 1 as the shortest side value.

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Wheel of Theodorus

Your Turn

Pythagoras Theorem

Using the start made for you, continue the pattern always using 2 as the shortest side value to create your own neat spiral wheel.
WHEEL OF

EODORUS TH

2 8 2 2

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WHEEL OF

EODORUS TH

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Reflection Time

Your Turn

Pythagoras Theorem

Reflecting on the work covered within this booklet:


1

 What useful skills have you gained by learning Pythagoras Theorem?

Write about one way you think you could apply Pythagoras Theorem to a real life situation.

 If you discovered or learnt about any shortcuts to help with Pythagoras calculations or some other cool facts, jot them down here:

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Cheat Sheet

Pythagoras Theorem

Here is a summary of the things you need to remember for Pythagoras Theorem

Right-angled triangles These special triangles all have a right-angle (angle of size 90o) as one of the internal angles. The 90o angle is always opposite the longest side. The two shorter sides are always perpendicular to each other. Pythagoras Theorem for right-angled triangles  The squares and right-angled triangles section showed that a relationship exists between the side lengths of right-angled triangles. This relationship is called Pythagoras Theorem. hypotenuse short side (short side)2 + (other short side)2 = (longest side)2
always the hypotenuse

other short side

c a a2 + b2 = c2

If the rule does not work, then it is not a right-angled triangle. Calculating the length of the hypotenuse Use Pythagoras Theorem to calculate the length of the hypotenuse if the  two shorter sides of the right-angled triangle are already known. The order that we put the short side values into the formula does not matter. Calculating the length of a short side To calculate a short side length in a right-angled triangle, the formula needs  a little adjusting. Subtract the given short side squared away from the hypotenuse squared. Pythagorean Triads A Pythagorean triad is a set of three positive numbers that work in Pythagoras Theorem. Making Pythagorean Triads Step 1: Choose two positive numbers p and q. When you pick these numbers, make p larger than q i.e. p > q Step 2: Substitute values for p and q into this to make a Pythagorean triad: " p2 - q2 , 2pq , p2 + q2 , Step 3: Write the values in ascending order.
a2 = c2 - b2
c2 = a2 + b2

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Jigsaw Puzzle

Pythagoras Theorem

Squares and right-angled triangles: Jigsaw Puzzle

Step 1:  Cut the two shaded squares out from the page. Step 2:  Cut the larger of these two along the dotted lines. Step 3: A  rrange all the pieces to fit perfectly inside this square.  tick the pieces to the page to show the area Step 4: S of the two smaller squares add together to give the area of this square on the hypotenuse.

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SERIES

7
TOPIC

Pythagoras Theorem
Mathletics Passport 3P Learning

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