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Universitatea Tehnic a Moldovei Facultatea Calculatoare,Informatica si Microelectronica Catedra Informatica Aplicata

GRAMMAR

Exercises for advanced students

Chiinu U.T.M. 2008

Grammar exercises for advanced students is designed for upper -intermediate and advanced students who are studying at speciality Applied Informatics. It aims at helping students to learn grammar at a higher level. The exercises are intended for further improving students knowledge in the classroom or during individual studying process. It can also be used either under the guidance of a teacher or by interested learners on their own.

Author: Maria Anischevici Liudmila Tutunaru Chief editor: Maria Anischevici

Reviewer: senior lecturer Larisa Scherbac

U.T.M., 2008

CONDITIONALS Exercise 1. Open the brackets and put the verbs into the correct form. Pay attention to the adverbial modifiers of time . 1. If he (book) tickets yesterday, he (lie) on the beach now. 2. She (not forgive) him if she (not be) his mother. 3. If you (drink) less last night, you (not feel) so bad today. 4. If he (be) cleverer, he (not behaved) so foolishly yesterday. 5. If I (know) English well, I (translate) the article long ago. 6. I (take) part in the last competition if I (be) younger. 7. If he (do) work yesterday, he (be) free today. 8. If you (take) into account his behavior then, you (not have) so much trouble now. 9. You (may be) a star now if you (be offered) the part in the film then. 10.If she (not decide) to change a job last year, she (go) to China next month. 11.He (not go) to sleep over that book if it (not be) so dull. 12.If he (be) a good musician, he (take part) in yesterday's concert. Exercise 2. Put the verbs in brackets into the suitable tense: 1. If they work today, they (have) the day off next Monday. 2. If we (be) late, we might get into trouble. 3. They wouldn't have hired a boat if they (know) about the weather. 4. If he (insure) the shop against fire, they would have paid him. 5. She wouldn't have lost her temper if he (not tell) her a lie. 6. I (have) no difficulty in finding a good job if I were as good as you. 7. They will send him to prison if they (catch) him. 8. If he (not be) such a reckless driver, he wouldn't have been killed. 9. If John (not start) smoking when he was 15, he (not lie) in hospital now. 10. You (break) your leg if I (not warn) you about that unsteady ladder yesterday.

Exercise 3. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct form. 1.He wishes he (not have) to get up early. 2.They wish David (pass) his exams last June. 3.Mark wishes his girlfriend (not leave) for Paris tomorrow. 4.If only he (not be) so selfish. He always thinks about himself first. 5. I wish you (be) more interested in your lessons! 6.If only we (not have) so much work to do! 7.We wish he (become) a doctor instead of a lawyer. 8.If only you (have) a sense of humor 9. Don't you wish we (finish) earlier yesterday? 10. If only she (realize) what's she was going to do! Exercise 4. Choose the right variant and translate the sentences into Romanian (Russian) 1. She wished at that moment she (had not sent / did not send) for him. 2. I wish I never (had suggested / suggested) this idea. 3. She wishes I (had been / were) a thousand miles away. 4. I wish she (had not looked / did not look) so sad. 5. The professor wishes I (had studied / studied) harder. 6. We wished he (had not come / did not come) so late yesterday. 7. I wish you (had seen / saw) the play. It was a great success. 8. I wish they (had introduced / introduced) their friends to me at the party. 9. She wishes her father (hadn't known / didn't know) it. 10. He wished they (hadn't noticed / didn't notice) his embarrassment. Exercise 5. Make up conditional sentences about the situations. 1. You did not ring me up, so I did not know you were in trouble. If... 2. You left the child alone in the room, so he hurt himself. If ... 3. They spent a year in the tropics, so they got very sun-tanned. If ... 4. It rained heavily, so we got drenched to the skin, If ... 5. Why didn't you watch the cat? It ate all the fish. If... 6. A huge black cloud appeared from behind the forest, so we had to turn back and hurry home. If... 7. The travelers had no camera with them, so they could not take photos of the beautiful scenery. If... 8. There was no sugar left, so we had to go to the shop late in the evening. If... 9. This house is very nice and comfortable, but it is not very good for living because it is 4

situated close to a chemical plant and the air around is very bad. If ... 10. He is an excellent specialist, but I cannot ask his advice because Im not acquainted with him. If ... 11. You cannot enjoy this merry evening party because you have a toothache. If ... 12. You know the material well enough, but you are very absent-minded, and thats why you always make many mistakes. If ... 13. We shall not go to see them because it is very late. If ... 14. Naturally she was angry because you were in her way. If Exercise 6. Use the verbs in brackets in the correct form: 1. If my brother (to go) to Bucharest, he will visit the Village Museum. 2. Tom (to learn) French if only he had the time. 3. If he (to know) what to do, he would have done it. 4. What she (to do) if she had found out the truth? 5. Granny (not to be able) to read if she lost her spectacles. 6. Mary (to pass) the examination if she works hard. 7. If I (to be) pianist, I would play the piano all day long. 8. George would take that job if he (to be offered) it. 9. I hoped they would understand her if she (to explain) the situation. 10. You wouldn't have been so tired if you (not to go) to that party. 11. If anyone tried open this window at night, my dog (to hear) him. 12. What will you say if she (to ask) for some more money? 13. If he (to understand) the rules, he wouldn't have made so many mistakes. 14. I wouldn't like to be in his shoes if such a thing (to happen). 15. If my brother (to have) a university degree, he wouldn't have to work as a mechanic now. 16. What will happen if his parachute (not to open)? 17. Had I met that girl before, I certainly (to marry) her. 18. I would be grateful to her if she (not to ask) me anything.19. My parents would have been much happier if I (to become) a doctor. 20. Where would you go if you (to be) on holiday now? 21. Someone will steal your camera if you (to leave) it on the bench. 22. If I (to speak) to her more slowly, she would surely have understood me. 23. When you (to get) there if you leave at 6 o'clock in the morning? 24. The room (not to look) so dark if she cleaned the windows more often. 25. If I (to be) you, I would accept that job. 26. If only she (to tell) us about the pills, we could have saved her. 27. In case George (to arrive) here before us, ask him to write a detailed report about the accident.. 5

Exercise 7. Complete the following conditional sentences: 1.If the Danube rose high, ... . 2. They wouldn't have seen London, if ... . 3. If these people knew the truth, they ... . 4.If James catches the train, ... . 5. Had I known the way to the village, . 6. Were Steven the Great to come to life again, . 7. The weather is as cold as if, ... . 8. If I saw the robber coming out of the bank, ... . 9. Mother would have been angry, if... . 10. Your dress would look much more beautiful, if ... . 11. If she finds tickets, we... 12. If he lived in a large town, ... . 13. If I had known about the party, 14. If I were you, ... . 15. If your cousin comes here today, ... . 16. Your brother wouldn't have caught a cold, if ... Exercise 8. Supply the correct forms of the verbs in brackets, but use the following verbs in the main clause: can; could; may; might; should; ought to or must: 1. If your brother (to have) the right qualification, he ... be employed in this factory. 2. If you (to tell) her all about this, she ... have helped you. 3. If we (to fail) again, we ... think about another job. 4. If Jack (to meet) this girl at a party last year, she ... remember him now. 5. If it (to be) so cold now, it ... have snowed in the mountains. 6. You see, if you (to learn) the lesson well, you ... answer all the teacher's questions now. 7. If Martin (to read) your article, he (to find) it interesting. 8. If your car (to be) out of order, you ... use mine today. 9. If she (to speak) so fast, they ... not understand her. 10. If Cathy (to work) hard, they ... finish all the exercises by 7 o'clock.

Exercise 9. Finish each of the sentences in such a way that it means exactly the same as the one printed before it: 1. If he hadnt helped us, we shouldnt have been able to finish the work by now. But for 2. If you have been studying French for so long, you should speak it fluently now. it is time 3. Follow my advice and you wont go wrong. As long as you 4. Id like you to tell me frankly what you think. Id rather 5. Considering all the dangers that threatened hi life, it is a miracle that he survived. If one 6. She had hardly ever been to the theatre. Hardly 7. Without their financial support, the reform movement couldnt have been made wider. If it 8. As he was asked to state his intentions, we know what to do now. If 9. It would be good if you could join us on that particular occasion. If only 10. If the weather is favorable, well travel to the lighthouse. Provided that 11. If we dont save some money, well never be able to buy a car. Unless 12. Never before had they agreed upon such important matters. Such important matters 13. John failed his exam last term, so he is taking it again in June. If 14. He never throws a paper away before having read every news item. Only

Exercise 10. Change the following sentences into hypothetical statements, using the suggested words and making any other necessary changes. The first is done for you: e.g.We would all like to organize a big picnic next week. (lovely) It would be lovely if we organized a big picnic next week. 1. They are thinking about taking a trip to Hawaii. (marvelous) 2. He is going to postpone seeing a doctor again. (mistake) 3. Jane thinks shes got the winning lottery ticket this week. (fantastic) 4. They are going to try and cover that long distance in an hour. (miracle) 5. We would like you to start the conference later, so that we have time to get there. (nice) 6. John found that it might just be possible for him to squeeze four years of courses into three. (great) 7. Mary has only one more semester to go, but her friends think shi is going to drop out and return home. (tragedy) 8. It is hoped that some rich foundation will give five billion dollars to help alleviate food shortage in Bangladesh. ( fortunate) Exercise 11. For each of the sentences below, write a new sentence as similar as possible in meaning to the original one. Begin as suggested: 1. Please dont change your mind. I wish 2. Its really late. We ought to be saying good-bye. Its time 3. It would be nicer if we lived in the countryside. Id rather 4. Id rather you didnt interrupt us. Would you 5. Id be happy if I could give you the money you need. I wish 6. Please dont tell anybody about my plans for the future. Id rather 7. We could have done something if you had let us know about his decision. If only 8

8. Wed like you to focus your camera lens on the poor people. Do you think 9. We regret having made an unscheduled overnight stop in Madrid. We apologize

Exercise 12. Turn the sentences below into hypothetical statements: 1. We made an inquiry, thats why we are so well informed on the matter. 2. I dont like big cities and so I settled down in the countryside. 3. Since they know the area so well, they can travel without a map. 4. Johns work is very difficult, thats why he is looking for a new job. 5. Since she doesnt love him, she wont marry him. 6. We bought a flat last week, thats why we are so short of money now. 7. As I havent seen the play, I cant tell you whether the acting was good or not. 8. I have a bad cold, I cant go with you to the mountains. 9. John will only come if you send for him. 10. They didnt offer him a reasonable salary and so he didnt take the job. 11. As Susan didnt take my advice, she is in a difficult position now. 12. This is thought to be an important issue, so we cant avoid discussing it. 13. You forgot to bring the keys, so we cant go into the garage now. 14. You encouraged Tom to come and here he is.

Exercise 13. Rewrite the sentences, beginning with the imperative form of the suitable verb: e.g. If you dont start right now, youll be late for the conference. Start right now, or youll be late for the conference. 1. You wont oversleep if you set your alarm clock. 2. If you dont invite her to your birthday party, shell be upset. 3. If you just say you are sorry, well forgive you. 4. Everything will turn out well, if you give them a chance. 5. If you shout at him, he will lose his temper. 6. If you dont lock your car, it will be stolen. 7. Well get lost if you dont follow the directions. 8. If you dont mind your own business, youll get into trouble. 9. If he tells the truth, he wont get punished. 10. Ill never lend you money again, if you dont pay what you owe me. Exercise 14. Make sentences of a hypothetical or unreal nature with past, present or future references, starting from the following: 1. The wind was blowing very hard. It was difficult to hear his voice. 2. George had some dry matches in his pocket. We were able to start a fire. 3. It is raining hard. We cant go out for a walk. 4. Well go out to the beach again. The sky will get lighter. 5. They will go home. The storm will be over soon. 6. You didnt spot the printing errors in my manuscript. I didnt correct them. 7. Im no longer young. I cant take a year off work and travel around the world. 8. Ill see John soon. Ill tell him the good news. 9. I cant find a suitable flat to rent. I wont move to Bristol. 10. You didnt study hard enough. You didnt pass the test. 11. You are constantly being told off for doing the wrong thing. You think you cannot do anything right. 10

12. Passive smoking is a danger to health. Thats why Im worried about my brother. 13. Some friends of mine from France sent me some adverts. Im going to apply for a job abroad. 14. Diets dont work. You dont get thinner. 15. I didnt see him. I didnt give him a lift to the station. 16. The car slowed down in order to go gently over the broken road. My friend crashed into its rear. 17. The government new trade policy is working out very well. Consequently we are making progress. Exercise 15. Make a true statement for the conditional clauses in the following sentences: 1. If he should happen to ask where I am, tell him to contact me at this number. 2. If I had known he would come, I would have stayed longer. 3. If John should arrive in the meantime, we could go together to the party. 4. If the were to reconsider our suggestion, I am sure we could do a good job together. 5. If you should run into any kind of trouble, dont hesitate to let us know. 6. If you were to explain the situation to him, he would change his mind. 7. If what I am going to tell you should leak out, people would be outraged. 8. If Paul had taken my advice, he wouldnt be in a narrow corner now. 9. If there should be anything you want to ask, do it now. 10. If I were in your shoes, I wouldnt share the profit with anyone else.

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REPORTED SPEECH Exercise 1. Change the following sentences from Direct into Reported Speech. 1. "Where have you been?" he asked me. 2. "Close your eyes and open the parcel", she said to me. 3. "I'm writing my autobiography", said Paul, (up - to -date reporting) 4. They said to her, "We hope you will give us your car", (out - of- date reporting) 5. "Please sir, can I have some more food?" said Oliver. 6. "Go to your room and stay there!" said the father. 7. "Don't walk on the grass", the park attendant said to us. 8. "Did you pay the electricity bill?" he said to his wife. 9. "I'll phone you at seven o'clock tonight", she said to him. (out-of - date reporting) 10. "What size shoes do you take?" the shop assistant said to him. Exercise 2. First write an appropriate introductory verb, then report the following situations. Ex: "You should go to a doctor" - advise. He advised me to go to a doctor. 1. "The bread is stale". 2. "I will buy you a present". 3. "You ought to tell her the news". 4. "I'm sorry I insulted you". 5. "Shall I help you?" 6. "Give me a statement or I'll detain you". 7. "Don't go near the fire". 8. "That's why I didn't go". 9. "I didn't steal the money". 10. "Let's go out tonight".

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Exercise 3. Change the following sentences as in the example. e.g.: He asks, "Where has she gone?" - He asks where she has gone. 1. I ask them, "Who is the director of this film?" 2. They ask, "What happened last week?" 3. Sam asks, "Who told you this?" 4. The passerby asks, "Where is the nearest cafe?" 5. She asks, "How much does this jacket cost?" 6. My students ask, "How long does it take to study English?" 7. Grandpa asks, "What have they just said on the radio?" 8. She asks, "Whose clothes are these?" 9. Mr. Snow asks, "Who am I talking to?" 10.Everybody asks, "When will the party begin?" 11.They ask us, "How often does it snow in the Caucasus?" 12.My daughter asks me, "Who invented the bicycle?" 13.He asks, "What is on TV tonight?" 14.She asks, "How much shampoo is there in the bottle?" Exercise 4. Report the following using an appropriate introductory verb from the list below. Promise, apologize, remind, complain, deny, inform, order, allow, encourage, forbid 1. "The exam papers are still being marked, Jane", the teacher said. 2. "Don't forget to thank your mother", he said to Linda. 3. "You mustn't come here again", she said to the tramp. 4. "I didn't hit him", Sarah said. 5. "I'll tidy up when I return home, Mum", Tim said. 6. "I'm sorry I forgot to do the homework", she said to the teacher. 7. "You may see her for a few minutes", the nurse said to me. 8. "Get off the grass immediately!" he said to the kids. 9. "You're always forgetting to shut the fridge door", she said to her husband. 10. "Come on! Try it again!" he said to me.

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Exercise 5. Rewrite the sentences in Indirect Speech . e.g. "I'll visit you next week". He said that he would visit me the following week. 1. "What does your father want?" I asked ... 2. "Can I get you a cup of hot coffee?" She asked me ... 3. "Forget what you heard! He told me ... 4. "You should call the police" The old man advised me ... 5. "I'll show you the way to the bank" The policeman offered ... Exercise 6. Report the following sentences . 1. "When I get a job, Ill buy you a warm coat," said the boy's father. 2. "If you spill the milk, there won't be any for the cat," said my mother to me. 3. "When you come to see me on Sunday, I shall show you my new dress," she said to me. 4. "If Mary arrives before seven, bring her to our house for the evening," said Jane to Henry. 5. "When your turn comes, listen very carefully to what the doctor tells you," I said to my grandmother. 6. "If you are in a hurry, we shall make only the first experiment," said the laboratory assistant to me. 7. "I shan't start anything new until I have finished this novel." said the writer to the correspondent. 8. "Don't wait until I come. As soon as you finish the exercises, begin playing volley-ball," said the teacher to the pupils. 9. "As soon as Robert appears, ask him where he put the dictionary," said Mary to her mother. Exercise 7. Change the Indirect Speech into the Direct one: 1. He said that while crossing the English Channel they had stayed on deck all the time. 2. The woman said she had felt sick while crossing the Channel. 3. She said she was feeling bad that day. 4. Tom said he would go to see the doctor the next day. 5, He told me he was ill. 6. He told me he had fallen ill. 7. They told me that Tom had not come to school the day before. 8. I told my sister that she might catch cold. 9. She told me she had caught old. 10. The old man told the doctor that he had pain in his right side. 11. He 14

said he had just been examined by a good doctor. 12. He said he would not come to school until Monday. 13. The man said he had spent a month at a health-resort. 14. He said that his health had greatly improved since then. Exercise 8. Report the following sentences. 1. "Are you playing volley-ball, girls?" said Ann. "I did not know that you liked it." 2. "Don't touch these photographs," said Peter to us. "They are still wet, and you may spoil them." 3. "Does your friend often come here, hoys?" said Fred. "I want to speak to him." 4. "How did you manage to solve this difficult problem in such a short time?" said my friend to me. 5. The teacher said to us: "You will write a test-paper tomorrow." 6. "I saw a new film yesterday," said Kate to Nick. "Did you like it?" asked Nick. 7. "Why are you shouting, man?" said Prince John to Locksley. "What is your name?" 8. "Who has read "Ivanhoe"?" asked the teacher. "Whom was it written by?" 9. One of the pupils asked the teacher of literature: "What novels shall we read next year?" Exercise 9. Report the following sentences. 1. "Will the teacher return our exercise-books today?" asked Nick. 2. "My nephew is a very capable young man," said the woman. "He has just graduated from college, but he is already a very skilful specialist." 3. "Sit still and don't move your head," said the doctor to me. 4. "I want to know how your cousin likes working at this hospital," said Vera to Helen. 5. "Don't forget to bring your exercise-books tomorrow," said the teacher to us. "You are going to write a very important paper." 6. "How can I get to the circus?" asked the girl. "Take tram number five," said the man. 7. "I am very sorry, Kate," said Mike, "I have forgotten to bring your dictionary." 8. "When does your mother go shopping?" asked the neighbour. 9. "Do you know where the Browns Iwie?" we asked a passer-by. 10. "There are a lot of trains to my station on Sunday," said Andrew to us. "You will have no problems getting to my country-place." 11. "Do you often meet me?"

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Exercise 10. Write the following sentences in Direct Speech . 1. George said it was very difficult to play that role. 2. He asked why there were so few people in the street. 3. The man asked the boy if he knew where he lived. 4. The woman told him not to worry; and go home quietly. 5. She said that she would sleep in the open air. 6. She wondered if I was going to leave St. Petersburg the next day. 7. He told me that he had bought that watch the day before. 8. Ann said that she had just had a telephone call from home. 9. My neighbour asked me to leave the key at my sister's. 10. He said he could not understand the rule. 11. He told me he had bought a ticket the day before. 12. When I came home, my mother told me that a friend of mine had called on me half an hour before. 13. He said that he studied at Oxford University 14. She said that her brother was playing chess with her grandfather. Exercise 11. Turn the following sentences into the Indirect Speech: A. 1. "What will you say to her now?" Dorothy asked me. 2. "Read the instructions carefully," the clerk advised me. 3. "It's difficult to say who is right," Paul said to his sister. 4."Don't tell them anything about this," I advised Mary. 5. "Will she have enough money to buy that house? I wondered. 6."Did you find her in the classroom?" I asked Tom.7."Does your mother know that you are here? I asked him. 8. "My goodness! I've lost my gloves! 9. I will read the book if she gives it to me," I explained to him. 10. "Where are your friends going now?" I asked Helen. 11. "Let's tell her the secret now," Dan suggested. 12. "Have you ever been to Egypt?" Roger asked his friend. 13. "How many brothers have you got?" Mary asked me. 14. "Good-bye and see you soon! the sister said. 15. "Can I go to the cinema with you tomorrow?" Brian asked his sister. 16. "Help me, please! begged the little boy.17."Do you like my new dress?" Catherine asked her sister.18. "Would you mind showing me the way to the bank?" I asked an old lady. 19. "Give my kindest regards to your parents," I told Julia. 20. "What about going fishing tomorrow?" George asked me. 16

B."What's the time?" Peter asked mother. "It will be 7 soon. Have you finished your breakfast, children?" "Yes, we finished it five minutes ago," Peter answered. "Don't forget to take this book to the library today. And hurry to school now!" mother advised her children. "Let's take a bus," Mary suggested, "or we shall be late for school." "Let's." Exercise 12. Turn the following affirmative imperative sentences into the Indirect Speech: 1. "Leave it on the table," mother told me. 2. "Wait here till she comes," Jane advised him. 3. "Come back at 6 o'clock," my sister told me. 4. "Sit down," the teacher told us. 5. "Open all the windows," she told her brother. 6. "Repeat the last word," Tom asked me. 7. "Turn the light off," father told the children. 8. "Take off your coat, I advised my wife. 9. "Go to the baker's and buy some bread," mother told my sister. 10. "Learn this poem by heart," the teacher told the pupils. Exercise 13. Turn the following imperative sentences into the Indirect Speech: 1."Cash this check for me," I asked my friend. 2. "Let's not go to school today," Paul told his sister. 3. "Don't cross the street without looking carefully," the policeman warned the children. 4. "Buy a newspaper, please," father asked his daughter. 5. "Don't make so much noise, the old woman told the children. 6. See who is at the window, I told my brother. 7. "Let's sing this song again," said the girls. 8. "Don't write your test paper in pencil," the teacher told us. 9. "Hold little Paul by his hand," mother advised me. 10. "Don't let the children go swimming by themselves," mother told father. 11. "Wait until the light turns green," I reminded my daughter. 12. "Don't use more sugar than necessary," Mary told her daughter.

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Exercise 14. Turn the following sentences from the Indirect Speech into the Direct Speech: 1. I told him that I was tired. 2. That woman wanted to know what my name was and where I lived. 3. Betsy told Arnold that she was very grateful to him. 4. Helen advised me to take a taxi to the railway station. 5. Mike decided that he would go to London the next day. 6. David said that his parents were coming that afternoon. 7. The teacher told us to open our notebooks and to do that exercise. 8. The little child wished me a good morning. 9. Bob explained that he had never seen her there. 10. Mother said that it might rain that afternoon. 11. Mrs. Robinson wondered whether her sister managed to catch the plane. 12. She advised me not to leave so early. 13. She gave an exclamation of surprise and kissed her brother. 14. Aunt Hester said she would call on us in a day or two. 15. I asked the boy if he was not homesick sometimes. Exercise 15. Rewrite the sentences in Direct Speech. Note that there is an implied dialogue in the examples below: 1. I asked him why he said Id better write his address down, and he answered that one never knew, I might want to write him a letter. 2. When I told him I was madly in love with Alice, my friend suggested I should invite her to the theatre. 3. When I said I did a lot of reading, Paul was not surprised, but said he himself read at least two books every week. 4. He looked worried when he said he was feeling awful. I advised him to take a rest. 5. Marys request that she might have the next week off met with a blunt refusal. Her employer said that he couldnt stand people who took days off without really being ill. 6. When I asked her why she was feeling bored, she replied that there were no films on that she wanted to see and that she didnt have a good book to read. 7. When I told Jim that we should go for an outing the following Saturday, he accepted my suggestion unreservedly. 18

Exercise 16. Helen went to a party last week, where she was introduced to several people she had never met before. Report the various questions that people asked Helen in the course of the evening, using someone as the subject of the main clause. 1. Did you drive all the way from York? 2. Arent you feeling tired? 3. Who did you come to the party with? 4. Would you like to drink something? 5. Have you been here before? 6. What do you do for a living? 7. When did you actually begin speaking Spanish? 8. Have you been watching the latest science fiction series? 9. Where will you spend your summer holidays? 10. What is your phone number? 11. Can I give you a ring next week? 12. What time is it? 13. May I see you again some time? Exercise 17. As you turn the following sentences into Indirect Speech, replace the word said by one of the verbs at the head of the exercise: Wondered advised whispered complained threatened suggested admitted agreed boasted claimed promised apologized 1. Ive made a mistake and I must pay for it, he said. 2. Lets go to the seaside for the weekend, she said. 3. I shall always love you, her fianc said in a low voice. 4. Well, yes. If we dont have the money, we cant carry out our project, he said. 5. Im really sorry. I completely forgot to bring the keys with me, he said. 6. Talk on the phone to a shop that does repairs, and arrange for someone to call at your house, he said to his friend. 7. The house you live in is my property, the man said. 8. Our son treats us very badly, and always causes trouble, the parents said. 19

9. Whatever happens, well always be here to give help, Marys friends said. 10. Ive never failed in an examination, he said. 11. If you dont stop bothering me, Ill call the police, he said to his neighbour. 12. Im self-employed, what are my chances of getting a mortgage?, he said. Exercise 18. Turn into Indirect Speech, using the reporting verbs at the head of the exercise: Conceded explained insisted announced retorted cried declared remarked stammered gasped out 1. Give us more money! Give it to us now!, he said. 2. You have tried hard indeed, he said to George. 3. The cumulative costs of the intimidation of thoughtful and critical men and women is something no society can afford , he said. 4. I tired calling earlier, but I couldnt get through, he said. 5. Jack has won the first prize, he said. 6. Its entirely your fault, she said. 7. Help! Help!, she said. 8. I I d didnt m..mean to of-fend you, he said. 9. What a lovely garden!, he said. 10. Ive just seen a ghost, he said. Exercise 19. Turn the following sentences into Indirect Speech, with the reporting verb in the past: 1. How do you know what my name is? 2. Where did he come from? I didnt see him until he was right in front of the car. 3. When will it be all right to speak out? 4. Do you sometimes read The Economist? 5. Once in a while do you go to the movies? 6. Why doesnt anybody ask a question? 7. Will it still be like that ten years from now? 8. Are there more changes that are already taking place? 20

9. Would you rather we didnt meet tomorrow and took a whole day off next week instead? 10. Is that the way you think it should be? 11. How do you take your tea, plain or with lemon? 12. Where do you imagine me to be from? 13. Do you know that the shops will be closed on Friday? 14. Which would you rather have a five-day week or plenty of holidays? 15. Shall I open the champagne now? 16. Shall I live to be eighty? Exercise 20. Turn into Indirect Speech: Manager: Please, take a seat, Miss Brown. Now, I understand that you are employed by Lloyds. How long have you been working for them? Miss Brown: I started there as an undergraduate, with a part-time job. That was seven years ago. Manager And what exactly are you doing? Miss Brown: I am now responsible for the computer programming. And I also help in the advertising department. Manager: And why do you want to change your job? Miss Brown: Well, just lately I have thought that, having a degree in economics and a good knowledge of the latest development in communication technology, I could do a more difficult job. Its simply that. Manager: So you dont feel that Lloyds is the place for you, is that it? Miss Brown: It certainly isnt. I wish to put my knowledge to better use. Manager: Now, Miss Brown, you must know that the successful candidate must have the ability to grasp quickly complex economic, financial and political issues. Ability to work under pressure together with strong organizational skills are essential in this job. It also calls for some press information work in other parts of the world. Therefore, some travel is required. Miss Brown: I love traveling. Next week Ill go to Spain for a holiday. Actually, Id like to know before I leave whether Ive got the job and for how long. 21

Manager: The appointment will be for two years initially, with longterm career possibilities based on performance. But Ill let you know on Tuesday. Have I got your telephone number? Miss Brown: Definitely. I wrote it on my letter of application. Exercise 21. Turn into Direct Speech: He advised her to hurry up as he didnt want her to risk missing the train. She agreed and said that unfortunately she had the bad habit of cutting it fine. Looking at her watch, she was annoyed to find out that it was a quarter to four. She said the train left in twenty minutes. He suggested that they take a taxi. She agreed. He offered to carry her suitcase for her. She turned down his offer, saying that she could manage herself. When he suggested that they should meet the following Sunday she agreed. He wanted to know what her name was. She refused to tell him her name. At the railway station she asked the guard which platform the next Leeds train started from. The guard answered that half of the trains werent running because some of the drivers were on strike. She asked him whether he intended to continue his studies abroad. He answered that he did and that was going to apply for a students loan. She wanted to know whether it was a loan for the next term and whose idea it had been. He said it was and that the idea had come from his brother, who had been working in a bank for some years. He added that he could repay the money with a summer job. She wanted to know about the present financial situation and whether he was short of money. He answered that he wasnt and thanked her just the same. Exercise 22. Turn the dialogue in the fragment below in Indirect Speech: A member of military band came to the surgeon with a long face and a plaintive story about a sore throat. Sore throat?, said the surgeon pleasantly. Let me see. Oh, thats not so bad. A slight irritation, nothing more. Youll be all right in a day or two. I think you had better take no risk by using your throat, so Ill recommend you for two weeks sick leave. 22

Armed with the surgeons certificate, the young man obtained the two weeks leave. The two weeks had just come to an end when he met the surgeon on the parade ground. The surgeon recognized the face and stopped. How is the throat?, he asked pleasantly. It is quite well, the young man replied. Thats good, said the surgeon. You can get back to your duty now without fear. By the way, what instrument do you handle in the band? The small drum, Sir , said the musician. Exercise 23. Turn the following fragment into Indirect Speech: The headmaster took longer, but said much the same. Going Sam? Yes, Sir. Come to me for words of wisdom? Ive seen the others, Sir. Trouble with advice is you might remember it. Sir? Sit down, boy, for a minute and dont fidget. There. Cigarette? I Look at your fingers and come off it. Throw the ash in the basket. Sudden, inexplicable emotion. Want to thank you for all youve done, Sir. He waved the cigarette. What am I going to say to you? Youll go along way from Rotten Row. That was Father Watts-Watt, Sir. Partly. Suddenly he swung round in the seat and faced me. Sam, I want your help. I want to understand what you are after. Oh, yes, I know all about the party, itll last you a year or two. But for yourselfyou are an artist, a born artist, the Lord knows why or how. Ive never seen anyone so clearly gifted. Yet, these portraits- arent they important to you? I suppose so, Sir. But surely, isnt anything important to you? I dont know. Your talent isnt important to you? No, Sir. 23

You arent happy? No, Sir. Havent been for some years now? No, Sir. Happiness isnt your business. I tell you that. Leave happiness to the others, Sammy. Exercise 24. Write the sentences in reported Speech, using the most suitable reporting verb. Imagine the situations: 1. Im sorry, Joan. It was a rotten thing for me to do. 2. It was my fault. I shouldnt have come. 3. You pace off about fifty steps along the wall. When youve done that far, just turn around. 4. Do nothing. Forget he even existed. Simply go on as you were before. 5. Get out of here! Cant you see I am busy? 6. Surely you dont think you can take her word for it! 7. For Heavens sake, stop asking such silly questions! 8. Do you mean to say that youve lost all your money at the gambling table? 9. Dont forget to send Mary a letter as soon as you arrive in Egypt. 10. Please, dont give away your secret! 11. Please, dont argue with him, for my sake.

24

PASSIVE VOICE Exercise 1. Change the following sentences into the Passive Voice. 1. They are building a bridge here. 2. They didn't inform us. 3. She looks after the children very well. 4. People must wear ties in this club. 5. They make a new film every year in this studio. 6. He didn't introduce me to his mother. 7. They will meet you at the terminal. 8. You may not use dictionaries during the examination. 9. A big truck knocked him down last Monday , 10. They are renovating the castle at the moment. Exercise 2. Complete the sentences. Use the passive (present or past) of these verbs. 1. The room is chained every day. 2. I saw an accident yesterday. Two people ... (take) to hospital. 3. Paper ... (make) from wood. 4. There was a fire last week. Two of the rooms... . (burn) down. 5. "Where did you get this picture?" It... (give) to me by a friend of mine. 6. Many American programs.. .(show) on British television. 7. "Did Jim and Sue go to the wedding?" "No. They .. .(invite) but they didn't go". 8. "How old is this film?" "It.. .(make) in 1965". 9. My car ...(steal) last week but the next day it ...(find) by the police. Exercise 3. Turn the following from Active Voice into Passive Voice: 1. Hob opens the door. 2. Mary helps the teacher. 3. The porter takes the luggage to the train. 4. Mrs. Priestley welcomes the visitors. 5. Susan brings in the coffee. 6.I finish my work about five o'clock. 7. Susan washes the dishes. 25

8. Lucille drives the car. 9. Sir Joseph Binks gives Tom a small cheque. 10.Mr. Priestley brings some students for tea. 11.Hob tells the student about Uncle Tom. 12.My friend takes me to the cinema. 13.Hob sends some cigarettes to Uncle Albert. 14. Her brother and sisters meet Frieda at the station. 15.We use your books in our class. 16. Hob tells us jokes. Exercise 4. Put the following into Active voice: 1. The TV will be tested when it's been repaired. (Mr. Jones). 2. The doctor should have been called up earlier. (We). 3. The children have all been put to bed (She). 4. Why weren't you told about this yesterday (the manager). 5. The launching of the rocket was delayed by half an hour. (Bad weather). 6. The shop wasn't insured against fire. (She). 7. Are such cars still being made? 8. The crop will be ruined unless something is done very quickly (We). 9. The food couldn't be eaten (No one). 10.Closed-circuit television is used in the spot shop-lifters (they). 11.Where was this photograph taken? (You). Exercise 5. Change the active to passive if possible. Some verbs are intransitive and cannot be changed. e.g. A strange thing happened yesterday. (no change) He scored the winning goal. - The winning goal was scored by him. 1. My cat died. 2. I agree with Dr. Ikeda's theory. 3. Dr. Ikeda developed that theory. 4. Tim dropped the cup. 5. The cup fell to the floor. 26

6. The assistant manager interviewed me. 7. It rained hard yesterday. 8. A hurricane destroyed the small fishing village. 9. Dinosaurs existed millions of years ago. 10. A large vase stands in the corner of our front hallway. 11. The children seemed happy when they went to the zoo. 12. After class, one of the students always erases the chalkboard. 13. The solution to my problem appeared to me in a dream. Exercise 6. Why is the use of the passive appropriate in the following sentences? What would be the active equivalents of the passive sentences? 1. My sweater was made in England. 2. The new highway will be completed sometime next month. 3. Language skills are taught in every school in the country. 4. Bach's Symphony was performed at the concert last night. 5. The World Cup games are being televised all over the world. 6. This essay was written by Ali. That one was written by Yoke. 7. The Washington Monument is visited by many people every day. 8. The chief writing material of ancient times was papyrus. It was used in Egypt, Greece, and other Mediterranean lands. 9. Parchment, another writing material that was widely used in ancient times, was made from the skins of animals such as sheep and goats. After the hair had been removed, the skins were stretched and rubbed smooth. 10. Paper, the main writing material today, was invented by the Chinese. Exercise 7. Change the following active sentences to passive sentences if possible. (Some of the verbs are intransitive and cannot be changed.) Keep the same tense. Include the "by phrase" only if necessary. e.g. People grow corn in Iowa. -> Corn is grown in Iowa. Peter came here two months ago. (no change) 27

1. Someone made this antique table in 1734. 2. An accident happened at the corner of Fifth and Main. 3. Someone stole my purse. 4. Someone was making the coffee when I walked into the kitchen. 5. Translators have translated that book into many languages. 6. Jim's daughter drew that picture. My son drew this picture. 7. The judges will judge the applicants on the basis of their originality. 8.My sister's plane will arrive at 10:35. 9. Is Professor Rivers teaching that course this semester? 10. When did someone invent the radio? 9. The mail carrier had already delivered the mail by the time I left for school this morning. 11. When is someone going to announce the results of the contest? 10.After the concert was over, hundreds of fans mobbed the rock music star outside the theater. 11. Ever since I arrived here, I have been living in the dormitory because someone told me that it was cheaper to live there than in an apartment. 12. They are going to build the new hospital next year. They have already built the new elementary school. 13. If you expose a film to light while you are developing it, you will ruin the negatives. Exercise 8. Find the INDIRECT OBJECT in each sentence, and make it the focus of attention by using it as the subject of a passive sentence. Use the "by phrase" only if necessary. e.g. Someone handed Ann a menu at the restaurant. (indirect object - Ann) -> Ann was handed a menu at the restaurant. 1.Indiana University has awarded Peggy a scholarship. 2. Some company paid Fred three hundred dollars in consulting fees. 28

3. A local advertising company has offered Maria a good job. 4. They will send you a bill at the end of the month. 5. Someone will give the starving people a week's supply of rice as soon as the food supplies arrive in the famine-stricken area. Exercise 9. Use the words in the following list to complete the sentences. All of the sentences are passive. Use any appropriate tense. build, cause, confuse, divide, expect, frighten, invent, kill, offer, order, report, spell, surprise, surround, wear 1. The electric light bulb____was invented 2. An island __________ water. 3. The -ing form of "sit"___________with a double t. 4. Even though construction costs are high, a new dormitory ________next year. 5. The class was too large, so it ____________ into two sections. 6. A bracelet_________________around the wrist. 7. The Johnson's house burned down. According to the inspector, the fire __________ by lightning. 8. Al got a ticket for reckless driving. When he went to traffic court, he _________ to pay a fine of $100. 9. I read about a hunter who_________________by a wild animal. 10. The hunter's fatal accident _____________ in the newspaper yesterday. 11. I didn't expect Lisa to come to the meeting last night, but she was there. I ______________ to see her there. 12. Last week I _______________a job at a local bank, but I 29 by Thomas Edison.

didn't accept. 13. The children ______________ the middle of the night when they heard strange noises in the house. 14. Could you try to explain this math problem to me again? Yesterday in class I ______________by the teacher's explanation. 15. A: Is the plane going to be late? B: No. It _______________ to be on time. Exercise 10. Use active or passive, in any appropriate tense, for the verbs in brackets: 1. The Amazon valley is extremely important to the ecology of the earth. Forty percent of the world's oxygen(produce)________there. 2. The game (win, probably)_________________by the other team tomorrow. They're a lot better than we are. 3. There was a terrible accident on a busy downtown street yesterday. Dozens of people (see)________ it, including my friend, who (interview) _____________ by the police. 4. In my country, certain prices (control) ________________by the government, such as the prices of medical supplies. However, other prices (determine)___________ by how much people are willing to pay for a product. 5. Yesterday the wind (blow)________my hat off my head. I had to chase it down the street. I (want, not)________to lose it because it's my favorite hat and it (cost)____________________________a lot. 6. Right now Alex is in the hospital. He (treat)________________ for a bad burn on his hand and arm. 7. Yesterday a purse-snatcher (catch) _________________by a dog. While the thief (chase)_______________ by the police, he (jump) ______over a fence into someone's yard, where he encountered a ferocious dog. The dog (keep) __________the thief from escaping. 30

8. Frostbite may occur when the skin (expose)________________to extreme cold. It most frequently (affect) _______________ the skin of the cheeks, chin, ears, fingers, nose, and toes. 9. The first fish (appear)________________on the earth about 500 million years ago. Up to now, over 20,000 kinds of fish (name)_ __________and (describe)__________by scientists. New species (discover)__________every year, so the total increases continually. 10. Proper first aid can save a victim's life, especially if the victim is bleeding heavily, has stopped breathing, or (poison)__________. 11.____________________________________________________The government used to support the school. Today it (support) ________by private funds as well as by the tuition the students pay. 12. Richard Anderson is a former astronaut. Several years ago, at age 52, Anderson (inform) ________by his superior at the aircraft corporation that he could no longer be a test pilot. He (tell)_______ _______that he was being relieved of his duties because of his age. Claiming age discrimination, he took the corporation to court. Exercise 11. Complete the sentences with the given words , active or passive. e.g. James should be told the news as soon as possible . (should + tell) 1. Someone_____________ James the news immediately. (should + tell) 2. James____________________ the news long time ago. (should + tell) 3. Meat ____________________ in a refrigerator or it will spoil. (must+keep) 4. You _____________________ in a refrigerator or it will spoil. (must+keep) 5. We tried, but the window ___________ . It as painted shut. (couldnt + open) 6. I tried, but I ________________the window. (couldnt + open) 7. Good news! I ________________________ a job soon. I had an interview yesterday at an engineering firm yesterday. (may + offer) 8. Chris has good news. The engineering firm where she had an interview yesterday ________________________ a job. (may + offer) 31

9. I hope Chris accepts our job offer, but I know she is having interviews with several companies. She ______________________ a job by a competing firm before we made our offer. (may +already + offer) 10. A competing firm _______________ Chris a job before we made our offer. (may +already + offer) 11. The class for next semester is too large. It __________in half, but there's not enough money in the budget to hire another teacher. (ought to + divide). 12. Last semester's class was too large. It_____in half. (ought to + divide). 13. These books__________to the library by tomorrow.(have to + return) 14. Polly ___________these books by next Friday. (have to + return) 15. A: Andy, your chores ___________________by the time I get home, including taking out the garbage. (had better + finish) B: Don't worry, Mom. I'll do everything you told me to do. 16. A: Andy, you ______________your chores before Mom gets home. B:I know. I'll do them in a minute. I'm right now (had better+ finish) 17. This application ______________ to the personnel department soon. (be supposed to + send) 18. Ann's birthday was on the 5th, and now it's already the 8th. Her birthday card ______________ a week ago. Maybe we'd better give her a call to wish her a belated happy birthday. (should + send) 19. A: Ann didn't expect to see her boss at the labor union meeting. B: She ______________________ when she saw him. (must + surprise) A: She was.

Exercise12: Use the verb in brackets with any appropriate modal or similar expression. All of the sentences are passive. In many sentences, more than one modal is possible. Use the modal that sounds best to you. e.g. The entire valley (see) can be seen from their mountain home. 1. He is wearing a gold band on his fourth finger. He (marry)__________. 2. According to our teacher, all of our compositions (write)_______in ink. He 32

won't accept papers written in pencil. 3. I found this book on my desk when I came to class. It (leave)________ by one of the students in the earlier class. 4. Five of the committee members will be unable to attend the next meeting. In my opinion, the meeting (postpone)__________________ . 5. A child (give, not) everything he or she wants. 6. Your daughter has a good voice. Her interest in singing (encourage) ___________________________________________________________ . 7. Try to speak slowly when you give your speech. If you don't, some of your words (misunderstand)___________________________________ 8. Some UFO sightings (explain, not)__________________ easily. No one is able to explain them easily. 9. What? You tripped over a chair at the party and dropped your plate of food into a woman's lap? You (embarrass)_____________ ! 10. She is very lazy. If you want her to do anything, she (push)_____ 11. The hospital in that small town is very old and can no longer serve the needs of the community. A new hospital (build)_________ years ago. 12. Whales (save)___________________________ from extinction. We cant wait any longer! Something (do) ________ immediately! 13.In my opinion, she (elect) ____________________because she is honest, knowledgeable, and competent. Exercise13: Supply the stative passive of the given verbs. Use the SIMPLE PRESENT or the SIMPLE PAST. e.g.It is hot in this room because the window (close) is closed. 1. Yesterday it was hot in this room because the window (close) _________ . 33

2. Sarah is wearing a blouse. It (make)________________of cotton. 3. The door to this room (shut) __________________________ . 4. Jim is sitting quietly. His elbows (bend) _______________and his hands (fold) _________________________________in front of him. 5.We can leave now because class (finish) ___________________ . 6. The lights in this room (turn) _________________________ on. 7. This room (crowd, not)______________________________. 8. We can't go any farther. The car (stick)____________in the mud. 9. . We couldn't go any farther. The car (stick)_________in the mud. 10. My room is very neat right now. The bed (make)____________, the floor (sweep) _____________, and the dishes (wash)________. 12. We are ready to sit down and eat dinner. The table (set)_______, the meat and rice (do) _________________, and the candles (light). 11. Where's my wallet? It (go) ________________! Did you take it? 12. Hmmm. My dress (tear)_________I wonder how that happened. 13. Don't look in the closet. Your birthday present (hide)______there. Exercise14: Use an appropriate form of the words in the following list to complete the sentences. bear (born)* exhaust plug in block go qualify confuse insure schedule crowd locate spoil divorce lose stick do marry turn off 1. Excuse me, sir. Could you give me some directions? I ______. 2. Let's find another restaurant. This one ______too ________.We would have to wait at least an hour for a table. 3. The meeting____________________for tomorrow at nine. 34

4. That's hard work! I_______________I need to rest for a while. 5. You told me one thing and John told me another. I don't know what to think. I____________________. 6. Louise is probably sleeping. The lights in her room __________. 7. Mrs. Wentworth's jewelry _____________________for $50,000. 7. I can't open the window. It ____________________________ . 8. Carolyn and Joe were married to each other for five years, but now they __________________________________________ . 9.I thought I had left my book on this desk, but it isn't here. It __________________________ . I wonder where it is. 10.I'm sorry. You_________not ______________for the job. We need someone with a degree in electrical engineering. 11.I love my wife. I ___________________to a wonderful woman. 12._________________________________We can't eat this fruit. It ________ . We'll have to throw it away. 13.__________________We'd better call a plumber. The water won't go down the drain. The drain _____________________________ . 14.____________________Vietnam in Southeast Asia. 15. A: How old is Jack? B: He__________________________in 1970. 16. A: The TV set doesn't work. B: Are you sure?________________it_______________? 17. A: Is dinner ready? B: Not yet. The potatoes ___not _____.They need another 10 minutes. Exercise15: Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses and an appropriate preposition. Use the SIMPLE PRESENT. e.g. (interest) Carol is interested in ancient history. 35

1. (compose} 2. (accustom) 3. (terrify) 4. (finish) 5. (oppose) 6. (cover)

Water ________________hydrogen and oxygen. I _________________ living here. Our son _______________ dogs. Pat _______________her composition. I __________________ that suggestion. It's winter, and the ground __________________ snow.

7. (satisfy) I _______________________ the progress I have made. 8. (marry) Jack ___________________________________ Ruth. 9. (divorce) Elaine __________________________________ Ed. 10. (acquaint) I ____________not _____________that author's work. 11. (tire) I ______________________ sitting here. 12. (relate) Your name is Mary Smith. _______you______John Smith? 13. (dedicate) Mrs. Robinson works in an orphanage. She ___________ her work. 14. (disappoint) Jim got a bad grade because he didn't study. He ________________________________ himself. 15. (scare) Bobby is not very brave. He ________ his own shadow. 16. (commit) The administration ___________ improving the quality of education at our school. 17. (devote) Mr. and Mrs. Miller __________________each other. 18. (dress) 19. (do) Walter ___________his best suit for his wedding today. We _________________________________________this exercise.

Exercise 16. Turn into Passive Voice. Mention the agent only where necessary: 1. When I awoke I saw that they had patched my trousers and washed my shirt. 36

2. Someone will buy that chain of food-shops as soon as they put it on the market. (two passives) 3. His family should take the sick man to hospital, as they will look after him much better there. (two passives) 4. Hemingway wrote this short story when he was still a rather crude young man. 5. They are rebuilding the bridge which the floods swept away. (two passives) 6. The more they tell me to lie for them, the more determined I am that I should tell the truth. ( two passives) 7. One must not shoot the bears in Romanias mountains without a license. 8. They are closing down a lot of factories across the nation. 9. One cannot master a language well if one doesnt study its grammar thoroughly.(two passives) 10. Having asked the question, John sat down to listen to the answer. 11. Why didnt they fix the roof before it began to leak so badly? 12. They showed the students their rooms and gave each of them the key. (two passives) 13. They are trying a new checking out system, because students dont return books to the library. (two passives) 14. My boss hoped he would not offend me if he told me I could do better in another field of activity. ( two passives) 15. If somebody returns the stolen goods, the police will put an end to the investigations. ( two passives) 16. Only the most skilled workers are to operate the new lathes. 17. Never had they confronted amore vicious enemy. Exercise 17. Turn into the Passive Voice. Use the agent only when necessary: 1. Why didnt they draw a better map of the district? 2. Who wrote the libretto for this new opera? 3. When will the authorities consecrate the new National Theatre in Dej? 37

4. How many people have visited the Victoria and Albert Museum this spring? 5. Where did the hoodlums take your cousin Rachel when they kidnapped her? (two passives) 6. Why cant John have done it? 7. What can one do to prevent such a disaster from happening? 8. Which rifle will he use to shoot elephant with? 9. Whom did you say they elected Chairman of the meeting? 10. What name will they give the baby, if it is a girl? Exercise 18. Turn into the Passive Voice, paying attention to the verb+preposition ( particle) combination: 1. Some Hollywood stars dont like people to stare at them in public places. 2. The Albanian authorities decreed that people must hand in all weapons. 3. Such desperate situations bring out the worst in me. 4. The Commander-in-Chief has announced that he is sending in reinforcements. 5. They were pulling out some German regiments from the Stalingrad front. 6. Im sure nobody has slept in this room for years. 7. Scholars often quote these lines of poetry. 8. They agreed upon a plan of action. 9. His parents have brought up John very badly. 10. If you do that, they will merely mock at you. 11. They have taken down all the old masters from the walls of the museum. 12. Nobody spoke to him the whole evening. 13. Although it is a good idea, we cannot really carry it out. Exercise 19. Turn the following into the Active Voice. Mention the doer when necessary: 1. A more careful reading of this essay is recommended. 38

2. The inscriptions were made by unidentified authors, in the tenth century A.D. 3. I was suddenly struck by a detail I had not noticed before. 4. The children are very well looked after in that kindergarten. 5. The Danube was swum across in the wee hours of the morning and the maneuver was not observed. 6. Leningrad was being shelled by the Wehrmacht from a distance of several miles. 7. The photo must be blown up to twice its present size if you want to recognize the face. 8. I hear he hasnt been left too much money upon his grandmothers death. 9. Money is wrongly assumed to bring happiness. 10. Tickets ought to have been booked several days in advance. 11. Nothing in your room has been moved since you were taken away. 12. Do you mind being asked some questions? 13. I was left speechless to hear you have been robbed. 14. I was greatly amused to see that she had been taken in by his ruse. 15. The door must be kept shut. 16. Each student will be given a small book allowance. Exercise 20. Put the verbs in the correct tense of the passive voice: 1. Four people (to report) (to injure) in an explosion at a factory in Nottingham early this morning. 2. There was somebody behind them. I thought they (to follow) 3. A new school (to build) in this area. Work (to begin)last year, and the school ( to expect) to open next autumn. 4. You should make sure you (to give) the right change before leaving the supermarket, as mistakes cannot ( to correct) afterwards. 5. Central heating just ( to install) in Aunt Alices old house. 6. Ecotourism (to seek after) very mush today. Some of the land in Disney World (to set aside) as an underdeveloped nature reserve, where many Florida bird species can (to observe). 39

7. They said the guests he was expecting (to give) VIP treatment, as they (to recommend) by the State Governor. 8. The Spartans are said (to betray) by one of their own during the battle of Thermopilae. 9. Never before then such a tremendous power (to display) by a thunderstorm. 10. The space ship (to man) by three astronauts, who (to select) from a great number of volunteers and (to train) adequately. 11. I realized that the wretched man (to drive) into a corner where he (to rough up) by the three thugs, who wanted his money. 12. I wont go to school any longer, I (to feed up) with (to bully) by the older boys. 13. His critical analysis of your work (to mean) (to take) as friendly indication of the way (to follow) henceforth. Exercise 21. Provide the correct Passive Voice form of the verbs in brackets: Based on Pohls grandiose estimates, I.G. Farben (to persuade) to construct the worlds largest synthetic-fuel plant at Auschwitz, as well as the enormous Bunawerk, which (to design) to produce ersatz rubber out of coal. The inmates (to rent) out on a daily basis at a considerable profit to the SS. In a country whose major shortage was labor, an unlimited supply of workers (to place) at Pohls disposal, and the Reichsfuhrers dream was that all German industry might one day (to consolidate) under the control of the SS. Unfortunately, reality fell far short of these dreams. The rank and file of the SS had no experience in keeping Jews alive, and little enthusiasm for the task. Neither the camp nor the system (to design) to provide a healthy work force, and their customers complained constantly of the low quality of the goods that (to supply) to them. Exercise 22. Put the following sentences into the Passive Voice: 1. John has only used the apparatus once since the day he had it repaired. 2. As nobody needed the car, they finally had to give it away. 40

3. At the party people took no notice of the famous politician, but they made a fuss about his beautiful sister from the moment someone introduced her to the guests. 4. The surgeon had to operate on him as soon as they took him to the hospital. 5. The announcement that Mr. Smith had taken over the company took all the employees by surprise. 6. The committee accepted the proposal on principles, but they asked for further details before they made a final decision. 7. Hed like somebody to talk to him in French. No one has ever taken him for a Frenchman so far. 8. You must take away the glasses and put them in the cupboard where you usually keep them. Exercise 23. Turn the following sentences into Passive Voice mentioning the agent where necessary: 1. Even if the employer makes a better offer, inflation will wipe it out. 2. The heavy traffic is shaking the foundations of modern cities. The fumes are eating away the bricks and mortar. 3. Youve made some mistakes in your translation. Somebody must check it up for you. 4. She arranged for the children to be vaccinated. 5. Tell somebody to send the book to you by post because otherwise it may get lost. 6. Im going to tell someone to add an extra table for the coming guests. 7. If you want to play the piano, someone will have to tune it for you. 8. Peter is very smart. Somebody sends him hi suits from Paris. 9. Your season ticket needs renewing. 10. The repairs we had to do have really used up our savings. 11. They happened to find the missing necklace while looking for the stolen watch. 12. They took advantage of the chance of going to India. 41

13. Unfortunately the new factory will produce a lot of smoke and filth. 14. He didnt want anyone to recognize him, so he went to party in disguise. This reminds me of a story someone once told me. 15. His parents gave him a large sum of money to be invested in the business. 16. The committee chose a candidate who had acquired his skills trough working and training. 17. An arrow struck the Indian in his left shoulder. 18. The German planes were bombarding the whole area. 19. A foreign travel agency has chattered the plane they are going to travel in. 20. They told me that I had to notify the authorities about the fact that those people hadnt paid for the announcements. 21. They have reserved the hotel he will stay at and even ordered the food he will eat. Exercise 24. Turn into Passive Voice: The roles of the sexes have now begun to approach equality. However, women still receive the deference of the male: men allow them to pass trough the doors first, sit them first at the table, and serve them first. Women direct much of the civic activity through the organizations and committees they serve. Overseas observers think they dominate society. But women do not yet hold any sizeable number of top jobs in industry, government or education. Men get practically all the best jobs and when they work outside the home their husbands still expect them to do the housework. Exercise 25. Rewrite the following sentences in the passive: 1. Mr. Jones hates people keeping him waiting. Neither does he like his friends telling him what to do. 2. People put down the childs impertinence to his parents having spoilt him. 3. Should somebody prove that an accident caused the fire, the police will release the man they are at present holding on suspicions of arson. 42

4. He dislikes his friends considering him a coward. 5. They blew up Peters role in their account of the battle. 6. Had they told me that someone was to bring the problem ate the meeting, I should have acted differently. 7. Not until later did he discover that someone had stolen the most beautiful peace of his collection.

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THE PASSIVE WITH GET *Some of the common adjectives that follow get are: angry, anxious, bald, better, big, busy, chilly, cold, dark, dizzy, empty, fat, full, good, heavy, hot, hungry, late, light, mad, nervous, old, rich, sick, sleepy, tall, thirsty, warm, well, wet, worse. Exercise 26: Use any appropriate tense of get and an adjective from the following list to complete the sentences. better busy dark full hot hungry late light nervous sleepy well wet

e.g. What time are we going to eat? I

am getting hungry .

1. . A: I _____________________________________________ . B: Why don't you take a nap? A couple of hours of sleep will do you good. 2. A: What time is it? B: Almost ten. A: I'd better leave soon. It _____________I have to be at the airport by eleven. 3. I didn't have an umbrella, so I ___________________while I was waiting for the bus yesterday. 4. Let's turn on the air conditioner. It ___________________in here. 5. Every time I have to give a speech, I ______________________ . 6. Would you mind turning on the light? It ______________in here. 7. A: It's a long drive from Rome to here. I'm glad you finally arrived. What time did you leave this morning? B: At sunrise. We left as soon as it _________________ outside. 44

8. A: Won't you have another helping? B: All of the food is delicious, but I really can't eat much more. I ____________________________________________. 9. Maria's English is improving. It _________________________. 10. Shake a leg! We don't have all day to finish this work! Get moving! Let's step on it!_________________ and finish your work. There's no time to waste. 11. My friend was sick, so I sent him a card. It said, "_______soon." Exercise 27: Complete the sentences by using an appropriate form of get and the given verbs. e.g.1. (tired) I think I'll stop working. I am getting tired . 2. (hurt) There was an accident, but nobody __________________. 3. (lose) We didn't have a map, so we_______________________. 4. (dress) We can leave as soon as you_______________________. 5. (marry) When ________you ___________________________ ? 6. (accustom) How long did it take you to___________to living here? 7. (worry) Sam was supposed to be home an hour ago, but he still isn't here. I ________________________________________. 8. (upset) Just try to take it easy. Don't ___________________. 9. (confuse) I____________because everybody gave me different advice. 10. (do) We can leave as soon as I________________with this work. 11. (depress) Chris ___________________________when she lost her job, so I tried to cheer her up. 12. (invite)______________you_____________________to the party? 13. (bore) I______________, so I didn't stay for the end of the movie. 14. (pack) I'll be ready to leave as soon as I_______________. 15. (pay) I ____________________________on Fridays. I'll give you 45

the money I owe you next Friday. Okay? 16. (hire) After Ed graduated, he___________by an engineering firm. 17. (fire) But later he ______________because he didn't do his work. 18. (finish, not) Last night I _________________________________ with my homework until after midnight. 19. (disgust) I________________ and left because the things they were saying at the meeting were ridiculous. 20. (engage) First, they_________________ (marry) Then-, they_________________ (divorce) Later, they_________________ (remarry) Finally, they _______________ Today they are very happy. Exercise 28: Use active or passive, in any appropriate tense, for the verbs in parentheses.

e.g.1. It's noon. The mail should be here soon. It (deliver, usually) ____________________, sometime between noon and one o'clock. 2. Only five of us (work)___________________________in the laboratory yesterday when the explosion (occur)_______________ ._ Luckily, no one (hurt) ___________________________________ . 3. I was supposed to take a test yesterday, but I (admit, not) __________________________ into the testing room because the examination (begin, already) _______________________________ . 4. According to a recent survey, out of every dollar an American spends on food, thirty-six cents (spend)__________________________at restaurants. 5. I'm sorry I'm late. I (hold up)__________________ by the rush hour traffic. It (take)__________________thirty minutes for me to 46

get here instead of fifteen. 6. Before she graduated last May, Susan (offer, already) _________________________________ a position with a law firm. 7. According to many scientists, solar energy (use) ____________________extensively in the twenty-first century. 8. I (study) ______________________ English here for the last two months. My English (get)____________________ better, but I still find it difficult to understand lectures. 9. Right now a student trip to the planetarium (organize) _____________ by Mrs. Hunt. You can sign up for it at her office. 10.He is a man whose name will go down in history. He (forget, never) ______________________________________________ . 11.______________________________________________ When you (arrive)______at the airport tomorrow, you (meet)_________by a friend of mine. He (wear)_______a red shirt and blue jeans. He (be) _____ fairly tall and (have) _______dark hair. He (stand) __________ near the main entrance. I'm sure you will be able to find him. 12.A: Yesterday (be)_______________a terrible day. B: What (happen)_______________? A: First, I (flunk)________________ a test, or at least I think I did. Then I (drop)_________________my books while I (walk) __________________ across campus and they (fall) __________ into a mud puddle. And finally, my bicycle (steal) _____________ .

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GERUND ,INFINITIVE, PARTICIPLES Exercise 1. Paying attention to which verbs can be followed by an Infinitive and which can be followed by a Gerund, for each sentence, fill in the blank with the Infinitive or Gerund of the verb shown in brackets. e.g. Please stop ____________ that! (to do). Please stop doing that! He has decided ____________a holiday. (to take) He has decided to take a holiday. 1. Has he finished ____________ the report? (to read) 2. We plan _____________ the concert. (to attend) 3. They will discuss _________ a club. (to organize) 4. She offered ______________ the letter. (to write) 5.They asked _______________ us. (to accompany) 6.You should practice _______________ the speech. ( to give) 7.1 would suggest _____________ the work by next week. (to finish) 8. He has not dared __________________ you. (to contradict) 9.They delayed ___________ us. (to call) 10. She deserves __________________ .(to succeed) 11._____________We forgot ______________ the letter. (to mail) 12. He enjoys ____________ .(to ski) 13.____________________They would not risk ________________ the bus. (to miss) 14. Do you want ________________ the book? (to borrow) 15.__________________I don't mind ___________________ . (to wait) 16._______________________Her daughter is learning _____________ a bicycle. (to ride) 17. It has stopped ___________________ (to snow) 18.He is preparing __________ a business. (to open) 19.They hesitated _________________ the invitation. (to accept) 20. I miss __________________ from them. (to hear)

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Exercise 2. Fill in the blanks with prepositions : after, before, by, on, without. 1. What did she mean boasting like this? 2. His knowledge has improved taking a training course. 3. He could tell the funniest story smiling. 4. entering the house she rushed to the telephone greeting anybody. 5. You can keep healthy and fit jogging in the morning. 6. Where did he go finishing his work? 7. writing an article about the events he must go to the place where they are taking place. 8. hearing a woman's cry he jumped up from his seat. 9. going through the customs office he went aboard the plane. 10. She was upset not getting an answer from him. Exercise 3. Fill in the blanks with prepositions or adverbs where necessary. I. The policeman accused him exceeding the speed limit. 2. She has been dreaming .... flying to the Bahamas. 3. The rain prevented him going to the country. 4. They have decided buying a new car. 5. He succeeded . being promoted. 6. I feel staying at home. It is rather cold. Let's watch a film on TV instead going to the picnic. 7. She is fed staying in the village. 8. He went to the disco despite having a headache. 9. She is looking paying the leading part in the performance. 10. I think it's no use trying to get him home. I1.Everybody congratulated her passing the exam so well. 12. He is not very good taking decisions quickly. 13. They don't approve her getting married to James. 14. The police suspect him drug smuggling. 15. We have difficulty installing the new equipment.

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Exercise 4. Open the brackets with either gerunds or infinitives. Use prepositions or adverbs where necessary. 1. There is no point (worry) about these things. 2. Do you want me (order) a long-distance call? 3. Before (give) evidence you must swear (speak) the truth. 4. I've seen him (leave) the office early this afternoon. He seemed (be) unhappy about something. 5. She didn't succeed (be) economical. 6. Would you mind (look up) his telephone number? 7. I'm looking forward (make) an appointment with this businessman. 8. It was a lovely day, so I suggested (go) to the country. 9. Would you mind (close) the window? I hate (sit) in a draught. !0. It's worth (arrange) the things properly. 11. I'd like you (arrange) everything by the time I come back. 12. It's very difficult (deal) with him because he got used (do) everything in his own way. 13. The teacher was very strict. Nobody dared (speak) to each other. 14. They don't have much money. They can't afford (go) out very often. 15. It is no use (have) a car if you dont know how (drive). Exercise 5. Choose the right variant with the following verbs. A. remember 1. Remember (to look/looking) ahead when driving. 2. When you go on that mission please remember (to point out/ pointing out) to people there that our stand on this issue remains the same. I won't fail to do that. 3. Do you remember (to meet/meeting) them last summer? 4. Remember (to phone/phoning) as soon as arrive. 5. The police man asked me if I clearly remembered (to lock/ locking) the door before I went to bed. 6. I remember (to pay/paying) him. I gave him two pounds. 7. Did you remember (to give/giving) him the key to the safe?-No, I didn't. I'll go and do it now. 8.1 don't remember ever (to see/seeing) you. 9. She does not remember (to ask/ asking) this question. 10. We remember (to stay/ staying) a week end with her. She is a nice woman. 11. When you are on holiday remember (to send/sending) postcards to a few close friends.

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B. regret 1.I regret (to tell/telling) you all the tickets for this performance have been sold. 2. He's always regretted (not to learn/not learning) to play a musical instrument. 3. They regret (to fail/failing) to understand the importance of your proposal. 4. I regret (to inform/ informing) you that your application has been rejected. 5. I don't regret (to quarrel/quarrelling) with him. 6. The manager regrets (to say/saying) that your proposal has been turned down. 7. We regret (to miss/missing) this film. It is worth seeing. 8. I regret (to say/saying) I won't be able to come. 9. She regrets (not to be able/not being able) to say goodbye to him. 10. If you regret (to do/ doing) something, you are sorry about an action in the past. C. be (get) used to/used to 1. He used to (be/being) good at mathematics. 2. I got used to (get up/getting up) very early. 3. In the Dark Ages people used to (think/thinking) that the sun goes round the earth. 4. He wasn't used to (work/working) late at night. 5. He used to (study/studying) late at night when a youth. 6. She was used to (wander/wandering) about the fields by herself. 7. In my childhood my aunt used to (bring/bringing) little presents for me. 8. He quickly got used to (have/having) a good meal and nice suits. 9. He used to (say/saying) that there was nothing like warm crisp brown bread spread with honey. 10. The mother was used to (do/doing) all the work about the house alone. 11. The mother used to (do/doing) all the work about the house. D. try 1. Why don't you try (to lose/losing) some weight? 2. He tried (to go/going) to evening classes but his English was still hopeless. 3. She tried (to explain/explaining) the situation but he refused to listen and went on grumbling. 4, Do stop talking, I am trying (to write/ writing) a letter. 5. He tried (to persuade/persuading) them to sign a contract. 6. Try (to forget/forgetting) it, it is not worth worrying about. 7. I tried (to catch/ catching) his eye, but he sat motionless. 8. He tried (to cook/cooking) but failed. 9. They had tried (to introduce/ introducing) many other methods in return to the initial one.

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E. stop 1. If you stop (to do/doing) something, you finish an action. 2. If you stop (to do/doing) something, you interrupt one action in order to do something else. 3. We stopped (to buy/buying) food in the store because the owner raised the prices. 4. We stopped (to buy/ buying) food in the store because we were hungry. 5. Do stop (to make/making) this awful noise! 6. We've only stopped (to buy/ buying) some petrol. 7. They stopped (to produce/ producing) refrigerators because of their workers' strike. 8. He suddenly slopped (to speak/speaking), got up and left without saying anything. F. be afraid to/be afraid of 1. I'm afraid (to take/taking) an exam because I'm afraid (to fail/ failing) it. 2. He was afraid (to leave/ leaving) the house because he was afraid (to meet/meeting) someone who might recognize him. 3. He was afraid (to say/saying) a word because he did not know anybody. 4. I am afraid (to go/going) by plane. 5. He was afraid (to tell/telling) her the sad news. 6. My sister is such a coward! She can't see horror films because she is afraid (to meet/ meeting) a ghost at night. 7. He was afraid (to make/ making) the next step-because he was afraid (to fall/failing) because he was standing on the brink of the precipice. G. can't help 1. It is silly of me, but I can't help (to feel/feeling) anxious. 2. I can't help (to laugh/laughing) at his jokes. 3. They can't help him (to do/doing) the exercise. 4. She could not help (to be attracted/ being attracted) by the fact that she was being looked at. 5. He couldn't help his son (to solve/solving) the problem. 6. She couldn't help (to phone/phoning) her mother when she heard the news.

Exercise 6. Choose the right variant with the following verbs. Open the brackets with either Gerunds or Infinitives. 1.I don't remember (switch off) the TV set. I'd better (go) and (check) it. 2. The weather is very nice. Let's (go) for a swim. -1 am not 52

particularly good at (swim). What about (go) for a drive instead of (bathing)? 3. We stopped once (buy) some food, and then we stopped again (ask) the way. 4. Do you feel like (dine) out or would you rather (have) dinner at home? I'd like (go) out. I always enjoy (have) dinner at a restaurant. 5.1 don't mind (travel) by bus but I hate (stand) if there are a lot of people. I think it's better (go) by tube. 6. Would you like (come) to the conference devoted to the theatre? - No, thanks. I like (see) performances but I don't enjoy (listen) to people talking about it. 7.1'mdelighted (hear) that you can come for the weekend. We are all looking forward to (see) you. 8. The autumn is wonderful! You got used to (swim) in September, so remember (bring) your bathing suit. 9. I remember (lend) that book to you. You wanted (write) a report. -Oh, I'm so sorry! I'll bring it back tonight. 10. When would you like (start off)? - In a few moments. - Let's (wait) till it stops (snow) otherwise we may get lost. 11. Do you remember (meet) her at my birthday party? - Yes, certainly. Thank you for the chance (meet) such a beautiful and witty girl. 12. The results are very disappointing, I regret (say). I allow you (to rewrite) the test. But I allow (rewrite) on condition everyone is present. 13. You know I meant (buy) something for supper but the shop was closed. It means (have) sandwiches and tea for supper. Exercise 7. Use the Infinitive or the Gerund of the verbs in brackets: 1. We don't wish (to reveal) our plans to you yet. 2. Has she finished (to read) the article yet? 3. Would you mind (to open) that window? 4. Our friend plans (to spend) a few weeks abroad. 5. When Alice was little, she enjoyed (to watch) cartoons. 6. They demanded (to see) our report immediately. 7. We avoided (to mention) his name that evening. 8. She hopes (to visit) Paris soon. 9. The boy admitted (to know) the name of that man. 10. His aunt always tends (to exaggerate) things. 11. Did Albert forget (to tell) you the news? 12. You seem (to understand) me now. 13. He doesn't advise (to go) there today. 14. They would appreciate (to receive) our reply this week. 15. The boys wanted (to explain) to us what had happened. 16. They didn't expect (to meet) us there. 17. She denied (to live) in that house. 18. Did they offer (to help) you? 19. You should 53

postpone (to visit) your friend. 20. We can't stand (to hear) this man's complaints again. Exercise 8. Supply the correct preposition in the blank space in each sentence. Use the Gerund of the verb in brackets after this preposition. 1. I can't forgive him ... (to make} such a remark. 2. The heavy rain prevented us ... (to leave) the house that afternoon. 3. I never succeed ... (to understand) him. 4. Were they accustomed ... (to hear) that noise every day? 5. George is a very smart pupil; he has just found out a new method ... (to solve) this problem. 6. Your cousins were interested ... (to learn) as many new things as possible about computers. 7. I know that she has made a lot of money ... (to invest) in aeronautics. 8. There was no excuse ... (not to be) present at that meeting. 9. They insisted ... (to go) there at once. 10. Mary relies ... (to get) assistance from her brother. 11. My aunt is always worrying ... (to catch) imaginary diseases. 12. I was tired ... (to listen) to his story for the third time. 13. They were not particularly fond ... (to go) on such a trip. 14. My sister was proud ... ( to be) the first to solve such a difficult problem. 15. Will our friend be successful ... (to get) the loan from the bank? 16. I was afraid ... (to tell) her this terrible news. 17. She was sorry ... (to leave) so early. 18. Mother doesn't approve ... (to stay) up late at night. 19. We'll have to pay this man ... (to take) care of our dog. 20. I object ... (to go) there in such bad weather. 21. Instead ... (to study) for the exam, Rebecca went for a walk with her friends. 22. The girl was very excited ... (to visit) her grandparents. 23. Why is she thinking ... (to change) her job? 24. When my sister was a child, she was far ... (to imagine) that she would become a great architect. 25. The police did not have any difficulty ... (to find) the criminal. 26. We can't understand why the government are not in favour ... (to lower) the age at which people can vote. 27. He risked his life ... (to dive) into the water to save that child. 28. She realized then that she could make progress ... (to work) hard. 29. Why doesn't she try her hand ... (to write) longer poems? 30. The policy of any government should aim ... (to raise) the living standard of all classes. 54

Exercise 9. For each of the following sentences, write another one, similar in meaning, using the verbs in brackets: 1. Despite my obvious lack of interest, my colleagues urged me to take part in the debates. (insist) 2. You should focus your attention on finding a solution to this problem. (concentrate) 3. The solicitor didnt let us take legal action against our neighbor. (prevent) 4. John said that the stranger tried to steal his money. (accuse). 5. He managed to make a fortune in a few years. (succeed) 6. If a customer is offended, you cant say its wrong of him to make a fuss. (blame) 7. The police think it is one of the so-called witnesses who set fire to the car. (suspect) 8. We persuaded him not to apply for that job. (dissuade) 9. She continues to make the same mistake. (persist) Exercise 10. Write the following sentences in an alternative form: 1. When they were told that the weather forecast was for bad weather, they put off the trip until the following Friday. Being 2. He said it was true he was driving too fast. He admitted 3. In a couple of weeks well probably start on a trip around the world. we are likely 4. Shall we go to the cinema tomorrow instead of today? Shall we postpone 5. The student said he was sorry he had been late. The student apologized 6. I dont know how many times Ive told you to be careful. Ive kept 7. It is reported that the house has been fully damaged by the fire. The house 8. Having had his car serviced some days before, he was angry when it broke down. As 55

9. I knew that the bad news would upset John and so I held it back from him. Knowing 10. After he had read the job advertisement carefully, he typed his C.V. and letter including qualifications and achievements. Having 11. Im surprised that you did so well at the exam. Im surprised at 12. I dont know how often he came to see you. He came 13. They ought to have informed the passengers that the train had been withdrawn from the service a week before. The passengers 14. Their house was broken into while they were away on holiday. They had 15. He claimed that he had done the work without help. He claimed to 16. Pressed by the others, he confessed it to be likely that the truth would come to light later on. Pressed by the others, he confessed that 17. We dont really mind if they give him another chance. We dont really mind them 18. He said he hadnt been told that it was dangerous to walk in that part of the city at night. He denied 19. The traffic slowed us down, and so did the bad weather. The traffic slowed us down and the bad weather 20. What theyll pay him is a good commission. Its a 21. I dont know how long John has been away. John 22. The cars cant move, and neither can the buses. The cars cant move, and the buses 23. What hes hoping for is none of their business. Its 24. As soon as I had said the words, I wished I could take them back. No 25. Nobody knows what they will say when they find out they have been swindled. Theres no 26. We can no longer go on a boat trip, now that the weather conditions have worsened. There is no 56

27. As soon as the sun had set, Tom and Huck set off for the graveyard. Hardly 28. It has been announced that the new satellite has been set on orbit. The new satellite 29. Nobody can deny that Sylvia can twist any man round her little finger. There is no 30. Emma speaks Japanese fluently and so does her sister. Emma speaks Japanese fluently and her sister Exercise 11. Substitute Participles for the finite clauses in the following sentences: 1. As they have decided on a winter holiday, theyll go to a resort in the Alps. 2. When he saw a ticket on the windscreen, he realized he hadnt paid the parking. 3. After the project had received general support from the company, it was put into practice. 4. To tell you frankly, I dont care if he wants to quit before he takes the degree. 5. If one can judge by the reviews, many of these books are worth reading. 6. The younger generation has done with knocking at the door and has seated themselves in our seats. 7. Because he found in his surroundings the accidents necessary for his inspiration to become effective, he painted the pictures on which his fame rests. 8. Since you are a man, you have a much better chance of leading an exciting life than a woman. 9. Because the holidays are over, we must get down to work. 10. As he knew that the cause was lost, he stopped fighting. 11. As he hoped to understand where his plans had gone wrong, he recapitulated all the basic facts of his life. 12. After he had taken that weight off his chest, he poured himself a stiff drink and lit a cigar. Exercise 12. Join the pairs or groups of sentences, using Participles and making any necessary changes in the word order: 57

1. She took some medicine which did her no good. In the end, she thought she had better call a doctor. 2. We had already seen Niagara Falls. Therefore, we didnt want to go there again. 3. The traffic was heavy. We tried to turn off the highway. We thought we could move faster on one of the side roads. 4. Jogging is new to Mary. She may find it tiring. 5. The firemen were choked by smoke. They were trying to put out the fire. 6. Joan had no experience with television. She didnt get a job with the BBC. 7. I visited my home town. I had been away for twenty years. I was astonished by the change in its appearance. 8. We couldnt afford to stay in a hotel. We had spent almost all our money. 9. John spies a haystack. He climbs over the gate and makes towards. He considers that it is warm enough to sleep out. 10. They ant to take a hot drink with them. They are setting off on a long overnight drive. 11. The police found the thief. He was wondering in the suburbs of the city. He was, apparently, looking for a place to hide. 12. The strange stood on a street corner. He peered into the darkness and realized he had no place to go. Exercise 13. Complete the sentences so that they have the same meaning as the ones preceding them: 1. They soon reported that the event had been a most unusual one. They soon reported the event 2. Dont let the others criticize you. Dont let yourself 3. I hate people considering me an ignorant. I hate being 4. I wouldnt doubt his honesty for one moment. Not for Exercise 14. Replace the words in italics by a Gerund construction: 1. I didnt recall that he had said he could make up for lost time. 2. The thief admitted that he had sold the stolen goods. 3. Do you believe that there will be any difficulty in getting support? 58

4. I dont mind if you say that things are not as they ought to be. 5. I remember that he and his brother turned up t the right moment. 6. Surely he wont deny that he was there on the occasion of the queens arrival. 7. I cant imagine that he would ever accept to live on the outskirts of the city. 8. She didnt acknowledge that she had received an invitation to the party. 9. The policeman reported that he had seen a car parked outside the bank at the time of the robbery. 10. They suggested that she should turn in the application forms for the scholarship. 11. I didnt mention that you had made a speech at you best friends wedding. 12. They predict that there will be a flood because of the heavy rain. 13. He proposed that we should take you for a fast drive in her new sports car. 14. I dont imagine that there will be any disagreement. Exercise 15. Replace the words in italics by an Infinitive construction: 1. Mary hopes that she will spend a month in the south of France next summer. 2. He claims that he did the work without any help. 3. John pretended that he didnt see Ann as he passed her in the street. 4. They threatened that they would call the police if we didnt stop the noise. 5. James resolved that nothing should hold him back. 6. He vowed that he would avenge the insult. 7. I dont profess that I am an expert on the subject. 8. He couldnt promise that he would pay his brothers debts. 9. The manager promised that he would look into the workers complaints more closely. Exercise 16. Replace that clause by an object +infinitive construction: 59

1. Although most people once thought that it was impossible, American astronauts landed on the moon. 2. The police confirm that the crime was committed last week. 3. The court declared that the man was insane. 4. Some of the audience considered that the speaker had overstated his case. 5. The police investigating the robbery discovered that the silver objects worth $30000 were missing. 6. Scientists have found that Venus has an atmosphere about 100 times as dense as ours. 7. Because of the heavy rain we supposed that the river was running much faster than normal. 8. From the very beginning our reporter revealed that he was a reliable commentator of the political crisis. 9. The listeners believed that the story was absolutely true. Exercise 17. Finish each of these sentences in such a way that it means exactly the same as the sentence printed before it: 1. George could do whatever he liked and he enjoyed it. George enjoyed 2. It was reported that the department was in great need of research funds. The department 3. His ideas may be brilliant, but they will never work in practice. Ingenious 4. I must have a rest and I am working forward to it. Im looking 5. It is considered that the instructions in a language by those who speak it as their native tongue is especially useful. Instruction 6. John said he hadnt witnessed the tragic event. John denied 7. Now that they have heard his side of the argument, they will make a final decision. Having 8. They couldnt bear that Paul should think of them in that way. They couldnt bear Paul 9. They tried very hard, but they couldnt talk him out of his extravagant ideas. Hard 10. We feel that it is James duty to reconsider the events. We feel it 60

Exercise 18. Put the verb in the correct form (Gerund or Infinitive) 1. They have succeeded in (persuade) the Government to ban cigarette advertising on television. 2. In those days I remember (be/make) to get dressed and have breakfast before 7.30. 3. Ive tried (unscrew) the lid of this pot, but I couldnt. 4. Paul wasnt very keen on the idea of (do) the military service. 5. Whenever I fancy (eat) sweets, I tell myself to stop. 6. His train (be/delay). He apologized for (arrive) so late. 7. Marys parents objected, but she still insisted on (get) married. 8. Beethoven was deaf, but he continued (compose) until his death. 9. The Government was sure (spent) extra money on a campaign for safe driving. 10. My car wont start! Have you tried (clean) the plugs? 11. He prefers (be) by himself to (be) with a whole crowd of people. 12. John likes (work) overtime a little bit better than (work) on weekends. 13. Do you mind (have to/listen) to various pronunciations? 14. Do you remember (make) any language mistakes while speaking Spanish? 15. If you dont stop (bother) me, Ill call the police. 16. The organization tries (make) people give up smoking by organizing anti-smoking campaigns. 17. Do you stop (talk) if nobody seems (be/listen) to you? 18. What happens if you use an archaic form? Do you risk (be/misunderstand)? Exercise 19. Complete the following putting the words in brackets in the correct form using Possessive: 1. When I was in Brazil, Peter insisted on (I/teach) English. 2. She believed in (we/do) in honestly. 3. Although it was dangerous, they approved of (John/go) there. 4. We objected to (they/say) that they hadnt known it would be difficult. 5. I thought about (Janet/play) the piano while we were away. 61

6. I can excuse (Peter/be) impolite to me, but I cant forgive (he/behave) rudely to my brother. 7. Please excuse (we/come) without (let) you know before. 8. Do you remember (I/tell) John about applying for the job? 9. I appreciate (they/do) it without a lot of fuss. Exercise 20. Complete the sentences by putting the words in brackets in the correct forms (Gerund or Infinitive): 1. Id like (you/combine) computing with business management and economics. 2. He prefers (leave) in the country rather that (depend) on his parents. 3. Couldnt you (get) him (keep) a record of everything he saw in Africa and then (write) a novel about it? 4. We all know (he/be) a famous physicist. 5. They would neither (let/she) go out alone nor (invite) friends to the house. 6. I didnt move the bookcase myself. I (get) somebody (help) me. 7. We consider (he/have) a good knowledge of financial planning and budgeting. 8. They proved to be even more demanding than we expected (they/be). 9. They saw (Peter/ come in), (pick up) the telephone and (dial) the number. 10. I didnt mean (Joan/hear) what I said. 11. Alcohol makes (Peter/relax). It also (make/he) better company. 12. She felt her (hands/tremble) and her (heart/beat) with emotion. 13. They believed their (friend/be) upset but he wasnt. Exercise 21. Put the verb in the correct form and use the Objective Case for the pronoun/noun. 1. We dont really mind (they/ give) John another chance. 2. I cant stand (she/tell) me all the time what my faults are. 3. Do you remember (it/use) in a conversation? (passive) 4. Mary is counting on (Peter/drive) her home from work. 5. Ill have to insist on (the children/not disturb) us while we are having dinner. 62

6. I dont think they mentioned (John/be) at the conference. 7. The weather wont stop (he/take) a trip to the north. 8. They cant imagine (you/apply) for another job. 9. Please, forgive (he/ask) such an embarrassing question. 10. I dont remember (you/say) things that they didnt like to hear. Exercise 22. Put the words in brackets in the correct form. 1. Do you prefer (go out) for walk to (watch) a film on television? 2. Joan has always enjoyed (be/take) to expensive restaurants and (be/give) nice presents. 3. She is counting on (you/take) her side of the argument. 4. He declared the man (be) out of danger. 5. Since there is only enough dinner for two people, well let the others (dine out). 6. Its an interesting issue. Ive told you several times that its worth (study). 7. Both unionists and nationalists foresee the two governments (put forward) settlement proposals. 8. Did you actually see (they/sign) it? 9. If the car hasnt been repaired properly, the mechanic (should/be/make) to put things right. 10. My husband suggested (go) to the seaside for the holidays, but I favoured (visit) Rome instead. Exercise 23. Put the words in brackets in the correct form: 1. Forgive (we/interfere), but dont you resent (mix up) with all sorts of people? 2. How in the world can one avoid (speak) to them if ones job requires it? 3. He hates (have) his books (criticize) in the newspapers and loves (have) them (praise). 4. For the last three years the company (use) its financial resourses and expertise to enhance its attractiveness to investors. 5. Its no good intervening. You know how they detest (be/contradict). 6. Cant I ask them to (have/my luggage/ bring) into my room? 63

7. I see no harm in (you/try) to have it out with him. 8. Why dont you stop (ask) questions if you dislike (annoy) him? 9. Its no use (cry) over the spilt milk. 10. If he mentions (John/be/late) for class, I cant help (remind) him that he himself is often late. 11. I like to have a comfortable life and I hate (people/telephone) early in the morning. 12. My neighbor remembers the robbers (come in) and (tell) everybody to raise their hands. 13. Take a closer look at our family of companies because it is well worth (look at). Exercise 24. Complete the sentences with the Gerund, Infinitive or Participle of the verbs in brackets, using the correct form of the nouns/pronouns that are included. 1. Have you ever caught (he/say) anything which wasnt good English? 2. I can picture (Tom/listen) to the artist telling him how to paint. 3. They are known (be) consultants for a well known car-hire company. 4. He seems (borrow) ten thousand dollars from the bank, which he pays back at the rate of one hundred dollars a month. 5. They postponed (set) a convenient time for us last week. 6. I cant picture (myself /speak) English with absolutely no accent. 7. Hell get (they/work) in a couple of days. 8. Do you happen (listen) to the sports news lately? 9. I didnt mean to keep you (wait ) so long in the rain. 10. You werent meant (offer) us the final solution. 11. I saw (the driver/brake) suddenly because another car stopped without any warning. 12. I resent (remind) them about promises they havent kept. 13. The union leaders advised their (members/think) again before (decode/go) on strike. 14. They listened to (he/try) to persuade Tom to continue (fight). 15. He was (make/admit) that he had been wrong. 16. I heard (the men exchange) angry words in a foreign language. 64

17. The man loves football but his wife hates (he/play) it. Exercise 25.Complete the sentences with Gerund, Iinfinitive or Participle of the verbs in brackets, using the correct form of the nouns/pronouns that are included: 1. I listened to (they/speak) about their belief in taking action collectively. 2. He was (see/lose control) of the car and then (bump) into a tree. 3. Alice didnt notice (he/watch) her (rehearse) her role in the play, from beginning to end. 4. Tom thought he could smell (something/burn) in the oven. 5. They (be sure/be) on the waiting list for a new apartment, but there are two hundred names ahead of them. 6. Im looking forward to (have) a week to myself at the seaside, after such hectic period. 7. I liked seeing (they/sort out) things together. 8. I dislike (have) someone near me, (look) over my shoulder (read) my newspaper. I usually feel like (say) something unpleasant. 9. She watched (the man/ walk) about with a glass in his hand, (look) furtively at the pretty girl. 10. Alice pretended (read) when you tried to enter into conversation with her. 11. Id like this thing (do)well. 12. Jane observed (he/walk) along the deserted main street of a small seaside town. 13. If you want (it/translate), I can probably find you somebody able and willing. 14. The salesman seems (lose) his temper when he tried to persuade the director that he needed a large car. 15. Last year, our coal supply (prove/be) insufficient. 16. Visitors are requested (not touch) the exhibits. 17. John (want/we) to get his coat (clean). 18. We noticed the low grey clouds (drift) across the sky. 19. Jack felt the cold damp wind (blow) off his hat.

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Exercise 26. Complete the sentences using a Gerund, an Infinitive or a Participle construction. 1. The listener asked if I would mind (mention) again the year when the event had taken place. 2. Tell me if those plans are worth (see). 3. Did you remember (phone) him last week? 4. You should try (do) it as I told you. Im sure youll find it convenient. 5. Do you remember (meet) him last year at the conference? 6. It was so funny, that she couldnt help (laugh) outright. 7. I looked for the money everywhere and finally found it (hide) under a book. 8. Although the restaurant was crowded, I soon spotted my brother (advance) towards me. 9. Dont worry, said the doctor. Ill soon have you (walk) again. 10. I left my luggage (prop) against the wall. 11. He recommend (listen) to the weather forecast before we go hillwalking. 12. Having finished the meal, the old ladies went on (talk) about old times. 13. I think the piano needs (tune). 14. Im sure the problem deserved (mention). 15. Have you ever tried (dance) on ice? I have, and its not easy at all. 16. He may have failed, but at least he tried (do) something useful. 17. He stopped (play) football on his doctors advice. 18. He tried (fiddle) with the knobs of the video camera but it still wouldnt work.

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MODAL VERBS 1. Complete the sentences using must have or can't have. 1. The burglar... broken into the house through the back door. It's broken. 2. She ... gone home. The light in her office is still on. 3. They ... changed the lock. This key doesn't fit. 4. The Browns ... painted the fence. It looks wet. 5. They took her to hospital. She... drunk or eaten something bad. 6. The policeman ... hurt his back very badly. His condition is very critical. 7. She ... written this letter. Look! The handwriting is different. 8. He ... heard them come in. He was asleep. 9. Someone ... poisoned the dog. They found it dead in the drive. 2. Fill in with modal verbs or their equivalents. 1. You ... learn this poem by heart. 2. ... I take your pen? I... not find mine. 3.... you do this work now? 4. In a year he ... to speak German. 5. Yesterday they ... to revise ten rules for the test. 6. I... (not) to visit you on Sunday, because I... to meet my brother. 7. As the weather was fine, we ... to go to the country over the weekend. 8. You ... go and see your friend who is ill. 9. You ... not travel by rail if you are in a hurry. 10. She ... arrange the trip herself. 11. They move to another flat, this one isnt comfortable. 12. .youto have a smoke here? 3. Fill in with can or may in right form: 1. David ... do the work. He is competent enough. 2. You ... take the last copy if nobody needs it. 3. ... I ask you to look after the child? 4.... you tell us of the final diagnosis? 67

5. You ... never tell what... came to her mind. 6. A fool ... ask more questions than a wise man ... answer. 7. You ... trust me, and who knows, you need me once. 8. Helen ... grasp the idea. She was thinking of something else. 9. I never thought that they ... get last in the area. 10. Alexei... sometimes forget things, but he ... always admit his fault. 4. Fill in with mustn't, needn't, don't (doesn't) have to. 1. You...pay. It's free. 2. You... forget to call me. 3. You... shout, I'm not deaf. 4. You ... hurry. There's plenty of time. 5. You ... drop it. It's very fragile. '6. You ... accept a lift from a stranger. 7. Service is included. You-., leave a tip. 8. You ... stroke the dog because it bites. 9. Tomorrow's Sunday so she ... get up early. 10. The old man retired so he... work anymore. 11. You ... read in the dark. You'll strain your eyes. 12. You ... worry. All is going to be fine. 13. When you are driving you ... take your eyes off the road. 14. You ... cheat or you'11 be disqualified. 5. Fill in the blanks with didn't need to/needn't have + Past Participle according to the meaning: 1. You ... (to tell) her that; you see she is crying now. 2. I ... (to knock) on the door because it was already open. 3. She ... (to take) a taxi because she still had a lot of time to get there. 4. We ... (to stop) here; the policeman has seen us. 5. I ... (to wait) long because they came back home very quickly. 6. You ... (to pay) him so much money; it couldn't be more than five dollars. 7. We ... (to water) the flowers because it had rained an hour before. 8. She ... (to stay) up so late; now she is very tired. 9. You ... (to mention) anything about the child. Now she understands that we have discussed about him. 10. I ... (to show) my identity card because he had recognized me. Exercise 6. Fill in the blanks with a modal verb: a) After it happened, I understood myself better. I wasnt as much of a fool as Phoebe was. She (1) have known it then, what I (2) do. She (3) not even promise not to tell anybody or to 68

destroy the evidence. She (4) not even promise! He kept his unblinking eyes on ONeill. I (5) have killed you, too! I (6). Have! b) If it seemed to make sense to you, and I believe it (1), you would pass it on to Mr. Ash and heaven knows what he (2).do. He (3)even, by pure chance, do something that (4).result in his solving the case, and I (5).stop short of nothing to prevent that outcome. Exercise 7. Use must, cant(couldnt), neednt with the perfect infinitives: Did you hear John come in last night? No, I (1) have been asleep. I wonder who broke that window. It (2) have been my son for he was at school all day. I had an umbrella when I left home, but I havent got it now. I (3) have left it in the taxi. The prisoner (4) have escaped through this window because it s barred. You (5) have given such a big tip, twenty pence would have sufficed. She (6) have seen a tiger, there are no tigers in Africa. He brought a boa constrictor home from Africa. His wife (7) have been flabbergasted. I bought two bottles of wine for the party. You (8)have bought wine, all our guests are beer drinkers. I rang you up at 10a.m. but nobody answered. Im sorry, I (9).have been in the garden. The hiker was found unconscious at the foot of the mountain. He (10) have fallen five hundred feet. She (11) have read ear and Peace in forty-eight hours. It takes as least two weeks to read it. There was a signalmans strike and the train could not leave the station. The passengers (12). have been outraged. I found the front door ajar. It (13) have been ajar, I had locked it myself. You (14)have sent for the doctor. Im perfectly all right now.

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Exercise 8. Fill in must, didnt need, neednt have, have to, will need. 1. Last year my uncle won $1 million. He. (work) any more and gave up his job. 2. That was a lovely lunch, but you (go) to so much trouble. 3. You. (pay) your fees today, otherwise youll not be allowed to attend the course. According to the college regulations you (attend) a minimum 70% of your classes. But if you want to do well in your exams, you. (attend) all your classes. 4. We went to the airport to meet our relative. But he had cancelled his trip, so we (drive) all the way to London. 5. This is a non-smoking college, which means that you. (smoke) inside the building. 6. The recruits (wear) uniforms when they are off-duty. 7. I have a wonderful collection of paintings. You (come) and see it. 8. If driving long distance makes you feel sleepy, you (stop) regularly at service stations and have a cup of coffee.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY:

1. Martin Hewings Advanced Grammar in Use, Cambridge 2003 2. B.D. Graver Advanced English Practice, Oxford University Press 1996 3. B. Ilyish A Grammar of the English Language, Moscow 1989 4. Business English Grammar, Seminar and Individual Workbook, Universitatea Al. I. Cuza, Iasi 2007

5. Victorita Stanciu Engleza Intensiva, Bucuresti 2000

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CONTENTS

CONDITIONALS............................................................................3-11 REPORTED SPEECH....................................................................12-24 PASSIVE VOICE...........................................................................25-42 THE PASSIVE WITH GET..........................................................43-46 GERUND ,INFINITIVE, PARTICIPLES.....................................47-65 MODAL VERBS...........................................................................66-69

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GRAMMAR

Exercises for advanced students

Author: Maria Anischevici Liudmila Tutunaru

Bun de tipar 4.07.08. Formatul hrtiei 60 x 84 1/16. Hrtie ofset. Tipar RISO Tirajul 200 ex. Coli de tipar 4,5 Comanda nr.71 U.T.M., 2004, Chiinu, bd. tefan cel Mare, 168. Secia Redactare i Editare a U.T.M. 2068,Chiinu, str. Studenilor, 9/9.

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UNIVERSITATEA TEHNIC A MOLDOVEI

GRAMMAR

Exercises for advanced students

Chiinu 2008

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